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Soil chemistry

Han F van Dobben, Wim de Vries
We evaluated effects of atmospheric deposition of nitrogen on the composition of forest understorey vegetation both in space and time, using repeated data from the European wide monitoring program ICP-Forests, which focuses on normally managed forest. Our aim was to assess whether both spatial and temporal effects of deposition can be detected by a multiple regression approach using data from managed forests over a relatively short time interval, in which changes in the tree layer are limited. To characterize the vegetation, we used indicators derived from cover percentages per species using multivariate statistics and indicators derived from the presence/absence, that is, species numbers and Ellenberg's indicator values...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Rachelle E Beattie, Wyatt Henke, Conor Davis, M Abdul Mottaleb, James H Campbell, L Rex McAliley
The Tri-State Mining District of Missouri, Kansas and Oklahoma was the site of large-scale mining operations primarily for lead and zinc until the mid-1950s. Although mining across the area has ceased, high concentrations of heavy metals remain in the region's soil and water systems. The town of Picher, Ottawa County, OK, lies within this district and was included in the Tar Creek Superfund Site by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 1980 due to extensive contamination. To elucidate the extent of heavy-metal contamination, a soil-chemistry survey of the town of Picher was conducted...
December 31, 2016: Chemosphere
Shelby H Riskin, Christopher Neill, KathiJo Jankowski, Alex V Krusche, Richard McHorney, Helmut Elsenbeer, Marcia N Macedo, Darlisson Nunes, Stephen Porder
Intensive cropland agriculture commonly increases streamwater solute concentrations and export from small watersheds. In recent decades, the lowland tropics have become the world's largest and most important region of cropland expansion. Although the effects of intensive cropland agriculture on streamwater chemistry and watershed export have been widely studied in temperate regions, their effects in tropical regions are poorly understood. We sampled seven headwater streams draining watersheds in forest (n = 3) or soybeans (n = 4) to examine the effects of soybean cropping on stream solute concentrations and watershed export in a region of rapid soybean expansion in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso...
January 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Daniel James Deans Natusch, Jessica Ann Lyons, Gregory P Brown, Richard Shine
Colonial-nesting organisms can strongly alter the chemical and biotic conditions around their aggregation sites, with cascading impacts on other components of the ecosystem. In tropical Australia, Metallic Starlings (Aplonis metallica) nest in large colonies far above the forest canopy, in emergent trees. The ground beneath those trees is open, in stark contrast to the dense foliage all around. We surveyed the areas beneath 27 colony trees (and nearby randomly chosen trees lacking bird colonies) to quantify the birds' impacts on soil and vegetation characteristics, and to test alternative hypotheses about the proximate mechanisms responsible for the lack of live vegetation beneath colony trees...
November 7, 2016: Ecology
Jörg Schnecker, Werner Borken, Andreas Schindlbacher, Wolfgang Wanek
Rising temperatures enhance microbial decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) and thereby increase the soil CO2 efflux. Elevated decomposition rates might differently affect distinct SOM pools, depending on their stability and accessibility. Soil fractions derived from density fractionation have been suggested to represent SOM pools with different turnover times and stability against microbial decomposition. To investigate the effect of soil warming on functionally different soil organic matter pools, we here investigated the chemical and isotopic composition of bulk soil and three density fractions (free particulate organic matter, fPOM; occluded particulate organic matter, oPOM; and mineral associated organic matter, MaOM) of a C-rich soil from a long-term warming experiment in a spruce forest in the Austrian Alps...
December 2016: Soil Biology & Biochemistry
E R Echegaray, A C Vinchesi, S I Rondon, J M Alvarez, N McKinley
Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) is a common pest of solanaceous crops largely known for vectoring "psyllid yellows" in potatoes. In recent years, however, this pest has attracted considerable attention for vectoring Zebra Chip, a devastating bacterial disease that was first reported in the United States in 2004 and has spread across the southern and northwestern states, causing significant economic losses to potato growers and the industry. Management of the disease is mainly achieved by reducing the psyllid population using insecticides, including pyrethroids and neonicotinoids; however, new insecticides with different modes of action are needed to avoid the acquisition of resistance...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
Kerstin E Scherr, Lucie Bielská, Petra Kosubová, Petra Dinisová, Martina Hvězdová, Zdeněk Šimek, Jakub Hofman
Chlorotriazine herbicides (CTs) are widely used pest control chemicals. In contrast to groundwater contamination, little attention has been given to the circumstances of residue formation of parent compounds and transformation products in soils. Seventy-five cultivated floodplain topsoils in the Czech Republic were sampled in early spring of 2015, corresponding to a minimum of six months (current-use terbuthylazine, TBA) and a up to a decade (banned atrazine, AT and simazine, SIM) after the last herbicide application...
December 23, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Rinat M Manasypov, Liudmila S Shirokova, Oleg S Pokrovsky
Thaw of frozen peat in discontinuous permafrost zone produces a significant number of thermokarst lakes, which are known to contribute to Green House Gases (GHG) emission in the atmosphere. In palsa peatland of western Siberia, the thermokarst lake formation includes soil subsidences, lichen submergence and peat abrasion, leading to lateral spreading of the lake border, often intensified by ground fires. Mesocosm experiments were conducted during 3weeks on two thermokarst lake waters interacting in 30-L tanks with surface horizon of peat, the dominant ground vegetation (lichen Cladonia sp...
December 20, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Qing Zhu, William J Riley, Jinyun Tang
Terrestrial plants assimilate anthropogenic CO2 through photosynthesis and synthesizing new tissues. However, sustaining these processes requires plants to compete with microbes for soil nutrients, which therefore calls for an appropriate understanding and modeling of nutrient competition mechanisms in Earth System Models (ESMs). Here, we survey existing plant-microbe competition theories and their implementations in Earth System Models (ESMs). We found no consensus regarding the representation of nutrient competition and that observational and theoretical support for current implementations are weak...
December 23, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Y Colin, O Nicolitch, M-P Turpault, S Uroz
: Although minerals represent important soil constituents, their impact on the diversity and structure of soil microbial communities remains poorly documented. In this study, pure mineral particles with varying chemistries (i.e., obsidian, apatite and calcite) were considered. Each mineral type was conditioned in mesh bags and incubated in soil below different tree stands (beech, coppice with standards and Corsican pine) for 2.5 years to determine the relative impact of mineralogy and mineral weatherability on the taxonomic and functional diversity of mineral-associated bacterial communities...
December 21, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Xiaohui Yan, Huiming Ge, Tingting Huang, Hindra, Dong Yang, Qihui Teng, Ivana Crnovčić, Xiuling Li, Jeffrey D Rudolf, Jeremy R Lohman, Yannick Gansemans, Xiangcheng Zhu, Yong Huang, Li-Xing Zhao, Yi Jiang, Filip Van Nieuwerburgh, Christoph Rader, Yanwen Duan, Ben Shen
: The enediyne family of natural products has had a profound impact on modern chemistry, biology, and medicine, and yet only 11 enediynes have been structurally characterized to date. Here we report a genome survey of 3,400 actinomycetes, identifying 81 strains that harbor genes encoding the enediyne polyketide synthase cassettes that could be grouped into 28 distinct clades based on phylogenetic analysis. Genome sequencing of 31 representative strains confirmed that each clade harbors a distinct enediyne biosynthetic gene cluster...
December 20, 2016: MBio
Jiří Kopáček, Jiří Kaňa, Svetlana Bičárová, Ivan J Fernandez, Josef Hejzlar, Marie Kahounová, Stephen A Norton, Evžen Stuchlík
Climate change can reverse trends of decreasing calcium and magnesium [Ca + Mg] leaching to surface waters in granitic alpine regions recovering from acidification. Despite decreasing concentrations of strong acid anions (-1.4 μeq L(-1) yr(-1)) during 2004-2016 in nonacidic alpine lakes in the Tatra Mountains (Central Europe), the average [Ca + Mg] concentrations increased (2.5 μeq L(-1) yr(-1)), together with elevated terrestrial export of bicarbonate (HCO3(-); 3.6 μeq L(-1) yr(-1)). The percent increase in [Ca + Mg] concentrations in nonacidic lakes (0...
January 3, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Douglas C Amaral, Guilherme Lopes, Luiz R G Guilherme, Angelia L Seyfferth
The Fe (oxyhydr)oxide rind, or Fe plaque, that forms on aquatic plant roots is an important sorbent of metal(loid)s and plays a role in the attenuation of metal(loid) uptake into higher plants. However, the mineral composition of Fe plaque and thus its potential to sorb metal(loid)s is affected by solution chemistry. The predominant strategy to characterize Fe plaque using dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate (DCB) extraction and elemental analysis reveals total Fe quantity but misses the mineral structure of the Fe (oxyhydr)oxide...
January 3, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Päivi Tiiva, Jing Tang, Anders Michelsen, Riikka Rinnan
Monoterpenes emitted from plants have an important role in atmospheric chemistry through changing atmospheric oxidative capacity, forming new particles and secondary organic aerosols. The emission rates and patterns can be affected by changing climate. In this study, emission responses to six years of climatic manipulations (elevated CO2, extended summer drought and night-time warming) were investigated in a temperate semi-natural heath ecosystem. Samples for monoterpene analysis were collected in seven campaigns during an entire growing season (April-November, 2011)...
December 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Isaac R Santos, Chenming Zhang, Damien T Maher, Marnie L Atkins, Rodney Holland, Uwe Morgenstern, Ling Li
Assessing recharge is critical to understanding groundwater and preventing pollution. Here, we investigate recharge in an Australian coastal aquifer using a combination of physical, modelling and geochemical techniques. We assess whether recharge may occur through a pervasive layer of floodplain muds that was initially hypothesized to be impermeable. At least 59% of the precipitation volume could be accounted for in the shallow aquifer using the water table fluctuation method during four significant recharge events...
December 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Antonino Pisciotta, Livia Tutone, Filippo Saiano
The knowledge of a chemistry relationship between the soil and the agricultural products is an important tool for the quality assessment of food. We studied YLOID (Y, La and lanthanoids), recognized as very useful tracers due their coherent and predictable behavior, to trace and evaluate their distribution from soil to the grape in Vitis vinifera L. Because much of the world's viticulture is based on grafting, and rootstocks have proved affect vine growth, yield, fruit and wine quality, we carried out experimental trials to analyse the YLOID distribution of two different red cultivars, grafted onto six different rootstocks, on the same soil...
April 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Miaoyue Zhang, Scott A Bradford, Jirka Šimůnek, Harry Vereecken, Erwin Klumpp
Saturated soil column experiments were conducted to investigate the transport, retention, and release behavior of a low concentration (1 mg L(-1)) of functionalized (14)C-labeled multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in a natural soil under various solution chemistries. Breakthrough curves (BTCs) for MWCNTS exhibited greater amounts of retardation and retention with increasing solution ionic strength (IS) or in the presence of Ca(2+) in comparison to K(+), and retention profiles (RPs) for MWCNTs were hyper-exponential in shape...
February 1, 2017: Water Research
Yann Landkocz, Frédéric Ledoux, Véronique André, Fabrice Cazier, Paul Genevray, Dorothée Dewaele, Perrine J Martin, Capucine Lepers, Anthony Verdin, Lucie Courcot, Saâd Boushina, François Sichel, Maurizio Gualtieri, Pirouz Shirali, Dominique Courcot, Sylvain Billet
Particulate Matter (PM) air pollution is one of the major concerns for environment and health. Understanding the heterogeneity and complexity of fine and ultrafine PM is a fundamental issue notably for the assessment of PM toxicological effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of a multi-influenced urban site PM, with or without the ultrafine fraction. For this purpose, PM2.5-0.3 (PM with aerodynamic diameter ranging from 0.3 to 2.5 μm) and PM2.5 were collected in Dunkerque, a French coastal industrial city and were extensively characterized for their physico-chemical properties, including inorganic and organic species...
February 2017: Environmental Pollution
Mathew C Halter, James A Zahn
White biotechnology has made a positive impact on the chemical industry by providing safer, more efficient chemical manufacturing processes that have reduced the use of toxic chemicals, harsh reaction conditions, and expensive metal catalysts, which has improved alignment with the principles of Green Chemistry. The genetically-modified (GM) biocatalysts that are utilized in these processes are typically separated from high-value products and then recycled, or eliminated. Elimination routes include disposal in sanitary landfills, incineration, use as a fuel, animal feed, or reuse as an agricultural soil amendment or other value-added products...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Nour Alhusein, Jenny Scott, Barbara Kasprzyk-Hordern, Albert Bolhuis
BACKGROUND: In heroin injectors, there have been a number of outbreaks caused by spore-forming bacteria, causing serious infections such as anthrax or botulism. These are, most likely, caused by injecting contaminated heroin, and our aim was to develop a filter that efficiently removes these bacteria and is also likely to be acceptable for use by people who inject drugs (i.e. quick, simple and not spoil the hit). METHODS: A prototype filter was designed and different filter membranes were tested to assess the volume of liquid retained, filtration time and efficiency of the filter at removing bacterial spores...
December 1, 2016: Harm Reduction Journal
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