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Soil chemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192471/the-abundance-and-diversity-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-are-linked-to-the-soil-chemistry-of-screes-and-to-slope-in-the-alpic-paleo-endemic-berardia-subacaulis
#1
Gabriele Casazza, Erica Lumini, Enrico Ercole, Francesco Dovana, Maria Guerrina, Annamaria Arnulfo, Luigi Minuto, Anna Fusconi, Marco Mucciarelli
Berardia subacaulis Vill. is a monospecific genus that is endemic to the South-western Alps, where it grows on alpine screes, which are extreme habitats characterized by soil disturbance and limiting growth conditions. Root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is presumably of great importance in these environments, because of its positive effect on plant nutrition and stress tolerance, as well as on structuring the soil. However, there is currently a lack of information on this topic. In this paper, we tested which soil characteristics and biotic factors could contribute to determining the abundance and community composition of AMF in the roots of B...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191585/soil-microbial-communities-alter-leaf-chemistry-and-influence-allelopathic-potential-among-coexisting-plant-species
#2
Scott J Meiners, Kelsey K Phipps, Thomas H Pendergast, Thomas Canam, Walter P Carson
While both plant-soil feedbacks and allelochemical interactions are key drivers of plant community dynamics, the potential for these two drivers to interact with each other remains largely unexplored. If soil microbes influence allelochemical production, this would represent a novel dimension of heterogeneity in plant-soil feedbacks. To explore the linkage between soil microbial communities and plant chemistry, we experimentally generated soil microbial communities and evaluated their impact on leaf chemical composition and allelopathic potential...
February 13, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177416/effects-of-biochar-on-dispersibility-of-colloids-in-agricultural-soils
#3
K G I D Kumari, Per Moldrup, Marcos Paradelo, Lars Elsgaard, Lis W de Jonge
The mobility of water-dispersible colloids (WDCs) in soil may be influenced by soil management practices such as organic soil amendments. Biochar has recently been promoted as a useful soil amendment, and extensive research has been devoted to investigating its effects on soil macroscopic properties and functions. However, there is limited understanding of the effects of biochar application on micro-scale particle dynamics. We conducted a field study to investigate the effects of the application of birch ( spp...
January 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164788/variations-in-the-bacterial-community-compositions-at-different-sites-in-the-tomb-of-emperor-yang-of-the-sui-dynasty
#4
Zhi Huang, Fei Zhao, Yonghui Li, Jianwei Zhang, Youzhi Feng
To fully understand the bacterial processes in tomb environments, it is necessary to investigate the details of the bacterial communities present under such oligotrophic conditions. Here, high-throughput sequencing based on partial 16S rRNA gene sequences was used to fully evaluate the bacterial communities at different sites in the tomb of Emperor Yang of the Sui Dynasty. We also aimed to identify the soil factors that were significant related to bacterial diversity and community composition. The results showed the presence of a broad taxonomic diversity that included nine major phyla...
March 2017: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160641/contribution-of-glomalin-to-dissolve-organic-carbon-under-different-land-uses-and-seasonality-in-dry-tropics
#5
Ashutosh Kumar Singh, Apurva Rai, Vivek Pandey, Nandita Singh
Glomalin related soil protein (GRSP) is a hydrophobic glycoprotein that is significant for soil organic carbon (SOC) persistence and sequestration, owing to its large contribution to SOC pool and long turnover time. However, the contribution of GRSP to dissolve OC (DOC) leach from soil is not yet comprehensively explored, though it could have implication in understanding SOC dynamics. We, therefore, aim to measure the contribution of GRSP to DOC, in a range of land uses and climatic seasons in the dry tropical ecosystem...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157614/machine-learning-for-the-prediction-of-l-%C3%A2-chinensis-carbon-nitrogen-and-phosphorus-contents-and-understanding-of-mechanisms-underlying-grassland-degradation
#6
Yuefen Li, Shuo Liang, Yiying Zhao, Wenbo Li, Yuejiao Wang
The grasslands of Western Jilin Province in China have experienced severe degradation during the last 50 years. Radial basis function neural networks (RBFNN) and support vector machines (SVM) were used to predict the carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus contents of Leymus chinensis (L. chinensis) and explore the degree of grassland degradation using the matter-element extension model. Both RBFNN and SVM demonstrated good prediction accuracy. The results indicated that there was severe degradation, as samples were mainly concentrated in the 3rd and 4th levels...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153399/changes-in-surface-water-chemistry-caused-by-natural-forest-dieback-in-an-unmanaged-mountain-catchment
#7
J Kopáček, H Fluksová, J Hejzlar, J Kaňa, P Porcal, J Turek
Ionic and nutrient compositions of throughfall, tributaries and lake outlet were analysed in the Plešné catchment-lake system (an unmanaged mountain forest in Central Europe) from 1997 to 2016. The aim was to evaluate changes in surface water chemistry after natural forest dieback. In the 2004-2008, 93% of the Norway spruce trees were killed by bark beetle outbreak, and all dead biomass remained in the catchment. Forest dieback changed the chemistry of all water fluxes, and the magnitude, timing, and duration of these changes differed for individual water constituents...
January 30, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133710/extraction-of-soil-solution-by-drainage-centrifugation-effects-of-centrifugal-force-and-time-of-centrifugation-on-soil-moisture-recovery-and-solute-concentration-in-soil-moisture-of-loess-subsoils
#8
Dico Fraters, Gerard J F L Boom, Leo J M Boumans, Henk de Weerd, Monique Wolters
The solute concentration in the subsoil beneath the root zone is an important parameter for leaching assessment. Drainage centrifugation is considered a simple and straightforward method of determining soil solution chemistry. Although several studies have been carried out to determine whether this method is robust, hardly any results are available for loess subsoils. To study the effect of centrifugation conditions on soil moisture recovery and solute concentration, we sampled the subsoil (1.5-3.0 m depth) at commercial farms in the loess region of the Netherlands...
February 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120310/microbial-strategy-for-potential-lead-remediation-a-review-study
#9
REVIEW
Xiaohong Pan, Zhi Chen, Lan Li, Wenhua Rao, Zhangyan Xu, Xiong Guan
The extensive exploitation and usage of lead compounds result in severe lead(II) pollution in water and soil environments, even in agricultural land, threatening the health of animals and humans via food chains. The recovery and remediation of lead(II) from water and soil environments have been intensively concerned in recent years. Compared with the traditional physic-chemistry treatment, microbial remediation strategy is a promising alternative to remediate lead(II)-contaminated environments due to its cost-effective and environmentally-friendly properties...
February 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117165/methane-emissions-dynamics-from-a-constructed-fen-and-reference-sites-in-the-athabasca-oil-sands-region-alberta
#10
Kimberley R Murray, Natasha Barlow, Maria Strack
Recently, fen construction projects on surface mines in northeastern Alberta have been attempted as a reclamation strategy to reintroduce peatlands into the region where industry disturbs a substantial amount of wetland ecosystems. Knowledge of carbon cycling and greenhouse gas (GHG) dynamics, including methane (CH4), is one way to understand the biogeochemical function of newly constructed fen ecosystems. In this study we monitored CH4 emissions and CH4 pore water concentration, as well as ecological and soil chemistry controls on CH4 emissions and pore water concentration, from a constructed fen...
January 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111921/glyphosate-sorption-desorption-on-biochars-interactions-of-physical-and-chemical-processes
#11
Kathleen E Hall, Kurt A Spokas, Beatriz Gamiz, Lucia Cox, Sharon K Papiernik, William C Koskinen
BACKGROUND: Biochar, a carbon-rich product of biomass pyrolysis, could limit glyphosate transport in soil and remediate contaminated water. The present study investigates the sorption/desorption behavior of glyphosate on biochars prepared from different hardwoods at temperatures ranging from 350°C to 900°C to elucidate fundamental mechanisms. RESULTS: Glyphosate (1 mg L(-1) ) sorption on biochars increased with pyrolysis temperature and was highest on 900°C biochars; however, total sorption was low on a mass basis (<0...
January 23, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070285/the-contribution-of-nitrogen-deposition-to-the-eutrophication-signal-in-understorey-plant-communities-of-european-forests
#12
Han F van Dobben, Wim de Vries
We evaluated effects of atmospheric deposition of nitrogen on the composition of forest understorey vegetation both in space and time, using repeated data from the European wide monitoring program ICP-Forests, which focuses on normally managed forest. Our aim was to assess whether both spatial and temporal effects of deposition can be detected by a multiple regression approach using data from managed forests over a relatively short time interval, in which changes in the tree layer are limited. To characterize the vegetation, we used indicators derived from cover percentages per species using multivariate statistics and indicators derived from the presence/absence, that is, species numbers and Ellenberg's indicator values...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063319/quantitative-analysis-of-the-extent-of-heavy-metal-contamination-in-soils-near-picher-oklahoma-within-the-tar-creek-superfund-site
#13
Rachelle E Beattie, Wyatt Henke, Conor Davis, M Abdul Mottaleb, James H Campbell, L Rex McAliley
The Tri-State Mining District of Missouri, Kansas and Oklahoma was the site of large-scale mining operations primarily for lead and zinc until the mid-1950s. Although mining across the area has ceased, high concentrations of heavy metals remain in the region's soil and water systems. The town of Picher, Ottawa County, OK, lies within this district and was included in the Tar Creek Superfund Site by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 1980 due to extensive contamination. To elucidate the extent of heavy-metal contamination, a soil-chemistry survey of the town of Picher was conducted...
April 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052498/solute-and-sediment-export-from-amazon-forest-and-soybean-headwater-streams
#14
Shelby H Riskin, Christopher Neill, KathiJo Jankowski, Alex V Krusche, Richard McHorney, Helmut Elsenbeer, Marcia N Macedo, Darlisson Nunes, Stephen Porder
Intensive cropland agriculture commonly increases streamwater solute concentrations and export from small watersheds. In recent decades, the lowland tropics have become the world's largest and most important region of cropland expansion. Although the effects of intensive cropland agriculture on streamwater chemistry and watershed export have been widely studied in temperate regions, their effects in tropical regions are poorly understood. We sampled seven headwater streams draining watersheds in forest (n = 3) or soybeans (n = 4) to examine the effects of soybean cropping on stream solute concentrations and watershed export in a region of rapid soybean expansion in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso...
January 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052309/biotic-interactions-mediate-the-influence-of-bird-colonies-on-vegetation-and-soil-chemistry-at-aggregation-sites
#15
Daniel James Deans Natusch, Jessica Ann Lyons, Gregory P Brown, Richard Shine
Colonial-nesting organisms can strongly alter the chemical and biotic conditions around their aggregation sites, with cascading impacts on other components of the ecosystem. In tropical Australia, Metallic Starlings (Aplonis metallica) nest in large colonies far above the forest canopy, in emergent trees. The ground beneath those trees is open, in stark contrast to the dense foliage all around. We surveyed the areas beneath 27 colony trees (and nearby randomly chosen trees lacking bird colonies) to quantify the birds' impacts on soil and vegetation characteristics, and to test alternative hypotheses about the proximate mechanisms responsible for the lack of live vegetation beneath colony trees...
February 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042178/little-effects-on-soil-organic-matter-chemistry-of-density-fractions-after-seven-years-of-forest-soil-warming
#16
Jörg Schnecker, Werner Borken, Andreas Schindlbacher, Wolfgang Wanek
Rising temperatures enhance microbial decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) and thereby increase the soil CO2 efflux. Elevated decomposition rates might differently affect distinct SOM pools, depending on their stability and accessibility. Soil fractions derived from density fractionation have been suggested to represent SOM pools with different turnover times and stability against microbial decomposition. To investigate the effect of soil warming on functionally different soil organic matter pools, we here investigated the chemical and isotopic composition of bulk soil and three density fractions (free particulate organic matter, fPOM; occluded particulate organic matter, oPOM; and mineral associated organic matter, MaOM) of a C-rich soil from a long-term warming experiment in a spruce forest in the Austrian Alps...
December 2016: Soil Biology & Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028167/potato-psyllid-hemiptera-triozidae-response-to-insecticides-under-controlled-greenhouse-conditions
#17
E R Echegaray, A C Vinchesi, S I Rondon, J M Alvarez, N McKinley
Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) is a common pest of solanaceous crops largely known for vectoring "psyllid yellows" in potatoes. In recent years, however, this pest has attracted considerable attention for vectoring Zebra Chip, a devastating bacterial disease that was first reported in the United States in 2004 and has spread across the southern and northwestern states, causing significant economic losses to potato growers and the industry. Management of the disease is mainly achieved by reducing the psyllid population using insecticides, including pyrethroids and neonicotinoids; however, new insecticides with different modes of action are needed to avoid the acquisition of resistance...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024812/occurrence-of-chlorotriazine-herbicides-and-their-transformation-products-in-arable-soils
#18
Kerstin E Scherr, Lucie Bielská, Petra Kosubová, Petra Dinisová, Martina Hvězdová, Zdeněk Šimek, Jakub Hofman
Chlorotriazine herbicides (CTs) are widely used pest control chemicals. In contrast to groundwater contamination, little attention has been given to the circumstances of residue formation of parent compounds and transformation products in soils. Seventy-five cultivated floodplain topsoils in the Czech Republic were sampled in early spring of 2015, corresponding to a minimum of six months (current-use terbuthylazine, TBA) and a up to a decade (banned atrazine, AT and simazine, SIM) after the last herbicide application...
March 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011026/experimental-modeling-of-thaw-lake-water-evolution-in-discontinuous-permafrost-zone-role-of-peat-lichen-leaching-and-ground-fire
#19
Rinat M Manasypov, Liudmila S Shirokova, Oleg S Pokrovsky
Thaw of frozen peat in discontinuous permafrost zone produces a significant number of thermokarst lakes, which are known to contribute to Green House Gases (GHG) emission in the atmosphere. In palsa peatland of western Siberia, the thermokarst lake formation includes soil subsidences, lichen submergence and peat abrasion, leading to lateral spreading of the lake border, often intensified by ground fires. Mesocosm experiments were conducted during 3weeks on two thermokarst lake waters interacting in 30-L tanks with surface horizon of peat, the dominant ground vegetation (lichen Cladonia sp...
December 20, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008686/a-new-theory-of-plant-microbe-nutrient-competition-resolves-inconsistencies-between-observations-and-model-predictions
#20
Qing Zhu, William J Riley, Jinyun Tang
Terrestrial plants assimilate anthropogenic CO2 through photosynthesis and synthesizing new tissues. However, sustaining these processes requires plants to compete with microbes for soil nutrients, which therefore calls for an appropriate understanding and modeling of nutrient competition mechanisms in Earth System Models (ESMs). Here, we survey existing plant-microbe competition theories and their implementations in Earth System Models (ESMs). We found no consensus regarding the representation of nutrient competition and that observational and theoretical support for current implementations are weak...
December 23, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
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