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Soil chemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493920/haemolytic-activity-of-soil-from-areas-of-varying-podoconiosis-endemicity-in-ethiopia
#1
Jennifer S Le Blond, Peter J Baxter, Dhimiter Bello, Jennifer Raftis, Yordanos B Molla, Javier Cuadros, Gail Davey
BACKGROUND: Podoconiosis, non-filarial elephantiasis, is a non-infectious disease found in tropical regions such as Ethiopia, localized in highland areas with volcanic soils cultivated by barefoot subsistence farmers. It is thought that soil particles can pass through the soles of the feet and taken up by the lymphatic system, leading to the characteristic chronic oedema of the lower legs that becomes disfiguring and disabling over time. METHODS: The close association of the disease with volcanic soils led us to investigate the characteristics of soil samples in an endemic area in Ethiopia to identify the potential causal constituents...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482132/arbuscular-mycorrhizal-colonization-has-little-consequence-for-plant-heavy-metal-uptake-in-contaminated-field-soils
#2
Lee H Dietterich, Cédric Gonneau, Brenda B Casper
The factors affecting plant uptake of heavy metals from metalliferous soils are deeply important to the remediation of polluted areas. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), soil-dwelling fungi that engage in an intimate exchange of nutrients with plant roots, are thought to be involved in plant metal uptake as well. Here, we used a novel field-based approach to investigate the effects of AMF on plant metal uptake from soils in Palmerton, PA, USA contaminated with heavy metals from a nearby zinc smelter. Previous studies often focus on one or two plant species or metals, tend to use highly artificial growing conditions and metal applications, and rarely consider metals' effects on plants and AMF together...
May 8, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480539/plant-litter-chemistry-alters-the-content-and-composition-of-organic-carbon-associated-with-soil-mineral-and-aggregate-fractions-in-invaded-ecosystems
#3
Mioko Tamura, Vidya Suseela, Myrna Simpson, Brian Powell, Nishanth Tharayil
Through the input of disproportionate quantities of chemically distinct litter, invasive plants may potentially influence the fate of organic matter associated with soil mineral and aggregate fractions in some of the ecosystems they invade. Though context dependent, these native ecosystems subjected to prolonged invasion by exotic plants may be instrumental in distinguishing the role of plant-microbe-mineral interactions from the broader edaphic and climatic influences on the formation of soil organic matter (SOM)...
May 8, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479200/dendrochemical-evidence-for-soil-recovery-from-acidic-deposition-in-forests-of-the-northeastern-u-s-with-comparisons-to-the-southeastern-u-s-and-russia
#4
Walter C Shortle, Kevin T Smith, Andrei G Lapenis
A soil resampling approach has detected an early stage of recovery in the cation chemistry of spruce forest soil due to reductions in acid deposition. That approach is limited by the lack of soil data and archived soil samples prior to major increases in acid deposition during the latter half of the 20th century. An alternative approach is the dendrochemical analysis of dated wood to detect temporal changes in base cations back into the 19th century. To infer environmental change from dendrochemical patterns of essential base cations, internal factors that affect cation chemistry such as the maturation of sapwood and the spread of wood infection need to be recognized...
April 26, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473828/plant-communities-rather-than-soil-properties-structure-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungal-communities-along-primary-succession-on-a-mine-spoil
#5
Claudia Krüger, Petr Kohout, Martina Janoušková, David Püschel, Jan Frouz, Jana Rydlová
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) community assembly during primary succession has so far received little attention. It remains therefore unclear, which of the factors, driving AMF community composition, are important during ecosystem development. We addressed this question on a large spoil heap, which provides a mosaic of sites in different successional stages under different managements. We selected 24 sites of c. 12, 20, 30, or 50 years in age, including sites with spontaneously developing vegetation and sites reclaimed by alder plantations...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464335/the-interacting-roles-of-climate-soils-and-plant-production-on-soil-microbial-communities-at-a-continental-scale
#6
M P Waldrop, M J Holloway, D B Smith, M B Goldhaber, R E Drenovsky, K M Scow, R Dick, D Howard, B Wylie, J B Grace
Soil microbial communities control critical ecosystem processes such as decomposition, nutrient cycling, and soil organic matter formation. Continental scale patterns in the composition and functioning of microbial communities are related to climatic, biotic, and edaphic factors such as temperature and precipitation, plant community composition, and soil carbon, nitrogen, and pH. Although these relationships have been well explored individually, the examination of the factors that may act directly on microbial communities versus those that may act indirectly through other ecosystem properties has not been well developed...
May 2, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458220/chemistry-and-phase-evolution-during-roasting-of-toxic-thallium-bearing-pyrite
#7
Paula Lopez-Arce, Javier Garcia-Guinea, Fernando Garrido
In the frame of a research project on microscopic distribution and speciation of geogenic thallium (Tl) from contaminated mine soils, Tl-bearing pyrite ore samples from Riotinto mining district (Huelva, SW Spain) were experimentally fired to simulate a roasting process. Concentration and volatility behavior of Tl and other toxic heavy metals was determined by quantitative ICP-MS, whereas semi-quantitative mineral phase transitions were identified by in situ thermo X-Ray Diffraction (HT-XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) analyses after each firing temperature...
April 24, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448934/release-of-dissolved-phosphorus-from-riparian-wetlands-evidence-for-complex-interactions-among-hydroclimate-variability-topography-and-soil-properties
#8
Sen Gu, Gérard Gruau, Rémi Dupas, Cornélia Rumpel, Alexandra Crème, Ophélie Fovet, Chantal Gascuel-Odoux, Laurent Jeanneau, Guillaume Humbert, Patrice Petitjean
In agricultural landscapes, establishment of vegetated buffer zones in riparian wetlands (RWs) is promoted to decrease phosphorus (P) emissions because RWs can trap particulate P from upslope fields. However, long-term accumulation of P risks the release of dissolved P, since the unstable hydrological conditions in these zones may mobilize accumulated particulate P by transforming it into a mobile dissolved P species. This study evaluates how hydroclimate variability, topography and soil properties interact and influence this mobilization, using a three-year dataset of molybdate-reactive dissolved P (MRDP) and total dissolved P (TDP) concentrations in soil water from two RWs located in an agricultural catchment in western France (Kervidy-Naizin), along with stream P concentrations...
April 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448621/biochar-from-kon-tiki-flame-curtain-and-other-kilns-effects-of-nutrient-enrichment-and-kiln-type-on-crop-yield-and-soil-chemistry
#9
Naba Raj Pandit, Jan Mulder, Sarah Elisabeth Hale, Hans Peter Schmidt, Gerard Cornelissen
Biochar application to soils has been investigated as a means of improving soil fertility and mitigating climate change through soil carbon sequestration. In the present work, the invasive shrub "Eupatorium adenophorum" was utilized as a sustainable feedstock for making biochar under different pyrolysis conditions in Nepal. Biochar was produced using several different types of kilns; four sub types of flame curtain kilns (deep-cone metal kiln, steel shielded soil pit, conical soil pit and steel small cone), brick-made traditional kiln, traditional earth-mound kiln and top lift up draft (TLUD)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442005/implications-of-using-different-water-sources-when-hydrologically-compacting-bioretention-columns
#10
Clayton A Stahnke, Cara J Poor
  Many investigators have conducted research on bioretention systems both in the laboratory and field. There is little consensus on which sources of water are best suited to hydrologically compact bioretention columns. Water with low ionic strength can leach ions from soil media, resulting in a different soil chemistry environment than would be found in typical bioretention applications. Soil columns were hydrologically compacted with three different water sources often used in column studies: deionized water, tap water, and rain water...
May 1, 2017: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438425/mobile-laboratories-an-innovative-and-efficient-solution-for-radiological-characterization-of-sites-under-or-after-decommissioning
#11
V Goudeau, B Daniel, D Dubot
During the operation and the decommissioning of a nuclear site the operator must assure the protection of the workers and the environment. It must furthermore identify and classify the various wastes, while optimizing the associated costs. At all stages of the decommissioning radiological measurements are performed to determine the initial situation, to monitor the demolition and clean-up, and to verify the final situation. Radiochemical analysis is crucial for the radiological evaluation process to optimize the clean-up operations and to the respect limits defined with the authorities...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421326/nutrient-enrichment-in-water-more-than-in-leaves-affects-aquatic-microbial-litter-processing
#12
Cristiane Biasi, Manuel A S Graça, Sandro Santos, Verónica Ferreira
Nutrient enrichment of soils and water will intensify in the future and has the potential to alter fundamental ecosystem processes, such as litter decomposition. We tested the direct (via water nutrient enrichment) and indirect (via changes in leaf chemistry) effects of nutrient enrichment on microbial activity and decomposability of Quercus robur L. (oak) leaves in laboratory microcosms simulating streams. Senescent leaves of oak trees grown without and with fertilization were incubated under ambient and elevated water nutrient [nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P)] concentrations for 60 days...
April 18, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405280/multiple-environmental-changes-drive-forest-floor-vegetation-in-a-temperate-mountain-forest
#13
Norbert Helm, Franz Essl, Michael Mirtl, Thomas Dirnböck
Human-induced changes of the environment and their possible impacts on temperate forest understory plant communities have been examined in many studies. However, the relative contribution of individual environmental factors to these changes in the herb layer is still unclear. In this study, we used vegetation survey data covering a time period of 21 years and collected from 143 permanent plots in the Northern Limestone Alps, Austria. Data on soil chemistry (49 plots), light condition (51 plots), soil temperature and moisture (four and six plots), disturbance (all plots), climate (one station in a clearing area), and airborne sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) deposition (two forest stands) were available for analyses...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391688/total-as-and-as-speciation-in-italian-rice-as-related-to-producing-areas-and-paddy-soils-properties
#14
Daniele Tenni, Maria Martin, Elisabetta Barberis, Gian Maria Beone, Eleonora Miniotti, Marcella Sodano, Elena Zanzo, Maria Chiara Fontanella, Marco Romani
Rice and rice-based foodstuffs are important pathways for inorganic As dietary intake. This work shows a detailed picture of As content and speciation in Italian rice, which contributes to more than one-half of the European production, and addresses the role of soil chemistry and agronomic management on As concentration in rice grain, in view of ameliorative strategies. The mean total As content in Italian white rice was 155 ± 65 μg kg(-1) with significant differences among producing areas, while the mean inorganic As was 102 ± 26 μg kg(-1), largely below the E...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390704/development-of-electrostatic-based-bioavailability-models-for-interpreting-and-predicting-differential-phytotoxicity-and-uptake-of-metal-mixtures-across-different-soils
#15
Hao Qiu, Erkai He
Metals are ubiquitous and normally co-occur as mixtures in soil, but there remains much to do regarding the development of appropriate models which incorporate mixture interactions and bioavailability to estimate their phytotoxicity and phytoaccumulation. Here, we developed a probability-based electrostatic toxicity model (ETM) and a Langmuir-type electrostatic uptake model (EUM) to predict and normalize toxicity and uptake of zinc-copper mixtures in Hordeum vulgare L. in different soils. For model development, the electrical potential (ψ0) and metal ion activities ({M(2+)}0) at the cell-membrane surface was computed based on plant physiological properties and soil solution chemistry...
April 5, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389728/leaf-litter-chemistry-drives-the-structure-and-composition-of-soil-testate-amoeba-communities-in-a-tropical-montane-rainforest-of-the-ecuadorian-andes
#16
Valentyna Krashevska, Dorothee Sandmann, Franca Marian, Mark Maraun, Stefan Scheu
We investigated the role of leaf litter chemistry and richness in affecting testate amoeba communities of tropical rainforest in the Ecuadorian Andes. Litterbags containing leaf litter from four dominating tree species (Clusia sp., Myrcia pubescens, Graffenrieda emarginata, and Cecropia andina) with richness 1, 2, and 4 species were established and exposed in the field for 12 months at 2000 m a.s.l. Chemical elements and compounds of leaf litter were analyzed before exposure. At the end of exposure, microbial biomass and litter mass loss were measured, and living testate amoeba species number, density, biomass, and community composition were determined...
April 7, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381633/simulating-carbon-capture-by-enhanced-weathering-with-croplands-an-overview-of-key-processes-highlighting-areas-of-future-model-development
#17
REVIEW
Lyla L Taylor, David J Beerling, Shaun Quegan, Steven A Banwart
Enhanced weathering (EW) aims to amplify a natural sink for CO2 by incorporating powdered silicate rock with high reactive surface area into agricultural soils. The goal is to achieve rapid dissolution of minerals and release of alkalinity with accompanying dissolution of CO2 into soils and drainage waters. EW could counteract phosphorus limitation and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in tropical soils, and soil acidification, a common agricultural problem studied with numerical process models over several decades...
April 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375902/ergothioneine-antioxidant-function-from-chemistry-to-cardiovascular-therapeutic-potential
#18
Luigi Servillo, Nunzia DʼOnofrio, Maria Luisa Balestrieri
Ergothioneine (ESH), the betaine of 2-mercapto-L-histidine, is a water-soluble naturally occurring amino acid with antioxidant properties. ESH accumulates in several human and animal tissues up to millimolar concentration through its high affinity transporter, namely the organic cation transporter 1 (OCTN1). ESH, first isolated from the ergot fungus (Claviceps purpurea), is synthesized only by Actinomycetales and non-yeast-like fungi. Plants absorb ESH via symbiotic associations between their roots and soil fungi, whereas mammals acquire it solely from dietary sources...
April 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371930/in-planta-genotoxicity-of-nzvi-influence-of-colloidal-stability-on-uptake-dna-damage-oxidative-stress-and-cell-death
#19
Ilika Ghosh, Amitava Mukherjee, Anita Mukherjee
Nanoremediation of soil, ground and surface water using nanoscale zerovalent iron particles (nZVI) has facilitated their direct environmental exposure posing ecotoxicological concerns. Numerous studies elucidate their phytotoxicity in terms of growth and their fate within the plant system. However, their potential genotoxicity and cytotoxicity mechanisms are not known in plants. This study encompasses the physico-chemical characterisation of two forms of nZVI (nZVI-1 and nZVI-2) with different surface chemistries and their influence on uptake, root morphology, DNA damage, oxidative stress and cell death in Allium cepa roots after 24 h...
May 1, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371710/redox-chemistry-of-nickel-in-soils-and-sediments-a-review
#20
Jörg Rinklebe, Sabry M Shaheen
Knowledge on the redox geochemistry of Ni is behind in comparison to other heavy metals. Hence, this article reviews the direct and indirect impact of redox potential (EH) on mobilization and release dynamics of Ni in soils and sediments across the world. Nickel can show a different behavior in response to EH. Mobilization of Ni increased at low EH in various soils; however, oxic conditions can lead to an increased mobilization of Ni in other soils. Those differences occur because the mobilization of Ni is often indirectly affected by EH, e...
July 2017: Chemosphere
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