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Soil physics

Khaled Brimo, Patricia Garnier, François Lafolie, Geoffroy Séré, Stéphanie Ouvrard
Management and remediation actions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) contaminated sites require an accurate knowledge of the dynamics of these chemicals in situ under real conditions. Here we developed, under the Virtual Soil Platform, a global model for PAH that describes the principal physical and biological processes controlling the dynamics of PAH in soil under real climatic conditions. The model was applied first to simulate the observed dynamics of phenanthrene in situ field experimental plots of industrial contaminated soil...
November 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Indrani Sarkar, Louis S Tisa, Maher Gtari, Arnab Sen
Amino acid and protein biosynthesis requires a number of high energy phosphate bonds and includes a dual energy cost for the synthesis of chemical intermediates during the fueling reactions and the conversion of precursor molecules to final products. One popular hypothesis is that the proteins encoded by putative highly expressed genes (hence called PHXPs) generally utilize low energy consuming amino acids to reduce the biosynthetic cost of the essential proteins. In our study, we found that this idea was not supported in the case of actinobacteria...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Stephen Sifuna Wefwafwa Sakari, Amos K Mbugua, Gerald M Mkoji
Intestinal parasitic infections can significantly contribute to the burden of disease, may cause nutritional and energetic stress, and negatively impact the quality of life in low income countries of the world. This cross-sectional study done in Mwea irrigation scheme, in Kirinyaga, central Kenya, assessed the public health significance of soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH), schistosomiasis, and other intestinal parasitic infections, among 361 preschool age children (PSAC) through fecal examination, by measuring anthropometric indices, and through their parents/guardians, by obtaining sociodemographic information...
2017: Journal of Tropical Medicine
Kristin Aleklett, E Toby Kiers, Pelle Ohlsson, Thomas S Shimizu, Victor Ea Caldas, Edith C Hammer
Soil is likely the most complex ecosystem on earth. Despite the global importance and extraordinary diversity of soils, they have been notoriously challenging to study. We show how pioneering microfluidic techniques provide new ways of studying soil microbial ecology by allowing simulation and manipulation of chemical conditions and physical structures at the microscale in soil model habitats.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 14 November 2017; doi:10.1038/ismej.2017.184.
November 14, 2017: ISME Journal
L Hodgkinson, I C Dodd, A Binley, R W Ashton, R P White, C W Watts, W R Whalley
This work compared root length distributions of different winter wheat genotypes with soil physical measurements, in attempting to explain the relationship between root length density and soil depth. Field experiments were set up to compare the growth of various wheat lines, including near isogenic lines (Rht-B1a Tall NIL and Rht-B1c Dwarf NIL) and wheat lines grown commercially (cv. Battalion, Hystar Hybrid, Istabraq, and Robigus). Experiments occurred in two successive years under rain fed conditions. Soil water content, temperature and penetrometer resistance profiles were measured, and soil cores taken to estimate vertical profiles of pore distribution, and root number with the core-break method and by root washing...
November 2017: European Journal of Agronomy: the Journal of the European Society for Agronomy
José R Verdú, Jorge M Lobo, Francisco Sánchez-Piñero, Belén Gallego, Catherine Numa, Jean-Pierre Lumaret, Vieyle Cortez, Antonio J Ortiz, Mattia Tonelli, Juan P García-Teba, Ana Rey, Alexandra Rodríguez, Jorge Durán
Ivermectin is the most common endectocide used to control parasites affecting livestock. Short-term physiological and behavioural effects of ivermectin on dung beetles may have long-term consequences for beetle populations and ecosystem functioning. Long-term effects of the use of ivermectin can be estimated by comparing dung assemblages and ecosystem functions in areas with conventional ivermectin-treated livestock and environmentally similar areas in which livestock are not treated with veterinary medical products (organic farming)...
November 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Jing He, Derong Su, Shihai Lv, Zhaoyan Diao, He Bu, Qiang Wo
Phosphorus (P) loss with surface runoff accounts for the P input to and acceleration of eutrophication of the freshwater. Many studies have focused on factors affecting P loss with surface runoff from soils, but rarely on the relationship among these factors. In the present study, rainfall simulation on P loss with surface runoff was conducted in Huihe National Nature Reserve, in Hulunbeier grassland, China, and the relationships between P loss with surface runoff, soil properties, and rainfall conditions were examined...
November 9, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Anna Burger, Irene Lichtscheidl
Radiocesium in water, soil, and air represents a severe threat to human health and the environment. It either acts directly on living organisms from external sources, or it becomes incorporated through the food chain, or both. Plants are at the base of the food chain; it is therefore essential to understand the mechanisms of plants for cesium retention and uptake. In this review we summarize investigations about sources of stable and radioactive cesium in the environment and harmful effects caused by internal and external exposure of plants to radiocesium...
November 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Bryndís Marteinsdóttir, Kristín Svavarsdóttir, Thóra Ellen Thórhallsdóttir
Initial plant establishment is one of the most critical phases in ecosystem development, where an early suite of physical (environmental filtering), biological (seed limitation, species interactions) and stochastic factors may affect successional trajectories and rates. While functional traits are commonly used to study processes that influence plant community assembly in late successional communities, few studies have applied them to primary succession. The objective here was to determine the importance of these factors in shaping early plant community assembly on a glacial outwash plain, Skeiðarársandur, in SE Iceland using a trait based approach...
November 9, 2017: Ecology
Ognjen Žurovec, Bishal Kumar Sitaula, Hamid Čustović, Jasminka Žurovec, Peter Dörsch
Conservation tillage is expected to have a positive effect on soil physical properties, soil Carbon (C) storage, while reducing fuel, labour and machinery costs. However, reduced tillage could increase soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and offset the expected gains from increased C sequestration. To date, conservation tillage is barely practiced or studied in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH). Here, we report a field study on the short-term effects of reduced (RT) and no tillage (NT) on N2O emission dynamics, yield-scaled N2O emissions, soil structure and the economics of cereal production, as compared with conventional tillage (CT)...
2017: PloS One
Sumeeta Khurana, Shveta Sethi
Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) include, i.e., hookworms (Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus), roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides), whipworm (Trichuris trichiura) and Strongyloides stercoralis. Globally, around 1.5 billion people are infected with STHs. STHs contribute to significant impairment of mental and physical growth, especially in developing countries. Unfortunately, these infections mostly remain undiagnosed due to lack of trained personnel and appropriate technologies. Intermittent shedding of eggs or larvae further makes the diagnosis difficult...
July 2017: Tropical Parasitology
Daoyuan Wang, Steven J Fonte, Sanjai J Parikh, Johan Six, Kate M Scow
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2017: Geoderma
A Peyton Smith, Ben Bond-Lamberty, Brian W Benscoter, Malak M Tfaily, C Ross Hinkle, Chongxuan Liu, Vanessa L Bailey
Droughts and other extreme precipitation events are predicted to increase in intensity, duration, and extent, with uncertain implications for terrestrial carbon (C) sequestration. Soil wetting from above (precipitation) results in a characteristically different pattern of pore-filling than wetting from below (groundwater), with larger, well-connected pores filling before finer pore spaces, unlike groundwater rise in which capillary forces saturate the finest pores first. Here we demonstrate that pore-scale wetting patterns interact with antecedent soil moisture conditions to alter pore-scale, core-scale, and field-scale C dynamics...
November 6, 2017: Nature Communications
Joji Abraham, Kim Dowling, Singarayer Florentine
Conducting controlled burns in fire prone areas is an efficient and economic method for forest management, and provides relief from the incidence of high severity wild fires and the consequent damage to human property and ecosystems. However, similar to wild fires, controlled burns also affect many of the physical and biogeochemical properties of the forest soil and may facilitate remobilization of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) sequestered in vegetation and soil organic matter. The objective of the current study is to investigate the mobilization of PTEs, in Central Victorian forest soils in Australia after a controlled burn...
October 26, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Cristina Santín, Xose L Otero, Stefan H Doerr, Chris J Chafer
This study examines the direct impact of a moderate/high-severity prescribed fire on phosphorous (P) stocks and partitioning in oligotrophic soils of a dry eucalypt forest within Sydney's water supply catchments, Australia. We also quantify and characterize the P present in the ash produced in this fire, and explore its relationships with the maximum temperatures recorded in the litter layer during the burn. In these oligotrophic soils, P concentrations were already relatively low before the fire (<130mgkg(-1), mainly in organic forms)...
November 2, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Huan Liu, Xu Zhang, Hao Zhang, Xiangwu Yao, Meng Zhou, Jiaqi Wang, Zhanfei He, Huihui Zhang, Liping Lou, Weihua Mao, Ping Zheng, Baolan Hu
In recent years, air pollution events have occurred frequently in China during the winter. Most studies have focused on the physical and chemical composition of polluted air. Some studies have examined the bacterial bioaerosols both indoors and outdoors. But few studies have focused on the relationship between air pollution and bacteria, especially pathogenic bacteria. Airborne PM samples with different diameters and different air quality index values were collected in Hangzhou, China from December 2014 to January 2015...
November 1, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Khaled Brimo, Stéphanie Ouvrard, Sabine Houot, François Lafolie, Patricia Garnier
A new model that was able to simulate the behaviours of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) during composting and after the addition of the composts to agricultural soil is presented here. This model associates modules that describe the physical, biological and biochemical processes involved in PAH dynamics in soils, along with a module describing the compost degradation resulting in PAH release. The model was calibrated from laboratory incubations using three (14)C-PAHs, phenanthrene, fluoranthene and benzo(a)pyrene, and three different composts consisting of two mature and one non-mature composts...
October 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
J R Helliwell, C J Sturrock, S Mairhofer, J Craigon, R W Ashton, A J Miller, W R Whalley, S J Mooney
The rhizosphere is the zone of soil influenced by a plant root and is critical for plant health and nutrient acquisition. All below ground resources must pass through this dynamic zone prior to their capture by plant roots. However, researching the undisturbed rhizosphere has proved very challenging. Here we compare the temporal changes to the intact rhizosphere pore structure during the emergence of a developing root system in different soils. High resolution X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) was used to quantify the impact of root development on soil structural change, at scales relevant to individual micro-pores and aggregates (µm)...
November 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
Luca Schenato, Luca Palmieri, Matteo Camporese, Silvia Bersan, Simonetta Cola, Alessandro Pasuto, Andrea Galtarossa, Paolo Salandin, Paolo Simonini
A distributed optical fibre sensing system is used to measure landslide-induced strains on an optical fibre buried in a large scale physical model of a slope. The fibre sensing cable is deployed at the predefined failure surface and interrogated by means of optical frequency domain reflectometry. The strain evolution is measured with centimetre spatial resolution until the occurrence of the slope failure. Standard legacy sensors measuring soil moisture and pore water pressure are installed at different depths and positions along the slope for comparison and validation...
October 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
H Shirani, S J Hosseinifard, H Hashemipour
Cadmium (Cd) which does not have a biological role is one of the most toxic heavy metals for organisms. This metal enters environment through industrial processes and fertilizers. The main objective of this study was to determine the relationships between absorbed Cd by pistachio kernel and some of soil physical and chemical characteristics using modeling by stepwise regression and Artificial Neural Network (ANN), in calcareous soils in Rafsanjan region, southeast of Iran. For these purposes, 220 pistachio orchards were selected, and soil samples were taken from two depths of 0-40 and 40-80cm...
October 28, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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