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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211469/soil-wettability-can-be-explained-by-the-chemical-composition-of-particle-interfaces-an-xps-study
#1
Susanne K Woche, Marc-O Goebel, Robert Mikutta, Christian Schurig, Matthias Kaestner, Georg Guggenberger, Jörg Bachmann
Soil wettability (quantified in terms of contact angle, CA) is crucial for physical, chemical, and biological soil functioning. As the CA is determined by components present within the outmost nanometer of particles, this study applied X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) with a maximum analysis depth of 10 nm to test the relationship between CA and surface elemental composition, using soil samples from a chronosequence where CA increased from 0° (0 yrs) to about 98° (120 yrs). Concurrently, as seen by XPS, C and N content increased and the content of O and the mineral-derived cations (Si, Al, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe) decreased...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208379/prediction-of-the-moments-in-advection-diffusion-lattice-boltzmann-method-i-truncation-dispersion-skewness-and-kurtosis
#2
Irina Ginzburg
The effect of the heterogeneity in the soil structure or the nonuniformity of the velocity field on the modeled resident time distribution (RTD) and breakthrough curves is quantified by their moments. While the first moment provides the effective velocity, the second moment is related to the longitudinal dispersion coefficient (k_{T}) in the developed Taylor regime; the third and fourth moments are characterized by their normalized values skewness (Sk) and kurtosis (Ku), respectively. The purpose of this investigation is to examine the role of the truncation corrections of the numerical scheme in k_{T}, Sk, and Ku because of their interference with the second moment, in the form of the numerical dispersion, and in the higher-order moments, by their definition...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199898/differential-release-of-manure-borne-bioactive-phosphorus-forms-to-runoff-and-leachate-under-simulated-rain
#3
R A Blaustein, Thanh H Dao, Y A Pachepsky, D R Shelton
Limited information exists on the unhindered release of bioactive phosphorus (P) from a manure layer to model the partitioning and transport of component P forms before they reach an underlying soil. Rain simulations were conducted to quantify effects of intensity (30, 60, and 90 mm h(-1)) on P release from an application of 60 Mg ha(-1) of dairy manure. Runoff contained water-extractable- (WEP), exchangeable and enzyme-labile bioactive P (TBIOP), in contrast to the operationally defined "dissolved-reactive P" form...
February 12, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199147/microbiological-safety-of-animal-wastes-processed-by-physical-heat-treatment-an-alternative-to-eliminate-human-pathogens-in-biological-soil-amendments-as-recommended-by-the-food-safety-modernization-act
#4
Zhao Chen, Xiuping Jiang
Animal wastes have high nutritional value as biological soil amendments of animal origin for plant cultivation in sustainable agriculture; however, they can be sources of some human pathogens. Although composting is an effective way to reduce pathogen levels in animal wastes, pathogens may still survive under certain conditions and persist in the composted products, which potentially could lead to fresh produce contamination. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act, alternative treatments are recommended for reducing or eliminating human pathogens in raw animal manure...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192471/the-abundance-and-diversity-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-are-linked-to-the-soil-chemistry-of-screes-and-to-slope-in-the-alpic-paleo-endemic-berardia-subacaulis
#5
Gabriele Casazza, Erica Lumini, Enrico Ercole, Francesco Dovana, Maria Guerrina, Annamaria Arnulfo, Luigi Minuto, Anna Fusconi, Marco Mucciarelli
Berardia subacaulis Vill. is a monospecific genus that is endemic to the South-western Alps, where it grows on alpine screes, which are extreme habitats characterized by soil disturbance and limiting growth conditions. Root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is presumably of great importance in these environments, because of its positive effect on plant nutrition and stress tolerance, as well as on structuring the soil. However, there is currently a lack of information on this topic. In this paper, we tested which soil characteristics and biotic factors could contribute to determining the abundance and community composition of AMF in the roots of B...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190558/antegrade-continence-enemas-improve-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-medically-refractory-encopresis
#6
Joseph T Church, Sidd Simha, Laurie C Wild, Daniel H Teitelbaum, Peter F Ehrlich
PURPOSE: Fecal incontinence is a socially debilitating problem for many children. We hypothesized that in selected patients with medically-refractory encopresis, placement of an appendicostomy or cecostomy tube for administration of antegrade continence enemas (ACE) would improve quality of life (QOL). METHODS: We reviewed all patients with encopresis who underwent appendicostomy or cecostomy placement from 2003 to 2014 at our institution. We contacted subjects' parents by phone and administered 3 surveys: a survey reflecting current stooling habits, a disease-specific QOL survey, and the PedsQL™ QOL survey...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188986/effects-of-biochar-and-wood-pellets-amendments-added-to-landfill-cover-soil-on-microbial-methane-oxidation-a-laboratory-column-study
#7
Erin N Yargicoglu, Krishna R Reddy
Alternate landfill covers designed to enhance microbial methane (CH4) oxidation and reduce the negative impacts of landfill gas emissions on global climate have recently been proposed and investigated. In this study, the use of biochar as a soil amendment is examined in order to assess the feasibility and effectiveness for enhanced CH4 removal in landfill covers when incorporated under high compaction conditions and relatively low soil moisture. Four different cover configurations were tested in large soil columns for ∼510 days and potential CH4 oxidation rates were determined following long-term incubation in small batch assays...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182314/exotic-weeds-and-fluctuating-microclimate-can-constrain-native-plant-regeneration-in-urban-forest-restoration
#8
K J Wallace, Daniel C Laughlin, Bruce D Clarkson
Restoring forest structure and composition is an important component of urban land management, but we lack clear understanding of the mechanisms driving restoration success. Here we studied two indicators of restoration success in temperate rainforests: native tree regeneration and epiphyte colonization. We hypothesized that ecosystem properties such as forest canopy openness, abundance of exotic herbaceous weeds, and the microclimate directly affect the density and diversity of native tree seedlings and epiphytes...
February 9, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180988/internal-exposure-to-neutron-activated-56-mn-dioxide-powder-in-wistar-rats-part%C3%A2-2-pathological-effects
#9
Kazuko Shichijo, Nariaki Fujimoto, Darkhan Uzbekov, Ynkar Kairkhanova, Aisulu Saimova, Nailya Chaizhunusova, Nurlan Sayakenov, Dariya Shabdarbaeva, Nurlan Aukenov, Almas Azimkhanov, Alexander Kolbayenkov, Zhanna Mussazhanova, Daisuke Niino, Masahiro Nakashima, Kassym Zhumadilov, Valeriy Stepanenko, Masao Tomonaga, Tolebay Rakhypbekov, Masaharu Hoshi
To fully understand the radiation effects of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki among the survivors, radiation from neutron-induced radioisotopes in soil and other materials should be considered in addition to the initial radiation directly received from the bombs. This might be important for evaluating the radiation risks to the people who moved to these cities soon after the detonations and probably inhaled activated radioactive "dust." Manganese-56 is known to be one of the dominant radioisotopes produced in soil by neutrons...
February 8, 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177415/a-three-dimensional-view-on-soil-biogeochemistry-a-dataset-for-a-forested-headwater-catchment
#10
N Gottselig, I Wiekenkamp, L Weihermüller, N Brüggemann, A E Berns, H R Bogena, N Borchard, E Klumpp, A Lücke, A Missong, T Pütz, H Vereecken, J A Huisman, R Bol
Current understanding of the variability in soil properties and their relationship to processes and spatial patterns in forested landscapes is limited due to the scarcity of datasets providing such information. Here we present a spatially highly resolved dataset () that provides detailed information on the three-dimensional variability of biogeochemical properties in the Wüstebach catchment (western Germany), a long-term environmental observation site of the TERENO (Terrestrial Environmental Observatories) project...
January 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152441/the-identification-of-markers-for-geoforensic-hplc-profiling-at-close-proximity-sites
#11
G McCulloch, L A Dawson, M J Brewer, R M Morgan
Soil is a highly transferable source of trace physical material that is both persistent in the environment and varied in composition. This inherent variability can provide useful information to determine the geographical origin of a questioned sample or when comparing and excluding samples, since the composition of soil is dependent on geographical factors such as climate, bedrock geology and land use. Previous studies have limited forensic relevance due to the requirement for large sample amounts and unrealistic differences between the land use and geographical location of the sample sites...
January 17, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152404/effects-of-ca-addition-on-the-uptake-translocation-and-distribution-of-cd-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#12
Lihua Zeng, Ting Zhu, Ya Gao, Yutao Wang, Chanjuan Ning, Lars Olof Björn, Da Chen, Shaoshan Li
Cadmium (Cd) pollution poses a risk to human health for its accumulation in soil and crops, but this can be alleviated by calcium (Ca) addition. However, its mechanism remains unclear yet. In this study, Arabidopsis thaliana was used to explore the alleviating effects of Ca on Cd toxicity and its specific function during uptake, upward-translocation, and distribution of Cd. Supplementing plants with 5mM CaCl2 alleviated the intoxication symptoms caused by 50μM CdCl2, such as smaller leaves, early bolting and root browning...
January 31, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144874/tailoring-a-non-path-dependent-model-for-environmental-risk-management-and-polycentric-urban-land-use-planning
#13
Yousef Sakieh, Abdolrassoul Salmanmahiny, Seyed Hamed Mirkarimi
This study attempts to develop a non-path-dependent model for environmental risk management and polycentric urban land-use planning in Gorgan Township area, Iran. Applying three suitability layers of environmental risk (soil erosion, flood risk, fire risk, and land susceptibility), urbanization potential, and integrated surface (environmental risk plus urbanization potential layers), a non-path-dependent Cellular Automata-Markov Chain (CA-MC) model was configured to execute three scenarios of polycentric urban growth allocation...
February 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141711/an-8-year-old-boy-with-treatment-resistant-encopresis
#14
Martin T Stein, Marc A Benninga, Barbara T Felt
Paul is an 8-year-old boy with a long-standing history of encopresis and enuresis. Potty training was initiated when he was 2 years old. At this time, his mother was absent from the home for 6 weeks when she cared for her ill father in a different city. The process of teaching Paul to use the bathroom was described as "inconsistent" due to multiple caretakers.Paul never successfully mastered bowel and bladder control. He continues to wet and soil his clothes on a daily basis at home and school. According to his parents, he does not accept responsibility and comments about his soiling such as, "I didn't do it; someone else must have put it there...
February 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129622/quicklime-induced-changes-of-soil-properties-implications-for-enhanced-remediation-of-volatile-chlorinated-hydrocarbon-contaminated-soils-via-mechanical-soil-aeration
#15
Yan Ma, Binbin Dong, Xiaosong He, Yi Shi, Mingyue Xu, Xuwen He, Xiaoming Du, Fasheng Li
Mechanical soil aeration is used for soil remediation at sites contaminated by volatile organic compounds. However, the effectiveness of the method is limited by low soil temperature, high soil moisture, and high soil viscosity. Combined with mechanical soil aeration, quicklime has a practical application value related to reinforcement remediation and to its action in the remediation of soil contaminated with volatile organic compounds. In this study, the target pollutant was trichloroethylene, which is a volatile chlorinated hydrocarbon pollutant commonly found in contaminated soils...
January 16, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126033/cultural-significance-of-termites-in-sub-saharan-africa
#16
Arnold van Huis
BACKGROUND: The number of termite species in the world is more than 2500, and Africa with more than 1000 species has the richest intercontinental diversity. The family Termitidae contains builders of great mounds up to 5 m high. Colonies are composed of casts: a queen, a king, soldiers and workers. Some species of termite cultivate specialised fungi to digest cellulose. Termites constitute 10% of all animal biomass in the tropics. The purpose of the study was to make an overview of how termites are utilized, perceived and experienced in daily life across sub-Saharan Africa...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122736/seed-dormancy-breaking-in-a-cold-desert-shrub-in-relation-to-sand-temperature-and-moisture
#17
Huiliang Liu, Buhailiqiemu Abudureheman, Lingwei Zhang, Jerry M Baskin, Carol C Baskin, Daoyuan Zhang
Seasonal periodicity of seed germination and its relationship to seasonal changes in temperature and soil moisture have been well studied in seeds of species with physiological dormancy. However, relatively little information is available on the role of these environmental factors in controlling germination of seeds with physical dormancy (PY). Our primary aim was to determine if seeds of the cold desert sand dune semi-shrub Eremosparton songoricum exhibits seasonal periodicity of seed germination and the relationship between seed dormancy break and soil temperature and moisture...
January 24, 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120310/microbial-strategy-for-potential-lead-remediation-a-review-study
#18
REVIEW
Xiaohong Pan, Zhi Chen, Lan Li, Wenhua Rao, Zhangyan Xu, Xiong Guan
The extensive exploitation and usage of lead compounds result in severe lead(II) pollution in water and soil environments, even in agricultural land, threatening the health of animals and humans via food chains. The recovery and remediation of lead(II) from water and soil environments have been intensively concerned in recent years. Compared with the traditional physic-chemistry treatment, microbial remediation strategy is a promising alternative to remediate lead(II)-contaminated environments due to its cost-effective and environmentally-friendly properties...
February 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119004/contribution-of-raindrop-impact-to-the-change-of-soil-physical-properties-and-water-erosion-under-semi-arid-rainfalls
#19
Ali Reza Vaezi, Morvarid Ahmadi, Artemi Cerdà
Soil erosion by water is a three-phase process that consists of detachment of soil particles from the soil mass, transportation of detached particles either by raindrop impact or surface water flow, and sedimentation. Detachment by raindrops is a key component of the soil erosion process. However, little information is available on the role of raindrop impact on soil losses in the semi-arid regions where vegetation cover is often poor and does not protect the soil from rainfall. The objective of this study is to determine the contribution of raindrop impact to changes in soil physical properties and soil losses in a semiarid weakly-aggregated agricultural soil...
January 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114430/l-glutamine-induces-expression-of-listeria-monocytogenes-virulence-genes
#20
Adi Haber, Sivan Friedman, Lior Lobel, Tamar Burg-Golani, Nadejda Sigal, Jessica Rose, Nurit Livnat-Levanon, Oded Lewinson, Anat A Herskovits
The high environmental adaptability of bacteria is contingent upon their ability to sense changes in their surroundings. Bacterial pathogen entry into host poses an abrupt and dramatic environmental change, during which successful pathogens gauge multiple parameters that signal host localization. The facultative human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes flourishes in soil, water and food, and in ~50 different animals, and serves as a model for intracellular infection. L. monocytogenes identifies host entry by sensing both physical (e...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
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