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Soil physics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813428/soil-features-in-rookeries-of-antarctic-penguins-reveal-sea-to-land-biotransport-of-chemical-pollutants
#1
Anna C Santamans, Rafael Boluda, Antonio Picazo, Carlos Gil, Joaquín Ramos-Miras, Pablo Tejedo, Luis R Pertierra, Javier Benayas, Antonio Camacho
The main soil physical-chemical features, the concentrations of a set of pollutants, and the soil microbiota linked to penguin rookeries have been studied in 10 selected sites located at the South Shetland Islands and the Antarctic Peninsula (Maritime Antarctica). This study aims to test the hypothesis that biotransport by penguins increases the concentration of pollutants, especially heavy metals, in Antarctic soils, and alters its microbiota. Our results show that penguins do transport certain chemical elements and thus cause accumulation in land areas through their excreta...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812698/urbanization-erodes-ectomycorrhizal-fungal-diversity-and-may-cause-microbial-communities-to-converge
#2
Dietrich J Epp Schmidt, Richard Pouyat, Katalin Szlavecz, Heikki Setälä, D Johan Kotze, Ian Yesilonis, Sarel Cilliers, Erzsébet Hornung, Miklós Dombos, Stephanie A Yarwood
Urbanization alters the physicochemical environment, introduces non-native species and causes ecosystem characteristics to converge. It has been speculated that these alterations contribute to loss of regional and global biodiversity, but so far most urban studies have assessed macro-organisms and reported mixed evidence for biodiversity loss. We studied five cities on three continents to assess the global convergence of urban soil microbial communities. We determined the extent to which communities of bacteria, archaea and fungi are geographically distributed, and to what extent urbanization acts as a filter on species diversity...
April 10, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811756/pseudomonas-oleovorans-strain-kbpf-004-culture-supernatants-reduced-seed-transmission-of-cucumber-green-mottle-mosaic-virus-and-pepper-mild-mottle-virus-and-remodeled-aggregation-of-126-kda-and-subcellular-localization-of-movement-protein-of-pepper-mild-mottle
#3
Nam-Gyu Kim, Eun-Young Seo, Sang-Hyuk Han, Jun-Su Gong, Cheol-Nam Park, Ho-Seop Park, Leslie L Domier, John Hammond, Hyoun-Sub Lim
Efforts to control viral diseases in crop production include several types of physical or chemical treatments; antiviral extracts of a number of plants have also been examined to inhibit plant viral infection. However, treatments utilizing naturally selected microorganisms with activity against plant viruses are poorly documented. Here we report isolation of a soil inhabiting bacterium, Pseudomonas oleovorans strain KBPF-004 (developmental code KNF2016) which showed antiviral activity against mechanical transmission of tobamoviruses...
August 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810996/rhabdomyolysis-after-crawling-military-training
#4
Danit Atias-Varon, Haggai Sherman, Ran Yanovich, Yuval Heled
INTRODUCTION: Rhabdomyolysis is a syndrome characterized by muscle necrosis followed by release of intracellular muscle contents into the circulation. Exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) occurs in response to nonfamiliar and/or excessive, prolonged, or repetitive exercises, with eccentric characteristics. In military populations, due to the type of intense, all out physical loads, ER is a significant threat, particularly when training under heat stress. However, many other etiologies exist, and clinical presentations vary greatly...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806679/development-of-a-predictive-model-for-lead-cadmium-and-fluorine-soil-water-partition-coefficients-using-sparse-multiple-linear-regression-analysis
#5
Kengo Nakamura, Tetsuo Yasutaka, Tatsu Kuwatani, Takeshi Komai
In this study, we applied sparse multiple linear regression (SMLR) analysis to clarify the relationships between soil properties and adsorption characteristics for a range of soils across Japan and identify easily-obtained physical and chemical soil properties that could be used to predict K and n values of cadmium, lead and fluorine. A model was first constructed that can easily predict the K and n values from nine soil parameters (pH, cation exchange capacity, specific surface area, total carbon, soil organic matter from loss on ignition and water holding capacity, the ratio of sand, silt and clay)...
July 26, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806549/liming-impacts-on-soils-crops-and-biodiversity-in-the-uk-a-review
#6
REVIEW
J E Holland, A E Bennett, A C Newton, P J White, B M McKenzie, T S George, R J Pakeman, J S Bailey, D A Fornara, R C Hayes
Fertile soil is fundamental to our ability to achieve food security, but problems with soil degradation (such as acidification) are exacerbated by poor management. Consequently, there is a need to better understand management approaches that deliver multiple ecosystem services from agricultural land. There is global interest in sustainable soil management including the re-evaluation of existing management practices. Liming is a long established practice to ameliorate acidic soils and many liming-induced changes are well understood...
August 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803694/shaping-an-optimal-soil-by-root-soil-interaction
#7
REVIEW
Kemo Jin, Philip J White, William R Whalley, Jianbo Shen, Lei Shi
Crop production depends on the availability of water and mineral nutrients, and increased yields might be facilitated by a greater focus on roots-soil interactions. Soil properties affecting plant growth include drought, compaction, nutrient deficiency, mineral toxicity, salinity, and submergence. Plant roots respond to the soil environment both spatially and temporally by avoiding stressful soil environments and proliferating in more favorable environments. We observe that crops can be bred for specific root architectural and biochemical traits that facilitate soil exploration and resource acquisition, enabling greater crop yields...
August 10, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798760/striking-the-right-chord-signaling-enigma-during-root-gravitropism
#8
REVIEW
Manjul Singh, Aditi Gupta, Ashverya Laxmi
Plants being sessile can often be judged as passive acceptors of their environment. However, plants are actually even more active in responding to the factors from their surroundings. Plants do not have eyes, ears or vestibular system like animals, still they "know" which way is up and which way is down? This is facilitated by receptor molecules within plant which perceive changes in internal and external conditions such as light, touch, obstacles; and initiate signaling pathways that enable the plant to react...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798755/pearl-millet-genetic-traits-shape-rhizobacterial-diversity-and-modulate-rhizosphere-aggregation
#9
Papa M S Ndour, Mariama Gueye, Mohamed Barakat, Philippe Ortet, Marie Bertrand-Huleux, Anne-Laure Pablo, Damien Dezette, Lydie Chapuis-Lardy, Komi Assigbetsé, Ndjido Ardo Kane, Yves Vigouroux, Wafa Achouak, Ibrahima Ndoye, Thierry Heulin, Laurent Cournac
Root exudation contributes to soil carbon allocation and also to microbial C and energy supply, which subsequently impacts soil aggregation around roots. Biologically-driven soil structural formation is an important driver of soil fertility. Plant genetic determinants of exudation and more generally of factors promoting rhizosphere soil aggregation are largely unknown. Here, we characterized rhizosphere aggregation in a panel of 86 pearl millet inbred lines using a ratio of root-adhering soil dry mass per root tissue dry mass (RAS/RT)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797944/siderophore-mediated-iron-removal-from-chrysotile-implications-for-asbestos-toxicity-reduction-and-bioremediation
#10
Sanjay K Mohanty, Cedric Gonneau, Ashkan Salamatipour, Ralph A Pietrofesa, Brenda Casper, Melpo Christofidou-Solomidou, Jane K Willenbring
Asbestos fibers are highly toxic (Group 1 carcinogen) due to their high aspect ratio, durability, and the presence of iron. In nature, plants, fungi, and microorganisms release exudates, which can alter the physical and chemical properties of soil minerals including asbestos minerals. We examined whether exudates from bacteria and fungi at environmentally relevant concentrations can alter chrysotile, the most widely used asbestos mineral, and lower its toxicity. We monitored the release of iron from chrysotile in the presence of organic acid ligands and iron-specific siderophores derived from bacteria and fungi and measured any change in fiber toxicity toward peritoneal macrophages harvested from mice...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794994/laboratory-investigation-of-steam-transmission-in-unsaturated-clayey-soil-under-osmotic-potential
#11
Mehdi Jalili, Mahmoud Nikkhah Shahmirzadi, Mahdi Kaseb Hazrati, Hamed Ahmadi
Liquids coming from different sources like wastewaters, agricultural and industrial activities and leakages of chemical substances often have high concentration of chemical compositions and the osmotic gradient generated around such sources causes a considerable transmission of the Contamination. The steam transmitted by non-polluted soils moves to polluted masses, causing an increase in the volume of pollution zone and movement of pollutants. Therefore, such physical and chemical processes should be taken into account in pollution transmission models...
2017: MethodsX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783789/long-term-effects-of-organic-waste-fertilizers-on-soil-structure-tracer-transport-and-leaching-of-colloids
#12
Jonas Duus Stevens Lekfeldt, Charlotte Kjaergaard, Jakob Magid
Organic waste fertilizers have previously been observed to significantly affect soil organic carbon (SOC) content and soil structure. However, the effect of organic waste fertilizers on colloid dispersibility and leaching of colloids from topsoil has not yet been studied extensively. We investigated how the repeated application of different types of agricultural (liquid cattle slurry and solid cattle manure) and urban waste fertilizers (sewage sludge and composted organic household waste) affected soil physical properties, colloid dispersion from aggregates, tracer transport, and colloid leaching from intact soil cores...
July 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777564/evidence-that-soil-properties-and-organic-coating-drive-the-phytoavailability-of-cerium-oxide-nanoparticles
#13
Clément Layet, Melanie Auffan, Catherine Santaella, Claire Chevassus-Rosset, Mélanie Montes, Philippe Ortet, Mohamed Barakat, Blanche Collin, Samuel Legros, Matthieu Nicolas Bravin, Bernard Angeletti, Isabelle Kieffer, Olivier Proux, Jean-Louis Hazemann, Emmanuel Doelsch
The ISO-standardized RHIZOtest is used here for the first time to decipher how plant species, soil properties, physical-chemical properties of the nanoparticles and their transformation regulate the phytoavailability of nanoparticles. Two plants, tomato and fescue, were exposed to two soils with contrasted properties: a sandy soil poor in organic matter and a clay soil rich in organic matter, both contaminated with 1, 15, and 50 mg.kg-1 of dissolved Ce2(SO4)3, bare and citrate-coated CeO2 nanoparticles. All the results demonstrate that two antagonistic soil properties controlled Ce uptake...
August 4, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773226/on-critical-states-rupture-states-and-interlocking-strength-of-granular-materials
#14
Chris M Szalwinski
The Mohr-Coulomb theory of strength identifies cohesion and internal friction as the two principal contributions to the shear strength of a granular material. The contribution of cohesion in over-compacted granular materials has been challenged and replacing cohesion with interlocking has been proposed. A theory of rupture strength that includes interlocking is derived herein. The physics-chemistry concept of critical state is elaborated to accommodate granular materials, based on empirical definitions established in the fields of soil mechanics and bulk solids' flow...
July 27, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771152/modeling-effect-of-cover-condition-and-soil-type-on-rotavirus-transport-in-surface-flow
#15
Rabin Bhattarai, Paul C Davidson, Prasanta K Kalita, Mark S Kuhlenschmidt
Runoff from animal production facilities contains various microbial pathogens which pose a health hazard to both humans and animals. Rotavirus is a frequently detected pathogen in agricultural runoff and the leading cause of death among children around the world. Diarrheal infection caused by rotavirus causes more than two million hospitalizations and death of more than 500,000 children every year. Very little information is available on the environmental factors governing rotavirus transport in surface runoff...
August 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770508/wheat-productivity-responses-in-the-rice-based-system-under-different-no-till-techniques-and-nitrogen-sources
#16
Muhammad Hamid Rafiq, Riaz Ahmad, Abdul Jabbar, Hassan Munir, Muzzammil Hussain
No-till wheat is gaining popularity in rice-based cropping system as it provides a better chance for timely planting of wheat, management of crop residues, as well as environmental and soil sustainability. However, fertilizer application in no-tillage requires careful attention in order to optimize efficiency of fertilizer use by crops. The present study was conducted to develop the most favorable and economical no-till technique along with best blend of nitrogen for successful wheat production in residue-based cropping system...
August 3, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764786/evaluation-of-the-antibacterial-power-and-biocompatibility-of-zinc-oxide-nanorods-decorated-graphene-nanoplatelets-new-perspectives-for-antibiodeteriorative-approaches
#17
Elena Zanni, Erika Bruni, Chandrakanth Reddy Chandraiahgari, Giovanni De Bellis, Maria Grazia Santangelo, Maurizio Leone, Agnese Bregnocchi, Patrizia Mancini, Maria Sabrina Sarto, Daniela Uccelletti
BACKGROUND: Nanotechnologies are currently revolutionizing the world around us, improving the quality of our lives thanks to a multitude of applications in several areas including the environmental preservation, with the biodeterioration phenomenon representing one of the major concerns. RESULTS: In this study, an innovative nanomaterial consisting of graphene nanoplatelets decorated by zinc oxide nanorods (ZNGs) was tested for the ability to inhibit two different pathogens belonging to bacterial genera frequently associated with nosocomial infections as well as biodeterioration phenomenon: the Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and the Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763636/importance-of-lithology-in-defining-natural-background-concentrations-of-cr-cu-ni-pb-and-zn-in-sedimentary-soils-northeastern-brazil
#18
Thomas Vincent Gloaguen, José João Passe
The sedimentary basins of Recôncavo and Tucano, Bahia, represent the most important Brazilian Phanerozoic continental basin system, formed during fracturing of Gondwana. The northern basin of Tucano has a semiarid climate (Bsh) while the southern basin of Recôncavo has a tropical rainforest climate (Af). The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of trace metals in soils derived from various sedimentary rocks and climates. Soils were collected at 30 sites in 5 geological units at 0-20 cm and 60-80 cm deep under native vegetation...
July 27, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757662/selective-separation-of-chromium-species-from-soils-by-single-step-extraction-methods-a-critical-appraisal
#19
Barbara Leśniewska, Marta Gontarska, Beata Godlewska-Żyłkiewicz
A critical appraisal of single-step extraction procedures of chromium species from soil was done in terms of their selectivity towards Cr(III) and Cr(VI) species. Samples of natural mineral and organic soil and samples of soil enriched with different chromium compounds of various solubility (in liquid or solid form) were used to simulate contamination of soil by liquid and solid wastes. The efficiency of extraction of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) species with various reagents, e.g. acetic acid, chelating agents (EDTA, DTPA) or inorganic salts (phosphates and carbonates), was evaluated on the basis of recovery results obtained for enriched samples...
2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755594/characteristics-and-applications-of-ecological-soil-substrate-for-rocky-slope-vegetation-in-cold-and-high-altitude-areas
#20
Hua Xu, Tian-Bin Li, Jian-Nan Chen, Chia-Nan Liu, Xiong-Hua Zhou, Lei Xia
Ecological restoration of steep rocky slopes generated by road cutting is usually difficult especially, in the cold and high-altitude environment, which is unfavorable for the growth of vegetation. With the focus on slope vegetation, an ecological soil substrate, synthesized with polyacrylamide (PAM), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), and Fly ash (FA) as the main components, was developed for spray seeding on the rocky slopes in cold and high-altitude regions, to provide a favorable environment for vegetation growth...
July 26, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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