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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104370/unusual-reversible-elastomeric-gels-from-nostoc-commune
#1
Sol Rodriguez, Karen N Gonzales, Eduardo G Romero, Omar P Troncoso, Fernando G Torres
Nostoc commune cyanobacteria grow in extreme conditions of desiccation and nutrient-poor soils. Their colonies form spherical gelatinous bodies are composed of a variety of polysaccharides that allow them to store water and nutrients. In this paper, we study this type of biological gel that shows characteristics of both chemical and physical gels. The structure of this gel was assessed by means of scanning electron microscopy, plate-plate rheometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and absorption/desorption tests...
January 16, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104342/effects-of-waste-water-irrigation-on-soil-properties-and-soil-fauna-of-spinach-fields-in-a-west-african-urban-vegetable-production-system
#2
Kathrin Stenchly, Juliane Dao, Désiré Jean-Pascal Lompo, Andreas Buerkert
The usage of inadequately processed industrial waste water (WW) can lead to strong soil alkalinity and soil salinization of agricultural fields with negative consequences on soil properties and biota. Gypsum as a soil amendment to saline-sodic soils is widely used in agricultural fields to improve their soil physical, chemical and hence biological properties. This study aimed at analysing the effects of intensive WW irrigation on the structure and composition of soil-dwelling arthropods on spinach fields (Spinacia oleracea L...
January 16, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104335/soil-water-and-nutrient-losses-from-management-alternatives-for-degraded-pasture-in-brazilian-atlantic-rainforest-biome
#3
Paulo Roberto da Rocha Junior, Felipe Vaz Andrade, Eduardo de Sá Mendonça, Guilherme Kangussú Donagemma, Raphael Bragança Alves Fernandes, Rabin Bhattharai, Prasanta Kumar Kalita
The objective of this study was to evaluate sediment, water and nutrient losses from different pasture managements in the Atlantic Rainforest biome. A field study was carried out in Alegre Espiríto Santo, Brazil, on a Xanthic Ferralsol cultivated with braquiaria (Brachiaria brizantha). The six pasture managements studied were: control (CON), chisel (CHI), fertilizer (FER), burned (BUR), plowing and harrowing (PH), and integrated crop-livestock (iCL). Runoff and sediment samples were collected and analyzed for calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), phosphorus (P) and organic carbon contents...
January 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104333/response-of-lemna-gibba-l-to-high-and-environmentally-relevant-concentrations-of-ibuprofen-removal-metabolism-and-morpho-physiological-traits-for-biomonitoring-of-emerging-contaminants
#4
D Di Baccio, F Pietrini, P Bertolotto, S Pérez, D Barcelò, M Zacchini, E Donati
The increasing worldwide consumption of pharmaceuticals and personal care products such as ibuprofen (IBU) is leading to the widespread and persistent occurrence of these chemicals and their transformation products in soils and waters. Although at low concentrations, the continuous discharge of these micropollutants and the incomplete removal by the actual wastewater treatments can provoke accumulation in the environment with risks for the trophic chain. Non-target organisms as duckweed can be used for the environmental monitoring of pharmaceutical emerging contaminants...
January 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101588/factors-controlling-sediment-load-in-the-central-anatolia-region-of-turkey-ankara-river-basin
#5
Umit Duru, Ellen Wohl, Mehdi Ahmadi
Better understanding of the factors controlling sediment load at a catchment scale can facilitate estimation of soil erosion and sediment transport rates. The research summarized here enhances understanding of correlations between potential control variables on suspended sediment loads. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool was used to simulate flow and sediment at the Ankara River basin. Multivariable regression analysis and principal component analysis were then performed between sediment load and controlling variables...
January 18, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093120/elucidating-rhizosphere-processes-by-mass-spectrometry-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Ariana Rugova, Markus Puschenreiter, Gunda Koellensperger, Stephan Hann
The presented review discusses state-of-the-art mass spectrometric methods, which have been developed and applied for investigation of chemical processes in the soil-root interface, the so-called rhizosphere. Rhizosphere soil's physical and chemical characteristics are to a great extent influenced by a complex mixture of compounds released from plant roots, i.e. root exudates, which have a high impact on nutrient and trace element dynamics in the soil-root interface as well as on microbial activities or soil physico-chemical characteristics...
March 1, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092008/spatio-temporal-variation-of-septage-characteristics-of-a-semi-arid-metropolitan-city-in-a-developing-country
#7
D Krithika, Anu Rachel Thomas, Gomathy R Iyer, Martin Kranert, Ligy Philip
Septage is the solid sludge that accumulates in septic tanks over a period of time. Many of the developing countries in the world face the challenging task of septage management. Due to the high variability in the nature of septage, there is a need to study its physical and chemical characteristics in order to suggest a sustainable treatment methodology. The present study deals with the characterization of septage collected from different locations of Chennai city in India, in two different seasons (summer and winter)...
January 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090647/the-multifaceted-role-of-extracellular-vesicles-in-metastasis-priming-the-soil-for-seeding
#8
REVIEW
Brunna Dos Anjos Pultz, Felipe Andrés Cordero da Luz, Sara Socorro Faria, Leandro Peixoto Ferreira de Souza, Paula Cristina Brígido Tavares, Vivian Alonso Goulart, Wagner Fontes, Luiz Ricardo Goulart, Marcelo José Barbosa Silva
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes, play a key role in inter and intracellular communication, promoting the proliferation and invasion of recipient cells to support tumor growth and metastasis. Metastasis comprises multiple steps that first include the detachment of tumor cells through epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), allowing the physical dissemination to distant organs. Thereafter, cancer-derived exosomes are still critical components for preparing the tumor microenvironment by (i) enabling tumor cells to escape from the immunological surveillance and (ii) arranging the pre-metastatic site for the engraftment of detached cancer cells...
January 16, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089531/predicting-the-particle-size-distribution-of-eroded-sediment-using-artificial-neural-networks
#9
María Paz Lagos-Avid, Carlos A Bonilla
Water erosion causes soil degradation and nonpoint pollution. Pollutants are primarily transported on the surfaces of fine soil and sediment particles. Several soil loss models and empirical equations have been developed for the size distribution estimation of the sediment leaving the field, including the physically-based models and empirical equations. Usually, physically-based models require a large amount of data, sometimes exceeding the amount of available data in the modeled area. Conversely, empirical equations do not always predict the sediment composition associated with individual events and may require data that are not always available...
January 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088169/tenosynovitis-caused-by-scedosporium-apiospermum-infection-misdiagnosed-as-an-alternaria-species-a-case-report
#10
Choon-Mee Kim, Sung-Chul Lim, Joa Kim, Hoe-Soo Jang, Jong-Hun Chung, Na-Ra Yun, Dong-Min Kim, Piyush Jha, Babita Jha, Seok Won Kim, Sook Jin Jang, Jong Hee Shin
BACKGROUND: Scedosporium apiospermum, which can usually be isolated from soil, polluted stream water and decaying vegetation, is increasingly recognized as an opportunistic dematiaceous fungus. The mortality rate of infection in immunocompromised hosts is over 50%. S. apiospermum is commonly responsible for dermal and epidermal infections (i.e., mycetoma) after traumatic penetration. CASE PRESENTATION: A 73-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital complaining of painful swelling and tenderness on the dorsum of the proximal left wrist and hand...
January 14, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087206/spatial-relationships-between-entomopathogenic-nematodes-and-nematophagous-fungi-in-florida-citrus-orchards
#11
Ekta Pathak, Raquel Campos-Herrera, Fahiem E El-Borai, Larry W Duncan
Relationships between entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs), nematophagous fungi (NF) and soil physical and chemical properties were studied in a survey of 53 citrus orchards in central ridge and flatwoods ecoregions of Florida. Seven species of NF associated with nematodes were quantified directly using a real time qPCR assay. All nematophagous fungi studied exceptArthrobotrys musiformis andHirsutella rhossiliensiswere frequently detected (24-56%) in both regions.Paecilomyces lilacinusandGamsylella gephyropagumwere encountered more frequently in the flatwoods (P = 0...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074923/bacterial-community-composition-in-costal-dunes-of-the-mediterranean-along-a-gradient-from-the-sea-shore-to-the-inland
#12
Haggai Wasserstrom, Susanne Kublik, Rachel Wasserstrom, Stefanie Schulz, Michael Schloter, Yosef Steinberger
Sand dunes are unique ecosystems with distinct features which limited the accumulation of biomass. The distance from seashore affects both the physical properties of the sand dunes and the biota living above- and below ground. The goal of the present study was to determine the effects of the distance from shore to inland on soil bacterial community composition during wet and dry season. We studied a chronosequence of sites close to the eastern Mediterranean coast. Bacterial diversity was assessed using directly extracted DNA from soil samples and 16 S ribosomal RNA gene fingerprinting...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068645/characteristics-of-pah-tar-oil-contaminated-soils-black-particles-resins-and-implications-for-treatment-strategies
#13
Clément Trellu, Anja Miltner, Rosita Gallo, David Huguenot, Eric D van Hullebusch, Giovanni Esposito, Mehmet A Oturan, Matthias Kästner
Tar oil contamination is a major environmental concern due to health impacts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and the difficulty of reaching acceptable remediation end-points. Six tar oil-contaminated soils with different industrial histories were compared to investigate contamination characteristics by black particles. Here we provide a simple method tested on 6 soils to visualize and identify large amounts of black particles (BP) as either solid aggregates of resinified and weathered tar oil or various wood/coke/coal-like materials derived from the contamination history...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062901/changes-in-soil-fungal-community-structure-with-increasing-disturbance-frequency
#14
Hyunjun Cho, Mincheol Kim, Binu Tripathi, Jonathan Adams
Although disturbance is thought to be important in many ecological processes, responses of fungal communities to soil disturbance have been little studied experimentally. We subjected a soil microcosm to physical disturbance, at a range of frequencies designed to simulate ecological disturbance events. We analyzed the fungal community structure using Illumina HiSeq sequencing of the ITS1 region. Fungal diversity was found to decline with the increasing disturbance frequencies, with no sign of the "humpback" pattern found in many studies of larger sedentary organisms...
January 6, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061428/phytoremediation-strategies-for-soils-contaminated-with-heavy-metals-modifications-and-future-perspectives
#15
REVIEW
Nadeem Sarwar, Muhammad Imran, Muhammad Rashid Shaheen, Wajid Ishaque, Muhammad Asif Kamran, Amar Matloob, Abdur Rehim, Saddam Hussain
Presence of heavy metals in agricultural soils is of major environmental concern and a great threat to life on the earth. A number of human health risks are associated with heavy metals regarding their entry into food chain. Various physical, chemical and biological techniques are being used to remove heavy metals and metalloids from soils. Among them, phytoremediation is a good strategy to harvest heavy metals from soils and have been proven as an effective and economical technique. In present review, we discussed various sources and harmful effects of some important heavy metals and metalloids, traditional phytoremediation strategies, mechanisms involved in phytoremediation of these metals, limitations and some recent advances in phytoremediation approaches...
December 23, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058583/assessing-geotechnical-centrifuge-modelling-in-addressing-variably-saturated-flow-in-soil-and-fractured-rock
#16
Brendon R Jones, Luke B Brouwers, Warren D Van Tonder, Matthys A Dippenaar
The vadose zone typically comprises soil underlain by fractured rock. Often, surface water and groundwater parameters are readily available, but variably saturated flow through soil and rock are oversimplified or estimated as input for hydrological models. In this paper, a series of geotechnical centrifuge experiments are conducted to contribute to the knowledge gaps in: (i) variably saturated flow and dispersion in soil and (ii) variably saturated flow in discrete vertical and horizontal fractures. Findings from the research show that the hydraulic gradient, and not the hydraulic conductivity, is scaled for seepage flow in the geotechnical centrifuge...
January 5, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053585/comparative-efficacy-of-different-approaches-to-managing-meloidogyne-incognita-on-green-bean
#17
Ahmad S Al-Hazmi, Ahmed A M Dawabah, Saleh N Al-Nadhari, Fahad A Al-Yahya
A greenhouse study was conducted to compare the relative efficacy of different approaches to managing Meloidogyne incognita on green bean. These approaches included chemical (fumigant, non-fumigant, seed dressing, and seed dip), biological (the egg-parasitic fungus, Paecilomyces lilacinus and the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus sp.), physical (soil solarization), and cultural (chicken litter and urea) methods. Accordingly, nine different control materials and application methods plus nematode-infected and non-infected controls were compared...
January 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052502/ecophysiological-variation-of-transpiration-of-pine-forests-synthesis-of-new-and-published-results
#18
Pantana Tor-Ngern, Ram Oren, Andrew C Oishi, Joshua M Uebelherr, Sari Palmroth, Lasse Tarvainen, Mikaell Ottosson-Löfvenius, Sune Linder, Jean-Christophe Domec, Torgny Näsholm
Canopy transpiration (EC ) is a large fraction of evapotranspiration, integrating physical and biological processes within the energy, water, and carbon cycles of forests. Quantifying EC is of both scientific and practical importance, providing information relevant to questions ranging from energy partitioning to ecosystem services, such as primary productivity and water yield. We estimated EC of four pine stands differing in age and growing on sandy soils. The stands consisted of two wide-ranging conifer species: Pinus taeda and Pinus sylvestris, in temperate and boreal zones, respectively...
January 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048936/carbon-bound-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-prevent-calcium-induced-iron-deficiency-in-oryza-sativa-l-%C3%A2
#19
Abin Sebastian, Ashwini Nangia, M N V Prasad
Iron-based nanocomposites can be a practical solution to combat iron deficiency in calcareous agricultural soil. In the present study, a carbon-bound iron oxide nanoparticle is synthesized by mixing ferric chloride and caffeic acid and tested to correct Ca-inducible Fe deficiency in rice. Physicochemical characterization points that the nanoparticle is carbon-coated semi-crystalline Fe3O4. It is found that nanoparticle amendment enhances bioproductivity, photosynthetic electron transport, antioxidant enzyme activity, and Fe accumulation under Ca stress...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040833/insights-into-the-relationships-between-diabetes-prediabetes-and-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Lorenzo Scappaticcio, Maria Ida Maiorino, Giuseppe Bellastella, Dario Giugliano, Katherine Esposito
Diabetes mellitus and cancer are two growing health problems. They have in common many modifiable risk factors including sex, age, obesity, physical activity, diet, alcohol, and smoking, and have a long latency before overtly manifesting. Patients with diabetes experience a roughly 20-25% higher cancer incidence compared to individuals without diabetes, and it depends on cancer site. Moreover, patients with diabetes who further develop cancer have increased early and late mortality in comparison with cancer patients without diabetes...
December 31, 2016: Endocrine
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