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Soil chemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909941/degradation-and-half-life-of-dna-present-in-biomass-from-a-genetically-modified-organism-during-land-application
#1
Mathew C Halter, James A Zahn
White biotechnology has made a positive impact on the chemical industry by providing safer, more efficient chemical manufacturing processes that have reduced the use of toxic chemicals, harsh reaction conditions, and expensive metal catalysts, which has improved alignment with the principles of Green Chemistry. The genetically-modified (GM) biocatalysts that are utilized in these processes are typically separated from high-value products and then recycled, or eliminated. Elimination routes include disposal in sanitary landfills, incineration, use as a fuel, animal feed, or reuse as an agricultural soil amendment or other value-added products...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905935/development-of-a-filter-to-prevent-infections-with-spore-forming-bacteria-in-injecting-drug-users
#2
Nour Alhusein, Jenny Scott, Barbara Kasprzyk-Hordern, Albert Bolhuis
BACKGROUND: In heroin injectors, there have been a number of outbreaks caused by spore-forming bacteria, causing serious infections such as anthrax or botulism. These are, most likely, caused by injecting contaminated heroin, and our aim was to develop a filter that efficiently removes these bacteria and is also likely to be acceptable for use by people who inject drugs (i.e. quick, simple and not spoil the hit). METHODS: A prototype filter was designed and different filter membranes were tested to assess the volume of liquid retained, filtration time and efficiency of the filter at removing bacterial spores...
December 1, 2016: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894801/effects-of-the-addition-of-nitrogen-and-sulfate-on-ch4-and-co2-emissions-soil-and-pore-water-chemistry-in-a-high-marsh-of-the-min-river-estuary-in-southeastern-china
#3
Minjie Hu, Benjamin J Wilson, Zhigao Sun, Peng Ren, Chuan Tong
Exogenous nitrogen (N) and sulfate (SO4(2-)), resulting from human activity, can strongly influence the emission of CH4 and CO2 from soil ecosystems. Studies have reported the effects of N and SO4(2-) on CH4 and CO2 emissions from inland peatlands and paddies. However, very few studies have presented year-round data on the effects of the addition of N and SO4(2-) on CH4 and CO2 emissions in estuarine marshes. The effects of the addition of N and SO4(2-) on the emission of CH4 and CO2 were investigated in a Cyperus malaccensis marsh in the high tidal flat of the Min River estuary of southeastern China from September 2014 to August 2015...
November 25, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892466/direct-evidence-for-microbial-derived-soil-organic-matter-formation-and-its-ecophysiological-controls
#4
Cynthia M Kallenbach, Serita D Frey, A Stuart Grandy
Soil organic matter (SOM) and the carbon and nutrients therein drive fundamental submicron- to global-scale biogeochemical processes and influence carbon-climate feedbacks. Consensus is emerging that microbial materials are an important constituent of stable SOM, and new conceptual and quantitative SOM models are rapidly incorporating this view. However, direct evidence demonstrating that microbial residues account for the chemistry, stability and abundance of SOM is still lacking. Further, emerging models emphasize the stabilization of microbial-derived SOM by abiotic mechanisms, while the effects of microbial physiology on microbial residue production remain unclear...
November 28, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888479/use-of-major-ions-to-evaluate-the-hydrogeochemistry-of-groundwater-influenced-by-reclamation-and-seawater-intrusion-west-nile-delta-egypt
#5
Zenhom El-Said Salem, Osman M Osman
The aim of this research is to evaluate the groundwater geochemistry in western Nile Delta area as an example of an aquifer influenced by reclamation and seawater intrusion. To conduct this study, 63 groundwater samples and one surface water sample from El Nubaria Canal were collected. To estimate the origin of dissolved ions and the geochemical processes influencing this groundwater, integration between land use change, pedological, hydrogeological, hydrogeochemical, and statistical approaches was considered...
November 25, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887833/the-impact-of-pollutants-from-a-major-northern-highway-on-an-adjacent-hardwood-forest
#6
S A Watmough, T Rabinowitz, S Baker
Emissions of pollutants from highways can exert multiple stresses on adjacent ecosystems. In this study air concentrations of NO2 and throughfall deposition of inorganic N (NO3(-) and NH4(+)), SO4(2-), Cl(-), base cations and several metals were measured in all four seasons along a 1.5km hardwood forest gradient extending away from a major highway (Highway 401) in southern Ontario, Canada. Soil and lichen chemistry and herbaceous plant and epiphytic lichen species composition were measured within the hardwood forest to evaluate impacts of these pollutants...
November 22, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876419/assessing-the-potential-of-inorganic-anions-cl-no3-so4-2-and-po4-3-to-increase-the-bioaccessibility-of-emitted-palladium-in-the-environment-experimental-studies-with-soils-and-a-pd-model-substance
#7
Fathi Zereini, Clare L S Wiseman, Jana Poprizki, Peter Albers, Wolfgang Schneider, Kerstin Leopold
Palladium (Pd) emitted from vehicles equipped with exhaust catalytic converters has been accumulating at a greater rate relative to other platinum group elements (PGE) in the last 10-20 years. Little is known, however, regarding the various environmental factors and conditions which are likely to modulate the chemical behavior and bioaccessibility of this element post-emission. To meet data needs, soils and a Pd model substance were treated with solutions containing common anions (Cl(-), NO3(-), SO4(2-) und PO4(3-)) to shed light on the geochemical behavior of emitted Pd under ambient conditions...
November 19, 2016: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871667/transport-of-soil-aged-silver-nanoparticles-in-unsaturated-sand
#8
Samuel K Kumahor, Pavel Hron, George Metreveli, Gabriele E Schaumann, Sondra Klitzke, Friederike Lang, Hans-Jörg Vogel
Engineered nanoparticles released into soils may be coated with humic substances, potentially modifying their surface properties. Due to their amphiphilic nature, humic coating is expected to affect interaction of nanoparticle at the air-water interface. In this study, we explored the roles of the air-water interface and solid-water interface as potential sites for nanoparticle attachment and the importance of hydrophobic interactions for nanoparticle attachment at the air-water interface. By exposing Ag nanoparticles to soil solution extracted from the upper soil horizon of a floodplain soil, the mobility of the resulting "soil-aged" Ag nanoparticles was investigated and compared with the mobility of citrate-coated Ag nanoparticles as investigated in an earlier study...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871089/water-balance-creates-a-threshold-in-soil-ph-at-the-global-scale
#9
E W Slessarev, Y Lin, N L Bingham, J E Johnson, Y Dai, J P Schimel, O A Chadwick
Soil pH regulates the capacity of soils to store and supply nutrients, and thus contributes substantially to controlling productivity in terrestrial ecosystems. However, soil pH is not an independent regulator of soil fertility-rather, it is ultimately controlled by environmental forcing. In particular, small changes in water balance cause a steep transition from alkaline to acid soils across natural climate gradients. Although the processes governing this threshold in soil pH are well understood, the threshold has not been quantified at the global scale, where the influence of climate may be confounded by the effects of topography and mineralogy...
November 21, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870033/ode-to-ehrlich-and-raven-or-how-herbivorous-insects-might-drive-plant-speciation
#10
Robert J Marquis, Diego Salazar, Christina Baer, Jason Reinhardt, Galen Priest, Kirk Barnett
Fifty years ago, Ehrlich and Raven proposed that insect herbivores have driven much of plant speciation, particularly at tropical latitudes. There have been no explicit tests of their hypotheses. Indeed there were no proposed mechanisms either at the time or since by which herbivores might generate new plant species. Here we outline two main classes of mechanisms, prezygotic and postzygotic, with a number of scenarios in each by which herbivore-driven changes in host plant secondary chemistry might lead to new plant lineage production...
November 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859754/mineral-mediated-isotope-fractionation-of-soil-water
#11
M Gaj, S Kaufhold, P Koeniger, M Beyer, M Weiler, T Himmelsbach
RATIONALE: The ability to recover the isotopic signature of water added to soil samples that have previously been oven dried decreases with the increasing presence of silt and clay. The effects on the isotopic signature of water associated with physicochemical soil properties are not yet fully understood, for either hydration or dehydration of soil samples. METHODS: The soil sample chemistry and the crystallinity of minerals were measured by X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction...
November 11, 2016: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836696/structure-biosynthesis-and-function-of-unusual-lipids-a-from-nodule-inducing-and-n2-fixing-bacteria
#12
REVIEW
Adam Choma, Iwona Komaniecka, Kamil Zebracki
This review focuses on the chemistry and structures of (Brady)rhizobium lipids A, indispensable parts of lipopolysaccharides. These lipids contain unusual (ω-1) hydroxylated very long chain fatty acids, which are synthesized by a very limited group of bacteria, besides rhizobia. The significance and requirement of the very long chain fatty acids for outer membrane stability as well as the genetics of the synthesis pathway are discussed. The biological role of these fatty acids for bacterial life in extremely different environments (soil and intracellular space within nodules) is also considered...
November 9, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807785/hydrochemical-evaluation-of-the-influences-of-mining-activities-on-river-water-chemistry-in-central-northern-mongolia
#13
Bayartungalag Batsaikhan, Jang-Soon Kwon, Kyoung-Ho Kim, Young-Joon Lee, Jeong-Ho Lee, Mendbayar Badarch, Seong-Taek Yun
Although metallic mineral resources are most important in the economy of Mongolia, mining activities with improper management may result in the pollution of stream waters, posing a threat to aquatic ecosystems and humans. In this study, aiming to evaluate potential impacts of metallic mining activities on the quality of a transboundary river (Selenge) in central northern Mongolia, we performed hydrochemical investigations of rivers (Tuul, Khangal, Orkhon, Haraa, and Selenge). Hydrochemical analysis of river waters indicates that, while major dissolved ions originate from natural weathering (especially, dissolution of carbonate minerals) within watersheds, they are also influenced by mining activities...
November 2, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771880/atmospheric-emission-of-nitric-oxide-and-processes-involved-in-its-biogeochemical-transformation-in-terrestrial-environment
#14
Awais Shakoor, Muhammad Abdullah, Balal Yousaf, Amina, Youhua Ma
Nitric oxide (NO) is an intra- and intercellular gaseous signaling molecule with a broad spectrum of regulatory functions in biological system. Its emissions are produced by both natural and anthropogenic sources; however, soils are among the most important sources of NO. Nitric oxide plays a decisive role in environmental-atmospheric chemistry by controlling the tropospheric photochemical production of ozone and regulates formation of various oxidizing agents such as hydroxyl radical (OH), which contributes to the formation of acid of precipitates...
October 22, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755746/the-effects-of-climate-downscaling-technique-and-observational-data-set-on-modeled-ecological-responses
#15
Afshin Pourmokhtarian, Charles T Driscoll, John L Campbell, Katharine Hayhoe, Anne M K Stoner
Assessments of future climate change impacts on ecosystems typically rely on multiple climate model projections, but often utilize only one downscaling approach trained on one set of observations. Here, we explore the extent to which modeled biogeochemical responses to changing climate are affected by the selection of the climate downscaling method and training observations used at the montane landscape of the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire, USA. We evaluated three downscaling methods: the delta method (or the change factor method), monthly quantile mapping (Bias Correction-Spatial Disaggregation, or BCSD), and daily quantile regression (Asynchronous Regional Regression Model, or ARRM)...
July 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752453/the-2015-annual-meeting-of-setac-german-language-branch-in-zurich-7-10-september-2015-ecotoxicology-and-environmental-chemistry-from-research-to-application
#16
Inge Werner, Annette Aldrich, Benjamin Becker, Dennis Becker, Markus Brinkmann, Michael Burkhardt, Norbert Caspers, Sophie Campiche, Nathalie Chèvre, Rolf-Alexander Düring, Beate I Escher, Fabian Fischer, Sabrina Giebner, Katharina Heye, Henner Hollert, Marion Junghans, Cornelia Kienle, Katja Knauer, Muris Korkaric, Veronika Märkl, Jane Muncke, Jörg Oehlmann, Georg Reifferscheid, Daniel Rensch, Andreas Schäffer, Sabrina Schiwy, Simon Schwarz, Helmut Segner, Eszter Simon, Rita Triebskorn, Etiënne L M Vermeirssen, Thomas Wintgens, Markus Zennegg
This report provides a brief review of the 20th annual meeting of the German Language Branch of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC GLB) held from September 7th to 10th 2015 at ETH (Swiss Technical University) in Zurich, Switzerland. The event was chaired by Inge Werner, Director of the Swiss Centre for Applied Ecotoxicology (Ecotox Centre) Eawag-EPFL, and organized by a team from Ecotox Centre, Eawag, Federal Office of the Environment, Federal Office of Agriculture, and Mesocosm GmbH (Germany)...
2016: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751639/soil-solution-interactions-may-limit-pb-remediation-using-p%C3%A2-amendments-in-an-urban-soil
#17
John F Obrycki, Kirk G Scheckel, Nicholas T Basta
Lead (Pb) contaminated soils are a potential exposure hazard to the public. Amending soils with phosphorus (P) may reduce Pb soil hazards. Soil from Cleveland, OH containing 726 ± 14 mg Pb kg(-1) was amended in a laboratory study with bone meal and triple super phosphate (TSP) at 5:1 P:Pb molar ratios. Soil was acidified, neturalized and re-acidified to encourage Pb phosphate formation. PRSTM-probes were used to evaluate changes in soil solution chemistry. Soil acidification did not decrease in vitro bioaccessible (IVBA) Pb using either a pH 1...
January 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738913/strategies-for-the-discovery-and-development-of-new-antibiotics-from-natural-products-three-case-studies
#18
Jennifer Herrmann, Tadeja Lukežič, Angela Kling, Sascha Baumann, Stephan Hüttel, Hrvoje Petković, Rolf Müller
Natural products continue to be a predominant source for new anti-infective agents. Research at the Helmholtz Institute for Pharmaceutical Research Saarland (HIPS) and the Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research (HZI) is dedicated to the development of new lead structures against infectious diseases and, in particular, new antibiotics against hard-to-treat and multidrug-resistant bacterial pathogens. In this chapter, we introduce some of the concepts currently being employed in the field of antibiotic discovery...
October 15, 2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734948/colloid-mediated-transport-of-pharmaceutical-and-personal-care-products-through-porous-media
#19
Yingna Xing, Xijuan Chen, Xin Chen, Jie Zhuang
Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) enter soils through reclaimed water irrigation and biosolid land applications. Colloids, such as clays, that are present in soil may interact with PPCPs and thus affect their fate and transport in the subsurface environment. This study addresses the influence of soil colloids on the sorption and transport behaviors of PPCPs through laboratory column experiments. Results show that the affinities of PPCPs for colloids vary with their molecular chemistry and solution ionic strength...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695763/co-transport-of-pesticide-acetamiprid-and-silica-nanoparticles-in-biochar-amended-sand-porous-media
#20
Hong Wang, Yuanfang Huang, Chongyang Shen, Junxue Wu, An Yan, Hongyan Zhang
The role of biochar as a soil amendment on the transport of acetamiprid, a widely used neonicotinoid pesticide, is little known. We conducted saturated column experiments to examine cotransport of acetamiprid and silica nanoparticles (NPs) in pure and biochar-amended sands. Retention of acetamiprid was minor in the pure sand, whereas application of biochar in the sand significantly increased retention. Retention was greater at lower ionic strengths and near neutral pH values and was attributed to biodegradation and sorption through π-π interaction and pore filling...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
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