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Soil chemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053738/neotropical-peatland-methane-emissions-along-a-vegetation-and-biogeochemical-gradient
#1
R Scott Winton, Neal Flanagan, Curtis J Richardson
Tropical wetlands are thought to be the most important source of interannual variability in atmospheric methane (CH4) concentrations, yet sparse data prevents them from being incorporated into Earth system models. This problem is particularly pronounced in the neotropics where bottom-up models based on water table depth are incongruent with top-down inversion models suggesting unaccounted sinks or sources of CH4. The newly documented vast areas of peatlands in the Amazon basin may account for an important unrecognized CH4 source, but the hydrologic and biogeochemical controls of CH4 dynamics from these systems remain poorly understood...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053267/uptake-kinetics-and-trophic-transfer-of-tungsten-from-cabbage-to-a-herbivorous-animal-model
#2
James H Lindsay, Alan J Kennedy, Jennifer M Seiter-Moser, Anthony J Bednar, Robert E Boyd, David R Johnson, Paul Allison, Ryan V Tappero
This investigation builds on previous studies on military relevant tungsten (W) to more thoroughly explore environmental pathways, bioaccumulation kinetics during direct soil exposure versus trophic transfer and elucidate its relative accumulation and speciation in different snail organs. The modeled steady state concentration and bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of W from soil into cabbage were 302 mg/kg and 0.55, respectively. Steady state concentrations (34 mg/kg) and BAF values (0.05) obtained for the snail directly exposed to contaminated soil were lower than trophic transfer by consumption of W-contaminated cabbage (tissue concentration of 86 mg/kg; BAF of 0...
October 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048038/fluorescence-lifetime-evaluation-of-whole-soils-from-the-amazon-rainforest
#3
Gustavo Nicolodelli, Amanda Maria Tadini, Marcelo Saito Nogueira, Sebastião Pratavieira, Stephane Mounier, Jose Luis Clabel Huaman, Cléber Hilário Dos Santos, Célia Regina Montes, Débora Marcondes Bastos Pereira Milori
Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) is a new tool that can be used to investigate processes of interaction between metal ions and organic matter (OM) in soils, providing a specific analysis of the structure and dynamics of macromolecules. To the best of our knowledge, there are no studies in the literature reporting the use of this technique applied to whole/non-fractionated soil samples, making it a potential method for use in future studies. This work describes the use of TRFS to evaluate the fluorescence lifetimes of OM of whole soils from the Amazon region...
August 20, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029900/teixobactin-as-a-scaffold-for-unlimited-new-antimicrobial-peptides-sar-study
#4
Shimaa A H Abdel Monaim, Yahya E Jad, Ayman El-Faham, Beatriz G de la Torre, Fernando Albericio
It looks that a new era of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) started with the discovery of teixobactin, which is a "head to side-chain" cyclodepsipeptide. It was isolated from a soil gram-negative b-proteobacteria by means of a revolutionary technique. Since there, several groups have developed synthetic strategies for efficient synthesis of this peptide and its analogues as well. Herein, all chemistries reported as well as the biological activity of the analogues are analyzed. Finally, some inputs regarding new trends for the next generation of analogues are discussed...
September 30, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023560/effects-of-fire-frequency-on-litter-decomposition-as-mediated-by-changes-to-litter-chemistry-and-soil-environmental-conditions
#5
Cari D Ficken, Justin P Wright
Litter quality and soil environmental conditions are well-studied drivers influencing decomposition rates, but the role played by disturbance legacy, such as fire history, in mediating these drivers is not well understood. Fire history may impact decomposition directly, through changes in soil conditions that impact microbial function, or indirectly, through shifts in plant community composition and litter chemistry. Here, we compared early-stage decomposition rates across longleaf pine forest blocks managed with varying fire frequencies (annual burns, triennial burns, fire-suppression)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017126/short-term-facilitation-of-microbial-litter-decomposition-by-ultraviolet-radiation
#6
Yang Lin, Steven D Karlen, John Ralph, Jennifer Y King
Solar radiation plays an important role in carbon cycling by increasing the decomposition rates of plant litter and soil organic matter (i.e. photodegradation). Previous work suggests that exposure to radiation can facilitate microbial decomposition of litter by altering litter chemistry and consequently litter degradability (i.e. photopriming). However, it remains unclear to what extent photopriming contributes to litter decomposition processes and on what timescale photopriming operates. We conducted laboratory experiments to compare the effects of UV photopriming at two temporal scales (months versus days)...
October 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986956/decoupling-the-direct-and-indirect-effects-of-climate-on-plant-litter-decomposition-and-terrestrial-nutrient-cycling
#7
Vidya Suseela, Nishanth Tharayil
Decomposition of plant litter is a fundamental ecosystem process that can act as a feedback to climate change by simultaneously influencing both the productivity of ecosystems and the flux of carbon dioxide from the soil. The influence of climate on decomposition from a post-senescence perspective is relatively well known; in particular, climate is known to regulate the rate of litter decomposition via its direct influence on the reaction kinetics and microbial physiology on processes downstream of tissue senescence...
October 7, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966625/biochar-as-plant-growth-promoter-better-off-alone-or-mixed-with-organic-amendments
#8
Giuliano Bonanomi, Francesca Ippolito, Gaspare Cesarano, Bruno Nanni, Nadia Lombardi, Angelo Rita, Antonio Saracino, Felice Scala
Biochar is nowadays largely used as a soil amendment and is commercialized worldwide. However, in temperate agro-ecosystems the beneficial effect of biochar on crop productivity is limited, with several studies reporting negative crop responses. In this work, we studied the effect of 10 biochar and 9 not pyrogenic organic amendments (NPOA), using pure and in all possible combinations on lettuce growth (Lactuca sativa). Organic materials were characterized by (13)C-CPMAS NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis (pH, EC, C, N, C/N and H/C ratios)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965179/chemical-characteristics-and-source-analysis-on-ionic-composition-of-rainwater-collected-in-the-carpathians-cold-pole-ciuc-basin-eastern-carpathians-romania
#9
Róbert Szép, Elena Mateescu, Aurelia Cristina Nechifor, Ágnes Keresztesi
A study of precipitation chemistry was conducted for 11 years (01 January 2006-31 December 2016) in the Ciuc basin, Eastern Carpathians, Romania. The studied area is an enclosed basin, also called "the Carpathians cold pole." All collected samples were analyzed for major cations and anions. HCO3(-) concentrations were calculated based on the empirical relationship between pH and HCO3(-). The multiannual arithmetic mean of pH values was found to be 6.57. The lowest and highest pH values were measured in 2009 and 2013, being 6...
October 1, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959621/health-effects-following-subacute-exposure-to-geogenic-dust-collected-from-active-drainage-surfaces-nellis-dunes-recreation-area-las-vegas-nv
#10
Jamie C DeWitt, Brenda J Buck, Dirk Goossens, Yuanxin Teng, James Pollard, Brett T McLaurin, Russell Gerads, Deborah E Keil
The specific health effects of direct inhalation of fine minerogenic dusts generated by natural soil surfaces remain poorly known and relatively little researched. To learn more about this exposure and its contribution to human health effects, we surveyed surface sediment and characterized dust from the Nellis Dunes Recreation Area (NDRA) in Clark County, Nevada, a popular off-road vehicle (ORV) recreational site. Dry drainage systems at NDRA are commonly used as natural trail systems for ORV recreation; these surfaces also are characterized by high concentrations of heavy metals...
2017: Toxicology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950666/comparison-of-hydrochemistry-and-organic-compound-transport-in-two-non-glaciated-high-arctic-catchments-with-a-permafrost-regime-bellsund-fjord-spitsbergen
#11
Sara Lehmann-Konera, Łukasz Franczak, Waldemar Kociuba, Danuta Szumińska, Stanisław Chmiel, Żaneta Polkowska
An increase in air temperature related to climate change results in the retreat of glaciers, the degradation of permafrost, and the expansion of glacier-free areas in the polar regions. All these processes lead to changes in the Arctic landscape. They influence the hydrochemistry of streams and rivers fed by glaciers and thawing permafrost. In this study, we examine eighty two water samples from two non-glaciated catchments with snow-permafrost regime: the Tyvjobekken Creek and the Reindeer Creek (NW Wedel-Jarlsberg Land, Spitsbergen)...
September 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949519/pyrosequencing-reveals-soil-enzyme-activities-and-bacterial-communities-impacted-by-graphene-and-its-oxides
#12
Yan Rong, Yi Wang, Yina Guan, Jiangtao Ma, Zhiqiang Cai, Guanghua Yang, Xiyue Zhao
Graphene (GN) and graphene oxides (GOs) are novel carbon nanomaterial; they have been attracting much attention because of their excellent properties and are widely applied in many areas, including energy, electronics, biomedicine, environmental science, etc. With industrial production and consumption of GN/GO, they will inevitably enter the soil and water environments. GN/GO may directly cause certain harm to microorganisms and lead to ecological and environmental risks. GOs are GN derivatives with abundant oxygen-containing functional groups in their graphitic backbone...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935407/insights-into-the-attenuated-sorption-of-organic-compounds-on-black-carbon-aged-in-soil
#13
Lei Luo, Jitao Lv, Zien Chen, Rixiang Huang, Shuzhen Zhang
Sorption of organic compounds on fresh black carbons (BCs) can be greatly attenuated in soil over time. We examined herein the changes in surface properties of maize straw-derived BCs (biochars) after aged in a black soil and their effects on the sorptive behaviors of naphthalene, phenanthrene and 1,3-dinitrobenzene. Dissolved fulvic and humic acids extracted from the soil were used to explore the role of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the aging of biochars. Chromatography analysis indicated that DOC molecules with relatively large molecular weight were preferentially adsorbed on the biochars during the aging processes...
September 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929254/root-chemistry-and-soil-fauna-but-not-soil-abiotic-conditions-explain-the-effects-of-plant-diversity-on-root-decomposition
#14
Hongmei Chen, Natalie J Oram, Kathryn E Barry, Liesje Mommer, Jasper van Ruijven, Hans de Kroon, Anne Ebeling, Nico Eisenhauer, Christine Fischer, Gerd Gleixner, Arthur Gessler, Odette González Macé, Nina Hacker, Anke Hildebrandt, Markus Lange, Michael Scherer-Lorenzen, Stefan Scheu, Yvonne Oelmann, Cameron Wagg, Wolfgang Wilcke, Christian Wirth, Alexandra Weigelt
Plant diversity influences many ecosystem functions including root decomposition. However, due to the presence of multiple pathways via which plant diversity may affect root decomposition, our mechanistic understanding of their relationships is limited. In a grassland biodiversity experiment, we simultaneously assessed the effects of three pathways-root litter quality, soil biota, and soil abiotic conditions-on the relationships between plant diversity (in terms of species richness and the presence/absence of grasses and legumes) and root decomposition using structural equation modeling...
September 19, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919903/the-role-of-soil-solarization-in-india-how-an-unnoticed-practice-could-support-pest-control
#15
REVIEW
Harsimran K Gill, Iqbal S Aujla, Luigi De Bellis, Andrea Luvisi
Plant protection represents one of the strategies to fill the yield gap and to achieve food security, a key topic for India development. Analysis of climate risks for crops indicates that South Asia is one of the regions most exposed to the adverse impact on many plants that are relevant to inhabitants exposed to food safety risks. Furthermore, accumulation of pesticide residues in the aquatic and other ecosystems is becoming a significant threat in India. These perspectives require to develop programs of crop protection that can be feasible according to Indian rural development and pollution policy...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915454/assessing-the-potential-contributions-of-additional-retention-processes-to-pfas-retardation-in-the-subsurface
#16
Mark L Brusseau
A comprehensive understanding of the transport and fate of per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in the subsurface is critical for accurate risk assessments and design of effective remedial actions. A multi-process retention model is proposed to account for potential additional sources of retardation for PFAS transport in source zones. These include partitioning to the soil atmosphere, adsorption at air-water interfaces, partitioning to trapped organic liquids (NAPL), and adsorption at NAPL-water interfaces...
September 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911333/profiling-bacterial-communities-by-minion-sequencing-of-ribosomal-operons
#17
Lee J Kerkhof, Kevin P Dillon, Max M Häggblom, Lora R McGuinness
BACKGROUND: An approach utilizing the long-read capability of the Oxford Nanopore MinION to rapidly sequence bacterial ribosomal operons of complex natural communities was developed. Microbial fingerprinting employs domain-specific forward primers (16S rRNA subunit), reverse primers (23S rRNA subunit), and a high-fidelity Taq polymerase with proofreading capabilities. Amplicons contained both ribosomal subunits for broad-based phylogenetic assignment (~ 3900 bp of sequence), plus the intergenic spacer (ITS) region (~ 300 bp) for potential strain-specific identification...
September 15, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910746/transport-of-imidazolium-based-ionic-liquids-with-different-anion-cation-species-in-sand-soil-columns
#18
Zhiqiang Dong, Li Wei, Suwei Xu, Jingwei Sun, Xinyi Shi, Yuping Qiu
Ionic liquids (ILs) have been widely used as environmentally friendly solvents to replace volatile organic solvents in the chemistry industries. They have a high water solubility and potential risk to organisms in the soil-water environment. At present, most studies focused on the batch sorption of ILs in soil and neglected the investigation of IL transports in soil, which results in a lack of understanding of the structure-dependent mobility of ILs in the environment. Laboratory-scale sand/soil column experiments were performed to study the transport of imidazolium-based ILs, such as [C4mim][OTF], [C4mim][TOS], [C4mim][MeSO3], [C4mim][BF4], [C2mim][BF4], and [C6mim][BF4] including different counteranions and alkyl chain lengths of IL cations...
September 11, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902851/redox-mediated-quorum-sensing-in-plants
#19
Alexandra W Fuller, Phoebe Young, B Daniel Pierce, Jamie Kitson-Finuff, Purvi Jain, Karl Schneider, Stephen Lazar, Olga Taran, Andrew G Palmer, David G Lynn
The rhizosphere, the narrow zone of soil around plant roots, is a complex network of interactions between plants, bacteria, and a variety of other organisms. The absolute dependence on host-derived signals, or xenognosins, to regulate critical developmental checkpoints for host commitment in the obligate parasitic plants provides a window into the rhizosphere's chemical dynamics. These sessile intruders use H2O2 in a process known as semagenesis to chemically modify the mature root surfaces of proximal host plants and generate p-benzoquinones (BQs)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871609/the-origin-of-soil-organic-matter-controls-its-composition-and-bioreactivity-across-a-mesic-boreal-forest-latitudinal-gradient
#20
Lukas Kohl, Michael Philben, Kate A Edwards, Frances A Podrebarac, Jamie Warren, Susan E Ziegler
Warmer climates have been associated with reduced bioreactivity of soil organic matter (SOM) typically attributed to increased diagenesis; the combined biological and physiochemical transformation of SOM. Additionally, cross site studies have indicated that ecosystem regime shifts, associated with long-term climate warming, can affect SOM properties through changes in vegetation and plant litter production thereby altering the composition of soil inputs. The relative importance of these two controls, diagenesis and inputs, on SOM properties as ecosystems experience climate warming, however, remains poorly understood...
September 4, 2017: Global Change Biology
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