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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438425/mobile-laboratories-an-innovative-and-efficient-solution-for-radiological-characterization-of-sites-under-or-after-decommissioning
#1
V Goudeau, B Daniel, D Dubot
During the operation and the decommissioning of a nuclear site the operator must assure the protection of the workers and the environment. It must furthermore identify and classify the various wastes, while optimizing the associated costs. At all stages of the decommissioning radiological measurements are performed to determine the initial situation, to monitor the demolition and clean-up, and to verify the final situation. Radiochemical analysis is crucial for the radiological evaluation process to optimize the clean-up operations and to the respect limits defined with the authorities...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421326/nutrient-enrichment-in-water-more-than-in-leaves-affects-aquatic-microbial-litter-processing
#2
Cristiane Biasi, Manuel A S Graça, Sandro Santos, Verónica Ferreira
Nutrient enrichment of soils and water will intensify in the future and has the potential to alter fundamental ecosystem processes, such as litter decomposition. We tested the direct (via water nutrient enrichment) and indirect (via changes in leaf chemistry) effects of nutrient enrichment on microbial activity and decomposability of Quercus robur L. (oak) leaves in laboratory microcosms simulating streams. Senescent leaves of oak trees grown without and with fertilization were incubated under ambient and elevated water nutrient [nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P)] concentrations for 60 days...
April 18, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405280/multiple-environmental-changes-drive-forest-floor-vegetation-in-a-temperate-mountain-forest
#3
Norbert Helm, Franz Essl, Michael Mirtl, Thomas Dirnböck
Human-induced changes of the environment and their possible impacts on temperate forest understory plant communities have been examined in many studies. However, the relative contribution of individual environmental factors to these changes in the herb layer is still unclear. In this study, we used vegetation survey data covering a time period of 21 years and collected from 143 permanent plots in the Northern Limestone Alps, Austria. Data on soil chemistry (49 plots), light condition (51 plots), soil temperature and moisture (four and six plots), disturbance (all plots), climate (one station in a clearing area), and airborne sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) deposition (two forest stands) were available for analyses...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391688/total-as-and-as-speciation-in-italian-rice-as-related-to-producing-areas-and-paddy-soils-properties
#4
Daniele Tenni, Maria Martin, Elisabetta Barberis, Gian Maria Beone, Eleonora Miniotti, Marcella Sodano, Elena Zanzo, Maria Chiara Fontanella, Marco Romani
Rice and rice-based foodstuffs are important pathways for inorganic As dietary intake. This work shows a detailed picture of As content and speciation in Italian rice, which contributes to more than one half of European production, and addresses the role of soil chemistry and agronomic management on As concentration in rice grain, in view of ameliorative strategies. The mean total As content in Italian white rice was 155±65 µg kg-1 with significant differences among producing areas, while the mean inorganic As was 102±26 µg kg-1, largely below the E...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390704/development-of-electrostatic-based-bioavailability-models-for-interpreting-and-predicting-differential-phytotoxicity-and-uptake-of-metal-mixtures-across-different-soils
#5
Hao Qiu, Erkai He
Metals are ubiquitous and normally co-occur as mixtures in soil, but there remains much to do regarding the development of appropriate models which incorporate mixture interactions and bioavailability to estimate their phytotoxicity and phytoaccumulation. Here, we developed a probability-based electrostatic toxicity model (ETM) and a Langmuir-type electrostatic uptake model (EUM) to predict and normalize toxicity and uptake of zinc-copper mixtures in Hordeum vulgare L. in different soils. For model development, the electrical potential (ψ0) and metal ion activities ({M(2+)}0) at the cell-membrane surface was computed based on plant physiological properties and soil solution chemistry...
April 5, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389728/leaf-litter-chemistry-drives-the-structure-and-composition-of-soil-testate-amoeba-communities-in-a-tropical-montane-rainforest-of-the-ecuadorian-andes
#6
Valentyna Krashevska, Dorothee Sandmann, Franca Marian, Mark Maraun, Stefan Scheu
We investigated the role of leaf litter chemistry and richness in affecting testate amoeba communities of tropical rainforest in the Ecuadorian Andes. Litterbags containing leaf litter from four dominating tree species (Clusia sp., Myrcia pubescens, Graffenrieda emarginata, and Cecropia andina) with richness 1, 2, and 4 species were established and exposed in the field for 12 months at 2000 m a.s.l. Chemical elements and compounds of leaf litter were analyzed before exposure. At the end of exposure, microbial biomass and litter mass loss were measured, and living testate amoeba species number, density, biomass, and community composition were determined...
April 7, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381633/simulating-carbon-capture-by-enhanced-weathering-with-croplands-an-overview-of-key-processes-highlighting-areas-of-future-model-development
#7
REVIEW
Lyla L Taylor, David J Beerling, Shaun Quegan, Steven A Banwart
Enhanced weathering (EW) aims to amplify a natural sink for CO2 by incorporating powdered silicate rock with high reactive surface area into agricultural soils. The goal is to achieve rapid dissolution of minerals and release of alkalinity with accompanying dissolution of CO2 into soils and drainage waters. EW could counteract phosphorus limitation and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in tropical soils, and soil acidification, a common agricultural problem studied with numerical process models over several decades...
April 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375902/ergothioneine-antioxidant-function-from-chemistry-to-cardiovascular-therapeutic-potential
#8
Luigi Servillo, Nunzia DʼOnofrio, Maria Luisa Balestrieri
Ergothioneine (ESH), the betaine of 2-mercapto-L-histidine, is a water-soluble naturally occurring amino acid with antioxidant properties. ESH accumulates in several human and animal tissues up to millimolar concentration through its high affinity transporter, namely the organic cation transporter 1 (OCTN1). ESH, first isolated from the ergot fungus (Claviceps purpurea), is synthesized only by Actinomycetales and non-yeast-like fungi. Plants absorb ESH via symbiotic associations between their roots and soil fungi, whereas mammals acquire it solely from dietary sources...
April 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371930/in-planta-genotoxicity-of-nzvi-influence-of-colloidal-stability-on-uptake-dna-damage-oxidative-stress-and-cell-death
#9
Ilika Ghosh, Amitava Mukherjee, Anita Mukherjee
Nanoremediation of soil, ground and surface water using nanoscale zerovalent iron particles (nZVI) has facilitated their direct environmental exposure posing ecotoxicological concerns. Numerous studies elucidate their phytotoxicity in terms of growth and their fate within the plant system. However, their potential genotoxicity and cytotoxicity mechanisms are not known in plants. This study encompasses the physico-chemical characterisation of two forms of nZVI (nZVI-1 and nZVI-2) with different surface chemistries and their influence on uptake, root morphology, DNA damage, oxidative stress and cell death in Allium cepa roots after 24 h...
March 24, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371710/redox-chemistry-of-nickel-in-soils-and-sediments-a-review
#10
Jörg Rinklebe, Sabry M Shaheen
Knowledge on the redox geochemistry of Ni is behind in comparison to other heavy metals. Hence, this article reviews the direct and indirect impact of redox potential (EH) on mobilization and release dynamics of Ni in soils and sediments across the world. Nickel can show a different behavior in response to EH. Mobilization of Ni increased at low EH in various soils; however, oxic conditions can lead to an increased mobilization of Ni in other soils. Those differences occur because the mobilization of Ni is often indirectly affected by EH, e...
July 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342414/impacts-of-soil-incorporation-of-pre-incubated-silica-rich-rice-residue-on-soil-biogeochemistry-and-greenhouse-gas-fluxes-under-flooding-and-drying
#11
Madison Y Gutekunst, Rodrigo Vargas, Angelia L Seyfferth
Incorporation of silica-rich rice husk residue into flooded paddy soil decreases arsenic uptake by rice. However, the impact of this practice on soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and elemental cycling is unresolved particularly as amended soils experience recurrent flooding and drying cycles. We evaluated the impact of pre-incubated silica-rich rice residue incorporation to soils on pore water chemistry and soil GHG fluxes (i.e., CO2, CH4, N2O) over a flooding and drying cycle typical of flooded rice cultivation...
March 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326088/temperature-effects-on-biomass-and-regeneration-of-vegetation-in-a-geothermal-area
#12
Abdul Nishar, Martin K-F Bader, Eoin J O'Gorman, Jieyu Deng, Barbara Breen, Sebastian Leuzinger
Understanding the effects of increasing temperature is central in explaining the effects of climate change on vegetation. Here, we investigate how warming affects vegetation regeneration and root biomass and if there is an interactive effect of warming with other environmental variables. We also examine if geothermal warming effects on vegetation regeneration and root biomass can be used in climate change experiments. Monitoring plots were arranged in a grid across the study area to cover a range of soil temperatures...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319738/mobility-and-phytoavailability-of-as-and-pb-in-a-contaminated-soil-using-pine-sawdust-biochar-under-systematic-change-of-redox-conditions
#13
Jingzi Beiyuan, Yasser M Awad, Felix Beckers, Daniel C W Tsang, Yong Sik Ok, Jörg Rinklebe
Biochar has been adopted to control the mobility and phytoavailability of trace elements (TEs) in soils. To date, no attempt has been made to determine the mobility and phytoavailability of arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) in a contaminated soil with biochars as amendments under predefined redox potentials (EH). Thus, in this study, a soil contaminated with As and Pb (2047 and 1677 mg kg(-1), respectively) was pre-incubated for 105 days with three amendments (pine sawdust biomass (BM) and two biochars produced from the same feedstock at 300 °C (BC300) and 550 °C (BC550))...
March 8, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317257/top-down-control-of-carbon-sequestration-grazing-affects-microbial-structure-and-function-in-salt-marsh-soils
#14
Peter Mueller, Dirk Granse, Stefanie Nolte, Hai Thi Do, Magdalena Weingartner, Stefan Hoth, Kai Jensen
Tidal wetlands have been increasingly recognized as long-term carbon sinks in recent years. Work on carbon sequestration and decomposition processes in tidal wetlands focused so far mainly on effects of global-change factors such as sea-level rise and increasing temperatures. However, little is known about effects of land use, such as livestock grazing, on organic matter decomposition and ultimately carbon sequestration. The present work aims at understanding the mechanisms by which large herbivores can affect organic matter decomposition in tidal wetlands...
March 20, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314133/effect-of-wheat-maize-straw-return-on-the-fate-of-nitrate-in-groundwater-in-the-huaihe-river-basin-china
#15
Rongfu Li, Xiaohong Ruan, Ying Bai, Tianhai Ma, Congqiang Liu
Straw return is becoming a routine practice in disposing of crop residues worldwide. However, the potential effect of such operation on the chemistry of local groundwater is not well documented. Here, shallow groundwater in an area where wheat-maize straw return is practiced was analyzed, and the seasonal changes in the nitrate concentration and the isotope compositions of NO3(-) and H2O were determined along two flow paths. Measured δD and δ(18)O in waters indicated that the groundwater was mainly recharged by atmospheric precipitation, while measured δ(15)N and δ(18)O in nitrate suggested that the sources for groundwater NO3(-) included urea fertilizer, soil nitrogen, and sewage/manure...
March 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303526/a-herbivore-tag-and-trace-system-reveals-contact-and-density-dependent-repellence-of-a-root-toxin
#16
Zoe Bont, Carla Arce, Meret Huber, Wei Huang, Adrien Mestrot, Craig J Sturrock, Matthias Erb
Foraging behavior of root feeding organisms strongly affects plant-environment-interactions and ecosystem processes. However, the impact of plant chemistry on root herbivore movement in the soil is poorly understood. Here, we apply a simple technique to trace the movement of soil-dwelling insects in their habitats without disturbing or restricting their interactions with host plants. We tagged the root feeding larvae of Melolontha melolontha with a copper ring and repeatedly located their position in relation to their preferred host plant, Taraxacum officinale, using a commercial metal detector...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293829/plant-growth-in-amended-molybdenum-mine-waste-rock
#17
Owen T Burney, Edward F Redente, Charles E Lambert
This greenhouse study examined the use of organic and inorganic soil amendments in waste rock material from the former Questa Molybdenum Mine in northern New Mexico to promote beneficial soil properties. Waste rock material was amended with 11 soil amendment treatments that included municipal composted biosolids, Biosol®, inorganic fertilizer, and two controls (pure waste rock and sand). Elymus trachycaulus and Robinia neomexicana growth performance and plant chemistry were assessed across all treatments over a period of 99 and 141 days, respectively...
March 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284113/impacts-of-one-century-of-wastewater-discharge-on-soil-transformation-through-ferrolysis-and-related-metal-pollutant-distributions
#18
Folkert van Oort, Médard Thiry, Eddy Foy, Kenji Fujisaki, Ghislaine Delarue, Romain Dairon, Toine Jongmans
Discharge of wastewater leading to notable soil surface contamination is widely reported. But few works highlight the fast dynamics of soils and their morphological transformations that may result from such anthropogenic activities. Near Paris (France), sandy Luvisols were irrigated with urban wastewater since the 1890s. Within and outside the discharge area, the soil cover presents decameter-sized cryogenic structures. We studied macro morphological soil characteristics, soil chemistry and clay mineralogy on selected bulk samples, as well as contemporary pedofeatures and related metal pollutant distribution patterns in soil thin sections from subsurface horizons...
March 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265835/heavy-metal-concentrations-in-soils-and-vegetation-in-urban-areas-of-quezon-city-philippines
#19
Ian A Navarrete, Christella C Gabiana, Joan Ruby E Dumo, Severino G Salmo, Maria Aileen Leah G Guzman, Nestor S Valera, Emilyn Q Espiritu
Limited data have been published on the chemistry of urban soils and vegetation in the Philippines. The aim of this study is to quantify the concentrations of heavy metals (i.e., Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb) in soils and vegetation in the urban landscape of Quezon City, Philippines, and to elucidate the relationships between soil properties and the concentration of heavy metals pertaining to different land uses [i.e., protected forest (LM), park and wildlife area (PA), landfill (PL), urban poor residential and industrial areas (RA), and commercial areas (CA)]...
April 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258752/long-term-stabilization-of-crop-residues-and-soil-organic-carbon-affected-by-residue-quality-and-initial-soil-ph
#20
Xiaojuan Wang, Clayton R Butterly, Jeff A Baldock, Caixian Tang
Residues differing in quality and carbon (C) chemistry are presumed to contribute differently to soil pH change and long-term soil organic carbon (SOC) pools. This study examined the liming effect of different crop residues (canola, chickpea and wheat) down the soil profile (0-30cm) in two sandy soils differing in initial pH as well as the long-term stability of SOC at the amended layer (0-10cm) using mid-infrared (MIR) and solid-state (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. A field column experiment was conducted for 48months...
February 28, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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