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Soil chemistry

Afshin Pourmokhtarian, Charles T Driscoll, John L Campbell, Katharine Hayhoe, Anne M K Stoner
Assessments of future climate change impacts on ecosystems typically rely on multiple climate model projections, but often utilize only one downscaling approach trained on one set of observations. Here, we explore the extent to which modeled biogeochemical responses to changing climate are affected by the selection of the climate downscaling method and training observations used at the montane landscape of the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire, USA. We evaluated three downscaling methods: the delta method (or the change factor method), monthly quantile mapping (Bias Correction-Spatial Disaggregation, or BCSD), and daily quantile regression (Asynchronous Regional Regression Model, or ARRM)...
July 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Inge Werner, Annette Aldrich, Benjamin Becker, Dennis Becker, Markus Brinkmann, Michael Burkhardt, Norbert Caspers, Sophie Campiche, Nathalie Chèvre, Rolf-Alexander Düring, Beate I Escher, Fabian Fischer, Sabrina Giebner, Katharina Heye, Henner Hollert, Marion Junghans, Cornelia Kienle, Katja Knauer, Muris Korkaric, Veronika Märkl, Jane Muncke, Jörg Oehlmann, Georg Reifferscheid, Daniel Rensch, Andreas Schäffer, Sabrina Schiwy, Simon Schwarz, Helmut Segner, Eszter Simon, Rita Triebskorn, Etiënne L M Vermeirssen, Thomas Wintgens, Markus Zennegg
This report provides a brief review of the 20th annual meeting of the German Language Branch of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC GLB) held from September 7th to 10th 2015 at ETH (Swiss Technical University) in Zurich, Switzerland. The event was chaired by Inge Werner, Director of the Swiss Centre for Applied Ecotoxicology (Ecotox Centre) Eawag-EPFL, and organized by a team from Ecotox Centre, Eawag, Federal Office of the Environment, Federal Office of Agriculture, and Mesocosm GmbH (Germany)...
2016: Environmental Sciences Europe
John F Obrycki, Kirk G Scheckel, Nicholas T Basta
Lead (Pb) contaminated soils are a potential exposure hazard to the public. Amending soils with phosphorus (P) may reduce Pb soil hazards. Soil from Cleveland, OH containing 726 ± 14 mg Pb kg(-1) was amended in a laboratory study with bone meal and triple super phosphate (TSP) at 5:1 P:Pb molar ratios. Soil was acidified, neturalized and re-acidified to encourage Pb phosphate formation. PRSTM-probes were used to evaluate changes in soil solution chemistry. Soil acidification did not decrease in vitro bioaccessible (IVBA) Pb using either a pH 1...
October 14, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Jennifer Herrmann, Tadeja Lukežič, Angela Kling, Sascha Baumann, Stephan Hüttel, Hrvoje Petković, Rolf Müller
Natural products continue to be a predominant source for new anti-infective agents. Research at the Helmholtz Institute for Pharmaceutical Research Saarland (HIPS) and the Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research (HZI) is dedicated to the development of new lead structures against infectious diseases and, in particular, new antibiotics against hard-to-treat and multidrug-resistant bacterial pathogens. In this chapter, we introduce some of the concepts currently being employed in the field of antibiotic discovery...
October 15, 2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Yingna Xing, Xijuan Chen, Xin Chen, Jie Zhuang
Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) enter soils through reclaimed water irrigation and biosolid land applications. Colloids, such as clays, that are present in soil may interact with PPCPs and thus affect their fate and transport in the subsurface environment. This study addresses the influence of soil colloids on the sorption and transport behaviors of PPCPs through laboratory column experiments. Results show that the affinities of PPCPs for colloids vary with their molecular chemistry and solution ionic strength...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
Hong Wang, Yuanfang Huang, Chongyang Shen, Junxue Wu, An Yan, Hongyan Zhang
The role of biochar as a soil amendment on the transport of acetamiprid, a widely used neonicotinoid pesticide, is little known. We conducted saturated column experiments to examine cotransport of acetamiprid and silica nanoparticles (NPs) in pure and biochar-amended sands. Retention of acetamiprid was minor in the pure sand, whereas application of biochar in the sand significantly increased retention. Retention was greater at lower ionic strengths and near neutral pH values and was attributed to biodegradation and sorption through π-π interaction and pore filling...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
William Deasy, Tom Shepherd, Colin J Alexander, A Nicholas E Birch, K Andrew Evans
INTRODUCTION: Research on plant root chemical ecology has benefited greatly from recent developments in analytical chemistry. Numerous reports document techniques for sampling root volatiles, although only a limited number describe in situ collection. OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate a new method for non-invasive in situ passive sampling using solid phase micro extraction (SPME), from the immediate vicinity of growing roots. METHODS: SPME fibres inserted into polyfluorotetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) sampling tubes located in situ which were either perforated, covered with stainless steel mesh or with microporous PTFE tubing, were used for non-invasive sub-surface sampling of root volatiles from glasshouse-grown broccoli...
November 2016: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
Stephen Cioccio, Yamini Gopalapillai, Tereza Dan, Beverley Hale
Remediation of soils elevated in trace metals so that they may provide ecosystems services is typically achieved through pH adjustment or addition of sorbents. The present study aimed to generate higher-tier in situ toxicity data for elevated Ni in soils with and without lime addition, and explore the effect of liming on soil chemistry and bioavailability of Ni to plants. A multi-year study of agronomic yield of field-grown oat and soybean occurred in three adjacent fields that had received air emissions from a Ni refinery for 66 years...
September 29, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Gregory J Pec, Justine Karst, D Lee Taylor, Paul W Cigan, Nadir Erbilgin, Janice E K Cooke, Suzanne W Simard, James F Cahill
Western North American landscapes are rapidly being transformed by forest die-off caused by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), with implications for plant and soil communities. The mechanisms that drive changes in soil community structure, particularly for the highly prevalent ectomycorrhizal fungi in pine forests, are complex and intertwined. Critical to enhancing understanding will be disentangling the relative importance of host tree mortality from changes in soil chemistry following tree death...
September 23, 2016: New Phytologist
Thanavit Jirapanjawat, Blair Ney, Matthew C Taylor, Andrew C Warden, Shahana Afroze, Robyn J Russell, Brendon M Lee, Colin J Jackson, John G Oakeshott, Gunjan Pandey, Chris Greening
: A defining feature of mycobacterial redox metabolism is the use of an unusual deazaflavin cofactor, F420 This cofactor enhances the persistence of environmental and pathogenic mycobacteria, including following antimicrobial treatment, though the molecular basis for this remains to be understood. In this work, we explored our hypothesis that F420 enhances persistence by serving as a cofactor in antimicrobial-detoxifying enzymes. To test this, we performed a series of phenotypic, biochemical, and analytical chemistry studies in relation to the model soil bacterium Mycobacterium smegmatis Mutant strains unable to synthesize or reduce F420 were found to be more susceptible to a wide range of antibiotic and xenobiotic compounds...
September 16, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
D M Schwertfeger, Jessica R Velicogna, Alexander H Jesmer, Richard P Scroggins, Juliska I Princz
There is an increasing interest to use single particle-inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (SP-ICPMS) to help quantify exposure to engineered nanoparticles, and their transformation products, released into the environment. Hindering the use of this analytical technique for environmental samples is the presence of high levels of dissolved analyte which impedes resolution of the particle signal from the dissolved. While sample dilution is often necessary to achieve the low analyte concentrations necessary for SP-ICPMS analysis, and to reduce the occurrence of matrix effects on the analyte signal, it is used here to also reduce the dissolved signal relative to the particulate, while maintaining a matrix chemistry that promotes particle stability...
October 18, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
K A Kamilli, J Ofner, T Krause, T Sattler, P Schmitt-Kopplin, E Eitenberger, G Friedbacher, B Lendl, H Lohninger, H F Schöler, A Held
New particle formation was studied above salt lakes in-situ using a mobile aerosol chamber set up above the salt crust and organic-enriched layers of seven different salt lakes in Western Australia. This unique setup made it possible to explore the influence of salt lake emissions on atmospheric new particle formation, and to identify interactions of aqueous-phase and gas-phase chemistry. New particle formation was typically observed at enhanced air temperatures and enhanced solar irradiance. Volatile organic compounds were released from the salt lake surfaces, probably from a soil layer enriched in organic compounds from decomposed leaf litter, and accumulated in the chamber air...
September 3, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
João P Vareda, Artur J M Valente, Luisa Durães
Heavy metals are dangerous pollutants that in spite of occurring naturally are released in major amounts to the environment due to anthropogenic activities. After being released in the environment, the heavy metals end up in the soils where they accumulate as they do not degrade, adversely affecting the biota. Because of the dynamic equilibria between soil constituents, the heavy metals may be present in different phases such as the solid phase (immobilized contaminants) or dissolved in soil solution. The latter form is the most dangerous because the ions are mobile, can leach and be absorbed by living organisms...
August 21, 2016: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
John K Senior, Brad M Potts, Noel W Davies, Rachel C Wooliver, Jennifer A Schweitzer, Joseph K Bailey, Julianne M O'Reilly-Wapstra
Plants are dependent on their root systems for survival, and thus are defended from belowground enemies by a range of strategies, including plant secondary metabolites (PSMs). These compounds vary among species, and an understanding of this variation may provide generality in predicting the susceptibility of forest trees to belowground enemies and the quality of their organic matter input to soil. Here, we investigated phylogenetic patterns in the root chemistry of species within the genus Eucalyptus. Given the known diversity of PSMs in eucalypt foliage, we hypothesized that (i) the range and concentrations of PSMs and carbohydrates in roots vary among Eucalyptus species, and (ii) that phylogenetic relationships explain a significant component of this variation...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Sandeep K Malyan, Arti Bhatia, Amit Kumar, Dipak Kumar Gupta, Renu Singh, Smita S Kumar, Ritu Tomer, Om Kumar, Niveta Jain
Methane is one of the critical greenhouse gases, which absorb long wavelength radiation, affects the chemistry of atmosphere and contributes to global climate change. Rice ecosystem is one of the major anthropogenic sources of methane. The anaerobic waterlogged soil in rice field provides an ideal environment to methanogens for methanogenesis. However, the rate of methanogenesis differs according to rice cultivation regions due to a number of biological, environmental and physical factors like carbon sources, pH, Eh, temperature etc...
August 26, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Emil Cienciala, Radek Russ, Hana Šantrůčková, Jan Altman, Jiří Kopáček, Iva Hůnová, Petr Štěpánek, Filip Oulehle, Jan Tumajer, Göran Ståhl
We examined the effect of individual environmental factors on the current spruce tree growth assessed from a repeated country-level statistical landscape (incl. forest) survey in the Czech Republic. An extensive set of variables related to tree size, competition, site characteristics including soil texture, chemistry, N deposition and climate was tested within a random-effect model to explain growth in the conditions of dominantly managed forest ecosystems. The current spruce basal area increment was assessed from two consecutive landscape surveys conducted in 2008/2009 and six years later in 2014/2015...
August 27, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Shuwei Liu, Feng Lin, Shuang Wu, Ji Cheng, Yi Sun, Yaguo Jin, Shuqing Li, Zhaofu Li, Jianwen Zou
Soils are among the important sources of atmospheric nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N2 O), acting as a critical role in atmospheric chemistry. Updated data derived from 114 peer-reviewed publications with 520 field measurements were synthesized using meta-analysis procedure to examine the N fertilizer-induced soil NO and the combined with N2 O (NO+N2 O) emissions across global soils. Besides factors identified in earlier reviews, additional factors responsible for NO fluxes were fertilizer type, soil C/N ratio, crop residue incorporation, tillage, atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, drought and biomass burning...
August 29, 2016: Global Change Biology
Sarah Hagel Svendsen, Frida Lindwall, Anders Michelsen, Riikka Rinnan
Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from terrestrial ecosystems are important for the atmospheric chemistry and the formation of secondary organic aerosols, and may therefore influence the climate. Global warming is predicted to change patterns in precipitation and plant species compositions, especially in arctic regions where the temperature increase will be most pronounced. These changes are potentially highly important for the BVOC emissions but studies investigating the effects are lacking...
August 20, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Hans Fredrik Veiteberg Braaten, Heleen A de Wit
Mercury (Hg) concentrations in freshwater fish relates to aquatic Hg concentrations, which largely derives from soil stores of accumulated atmospheric deposition. Hg in catchment soils as a source for aquatic Hg is poorly studied. Here we test if i) peatland soils produce more methylmercury (MeHg) than forest soils; ii) total Hg (THg) concentrations in top soils are determined by atmospheric inputs, while MeHg is produced in the soils; and iii) soil disturbance promotes MeHg production. In two small boreal catchments, previously used in a paired-catchment forest harvest manipulation study, forest soils and peatlands were sampled and analysed for Hg species and additional soil chemistry...
November 2016: Environmental Pollution
Ke Liu, Jialong Lv, Yunchao Dai, Hong Zhang, Yingfei Cao
The transfer of Pb from the soil to crops is a serious food hygiene security problem in China because of industrial, agricultural, and historical contamination. In this study, the characteristics of exogenous Pb transfer from 17 Chinese soils to a popular wheat variety (Xiaoyan 22) were investigated. In addition, bioaccumulation prediction models of Pb in grain were obtained based on soil properties. The results of the analysis showed that pH and OC were the most important factors contributing to Pb uptake by wheat grain...
2016: PloS One
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