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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814374/from-bench-laboratory-to-bed-hospital-home-how-to-explore-effective-natural-and-synthetic-pak1-blockers-longevity-promoters-for-cancer-therapy
#1
REVIEW
Hiroshi Maruta, Mok-Ryeon Ahn
PAK family kinases are RAC/CDC42-activated kinases that were first found in a soil amoeba 4 decades ago, and 2 decades later, were discovered in mammals as well. Since then at least 6 members of this family have been identified in mammals. One of them called PAK1 has been best studied so far, mainly because it is essential not only for malignant cell growth and metastasis, but also for many other diseases/disorders such as diabetes (type 2), AD (Alzheimer's disease), hypertension, and a variety of inflammatory or infectious diseases, which definitely shorten our lifespan...
August 9, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803052/difference-in-attenuation-among-mn-as-and-fe-in-riverbed-sediments
#2
Saikat Sengupta, Ondra Sracek, Jiin-Shuh Jean, Huai-Jen Yang, Chung-Ho Wang, Sandeep Kar, Ondra Babek, Chi-Yuh Lee, Suvendu Das
We report, for the first time, a detailed study at river water and hyporheic zone systems through collection and analyses of shallow sediments and selected source rocks, pore water, and river water from forty-two locations at the Chianan Plain (CP), SW Taiwan. The study was focused to understand the possible changes in the river water and sediment chemistry as a consequence of high arsenic (mean±SD=71.28±16.24μg/L, n=46) groundwater discharge to three major rivers in the plain. The study shows, except few locations, As concentration in river sediments corresponds to average As concentration in soil and upper crustal abundance and of source rock...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797551/behavior-of-137-cs-in-ponds-in-the-vicinity-of-the-fukushima-dai-ichi-nuclear-power-plant
#3
Yoshifumi Wakiyama, Alexei Konoplev, Toshihiro Wada, Tsugiko Takase, Ian Byrnes, Matthew Carradine, Kenji Nanba
(137)Cs activity concentration in the water of four ponds, Suzuuchi (SU), Funasawa (FS), Inkyozaka (IZ), and Kashiramori (KM), that are within 10 km of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant were observed from April 2015 to August 2016. (137)Cs inventories in soils surrounding SU, FS, IZ, and KM were 6.4, 2.9, 2.1, and 0.9 MBq m(-2), respectively. (137)Cs inventories in the bottom sediments of SU, FS, IZ, and KM were 13, 8.9, 1.6, and 1.1 MBq m(-2), respectively. Higher (137)Cs inventories in bottom sediment than those of soil in SU and FS suggest that (137)Cs was delivered to and accumulated in these ponds...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794453/varying-sensitivity-of-mountainous-streamwater-base-flow-formula-see-text-concentrations-to-n-deposition-in-the-northern-suburbs-of-tokyo
#4
Kazuya Nishina, Mirai Watanabe, Masami K Koshikawa, Takejiro Takamatsu, Yu Morino, Tatsuya Nagashima, Kunika Soma, Seiji Hayashi
Ecosystems of suburban landscapes (i.e., forest, inland water ecosystem) are threatened by high nitrogen (N) loadings derived from urban air pollutants. Forest ecosystems under high chronic N loadings tend to leach more N via streams. In the northern suburbs of Tokyo, N deposition loading on terrestrial ecosystems has increased over the past 30 years. In this region, we investigated nitrate concentrations in 608 independent small forested catchment water samples from northeastern suburbs of Tokyo. The nitrate concentrations varied from 0...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775391/drought-tolerant-desmodium-species-effectively-suppress-parasitic-striga-weed-and-improve-cereal-grain-yields-in-western-kenya
#5
Charles A O Midega, Charles J Wasonga, Antony M Hooper, John A Pickett, Zeyaur R Khan
The parasitic weed Striga hermonthica Benth. (Orobanchaceae), commonly known as striga, is an increasingly important constraint to cereal production in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), often resulting in total yield losses in maize (Zea mays L.) and substantial losses in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench). This is further aggravated by soil degradation and drought conditions that are gradually becoming widespread in SSA. Forage legumes in the genus Desmodium (Fabaceae), mainly D. uncinatum and D. intortum, effectively control striga and improve crop productivity in SSA...
August 2017: Crop Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773226/on-critical-states-rupture-states-and-interlocking-strength-of-granular-materials
#6
Chris M Szalwinski
The Mohr-Coulomb theory of strength identifies cohesion and internal friction as the two principal contributions to the shear strength of a granular material. The contribution of cohesion in over-compacted granular materials has been challenged and replacing cohesion with interlocking has been proposed. A theory of rupture strength that includes interlocking is derived herein. The physics-chemistry concept of critical state is elaborated to accommodate granular materials, based on empirical definitions established in the fields of soil mechanics and bulk solids' flow...
July 27, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769918/high-tolerance-of-hydrogenothermus-marinus-to-sodium-perchlorate
#7
Kristina Beblo-Vranesevic, Harald Huber, Petra Rettberg
On Mars, significant amounts (0.4-0.6%) of perchlorate ions were detected in dry soil by the Phoenix Wet Chemistry Laboratory and later confirmed with the Mars Science Laboratory. Therefore, the ability of Hydrogenothermus marinus, a desiccation tolerant bacterium, to survive and grow in the presence of perchlorates was determined. Results indicated that H. marinus was able to tolerate concentrations of sodium perchlorate up to 200 mM ( 1.6%) during cultivation without any changes in its growth pattern. After the addition of up to 440 mM ( 3...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763123/laying-waste-to-mercury-inexpensive-sorbents-made-from-sulfur-and-recycled-cooking-oils
#8
Max Worthington, Renata Kucera, Ines Albuquerque, Christopher Gibson, Alexander Sibley, Ashley Slattery, Jonathan Campbell, Salah Alboaiji, Katherine Muller, Jason Young, Nick Adamson, Jason Gascooke, Deshetti Jampaiah, Ylias Sabri, Suresh Bhargava, Samuel Ippolito, David Lewis, Jamie Quinton, Amanda Ellis, Alexander Johs, Gonçalo Bernardes, Justin M Chalker
Mercury pollution threatens the environment and human health across the globe. This neurotoxic substance is encountered in artisanal gold mining, coal combustion, oil and gas refining, waste incineration, chloralkalai plant operation, metallurgy, and areas of agriculture in which mercury-rich fungicides are used. Thousands of tonnes of mercury are emitted annually through these activities. With the Minamata Convention on Mercury entering force this year, increasing regulation of mercury pollution is imminent...
August 1, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763056/methanethiol-dependent-dimethylsulfide-production-in-soil-environments
#9
Ornella Carrión, Jennifer Pratscher, Andrew R J Curson, Beth T Williams, Wayne G Rostant, J Colin Murrell, Jonathan D Todd
Dimethylsulfide (DMS) is an environmentally important trace gas with roles in sulfur cycling, signalling to higher organisms and in atmospheric chemistry. DMS is believed to be predominantly produced in marine environments via microbial degradation of the osmolyte dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP). However, significant amounts of DMS are also generated from terrestrial environments, for example, peat bogs can emit ~6 μmol DMS m(-2) per day, likely via the methylation of methanethiol (MeSH). A methyltransferase enzyme termed 'MddA', which catalyses the methylation of MeSH, generating DMS, in a wide range of bacteria and some cyanobacteria, may mediate this process, as the mddA gene is abundant in terrestrial metagenomes...
August 1, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742971/evidence-for-quinone-redox-chemistry-mediating-daytime-and-nighttime-no2-to-hono-conversion-on-soil-surfaces
#10
Nicole K Scharko, Erin T Martin, Yaroslav Losovyj, Dennis G Peters, Jonathan D Raff
Humic acid (HA) is thought to promote NO2 conversion to nitrous acid (HONO) on soil surfaces during the day. However, it has proven difficult to identify the reactive sites in natural HA substrates. The mechanism of NO2 reduction on soil surrogates composed of HA and clay minerals was studied by use of a coated-wall flow reactor and cavity-enhanced spectroscopy. Conversion of NO2 to HONO in the dark was found to be significant and correlated to the abundance of C-O moieties in HA determined from the X-ray photoelectron spectra of the C 1s region...
August 10, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742258/metabolite-profiling-of-non-sterile-rhizosphere-soil
#11
Pierre Pétriacq, Alex Williams, T E Anne Cotton, Alexander E McFarlane, Stephen A Rolfe, Jurriaan Ton
Rhizosphere chemistry is the sum of root exudation chemicals, their breakdown products and microbial products of soil-derived chemicals. To date, most studies about root exudation chemistry are based on sterile cultivation systems, which limits the discovery of microbial breakdown products that act as semiochemicals and shape microbial rhizosphere communities. Here, we present a method for untargeted metabolic profiling of non-sterile rhizosphere soil. We have developed an experimental growth system that enables collection and analysis of rhizosphere chemicals from different plant species...
July 25, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735391/toward-a-resilient-functional-microbiome-drought-tolerance-alleviating-microbes-for-sustainable-agriculture
#12
Venkatachalam Lakshmanan, Prasun Ray, Kelly D Craven
In recent years, the utilization of novel sequencing techniques opened a new field of research into plant microbiota and was used to explore a wide diversity of microorganisms both inside and outside of plant host tissues, i.e., the endosphere and rhizosphere, respectively. An early realization from such research was that species richness and diversity of the plant microbiome are both greater than believed even a few years ago, and soil is likely home to the most abundant and diverse microbial habitats known...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729856/biological-significance-of-marine-actinobacteria-of-east-coast-of-andhra-pradesh-india
#13
Alapati Kavitha, Handanahal S Savithri
An attempt was made to identify actinobacterial strains present in the marine soil of East Coast regions viz., Chirala, Bapatla, and Peddaganjam, Andhra Pradesh; Kanyakumari, Tamil Nadu and Goa, Goa along with the study of their antimicrobial potential. Eight out of 73 actinobacterial strains isolated from these regions showed strong antimicrobial activity against Gram positive bacteria, Gram negative bacteria, and Candida albicans. Molecular identification (16S rRNA analysis) of the eight strains revealed that they belong to Dietzia sp...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724405/environmental-drivers-of-viral-community-composition-in-antarctic-soils-identified-by-viromics
#14
Evelien M Adriaenssens, Rolf Kramer, Marc W Van Goethem, Thulani P Makhalanyane, Ian Hogg, Don A Cowan
BACKGROUND: The Antarctic continent is considered the coldest and driest place on earth with simple ecosystems, devoid of higher plants. Soils in the ice-free regions of Antarctica are known to harbor a wide range of microorganisms from primary producers to grazers, yet their ecology and particularly the role of viruses is poorly understood. In this study, we examined the virus community structures of 14 soil samples from the Mackay Glacier region. METHODS: Viral communities were extracted from soil and the dsDNA was extracted, amplified using single-primer amplification, and sequenced using the Ion Torrent Proton platform...
July 19, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724108/yellow-perch-perca-flavescens-mercury-unaffected-by-wildland-fires-in-northern-minnesota
#15
Charlotte E Riggs, Randall K Kolka, Edward A Nater, Emma L Witt, Trent R Wickman, Laurel G Woodruff, Jason T Butcher
Wildland fire can alter mercury (Hg) cycling on land and in adjacent aquatic environments. In addition to enhancing local atmospheric Hg redeposition, fire can influence terrestrial movement of Hg and other elements into lakes via runoff from burned upland soil. However, the impact of fire on water quality and the accumulation of Hg in fish remain equivocal. We investigated the effects of fire-specifically, a low-severity prescribed fire and moderate-severity wildfire-on young-of-the-year yellow perch () and lake chemistry in a small remote watershed in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness in northeastern Minnesota...
May 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713354/microbial-populations-of-stony-meteorites-substrate-controls-on-first-colonizers
#16
Alastair W Tait, Emma J Gagen, Siobhan A Wilson, Andrew G Tomkins, Gordon Southam
Finding fresh, sterilized rocks provides ecologists with a clean slate to test ideas about first colonization and the evolution of soils de novo. Lava has been used previously in first colonizer studies due to the sterilizing heat required for its formation. However, fresh lava typically falls upon older volcanic successions of similar chemistry and modal mineral abundance. Given enough time, this results in the development of similar microbial communities in the newly erupted lava due to a lack of contrast between the new and old substrates...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710473/influence-of-biochar-and-nitrogen-on-fine-root-morphology-physiology-and-chemistry-of-acer-mono
#17
Muhammad Razaq, Salahuddin, Hai-Long Shen, Hassan Sher, Peng Zhang
Fine roots play an important role in the overall functions of individual plants. Previous studies showed that fertilization and available soil resources have a notably profound effect on fine root, but there is lack of study centered on how fine root morphology, physiology, and chemistry respond to biochar with N additions. Different levels of biochar (0, 10, 15, and 20 g) and N (0, 2, 4 and 6 g) were applied to Acer mono seedling plants in a field nursery. The root system morphology and root chemistry and physiology were evaluated in line with root length, root diameter, SRL, N and N: C and root respiration...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709055/declining-atmospheric-deposition-of-heavy-metals-over-the-last-three-decades-is-reflected-in-soil-and-foliage-of-97-beech-fagus-sylvatica-stands-in-the-vienna-woods
#18
Selina Türtscher, Pétra Berger, Leopold Lindebner, Torsten W Berger
Rigorous studies on long-term changes of heavy metal distribution in forest soils since the implementation of emission controls are rare. Hence, we resampled 97 old-growth beech stands in the Vienna Woods. This study exploits an extensive data set of soil (infiltration zone of stemflow and between trees area) and foliar chemistry from three decades ago. It was hypothesized that declining deposition of heavy metals is reflected in soil and foliar total contents of Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Mn and Fe. Mean soil contents of Pb in the stemflow area declined at the highest rate from 223 to 50 mg kg(-1) within the last three decades...
July 11, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709053/transport-and-retention-of-biochar-nanoparticles-in-a-paddy-soil-under-environmentally-relevant-solution-chemistry-conditions
#19
Ming Chen, Dengjun Wang, Fan Yang, Xiaoyun Xu, Nan Xu, Xinde Cao
Land application of biochar has been increasingly recommended as a powerful strategy for carbon sequestration and soil remediation. However, the biochar particles, especially those in the nanoscale range, may migrate or carry the inherent contaminants along the soil profile, posing a potential risk to the groundwater. This study investigated the transport and retention of wood chip-derived biochar nanoparticles (NPs) in water-saturated columns packed with a paddy soil. The environmentally-relevant soil solution chemistry including ionic strength (0...
July 11, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704064/nucleic-acid-extraction-from-synthetic-mars-analog-soils-for-in-situ-life-detection
#20
Angel Mojarro, Gary Ruvkun, Maria T Zuber, Christopher E Carr
Biological informational polymers such as nucleic acids have the potential to provide unambiguous evidence of life beyond Earth. To this end, we are developing an automated in situ life-detection instrument that integrates nucleic acid extraction and nanopore sequencing: the Search for Extra-Terrestrial Genomes (SETG) instrument. Our goal is to isolate and determine the sequence of nucleic acids from extant or preserved life on Mars, if, for example, there is common ancestry to life on Mars and Earth. As is true of metagenomic analysis of terrestrial environmental samples, the SETG instrument must isolate nucleic acids from crude samples and then determine the DNA sequence of the unknown nucleic acids...
August 2017: Astrobiology
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