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Soil chemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232509/evidence-for-nonstomatal-uptake-of-hg-by-aspen-and-translocation-of-hg-from-foliage-to-tree-rings-in-austrian-pine
#1
Jennifer Arnold, Mae Sexauer Gustin, Peter Weisberg
To determine whether trees are reliable biomonitors of air mercury (Hg) pollution concentrations were measured in bark, foliage, and tree rings. Data were developed using 4-year old Pinus and Populus trees grown from common genetic stock in Oregon and subsequently transferred to four air treatments differing in gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) chemistry and total gaseous Hg (TGM) concentrations. Soil of a subset of trees was spiked with HgBr2 in solution to test for root uptake. Results indicate no significant effect of the soil spike or GOM compounds on tree tissue Hg concentrations...
December 12, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223120/de-icing-salt-contamination-reduces-urban-tree-performance-in-structural-soil-cells
#2
Camilo Ordóñez-Barona, Vadim Sabetski, Andrew A Millward, James Steenberg
Salts used for de-icing roads and sidewalks in northern climates can have a significant impact on water quality and vegetation. Sub-surface engineering systems, such as structural soil cells, can regulate water runoff and pollutants, and provide the necessary soil volume and irrigation to grow trees. However, the ability of such systems to manage de-icing salt contamination, and the impact of this contamination on the trees growing in them, have not been evaluated. We report on an field investigation of de-icing salt contamination in structural cells in two street-revitalization projects in Toronto, Canada, and the impact of this contamination on tree performance...
December 6, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209871/fe-ii-reduction-of-pyrolusite-%C3%AE-mno2-and-secondary-mineral-evolution
#3
Michael V Schaefer, Robert M Handler, Michelle M Scherer
Iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) are the two most common redox-active elements in the Earth's crust and are well known to influence mineral formation and dissolution, trace metal sequestration, and contaminant transformations in soils and sediments. Here, we characterized the reaction of aqueous Fe(II) with pyrolusite (β-MnO2) using electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, aqueous Fe and Mn analyses, and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. We reacted pyrolusite solids repeatedly with 3 mM Fe(II) at pH 7.5 to evaluate whether electron transfer occurs and to track the evolving reactivity of the Mn/Fe solids...
December 5, 2017: Geochemical Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204781/fungal-communities-and-functional-guilds-shift-along-an-elevational-gradient-in-the-southern-appalachian-mountains
#4
Allison M Veach, C Elizabeth Stokes, Jennifer Knoepp, Ari Jumpponen, Richard Baird
Nitrogen deposition alters forest ecosystems particularly in high elevation, montane habitats where nitrogen deposition is greatest and continues to increase. We collected soils across an elevational (788-1940 m) gradient, encompassing both abiotic (soil chemistry) and biotic (vegetation community) gradients, at eight locations in the southern Appalachian Mountains of southwestern North Carolina and eastern Tennessee. We measured soil chemistry (total N, C, extractable PO4, soil pH, cation exchange capacity [ECEC], percent base saturation [% BS]) and dissected soil fungal communities using ITS2 metabarcode Illumina MiSeq sequencing...
December 4, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183362/unifying-the-functional-diversity-in-natural-and-cultivated-soils-using-the-overall-body-mass-distribution-of-nematodes
#5
Christian Mulder, Rob Maas
BACKGROUND: Sustainable use of our soils is a key goal for environmental protection. As many ecosystem services are supported belowground at different trophic levels by nematodes, soil nematodes are expected to provide objective metrics for biological quality to integrate physical and chemical soil variables. Trait measurements of body mass carried out at the individual level can in this way be correlated with environmental properties that influence the performance of soil biota. RESULTS: Soil samples were collected across 200 sites (4 soil types and 5 land-use types resulting in 9 combinations) during a long-term monitoring programme in the Netherlands and the functional diversity of nematode communities was investigated...
November 28, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182270/advances-in-the-chemical-biology-of-desferrioxamine-b-dfob
#6
Rachel Codd, Tomas Richardson-Sanchez, Thomas J Telfer, Michael P Gotsbacher
Desferrioxamine B (DFOB) was discovered in the late 1950s as a hydroxamic acid metabolite of the soil bacterium Streptomyces pilosus. The exquisite affinity of DFOB for Fe(III) identified its potential for removing excess iron from patients with transfusion-dependent hemoglobin disorders. Many studies have used semi-synthetic chemistry to produce DFOB adducts with new properties and broad-ranging functions. More recent approaches in chemical biology have revealed some nuances of DFOB biosynthesis and discovered new DFOB-derived drugs and radiometal imaging agents...
November 28, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177306/remediation-mechanisms-for-cd-contaminated-soil-using-natural-sepiolite-at-the-field-scale
#7
Xiuling Yin, Yingming Xu, Rong Huang, Qingqing Huang, Zhonglei Xie, Yanming Cai, Xuefeng Liang
Remediation of heavy metal polluted agricultural soil is essential for human health and ecological safety and remediation mechanisms at the microscopic level are vital for their large-scale utilization. In this study, natural sepiolite was employed as an immobilization agent for in situ field-scale remediation of Cd-contaminated paddy soil and the remediation mechanisms were investigated in terms of soil chemistry and plant physiology. Natural sepiolite had a significant immobilization effect for bioavailable Cd contents in paddy soil, and consequently could lower the Cd concentrations of brown rice, husk, straw, and roots of rice plants by 54...
November 27, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169026/structures-and-mechanisms-in-clay-nanopore-trapping-of-structurally-different-fluoroquinolone-antimicrobials
#8
Fanny E K Okaikue-Woodi, Sabrina E Kelch, Michael P Schmidt, Carmen Enid Martinez, Randall E Youngman, Ludmilla Aristilde
Smectite clay nanoparticles are implicated in the retention of antimicrobials within soils and sediments; these clays are also inspected as drug carriers in physiological systems. Cation exchange is considered the primary adsorption mechanism of antimicrobials within smectite nanopores. However, a dual role of acid-base chemistry and adsorptive structures is speculated by recent studies. Using the prototypical smectite clay montmorillonite, we employed a combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD), nuclear magnetic resonance, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the interlayer nanopore trapping of two structurally-different fluoroquinolone (FQ) antimicrobials with similar acid-base chemistry: ciprofloxacin (a first-generation FQ) and moxifloxacin (a third-generation FQ)...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137663/patent-landscape-of-neglected-tropical-diseases-an-analysis-of-worldwide-patent-families
#9
Folahanmi Tomiwa Akinsolu, Vitor Nobre de Paiva, Samuel Santos Souza, Orsolya Varga
BACKGROUND: "Neglected Tropical Diseases" (NTDs) affect millions of people in Africa, Asia and South America. The two primary ways of strategic interventions are "preventive chemotherapy and transmission control" (PCT), and "innovative and intensified disease management" (IDM). In the last 5 years, phenomenal progress has been achieved. However, it is crucial to intensify research effort into NTDs, because of the emerging drug resistance. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the term NTDs covers 17 diseases, namely buruli ulcer, Chagas disease, dengue, dracunculiasis, echinococcosis, trematodiasis, human African trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, leprosy, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, rabies, schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthes, taeniasis, trachoma, and yaws...
November 14, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131839/diversity-and-feeding-strategies-of-soil-microfauna-along-elevation-gradients-in-himalayan-cold-deserts
#10
Miloslav Devetter, Ladislav Háněl, Klára Řeháková, Jiří Doležal
High-elevation cold deserts in Tibet and Himalaya are one of the most extreme environments. One consequence is that the diversity of macrofauna in this environment is often limited, and soil microorganisms have a more influential role in governing key surface and subsurface bioprocesses. High-elevation soil microfauna represent important components of cold ecosystems and dominant consumers of microbial communities. Still little is known about their diversity and distribution on the edge of their reproductive and metabolic abilities...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127892/estimation-of-the-late-postmortem-interval-using-ftir-spectroscopy-and-chemometrics-in-human-skeletal-remains
#11
Qi Wang, Yinming Zhang, Hancheng Lin, Shuai Zha, Ruoxi Fang, Xin Wei, Shuanliang Fan, Zhenyuan Wang
Due to a lack of reliable and accurate methods, determining the postmortem interval (PMI) of human skeletal remains is one of the most important and challenging tasks in forensic medicine. In this paper, we studied the changes to bone chemistry with increasing PMI in two different experimental conditions using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy in conjunction with chemometrics methods Paired bone samples collected from 56 human corpses were buried (placed in soil) and unburied (exposed to the air) for intervals between 76 and 552 days...
November 8, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126135/habitat-modification-by-the-leaf-cutter-ant-atta-cephalotes-and-patterns-of-leaf-litter-arthropod-communities
#12
Rachel L Wells, Serena K Murphy, Matthew D Moran
Ecosystem engineers are profoundly important in many biological communities. A Neotropical taxonomic group considered to have engineering effects is the Formicidae (ants). Leaf-cutter ants (LCAs), in particular, which form extensive colonies of millions of individuals, can be important ecosystem engineers in these environments. While the effects of LCAs on plant community structure and soil chemistry are well-studied, their effects on consumers are poorly understood. Therefore, we examined the indirect effects of the LCA Atta cephalotes L...
November 4, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113014/environmental-filtering-by-ph-and-soil-nutrients-drives-community-assembly-in-fungi-at-fine-spatial-scales
#13
Sydney I Glassman, Ian J Wang, Thomas D Bruns
Whether niche processes, like environmental filtering, or neutral processes, like dispersal limitation, are the primary forces driving community assembly is a central question in ecology. Here, we use a natural experimental system of isolated tree "islands" to test whether environment or geography primarily structures fungal community composition at fine spatial scales. This system consists of isolated pairs of two distantly-related, congeneric pine trees established at varying distances from each other and the forest edge, allowing us to disentangle the effects of geographic distance versus host and edaphic environment on associated fungal communities...
November 7, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110234/soil-ecological-criteria-for-nickel-as-a-function-of-soil-properties
#14
XiaoQing Wang, DongPu Wei, YiBing Ma, Mike J McLaughlin
Scientific information for the chemistry and ecotoxicology of metals in soils has been obtained in the research conducted in recent years. However, the latest "science" obtained from this research has not yet been translated into "regulations" in China. In the present study, the predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs) for Ni which denoted as soil ecological criteria for Ni were derived based on the effects of soil properties on bioavailability/ecotoxicity of Ni, incorporating the differences in species sensitivity as well as in laboratory and field conditions...
November 6, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093702/amplicon-based-sequencing-of-soil-fungi-from-wood-preservative-test-sites
#15
Grant T Kirker, Amy B Bishell, Michelle A Jusino, Jonathan M Palmer, William J Hickey, Daniel L Lindner
Soil samples were collected from field sites in two AWPA (American Wood Protection Association) wood decay hazard zones in North America. Two field plots at each site were exposed to differing preservative chemistries via in-ground installations of treated wood stakes for approximately 50 years. The purpose of this study is to characterize soil fungal species and to determine if long term exposure to various wood preservatives impacts soil fungal community composition. Soil fungal communities were compared using amplicon-based DNA sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region of the rDNA array...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089133/modeling-ecotoxicity-impacts-in-vineyard-production-addressing-spatial-differentiation-for-copper-fungicides
#16
Nancy Peña, Assumpció Antón, Andreas Kamilaris, Peter Fantke
Application of plant protection products (PPP) is a fundamental practice for viticulture. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has proved to be a useful tool to assess the environmental performance of agricultural production, where including toxicity-related impacts for PPP use is still associated with methodological limitations, especially for inorganic (i.e. metal-based) pesticides. Downy mildew is one of the most severe diseases for vineyard production. For disease control, copper-based fungicides are the most effective and used PPP in both conventional and organic viticulture...
October 28, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065230/comparing-chemistry-and-bioactivity-of-burned-versus-decomposed-plant-litter-different-pathways-but-same-result
#17
Giuliano Bonanomi, Guido Incerti, Ahmed M Abd El-Gawad, Gaspare Cesarano, Tushar C Sarker, Luigi Saulino, Virginia Lanzotti, Antonio Saracino, Francisco C Rego, Stefano Mazzoleni
Litter burning and biological decomposition are oxidative processes co-occurring in many terrestrial ecosystems, producing organic matter with different chemical properties and differently affecting plant growth and soil microbial activity. We tested the chemical convergence hypothesis i.e. materials with different initial chemistry converge towards a common profile, with similar biological effects, as the oxidative process advances, for burning and decomposition. We compared the molecular composition, assessed by (13) C NMR, of 7 plant litter types either fresh, decomposed for 30, 90, 180 days in a microcosms incubation experiment, or heated at 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 °C for thirty minutes...
October 24, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053738/neotropical-peatland-methane-emissions-along-a-vegetation-and-biogeochemical-gradient
#18
R Scott Winton, Neal Flanagan, Curtis J Richardson
Tropical wetlands are thought to be the most important source of interannual variability in atmospheric methane (CH4) concentrations, yet sparse data prevents them from being incorporated into Earth system models. This problem is particularly pronounced in the neotropics where bottom-up models based on water table depth are incongruent with top-down inversion models suggesting unaccounted sinks or sources of CH4. The newly documented vast areas of peatlands in the Amazon basin may account for an important unrecognized CH4 source, but the hydrologic and biogeochemical controls of CH4 dynamics from these systems remain poorly understood...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053267/uptake-kinetics-and-trophic-transfer-of-tungsten-from-cabbage-to-a-herbivorous-animal-model
#19
James H Lindsay, Alan J Kennedy, Jennifer M Seiter-Moser, Anthony J Bednar, Robert E Boyd, David R Johnson, Paul Allison, Ryan V Tappero
This investigation builds on previous studies on military relevant tungsten (W) to more thoroughly explore environmental pathways, bioaccumulation kinetics during direct soil exposure versus trophic transfer and elucidate its relative accumulation and speciation in different snail organs. The modeled steady state concentration and bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of W from soil into cabbage were 302 mg/kg and 0.55, respectively. Steady state concentrations (34 mg/kg) and BAF values (0.05) obtained for the snail directly exposed to contaminated soil were lower than trophic transfer by consumption of W-contaminated cabbage (tissue concentration of 86 mg/kg; BAF of 0...
October 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048038/fluorescence-lifetime-evaluation-of-whole-soils-from-the-amazon-rainforest
#20
Gustavo Nicolodelli, Amanda Maria Tadini, Marcelo Saito Nogueira, Sebastião Pratavieira, Stephane Mounier, Jose Luis Clabel Huaman, Cléber Hilário Dos Santos, Célia Regina Montes, Débora Marcondes Bastos Pereira Milori
Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) is a new tool that can be used to investigate processes of interaction between metal ions and organic matter (OM) in soils, providing a specific analysis of the structure and dynamics of macromolecules. To the best of our knowledge, there are no studies in the literature reporting the use of this technique applied to whole/non-fractionated soil samples, making it a potential method for use in future studies. This work describes the use of TRFS to evaluate the fluorescence lifetimes of OM of whole soils from the Amazon region...
August 20, 2017: Applied Optics
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