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Soil physics

Rattan Lal
The global magnitude (Pg) of soil organic carbon (SOC) is 677 to 0.3-m, 993 to 0.5-m, and 1505 to 1-m depth. Thus, ~55% of SOC to 1-m lies below 0.3-m depth. Soils of agroecosystems are depleted of their SOC stock and have a low use efficiency of inputs of agronomic yield. This review is a collation and synthesis of articles published in peer-reviewed journals. The rates of SOC sequestration are scaled up to the global level by linear extrapolation. Soil C sink capacity depends on depth, clay content and mineralogy, plant available water holding capacity, nutrient reserves, landscape position, and the antecedent SOC stock...
January 17, 2018: Global Change Biology
I V K Nayanthika, D T Jayawardana, N J G J Bandara, P M Manage, R M T D Madushanka
Landfill leachate poses environmental threats worldwide and causes severe issues on adjacent water bodies and soil by direct discharge. The primary objective of this study is to analyze the efficient use of compost and laterite mixtures (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 wt% compost/laterite) on leachate treatment and to investigate the associated removal efficiencies under different sorption processes. Therefore, in the experimental design, laterite is used for providing adsorption characteristics, and compost for activating biological properties of the filter...
January 11, 2018: Waste Management
Xiaole Zhang, George Efthimiou, Yan Wang, Meng Huang
Radiation from the deposited radionuclides is indispensable information for environmental impact assessment of nuclear power plants and emergency management during nuclear accidents. Ground shine estimation is related to multiple physical processes, including atmospheric dispersion, deposition, soil and air radiation shielding. It still remains unclear that whether the normally adopted "infinite plane" source assumption for the ground shine calculation is accurate enough, especially for the area with highly heterogeneous deposition distribution near the release point...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Elena Armenise, Robert W Simmons, Sujung Ahn, Amin Garbout, Stefan H Doerr, Sacha J Mooney, Craig J Sturrock, Karl Ritz
This study delivers new insights into rainfall-induced seal formation through a novel approach in the use of X-ray Computed Tomography (CT). Up to now seal and crust thickness have been directly quantified mainly through visual examination of sealed/crusted surfaces, and there has been no quantitative method to estimate this important property. X-ray CT images were quantitatively analysed to derive formal measures of seal and crust thickness. A factorial experiment was established in the laboratory using open-topped microcosms packed with soil...
January 2018: Journal of Hydrology
Yonghui Yang, Jicheng Wu, Shiwei Zhao, Qingyuan Han, Xiaoying Pan, Fang He, Chun Chen
Soil amendments, such as straw mulch, organic fertilizers and superabsorbent polymer (SAP), are extensively applied to improve soil structure and porosity, and we reported the functional consequences of the individual application of these amendments in our previous study. However, whether combined amendments are more effective than their individual applications for improving soil pore structure is unknown. Here, we conducted X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanning on undisturbed soil columns to investigate the efficiency of two-amendment application, including straw mulch and organic manure, SAP and organic manure, or SAP and straw mulch, for improving soil pore properties and pore distribution...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Fabricio T Ramos, Eliana F G de Carvalho Dores, Oscarlina L Dos Santos Weber, Daniel C Beber, José H Campelo, João C de Souza Maia
BACKGROUND: Conservation agricultural practices increase total organic carbon storage in soil (TOCS ), a factor that is correlated with the physical and chemical qualities of highly weathered soils. In this study, we investigated the effects of TOCS on the physicochemical attributes of a Latosol after 10 years of no-till management in Mato Grosso State, Brazil. RESULTS: TCOS was highly correlated (r = 0.92) with cation exchange capacity (CEC, pH = 7) and soil density...
January 9, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Louisa J Esdaile, Justin M Chalker
Mercury-dependent artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is the largest source of mercury pollution on Earth. In this practice, elemental mercury is used to extract gold from ore as an amalgam. The amalgam is typically isolated by hand and then heated-often with a torch or over a stove-to distill the mercury and isolate the gold. Mercury emissions from tailings and vaporised mercury exceed 1000 tonnes each year from ASGM. The health effects on the miners are dire, with inhaled mercury leading to neurological damage and other health issues...
January 3, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Hiroshi Mizuno, Shigemitsu Kasuga, Hiroyuki Kawahigashi
BACKGROUND: Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) is used as a raw material for biofuels because it accumulates sugars at high levels in the stem. Lodging of sorghum occurs when the soil is wet and very high winds blow across the field. In root lodging, the roots are pulled loose from the soil, causing the plant to fall over. Lodging reduces the yield of nonstructural carbohydrates. It is not yet clear which genes show changes in expression when sorghum falls over. We compared whole-gene expression in the mature stems of intact and lodged sorghum plants, with a focus on comparisons from the perspective of differences in sugar accumulation or degradation...
January 3, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Boknam Jung, Jungwook Park, Namgyu Kim, Taiying Li, Soyeon Kim, Laura E Bartley, Jinnyun Kim, Inyoung Kim, Yoonhee Kang, Kihoon Yun, Younghae Choi, Hyun-Hee Lee, Sungyeon Ji, Kwang Sik Lee, Bo Yeon Kim, Jong Cheol Shon, Won Cheol Kim, Kwang-Hyeon Liu, Dahye Yoon, Suhkman Kim, Young-Su Seo, Jungkwan Lee
Bacterial-fungal interactions are widely found in distinct environments and contribute to ecosystem processes. Previous studies of these interactions have mostly been performed in soil, and only limited studies of aerial plant tissues have been conducted. Here we show that a seed-borne plant pathogenic bacterium, Burkholderia glumae (Bg), and an air-borne plant pathogenic fungus, Fusarium graminearum (Fg), interact to promote bacterial survival, bacterial and fungal dispersal, and disease progression on rice plants, despite the production of antifungal toxoflavin by Bg...
January 2, 2018: Nature Communications
A Di Marsico, L Scrano, M Amato, B Gàmiz, M Real, L Cox
The objective of this work was to determine the effect of the mucilage extracted from Chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.) as soil amendment on soil physical properties and on the sorption-desorption behaviour of four herbicides (MCPA, Diuron, Clomazone and Terbuthylazine) used in cereal crops. Three soils of different texture (sandy-loam, loam and clay-loam) were selected, and mercury intrusion porosimetry and surface area analysis were used to examine changes in the microstructural characteristics caused by the reactions that occur between the mucilage and soil particles...
December 29, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
J Kolassa, R H Reichle, Q Liu, S H Alemohammad, P Gentine, K Aida, J Asanuma, S Bircher, T Caldwell, A Colliander, M Cosh, C Holifield Collins, T J Jackson, J Martínez-Fernández, H McNairn, A Pacheco, M Thibeault, J P Walker
A Neural Network (NN) algorithm was developed to estimate global surface soil moisture for April 2015 to March 2017 with a 2-3 day repeat frequency using passive microwave observations from the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite, surface soil temperatures from the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System Model version 5 (GEOS-5) land modeling system, and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer-based vegetation water content. The NN was trained on GEOS-5 soil moisture target data, making the NN estimates consistent with the GEOS-5 climatology, such that they may ultimately be assimilated into this model without further bias correction...
January 2018: Remote Sensing of Environment
Mehdi Zolfaghari, Patrick Drogui, Jean François Blais
Electro-oxidation process by niobium boron-doped diamond (Nb/BDD) electrode was used to treat non-biodegradable oily wastewater provided from soil leachate contaminated by hydrocarbons. Firstly, the diffusion current limit and mass transfer coefficient was experimentally measured (7.1 mA cm-2 and 14.7 μm s-1, respectively), in order to understand minimum applied current density. Later on, the oxidation kinetic model of each pollutant was investigated in different current densities ranged between 3.8 and 61...
December 30, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Edyta Boros-Lajszner, Jadwiga Wyszkowska, Jan Kucharski
Nickel is a heavy metal which is a stable soil pollutant which is difficult to remediate. An attempt to reduce its impact on the environment can be made by changing its solubility. The right level of hydrogen ions and the content of mineral and organic colloids are crucial in this regard. Therefore, methods to neutralise heavy metals in soil are sought. There are no reports in the literature on the possibility of using minerals in the detoxication of a soil environment contaminated with metals. It is important to fill the gap in research on the effect of zeolites on the microbiological, biochemical and physicochemical properties of soils under pressure from heavy metals...
December 30, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Saifullah, Saad Dahlawi, Asif Naeem, Zed Rengel, Ravi Naidu
Soil salinization and sodification are two commonly occurring major threats to soil productivity in arable croplands. Salt-affected soils are found in >100 countries, and their distribution is extensive and widespread in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. In order to meet the challenges of global food security, it is imperative to bring barren salt-affected soils under cultivation. Various inorganic and organic amendments are used to reclaim the salt-affected lands. The selection of a sustainable ameliorant is largely determined by the site-specific geographical and soil physicochemical parameters...
December 28, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Ziming Han, Mingwen Deng, Anqi Yuan, Jiahui Wang, Hao Li, Jincai Ma
Soil freeze-thaw cycles (FTCs) change soil physical, chemical, and biological properties, however information regarding their vertical variations in response to FTCs is limited. In this work, black soil (silty loam) packed soil columns were exposed to 8 FTCs, and soil properties were determined for each of vertical layer of soil columns. The results revealed that after FTCs treatment, moisture and electrical conductivity (EC) salinity tended to increase in upper soil layers. Increments of ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N) and nitrate nitrogen (NO3--N) in top layers (0-10cm) were greater than those in other layers, and increments of water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and decrease of microbial biomass carbon (MBC) in middle layers (10-20cm) were greater than those in both ends...
December 27, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Dong Zhu, Qing-Fang Bi, Qian Xiang, Qing-Lin Chen, Peter Christie, Xin Ke, Long-Hua Wu, Yong-Guan Zhu
Although the roles of earthworms and soil collembolans in the transport of microplastics have been studied previously, the effects of the soil biota at different trophic levels and interspecific relationships remain poorly understood. Here, we examine three soil microarthropod species to explore their effects on the transport of microplastics. The selected Folsomia candida and Hypoaspis aculeifer are extensively used model organisms, and Damaeus exspinosus is a common and abundant indigenous species in China...
December 25, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Zegeye Getaneh, Bamlaku Enawgaw, Getabalew Engidaye, Masresha Seyoum, Muruts Berhane, Zegeye Abebe, Fikir Asrie, Mulugeta Melku
BACKGROUND: Anemia is a global public health problem affecting 305 million school children (SC) worldwide. It has deleterious effects in SC, including lower school achievement due to impaired cognitive development and physical growth, fatigue and poor attention span, and increased morbidity because of reduced resistance to infection. Hence, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of anemia among SC attending public primary schools in Gondar town, northwest Ethiopia...
2017: PloS One
Holly A Yu, Niamh Nic Daeid, Lorna A Dawson, David A DeTata, Simon W Lewis
Explosives are a common soil contaminant at a range of sites, including explosives manufacturing plants and areas associated with landmine detonations. As many explosives are toxic and may cause adverse environmental effects, a large body of research has targeted the remediation of explosives residues in soil. Studies in this area have largely involved spiking 'pristine' soils using explosives solutions. Here we investigate the fate of explosives present in soils following an actual detonation process and compare this to the fate of explosives spiked into 'pristine' undetonated soils...
2017: PloS One
M Iggy Litaor, Nanak Khadya
Olive oil production generates a large amount of olive mill wastewater (OMW), the most difficult to treat of agro-industrial effluents. Spreading of OMW across the soilscape has become the most frequently used practice in several Mediterranean basin countries but is hotly debated because of its potential to impair soil environs. The research hypothesis states that soil deterioration is correlated strongly with the spatiotemporal rate of OMW application; thus, the spatial pattern of the soil attributes should be established in conjunction with the rate of OMW spreading...
December 27, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Guibiao Yang, Yunfeng Peng, David Olefeldt, Yongliang Chen, Guanqin Wang, Fei Li, Dianye Zhang, Jun Wang, Jianchun Yu, Li Liu, Shuqi Qin, Tianyang Sun, Yuanhe Yang
Permafrost thaw alters the physical and environmental conditions of soil and may thus cause a positive feedback to climate warming through increased methane emissions. However, the current knowledge of methane emissions following thermokarst development is primarily based on expanding lakes and wetlands, with upland thermokarst being studied less often. In this study, we monitored the methane emissions during the peak growing seasons of two consecutive years along a thaw sequence within a thermo-erosion gully in a Tibetan swamp meadow...
December 25, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
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