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Soil physics

J O Frimpong, E S K Ofori, S Yeboah, D Marri, B K Offei, F Apaatah, J O Sintim, E Ofori-Ayeh, M Osae
This study evaluated three herbicides active ingredients: Paraquat, Glyphosate and 2,4-D Amine in commercial formulations as Frankoquat, Roundup and Agriherb respectively under field conditions to determine their influence on soil dwelling macrobes and the physical state of soil. Herbicides were serially diluted to three treatment concentrations for each plus three controls. Herbicide concentrations were applied to the demarcated field on three consecutive occasions in splits. Macrobes extraction from soil was done under a stereo microscope at 20 × magnification...
March 15, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
D Roorda, M J Witvliet, L M Wellens, D V Schulten, C E J Sloots, I de Blaauw, P M A Broens, J Oosterlaan, L W E van Heurn, A F W van der Steeg
AIM: Total colonic aganglionosis (TCA) is a severe form of Hirschsprung's Disease (HD) associated with a high morbidity. This study assesses long-term functional outcome and Quality of Life (QoL) of TCA patients in a national consecutive cohort. METHODS: Medical records of all patients (n=53) diagnosed between 1995 and 2015 were reviewed on surgical and demographic characteristics. Functional outcome of all non-syndromal patients, aged ≥ four years (n=35) was assessed in medical records and with a questionnaire...
March 15, 2018: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
Mohammad Hajigholizadeh, Assefa M Melesse, Hector R Fuentes
The erosion and sediment transport processes in shallow waters, which are discussed in this paper, begin when water droplets hit the soil surface. The transport mechanism caused by the consequent rainfall-runoff process determines the amount of generated sediment that can be transferred downslope. Many significant studies and models are performed to investigate these processes, which differ in terms of their effecting factors, approaches, inputs and outputs, model structure and the manner that these processes represent...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Nestor D Ortega-de la Rosa, Jose L Vázquez-Vázquez, Sergio Huerta-Ochoa, Miquel Gimeno, Mariano Gutiérrez-Rojas
Acinetobacter species are identified as producing surface-active and emulsifying molecules known as bioemulsifiers. Production, characterization and stability of bioemulsifiers produced by Acinetobacter bouvetii UAM25 were studied. A. bouvetii UAM25 grew in three different carbon and energy sources: ethanol, a glycerol-hexadecane mixture and waste cooking oil in an airlift bioreactor, showing that bioemulsifier production was growth associated. The three purified bioemulsifiers were lipo-heteropolysaccharides of high molecular weight (4866 ± 533 and 462 ± 101 kDa)...
March 14, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Katharine L Cary, Jarmila Pittermann
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The pygmy forest, a plant community of severely stunted conifers and ericaceous angiosperms, occurs on patches of highly acidic, nutrient-poor soils along the coast of Northern California, USA. This system is an excellent opportunity to study the effect of severe nutrient deficiency on leaf physiology in a naturally-occurring ecosystem. In this study, we seek to understand the physiological mechanisms stunting the plants' growth and their implications for whole plant function...
January 2018: American Journal of Botany
Baoli Fan, Allen David McHugh, Shujiang Guo, Quanlin Ma, Jianhui Zhang, Xiaojuan Zhang, Weixing Zhang, Juan Du, Qiushi Yu, Changming Zhao
Calligonum mongolicum is a successful pioneer shrub to combat desertification, which is widely used for vegetation restoration in the desert regions of northwest China. In order to reveal the limitations to natural regeneration of C. mongolicum by asexual and sexual reproduction, following the process of sand dune stabilization, we assessed clonal shoots, seedling emergence, soil seed bank density, and soil physical characteristics in mobile and stabilized sand dunes. Controlled field and pot experiments were also conducted to assess germination and seedling emergence in different dune soil types and seed burial depths...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Naoya Yamaguchi, Shinya Anraku, Erwan Paineau, Cyrus R Safinya, Patrick Davidson, Laurent J Michot, Nobuyoshi Miyamoto
Exploring the interaction of nucleic acids with clay minerals is important to understand such issues as the persistence in soils of biomolecules and the appearance of genetic polymers in prebiotic environments. Colloidal dispersions of double stranded DNA and clay nanosheets may also provide interesting model systems to study the statistical physics of mixtures of semi-flexible rods and plates. Here, we show that adding very small amounts of DNA to liquid-crystalline montmorillonite and beidellite smectite clay suspensions strongly widens the isotropic/nematic phase coexistence region...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Verónica Poza-Nogueiras, Emilio Rosales, Marta Pazos, M Ángeles Sanromán
Over the last decades, advanced oxidation processes have often been used alone, or combined with other techniques, for remediation of ground and surface water pollutants. The application of heterogeneous catalysis to electrochemical advanced oxidation processes is especially useful due to its efficiency and environmental safety. Among those processes, electro-Fenton stands out as the one in which heterogeneous catalysis has been broadly applied. Thus, this review has introduced an up-to-date collation of the current knowledge of the heterogeneous electro-Fenton process, highlighting recent advances in the use of different catalysts such as iron minerals (pyrite, magnetite or goethite), prepared catalysts by the load of metals in inorganic and organic materials, nanoparticles, and the inclusion of catalysts on the cathode...
March 2, 2018: Chemosphere
T Trinh, M L Kavvas, K Ishida, A Ercan, Z Q Chen, M L Anderson, C Ho, T Nguyen
Soil properties play an important role in watershed hydrology and environmental modeling. In order to model realistic hydrologic processes, it is necessary to obtain compatible soil data. This study introduces a new method that integrates global soil databases with land use/land cover (LULC) databases to better represent saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) which is one of the most important soil properties in hydrologic modeling. The Ks is modified by means of uniting physical infiltration mechanisms with hydrologic soil-LULC complexes from lookup tables from USDA-SCS (1985)...
March 8, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Blanca Vera-Gargallo, Antonio Ventosa
Hypersaline environments encompass aquatic and terrestrial habitats. While only a limited number of studies on the microbial diversity of saline soils have been carried out, hypersaline lakes and marine salterns have been thoroughly investigated, resulting in an aquatic-biased knowledge about life in hypersaline environments. To improve our understanding of the assemblage of microbes thriving in saline soils, we assessed the phylogenetic diversity and metabolic potential of the prokaryotic community of two hypersaline soils (with electrical conductivities of ~24 and 55 dS/m) from the Odiel saltmarshes (Spain) by metagenomics...
March 8, 2018: Genes
Maria Myrstener, Gerard Rocher-Ros, Ryan M Burrows, Ann-Kristin Bergström, Reiner Giesler, Ryan A Sponseller
Climate change is rapidly reshaping arctic landscapes through shifts in vegetation cover and productivity, soil resource mobilization, and hydrological regimes. The implications of these changes for stream ecosystems and food webs is unclear and will depend largely on microbial biofilm responses to concurrent shifts in temperature, light, and resource supply from land. To study those responses, we used nutrient diffusing substrates to manipulate resource supply to biofilm communities along regional gradients in stream temperature, riparian shading, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) loading in arctic Sweden...
March 8, 2018: Global Change Biology
Ulas Karaoz, Estelle Couradeau, Ulisses Nunes da Rocha, Hsiao-Chien Lim, Trent Northen, Ferran Garcia-Pichel, Eoin L Brodie
Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) account for a substantial portion of primary production in dryland ecosystems. They successionally mature to deliver a suite of ecosystem services, such as carbon sequestration, water retention and nutrient cycling, and climate regulation. Biocrust assemblages are extremely well adapted to survive desiccation and to rapidly take advantage of the periodic precipitation events typical of arid ecosystems. Here we focus on the wetting response of incipient cyanobacterial crusts as they mature from "light" to "dark...
March 6, 2018: MBio
Lingbin Yang, Guoqing Sun, Lu Zhi, Jianjun Zhao
Soil moisture-precipitation (SM-P) feedback significantly influences the terrestrial water and energy cycles. However, the sign of the feedback and the associated physical mechanism have been debated, leaving a research gap regarding global water and climate changes. Based on Koster's framework, we estimate SM-P feedback using satellite remote sensing and ground observation data sets. Methodologically, the sign of the feedback is identified by the correlation between monthly soil moisture and next-month precipitation...
March 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Gabriella Rossi, Claudio Beni
The organic fraction of sewage sludge administered to agricultural soil can contribute to slowing down the loss of soil's organic carbon and, in some cases, can improve the physical and mechanical properties of the soil. One of the main constraints to the agricultural use of sewage sludge is its heavy metals content. In the long term, agricultural administration of sewage sludge to soil could enhance the concentration of soil heavy metals (as total and bioavailable fractions). The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of medium-term fertilization with diversely processed sewage sludge on the soil's organic carbon content and humification-mineralization processes, on the physical-mechanical properties of soil and their influence on the pool of potentially bioavailable heavy metals, in order to assess their effectiveness as soil organic amendments...
March 2, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Ekaterina A Loshchinina, Elena P Vetchinkina, Maria A Kupryashina, Viktor F Kursky, Valentina E Nikitina
We examined the effect of various concentrations of HAuCl4 , AgNO3 , Na2 SeO3 , Na2 SiO3 , and GeO2 on mycelial growth of the soil basidiomycetes Agaricus bisporus and A. arvensis in submerged and solid media. Fungal mycelial extracts and cell-free culture filtrates were able to reduce ions of Au, Ag, Se, Si, and Ge compounds, forming Au0 , Ag0 , Se0 , Si0 /SiO2 and Ge0 /GeO2 nanoparticles. The physical characteristics of the mycogenic nanoparticles differed depending on the species of Agaricus and the type of extract...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Tianjie Shao, Lihuan Pan, Zhiqing Chen, Ruiyuan Wang, Wenjing Li, Qing Qin, Yuran He
Taking Yanta District in Xi'an as the research object, the present study measures the contents of Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb), Copper (Cu), Nickel (Ni), and Chromium (Cr) in dust samples and further assesses the health risk of heavy metals intake through dust based on the assessment method of human exposure risk proposed by U.S. EPA, with an aim to investigate the content of heavy metal in the dust of leisure squares and its exposure risk. As the results indicate, the average contents of five heavy metals are obviously higher than the soil background value in Shaanxi Province...
February 25, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
C Subathra Devi, V Mohanasrinivasan, Priyanka Devi Verma, Shruthi Chaterjee, S Merlyn Keziah
Fibrinolytic enzymes must currently originate a significant product in the arena of medical research. Very limited studies are stated on fibrinolyticenzyme production from actinomycetes.Streptomyces sp. isolated from marine soil was chosen to optimize its fibrinolytic protease production. 16s rRNA sequencing confirmed the isolated potent strain to be Streptomyces rubiginosus VITPSSM. A fibrinolytic protease was then purified from Streptomyces rubiginosus VITPSSM, with the target of producing a cost effective feasible enzyme from a potential actinomycete...
February 26, 2018: Cardiovascular & Hematological Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Edyta Hewelke, Jan Szatyłowicz, Piotr Hewelke, Tomasz Gnatowski, Rufat Aghalarov
The contamination of soil with petroleum products is a major environmental problem. Petroleum products are common soil contaminants as a result of human activities, and they are causing substantial changes in the biological (particularly microbiological) processes, chemical composition, structure and physical properties of soil. The main objective of this study was to assess the impact of soil moisture on CO2 efflux from diesel-contaminated albic podzol soils. Two contamination treatments (3000 and 9000 mg of diesel oil per kg of soil) were prepared for four horizons from two forest study sites with different initial levels of soil water repellency...
2018: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Tongtong Zhou, Jun Wang, Zhiqiang Ma, Zhongkun Du, Cheng Zhang, Lusheng Zhu, Jinhua Wang
Ionic liquids (ILs), also called room temperature ILs, are widely applied in many fields on the basis of their unique physical and chemical properties. However, numerous ILs may be released into and gradually accumulate in the environment due to their extensive use and absolute solubility. The effects of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium nitrate ([Cn mim]NO3 , n = 4, 6, 8) on soil pH, conductivity, cation exchange capacity, microbial biomass carbon, and microbial biomass nitrogen were examined at the doses of 1, 10, and 100 mg/kg on days 10, 20, 30, and 40...
February 24, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
A S Krivobok, Yu A Berkovich, V A Shcherbakova, N A Chuvilskaya
One way to cut consumables for space plant growth facilities (PGF) with artificial soil in the form of fibrous ion-exchange resin substrate (FIERS) is on-board regeneration of the used medium. After crop harvest the procedure includes removal of the roots from the fibrous media with preservation of the exchanger properties and capillary structure. One type of FIERS, namely BIONA-V3ۛ, has been used in Russian prototypes of space conveyors. We describe a two-stage treatment of BIONA-V3ۛ including primary microwave heating of the used FIERS until (90 ± 5) °C in alkali-peroxide solution during 3...
February 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
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