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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740404/inhalational-gentamicin-treatment-is-effective-against-pneumonic-plague-in-a-mouse-model
#1
David Gur, Itai Glinert, Moshe Aftalion, Yaron Vagima, Yinon Levy, Shahar Rotem, Ayelet Zauberman, Avital Tidhar, Arnon Tal, Sharon Maoz, Raphael Ber, Avi Pass, Emanuelle Mamroud
Pneumonic plague is an infectious disease characterized by rapid and fulminant development of acute pneumonia and septicemia that results in death within days of exposure. The causative agent of pneumonic plague, Yersinia pestis (Y. pestis) , is a Tier-1 bio-threat agent. Parenteral antibiotic treatment is effective when given within a narrow therapeutic window after symptom onset. However, the non-specific "flu-like" symptoms often lead to delayed diagnosis and therapy. In this study, we evaluated inhalational gentamicin therapy in an infected mouse model as a means to improve antibiotic treatment efficacy...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733972/application-of-an-inline-dry-powder-inhaler-to-deliver-high-dose-pharmaceutical-aerosols-during-low-flow-nasal-cannula-therapy
#2
Dale Farkas, Michael Hindle, P Worth Longest
Inline dry powder inhalers (DPIs) offer a potentially effective option to deliver high dose inhaled medications simultaneously with mechanical ventilation. The objective of this study was to develop an inline DPI that is actuated using a low volume of air (LV-DPI) to efficiently deliver pharmaceutical aerosols during low flow nasal cannula (LFNC) therapy. A characteristic feature of the new inline LV-DPIs was the use of hollow capillary tubes that both pierced the capsule and provided a pathway for inlet air and exiting aerosol...
May 4, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724399/treatment-compliance-in-cystic-fibrosis-patients-with-chronic-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infection-treated-with-tobramycin-inhalation-powder-the-free-study
#3
Francesco Blasi, Vincenzo Carnovale, Giuseppe Cimino, Vincenzina Lucidi, Donatello Salvatore, Barbara Messore, Marta Bartezaghi, Elisa Muscianisi, Pasquale Alberto Porpiglia
BACKGROUND: A high treatment burden with nebulised therapies in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is the major limitation for treatment compliance; moreover, studies on treatment compliance with inhaled antibiotics are limited. This study assessed compliance to TOBI® Podhaler™ (TIP) treatment in CF patients with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) infections in a real-world setting using the Italian Treatment Adherence CF Questionnaire (ITA-CFq). METHODS: This longitudinal, multicentre, cohort study included 2 follow-up (FU) visits: FU-1 at 3-months±15-days from the baseline visit and FU-2 at the end of third TIP cycle (or 6-months after enrolment, whichever occurred first)...
May 2018: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707313/expression-pattern-of-soluble-triggering-receptor-expressed-on-myeloid-cells-1-in-mice-with-acinetobacter-baumannii-colonization-and-infection-in-the-lung
#4
Chengping Hu, Juan Jiang, Zhen Li, Yuanyuan Li
Background: Acinetobacter baumannii ( A. baumannii ) is one of the most troublesome opportunistic pathogens associated with hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP). It is important to be able to discriminate A. baumannii colonization from infection in its early stages so that effective antibiotics can be promptly applied. Recent studies have reported that the secretion of soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1) is markedly upregulated in pneumonia and sepsis, but the expression pattern of sTREM-1 in A...
March 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698899/the-abundance-and-diversity-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-the-atmospheric-environment-of-composting-plants
#5
Min Gao, Tianlei Qiu, Yanmei Sun, Xuming Wang
Composting is considered to reduce the introduction of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) into the environment through land application of manure; however, the possible pollution of ARGs in the atmospheric environment of composting plants is unknown. In this study, 29 air samples including up- and downwind, composting, packaging, and office areas from 4 composting plants were collected. Dynamic concentrations of 22 subtypes of ARGs, class 1 integron (intl1), and 2 potential human pathogenic bacteria (HPB), and bacterial communities were investigated using droplet digital PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, respectively...
April 23, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670861/the-cynomolgus-macaque-natural-history-model-of-pneumonic-tularemia-for-predicting-clinical-efficacy-under-the-animal-rule
#6
Tina Guina, Lynda L Lanning, Kristian S Omland, Mark S Williams, Larry A Wolfraim, Stephen P Heyse, Christopher R Houchens, Patrick Sanz, Judith A Hewitt
Francisella tularensis is a highly infectious Gram-negative bacterium that is the etiologic agent of tularemia in animals and humans and a Tier 1 select agent. The natural incidence of pneumonic tularemia worldwide is very low; therefore, it is not feasible to conduct clinical efficacy testing of tularemia medical countermeasures (MCM) in human populations. Development and licensure of tularemia therapeutics and vaccines need to occur under the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Animal Rule under which efficacy studies are conducted in well-characterized animal models that reflect the pathophysiology of human disease...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594066/a-simple-and-rapid-gene-disruption-strategy-in-mycobacterium-abscessus-on-the-design-and-application-of-glycopeptidolipid-mutants
#7
Albertus Viljoen, Ana Victoria Gutiérrez, Christian Dupont, Eric Ghigo, Laurent Kremer
Little is known about the disease-causing genetic determinants that are used by Mycobacterium abscessus , increasingly acknowledged as an important emerging pathogen, notably in cystic fibrosis. The presence or absence of surface exposed glycopeptidolipids (GPL) conditions the smooth (S) or rough (R) M. abscessus subsp. abscessus ( M. abscessus ) variants, respectively, which are characterized by distinct infective programs. However, only a handful of successful gene knock-out and conditional mutants have been reported in M...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553533/imaging-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-mice-with-reporter-enzyme-fluorescence
#8
Riti Sharan, Hee-Jeong Yang, Preeti Sule, Jeffrey D Cirillo
Reporter enzyme fluorescence (REF) utilizes substrates that are specific for enzymes present in target organisms of interest for imaging or detection by fluorescence or bioluminescence. We utilize BlaC, an enzyme expressed constitutively by all M. tuberculosis strains. REF allows rapid quantification of bacteria in lungs of infected mice. The same group of mice can be imaged at many time points, greatly reducing costs, enumerating bacteria more quickly, allowing novel observations in host-pathogen interactions, and increasing statistical power, since more animals per group are readily maintained...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527305/influenza-and-influenza-like-syndromes-the-subjects-beliefs-the-attitude-to-prevention-and-treatment-and-the-impact-in-italian-general-population
#9
Roberto W Dal Negro, Alessandro Zanasi, Paola Turco, Massimiliano Povero
Background: Influenza and influenza-like syndromes (I-LSs) are infectious diseases occurring on a seasonal basis which can lead to upper (URTI) and lower respiratory tract illness (LRTI) of different severity. The approach to these disorders is unfortunately not uniform. Aim of the study was to investigate real-life people beliefs, the attitude to their prevention and treatment, and their impact in general population. Methods: A cross-sectional survey via Computer Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI) was carried out using a specific questionnaire investigating influenza episode rates, subjects behavior in case of influenza and I-LSs, and prescribed therapy...
2018: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458207/co-spray-drying-of-hygroscopic-kanamycin-with-the-hydrophobic-drug-rifampicin-to-improve-the-aerosolization-of-kanamycin-powder-for-treating-respiratory-infections
#10
Mohammad A M Momin, Ian G Tucker, Colin S Doyle, John A Denman, Shubhra Sinha, Shyamal C Das
High dose delivery of drugs to the lung using a dry powder inhaler (DPI) is an emerging approach to combat drug-resistant local infections. To achieve this, highly aerosolizable powders are required. We hypothesized that co-spray-drying kanamycin, a hydrophilic hygroscopic antibiotic, with rifampicin, a hydrophobic antibiotic, would produce inhalable particles with surfaces enriched in rifampicin. Such particles would have higher aerosolization than kanamycin alone, and minimise the mass of powder for inhalation avoiding use of non-active excipients...
April 25, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346118/mycobacterium-avium-complex-pulmonary-disease-new-epidemiology-and-management-concepts
#11
Leah Lande, Jason George, Theodore Plush
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The prevalence of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC)-related pulmonary disease has been increasing because of environmental factors, changes in organism virulence, and evolving host susceptibility. Treatment is often complicated by adverse effects, development of drug resistance, and refractory disease, with recurrence rates as high as 25-45%. RECENT FINDINGS: Aerosolization of water, soil, or dusts are the likely sources of MAC-related pulmonary disease in susceptible individuals...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318460/nebulization-of-antimicrobial-agents-in-mechanically-ventilated-adults-in-2017-an-international-cross-sectional-survey
#12
Joana Alves, Emine Alp, Despoina Koulenti, Zhongheng Zhang, Stephan Ehrmann, Stijn Blot, Matteo Bassetti, Andrew Conway-Morris, Rosa Reina, Enrique Teran, Candela Sole-Lleonart, Maria Ruiz-Rodríguez, Jordi Rello
2017 ESCMID practice guidelines reported safety concerns and weak evidence of benefit supporting use of aerosolized antibiotics in mechanically ventilated patients. Our primary goal was to assess current patterns of aerosolized antibiotic prescription in mechanically ventilated patients. A sequential global survey was performed prior to the release of the ESCMID guidelines, from the 1st of February to the 30th of April 2017, using an electronic platform. Responses were analyzed comparing geographical regions...
April 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244675/high-pressure-injection-injury-caused-by-electronic-cigarette-explosion-a-case-report
#13
Ian Foran, Nikhil R Oak, Matthew J Meunier
CASE: Electronic cigarettes are an increasingly popular and poorly regulated alternative to traditional cigarettes that deliver nicotine and other aerosolized substances to the user via a battery-powered atomizer. We report a case in which an electronic cigarette explosion resulted in a high-pressure injection injury of the finger. CONCLUSION: Explosions involving electronic cigarettes and similar handheld products should be treated as high-pressure injection injuries until proven otherwise...
April 2017: JBJS Case Connector
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232837/a-burkholderia-pseudomallei-outer-membrane-vesicle-vaccine-provides-cross-protection-against-inhalational-glanders-in-mice-and-non-human-primates
#14
Sarah M Baker, Christopher J H Davitt, Natalya Motyka, Nicole L Kikendall, Kasi Russell-Lodrigue, Chad J Roy, Lisa A Morici
Burkholderia mallei is a Gram-negative, non-motile, facultative intracellular bacillus and the causative agent of glanders, a highly contagious zoonotic disease. B. mallei is naturally resistant to multiple antibiotics and there is concern for its potential use as a bioweapon, making the development of a vaccine against B. mallei of critical importance. We have previously demonstrated that immunization with multivalent outer membrane vesicles (OMV) derived from B. pseudomallei provide significant protection against pneumonic melioidosis...
December 9, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109018/effect-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-on-adipocyte-physiology
#15
Janeesh Plakkal Ayyappan, Christopher Vinnard, Selvakumar Subbian, Jyothi F Nagajyothi
Tuberculosis (TB) remains as a major threat to human health worldwide despite of the availability of standardized antibiotic therapy. One of the characteristic of pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis is its ability to persist in the host in a dormant state and develop latent infection without clinical signs of active disease. However, the mechanisms involved in bacterial persistence and the establishment of latency is not well understood. Adipose tissue is emerging as an important niche that favors actively replicating as well as dormant Mtb during acute and latent infection...
February 2018: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058607/aerosol-delivery-during-invasive-mechanical-ventilation-a-systematic-review
#16
Jonathan Dugernier, Stephan Ehrmann, Thierry Sottiaux, Jean Roeseler, Xavier Wittebole, Thierry Dugernier, François Jamar, Pierre-François Laterre, Gregory Reychler
BACKGROUND: This systematic review aimed to assess inhaled drug delivery in mechanically ventilated patients or in animal models. Whole lung and regional deposition and the impact of the ventilator circuit, the artificial airways and the administration technique for aerosol delivery were analyzed. METHODS: In vivo studies assessing lung deposition during invasive mechanical ventilation were selected based on a systematic search among four databases. Two investigators independently assessed the eligibility and the risk of bias...
October 21, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053080/aerosolizing-lipid-dispersions-enables-antibiotic-transport-across-mimics-of-the-lung-airway-surface-even-in-the-presence-of-pre-existing-lipid-monolayers
#17
Steven V Iasella, Amy Z Stetten, Timothy E Corcoran, Stephen Garoff, Todd M Przybycien, Robert D Tilton
BACKGROUND: Secondary lung infections are the primary cause of morbidity associated with cystic fibrosis lung disease. Aerosolized antibiotic inhalation is potentially advantageous but has limited effectiveness due to altered airway aerodynamics and deposition patterns that limit drug access to infected regions. One potential strategy to better reach infected areas is to formulate aerosols with surfactants that induce surface tension gradients and drive postdeposition drug dispersal via Marangoni transport along the airway surface liquid (ASL)...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046368/enhancement-of-lung-gene-delivery-after-aerosol-a-new-strategy-using-non-viral-complexes-with-antibacterial-properties
#18
REVIEW
Angélique Mottais, Tony Le Gall, Yann Sibiril, Julian Ravel, Véronique Laurent, Frédérique d'Arbonneau, Tristan Montier
The pathophysiology of obstructive pulmonary diseases, such as cystic fibrosis (CF), leads to the development of chronic infections in the respiratory tract. Thus, the symptomatic management of the disease requires, in particular, repetitive antibiotherapy. Besides these antibacterial treatments, certain pathologies, such as CF or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), require the intake of many drugs. This simultaneous absorption may lead to undesirable drug interactions. For example, Orkambi® (lumacaftor/Ivacaftor, Vertex), a pharmacological drug employed to treat F508del patients, cannot be used with antibiotics such as rifampicin or rifabutin (rifamycin family) which are necessary to treat Mycobacteriaceae...
December 22, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025281/understanding-treatment-adherence-with-the-health-belief-model-in-children-with-cystic-fibrosis
#19
Nicole R Dempster, Beth G Wildman, Tracy L Masterson, Gregory J Omlor
OBJECTIVE: Children's health beliefs are significantly related to their adherence; however, pediatric literature has rarely tested health-related theories as a whole. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the use of the health belief model (HBM) in understanding children's adherence, both globally and to individual treatment components. METHOD: Thirty-three patient-parent dyads completed questionnaires regarding health beliefs and adherence to medical regimens...
October 1, 2017: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965047/physicochemical-stability-and-aerosolization-performance-of-dry-powder-inhalation-system-containing-ciprofloxacin-hydrochloride
#20
Keyhaneh Karimi, Gábor Katona, Ildikó Csóka, Rita Ambrus
Antibiotic delivery in form of dry powder inhalation has been studied for possible clinical treatment of respiratory tract infection in the recent years. Dry powder inhalation of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CIP) assures local antibacterial activity and comfort of easy application. The aim of this work was to test the stability of co-spray-dried CIP in carrier free system. Since the microparticles in the dry powder system are amorphous and do not contain any stabilizer, the effects of temperature and relative humidity (RH) on the physicochemical properties and aerosolization behavior are very important...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
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