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Soil physics

Sheikh M F Rabbi, Matthew K Tighe, Richard J Flavel, Brent N Kaiser, Chris N Guppy, Xiaoxian Zhang, Iain M Young
The mechanisms controlling the genesis of rhizosheaths are not well understood, despite their importance in controlling the flux of nutrients and water from soil to root. Here, we examine the development of rhizosheaths from drought-tolerant and drought-sensitive chickpea varieties; focusing on the three-dimensional characterization of the pore volume (> 16 μm voxel spatial resolution) obtained from X-ray microtomography, along with the characterization of mucilage and root hairs, and water sorption. We observe that drought-tolerant plants generate a larger diameter root, and a greater and more porous mass of rhizosheath, which also has a significantly increased water sorptivity, as compared with bulk soil...
May 18, 2018: New Phytologist
Tomas Erban, Martin Stehlik, Bruno Sopko, Martin Markovic, Marcela Seifrtova, Tatana Halesova, Pavel Kovaricek
The broad-spectrum herbicide glyphosate is one of the most widely used pesticides. Both glyphosate and its major metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), persist in waters; thus, their environmental fates are of interest. We investigated the influence of compost dose, sampling depth, moisture and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks ) on the persistence of these substances. The amounts of AMPA quantified by triple quadrupole liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-QqQ-MS/MS) using isotopically labeled extraction standards were higher than those of glyphosate and differed among the samples...
May 4, 2018: Chemosphere
Cagla Temiz, Gokhan Cayci
Alkali soils have undesirable properties for crop production. However, these problematic areas can be reclaimed and regained for cultivation. Mulch materials have been used in the past to decrease salinity damage in saline soils. But information about using mulch materials for alkali soil reclamation is rare. The aim of this study was to determine the combined effects of different levels of gypsum applied with straw or pumice mulch materials on the reclamation of an alkali soil. Results obtained from soil extracts during the leaching water cycles showed that gypsum and mulch materials caused significant differences in sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and electrical conductivity (EC) values...
May 17, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
D Charles Deeming
Testudines exhibit considerable variation in the degree of eggshell calcification, which affects eggshell conductance, water physiology of the embryos, and calcium metabolism of embryos. However, the underlying reason for different shell types has not been explored. Phylogenetically controlled analyses examined relationships between egg size, shell mass, and clutch size in ∼200 turtle species from a range of body sizes and assigned by family as laying either rigid- or pliable-shelled eggs. Shell type affected egg breadth relative to pelvic dimensions, egg mass, and relative shell mass but did not affect size, mass, or total shell mass of the clutch...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Marina Colzato, Luís Reynaldo Ferracciú Alleoni, Marcos Yassuo Kamogawa
The availability of cadmium (Cd) for plants and its impact in the environment depends on Cd sorption in soil colloids. The study of Cd sorption in soil and its fractionation is an interesting tool for the evaluation of Cd affinity with soil pools. The objective with this study was to evaluate Cd sorption and desorption in tropical soils with variable charge (three Oxisols), in a Mollisol and in two Entisols with diverse physical, chemical, and mineralogical attributes. We used a thermodynamic approach to evaluate Cd sorption and performed a chemical fractionation of Cd in the six soils...
May 14, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Woosuk Choi, Kwang-Yul Kim
Drought during the early vegetation growing season (spring through early summer) is a severe natural hazard in the large cropland over North America. Given the recent increasing severity of climate change manifested as surface warming, there has been a growing interest in how warming affects drought and the prospect of drought. Here we show the impact of boreal warming on the spring and early summer drought over North America using Cyclostationary Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis. Northern Hemispheric warming, the leading mode of the surface air temperature variability, has led to a decrease in precipitation, evaporation and moisture transport over the central plain of North America...
May 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jerzy Lipiec, Bogusław Usowicz
Sandy soils occupy large area in Poland (about 50%) and in the world. This study aimed at determining spatial relationships of cereal yields and the selected soil physical and chemical properties in three study years (2001-2003) on low productive sandy Podzol soil (Podlasie, Poland). The yields and soil properties in plough and subsoil layers were determined at 72-150 points. The test crops were: wheat, wheat and barley mixture and oats. To explore the spatial relationship between cereal yields and each soil property spatial statistics was used...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Xin Wen, Zhehua Liu, Xiaohui Lei, Rongjie Lin, Guohua Fang, Qiaofeng Tan, Chao Wang, Yu Tian, Jin Quan
The eco-hydrological system in southwestern China is undergoing great changes in recent decades owing to climate change and extensive cascading hydropower exploitation. With a growing recognition that multiple drivers often interact in complex and nonadditive ways, the purpose of this study is to predict the potential future changes in streamflow and fish habitat quality in the Yuan River and quantify the individual and cumulative effect of cascade damming and climate change. The bias corrected and spatial downscaled Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) General Circulation Model (GCM) projections are employed to drive the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) hydrological model and to simulate and predict runoff responses under diverse scenarios...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Haytham Ayoub, Mohamed Khairy, Salaheldeen Elsaid, Farouk Abdallah Rashwan, Hanan F Abdel-Hafezb
Herein, nanostructured metal oxides of essential soil nutrient elements (i. e. CuO and CaO) with definite shape and size were simply synthesized and their pesticidal activities against cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis) were explored for the first time. These metal oxide nanostructures represented novel economic and eco-friendly nano-pesticides for sustainable plant protection and might boost the nutrient content of soil. The results showed that CuO NPs and CaO NPs exhibited potential entomotoxic effects against S...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Sreejata Bandopadhyay, Lluis Martin-Closas, Ana M Pelacho, Jennifer M DeBruyn
Agricultural plastic mulch films are widely used in specialty crop production systems because of their agronomic benefits. Biodegradable plastic mulches (BDMs) offer an environmentally sustainable alternative to conventional polyethylene (PE) mulch. Unlike PE films, which need to be removed after use, BDMs are tilled into soil where they are expected to biodegrade. However, there remains considerable uncertainty about long-term impacts of BDM incorporation on soil ecosystems. BDMs potentially influence soil microbial communities in two ways: first, as a surface barrier prior to soil incorporation, indirectly affecting soil microclimate and atmosphere (similar to PE films) and second, after soil incorporation, as a direct input of physical fragments, which add carbon, microorganisms, additives, and adherent chemicals...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Magdalena Frąc, Silja E Hannula, Marta Bełka, Małgorzata Jędryczka
Soil health, and the closely related terms of soil quality and fertility, is considered as one of the most important characteristics of soil ecosystems. The integrated approach to soil health assumes that soil is a living system and soil health results from the interaction between different processes and properties, with a strong effect on the activity of soil microbiota. All soils can be described using physical, chemical, and biological properties, but adaptation to environmental changes, driven by the processes of natural selection, are unique to the latter one...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Mark Booth
Climate change is expected to impact across every domain of society, including health. The majority of the world's population is susceptible to pathological, infectious disease whose life cycles are sensitive to environmental factors across different physical phases including air, water and soil. Nearly all so-called neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) fall into this category, meaning that future geographic patterns of transmission of dozens of infections are likely to be affected by climate change over the short (seasonal), medium (annual) and long (decadal) term...
2018: Advances in Parasitology
Paulo Roberto da Rocha Junior, Felipe Vaz Andrade, Lucas Santos Satiro, Guilherme Kangussú Donagemma, Eduardo de Sá Mendonça
Few studies have shown the importance of different pasture management practices on C storage and the reduction of CO2 -C emissions in tropical conditions. The objective of the present study was to determine short-term changes in C pools and C balance from different pasture management practices established in the Atlantic Rainforest. A field study was carried out in Alegre, ES, Brazil from September 2013 to August 2014 to investigate the first-year effect of pasture management practices on a Udult clayey soil...
May 11, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
J W Sutherland, S A Norton, J W Short, C Navitsky
Road salt mitigates winter highway icing but accumulates in watershed soils and receiving waters, affecting soil chemistry and physical, biological, and ecological processes. Despite efforts to reduce salt loading in watersheds, accumulated cations and Cl- continue to impact tributaries and lakes, and the recovery process is not well understood. Lake George, New York (USA) is typical of many temperate lakes at risk for elevated Cl- concentrations from winter deicing; the lake salt concentration increased by ~3...
May 8, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Shengnan Hou, Na Zheng, Lin Tang, Xiaofeng Ji
A pot experiment was undertaken to investigate the effects of Cd and Cu mixtures to growth and nutrients (sugar, carotene or vitamin C) of carrot and pakchoi under greenhouse cultivation condition. The study included: (a) physical-chemical properties of soil and soil animals in response to Cd and Cu stress; (b) bioaccumulation of heavy metals, length, biomass, contents of sugar and carotene (vitamin C) of carrot and pakchoi; (c) estimation the effects of Cd and Cu mixtures by multivariate regression analysis...
May 8, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Alfred Obia, Jan Mulder, Sarah Elizabeth Hale, Neneng Laela Nurida, Gerard Cornelissen
Heavy clay soils are globally widespread but their poor drainage and poor aeration limit their use for agriculture. This study was designed to test the effect of the amendment of biochar (BC) from woody shrubs on drainage/saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat), soil aeration/air capacity, available water capacity and biomass and grain yields of maize. In a field experiment, BC from Gliricidia sepium was applied in planting basins or rip lines at 2.5% and 5% w/w in addition to a control without BC. The maize biomass and grain yields were higher in BC treated plots compared to control (p<0...
2018: PloS One
Ya Shao, Chongfa Cai, Haitao Zhang, Wei Fu, Xuemei Zhong, Shen Tang
Selenium (Se) is an essential nutritional element for human beings. Many studies have been conducted on concentration and distribution patterns of soil Se in low Se, Se-enriched, and selenosis areas; however, soil Se has not been systematically studied in a watershed, especially in Se-enriched longevity region and karst area in South China. This study is carried out to explore the controlling factors of Se-enriched soils in Baishou river tributary watershed, where soils are Se-enriched, and local people have the phenomenon of longevity...
May 10, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jian Qun Miao, Zhi Qiang Wang, Wen Ting Yang, Song Sun, Guo Qin Huang
An economic evaluation of the main ecosystem services of Chongyi Hakka Terraces can help to demonstrate the contributions of the terrace system to Hakka society, on the basis of which the protection of Hakka Terrace system could be undertaken by the local government. In view of the social and economic characteristics of Chongyi Hakka Terrace ecosystem and its location, an index system was established to evaluate the service function, and a qualitative analysis was conducted for these functions and their importance...
May 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Yi Kun Wang, Ai Wu Jin, Sheng Zuo Fang
Soil infiltration, soil physical and chemical properties, root length density and soil fauna diversity were studied in Phyllostachys heterocycla forests with different mulching times in southwest Zhejiang Province, China. Significant differences of soil infiltration capability were found among the forests with different mulching times and among soil layers. Soil infiltration capability generally declined in the deeper soil layers. With mulching management, soil infiltration capability increased under the first mulching, and then declined with the increase of mulching times...
May 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Ingrid Errington, Catherine K King, Sarah Houlahan, Simon C George, Alexander Michie, Grant C Hose
Soil health is important for the functioning of all terrestrial ecosystems, but may be impacted by contamination. Soil contamination may in turn necessitate rehabilitation and remediation works, but many of the techniques currently used cause physical disturbance to the soil structure, which may in itself affect soil assemblages. An understanding of the relative influence of these two types of disturbance on soil biota is needed to inform in situ remediation activities. Subantarctic Macquarie Island provides an ideal location to study these interactions because soil biodiversity is naturally low and a number of diesel spills have undergone active in situ remediation in recent years...
April 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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