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Soil physics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545130/responses-of-absolute-and-specific-enzyme-activity-to-consecutive-application-of-composted-sewage-sludge-in-a-fluventic-ustochrept
#1
Xiao Liu, Kangli Guo, Lin Huang, Zhengyu Ji, Huimin Jiang, Hu Li, Jianfeng Zhang
Composted sewage sludge (CS) is considered a rich source of soil nutrients and significantly affects the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of soil, but its effect on specific enzyme activity in soil is disregarded. The present experiment examined the absolute and specific enzyme activity of the enzymes involved in carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycles, the diversity of soil microbial functions, and soil community composition in a Fluventic Ustochrept under a maize-wheat rotation system in North China during 2012-2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542442/pedogenetic-processes-in-anthrosols-with-pretic-horizon-amazonian-dark-earth-in-central-amazon-brazil
#2
Rodrigo S Macedo, Wenceslau G Teixeira, Marcelo M Corrêa, Gilvan C Martins, Pablo Vidal-Torrado
Anthrosols known as Amazonian Dark Earth (ADE) have borne witness to the intensification of sedentary patterns and the demographic increase in Central Amazon. As a result, a recurring pattern has been observed of mounds with ADE arising from domestic activities and the disposal of waste. The objective of this research was to demonstrate the relationship of these anthropic activities with pedogenetic formation processes of ADE in the municipality of Iranduba, Brazil. Disturbed and undisturbed soil samples were taken from two areas of ADE (pretic horizon) and from a non-anthropic pedon...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541954/effects-of-two-different-water-sources-used-for-irrigation-on-the-soil-geochemical-properties-and-the-quality-of-the-lohan-guava-psidium-guajava-l-lohan
#3
Dominic Soloman George, Kelvin Kiran Anthony, Vicknesha Santhirasegaram, Nadiah Mohd Saruan, Hasvinder Kaur, Zuliana Razali, Chandran Somasundram
The effect of two different water sources (treated waste water and lake water) used for irrigation on the soil geochemical properties and the fruit quality parameters of the Lohan guava were studied. The fruits' physical attributes, physicochemical attributes, nutritional attributes, mineral content as well as consumers' acceptance were evaluated. The properties of the different water sources and their effect, on both the soil and the quality of the fruits, were evaluated. Analysis of the irrigation water revealed that treated waste water was of acceptable quality with reference to irrigation water quality guidelines, while the lake water used for irrigation fell short in several aspects...
May 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541720/assessment-of-hydrocarbon-degradation-potentials-in-plant-microbe-interaction-system-with-oil-sludge-contamination-a-sustainable-solution
#4
Monika Dhote, Anil Kumar, Anjana Jajoo, Asha Juwarkar
A pot culture experiment was conducted for 90 days for evaluation of oil and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) degradation in vegetated and non-vegetated treatments of real field oil sludge contaminated soil. Five different treatments include, (T1) control, 2% oil sludge contaminated soil; (T2), augmentation of microbial consortium; (T3), Vertiver zizanioide; (T4), bio-augmentation along with Vertiver zizanioide and (T5), bio-augmentation with Vertiver zizanioide and bulking agent. During the study, oil reduction, TPH and degradation of its fractions was determined...
May 25, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540472/modelling-malpighian-tubule-crystals-within-the-predatory-soil-mite-pergamasus-longicornis-mesostigmata-parasitidae
#5
Clive E Bowman
The occurrence of refractive crystals (aka guanine) is characterised in the Malpighian tubules of the free-living predatory parasitiform soil mite Pergamasus longicornis (Berlese) from a temporal series of histological sections during and after feeding on larval dipteran prey. The tubular system behaves as a single uniform entity during digestion. Malpighian mechanisms are not the 'concentrative' mechanism sought for the early stasis in gut size during the second later phase of prey feeding. Nor are Malpighian changes associated with the time of 'anal dabbing' during feeding...
May 24, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539929/nitrogen-cycling-from-increased-soil-organic-carbon-contributes-both-positively-and-negatively-to-ecosystem-services-in-wheat-agro-ecosystems
#6
Jeda Palmer, Peter J Thorburn, Jody S Biggs, Estelle J Dominati, Merv E Probert, Elizabeth A Meier, Neil I Huth, Mike Dodd, Val Snow, Joshua R Larsen, William J Parton
Soil organic carbon (SOC) is an important and manageable property of soils that impacts on multiple ecosystem services through its effect on soil processes such as nitrogen (N) cycling and soil physical properties. There is considerable interest in increasing SOC concentration in agro-ecosystems worldwide. In some agro-ecosystems, increased SOC has been found to enhance the provision of ecosystem services such as the provision of food. However, increased SOC may increase the environmental footprint of some agro-ecosystems, for example by increasing nitrous oxide emissions...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531951/identifying-and-quantifying-geochemical-and-mixing-processes-in-the-matanza-riachuelo-aquifer-system-argentina
#7
S Armengol, M Manzano, S A Bea, S Martínez
The Matanza-Riachuelo River Basin, in the Northeast of the Buenos Aires Province, is one of the most industrialized and populated region in Argentina and it is worldwide known for its alarming environmental degradation. In order to prevent further damages, the aquifer system, which consists of two overlaid aquifers, is being monitored from 2008 by the river basin authority, Autoridad de la Cuenca Matanza-Riachuelo. The groundwater chemical baseline has been established in a previous paper (Zabala et al., 2016), and this one is devoted to the identification of the main physical and hydrogeochemical processes that control groundwater chemistry and its areal distribution...
May 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525879/application-of-calcium-peroxide-in-water-and-soil-treatment-a-review
#8
REVIEW
Shuguang Lu, Xiang Zhang, Yunfei Xue
Calcium peroxide (CP) has been progressively applied in terms of environmental protection due to its certain physical and chemical properties. This review focuses on the latest progresses in the applications of CP in water and soil treatment, including wastewater treatment, surface water restoration and groundwater and soil remediation. The stability of CP makes it an effective solid phase to supply H2O2 and O2 for aerobic biodegradation and chemical degradation of contaminants in water and soil. CP has exerted great performance in the removal of dyes, chlorinated hydrocarbons, petroleum hydrocarbons, pesticides, heavy metals and various other contaminants...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525258/bioavailability-of-soil-sorbed-tetracycline-to-escherichia-coli-under-unsaturated-conditions
#9
Zeyou Chen, Wei Zhang, Gang Wang, Yingjie Zhang, Yanzheng Gao, Stephen A Boyd, Brian J Teppen, James M Tiedje, Dongqiang Zhu, Hui Li
Increasing concentrations of anthropogenic antibiotics in soils are partly responsible for the proliferation of bacterial antibiotic resistance. However, little is known about how soil-sorbed antibiotics exert selective pressure on bacteria in unsaturated soils. This study investigated the bioavailability of tetracycline sorbed on three soils (Webster clay loam, Capac sandy clay loam, and Oshtemo loamy sand) to a fluorescent Escherichia coli bioreporter under unsaturated conditions using agar diffusion assay, microscopic visualization, and model simulation...
May 19, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523618/the-effect-of-sewage-sludge-on-heavy-metal-concentrations-in-wheat-plant-triticum-aestivum-l
#10
Fatemeh Shahbazi, Somayeh Ghasemi, Hamid Sodaiezadeh, Kobra Ayaseh, Rasool Zamani-Ahmadmahmoodi
The use of sewage sludge in agricultural soils can improve soil physical and chemical properties and soil fertility by increasing organic materials; however, the presence of heavy metals in sewage sludge is a significant problem for the quality of agricultural products and the environment. Most heavy metals, due to their inactive nature, are stable and can affect human health. This study investigates the effect of sewage sludge on the concentration of copper, zinc, cadmium, lead, iron, and manganese in two varieties of wheat, i...
May 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516406/degradation-and-adsorption-of-tralkoxydim-in-chinese-soils-and-water-sediment-environments
#11
Wen Zhu Wu, Zheng Jun Shan, De Yang Kong, Jian He
Tralkoxydim is a cyclohexanedione herbicide primarily used for gramineous weed control in China. In this paper, we present results of a tralkoxydim laboratory environmental fate study characterizing its degradation, adsorption, and mobility behavior in three different soils and two water-sediment systems (river and lake) in China. Degradation half-life of tralkoxydim in soil under aerobic conditions was 5.1, 7.7, and 7.9 days in Jiangxi red soil, Taihu paddy soil, and Northeast China black soil, respectively...
June 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512466/salinity-stress-does-not-affect-root-uptake-dissemination-and-persistence-of-salmonella-in-sweet-basil-ocimum-basilicum
#12
Nirit Bernstein, Shlomo Sela Saldinger, Nativ Dudai, Elena Gorbatsevich
Crop produce can be contaminated in the field during cultivation by bacterial human pathogens originating from contaminated soil or irrigation water. The bacterial pathogens interact with the plant, can penetrate the plant via the root system and translocate and survive in above-ground tissues. The present study is first to investigate effects of an abiotic stress, salinity, on the interaction of plants with a bacterial human pathogen. The main sources of human bacterial contamination of plants are manures and marginal irrigation waters such as treated or un-treated wastewater...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511814/evaluation-of-the-influence-of-mechanical-activation-on-physical-and-chemical-properties-of-municipal-solid-waste-incineration-sludge
#13
V Caprai, M V A Florea, H J H Brouwers
Despite numerous studies concerning the application of by-products in the construction field, municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues are not widely used as secondary building materials. In some European countries, washing treatment to the full bottom ash (BA) fraction (0-32 mm) is applied, isolating more contaminated particles, smaller than 0.063 mm. Therefore, a MWSI sludge is produced, having a high moisture content, and thus a limited presence of soluble species. In order to enhance its performance as building material, here, dry mechanical activation is applied on MSWI sludge...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507763/investigation-of-cloud-point-extraction-for-the-analysis-of-metallic-nanoparticles-in-a-soil-matrix
#14
Hind El Hadri, Vincent A Hackley
The characterization of manufactured nanoparticles (MNPs) in environmental samples is necessary to assess their behavior, fate and potential toxicity. Several techniques are available, but the limit of detection (LOD) is often too high for environmentally relevant concentrations. Therefore, pre-concentration of MNPs is an important component in the sample preparation step, in order to apply analytical tools with a LOD higher than the ng kg(-1) level. The objective of this study was to explore cloud point extraction (CPE) as a viable method to pre-concentrate gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), as a model MNP, spiked into a soil extract matrix...
2017: Environmental Science. Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505478/dose-assessment-in-environmental-radiological-protection-state-of-the-art-and-perspectives
#15
REVIEW
Karolina Stark, José M Goméz-Ros, Jordi Vives I Batlle, Elisabeth Lindbo Hansen, Karine Beaugelin-Seiller, Lawrence A Kapustka, Michael D Wood, Clare Bradshaw, Almudena Real, Corynne McGuire, Thomas G Hinton
Exposure to radiation is a potential hazard to humans and the environment. The Fukushima accident reminded the world of the importance of a reliable risk management system that incorporates the dose received from radiation exposures. The dose to humans from exposure to radiation can be quantified using a well-defined system; its environmental equivalent, however, is still in a developmental state. Additionally, the results of several papers published over the last decade have been criticized because of poor dosimetry...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501382/fabrication-of-biochars-obtained-from-valorization-of-biowaste-and-evaluation-of-its-physicochemical-properties
#16
Rumi Narzari, Neonjyoti Bordoloi, Banashree Sarma, Lina Gogoi, Nirmali Gogoi, Bikram Borkotoki, Rupam Kataki
This study investigated the yields and the physicochemical properties of biochar from three different feedstocks viz., i) bioenergy byproducts (deoiled cakes of Jatropha carcus and Pongamia glabra), ii) lignocellulose biomass (Jatropha carcus seed cover), and iii) a noxious weed (Parthenium hysterophorus), obtained through slow pyrolysis at a heating rate of 40°Cmin(-1) with a nitrogen flow 100mlmin(-1) at a temperature range of 350-650°C. For successful utilization of biochar for C-sequestration, its ability to resist abiotic or biotic degradation was deduced from recalcitrance index R50 by using TG analysis...
April 16, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500873/evaluation-methods-for-assessing-effectiveness-of-in-situ-remediation-of-soil-and-sediment-contaminated-with-organic-pollutants-and-heavy-metals
#17
REVIEW
Biao Song, Guangming Zeng, Jilai Gong, Jie Liang, Piao Xu, Zhifeng Liu, Yi Zhang, Chen Zhang, Min Cheng, Yang Liu, Shujing Ye, Huan Yi, Xiaoya Ren
Soil and sediment contamination has become a critical issue worldwide due to its great harm to the ecological environment and public health. In recent years, many remediation technologies including physical, chemical, biological, and combined methods have been proposed and adopted for the purpose of solving the problems of soil and sediment contamination. However, current research on evaluation methods for assessing these remediation technologies is scattered and lacks valid and integrated evaluation methods for assessing the remediation effectiveness...
May 10, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499248/influence-of-fertilisation-with-sewage-sludge-derived-preparation-on-selected-soil-properties-and-prairie-cordgrass-yield
#18
Ewa Ociepa, Maciej Mrowiec, Joanna Lach
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of using a fertilizer obtained from waste substances on selected physical and chemical properties of soil and biomass yield Spartina pectinate. The fertilizer used for soil (C) fertilisation contained sewage sludge (SS), waste soil fractions of brown coal (BC), brown coal ash (BCA) enriched with mineral potassium (K) fertilizer (C+SS+BC+BCA+K). The composition of the preparation was developed by the authors and adjusted to the quality of the fertilised soil and the individual characteristics of the plant...
May 9, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499227/organic-carbon-pools-and-soil-biological-fertility-are-affected-by-land-use-intensity-in-mediterranean-ecosystems-of-sardinia-italy
#19
Rosa Francaviglia, Gianluca Renzi, Luigi Ledda, Anna Benedetti
Soil quality is mainly studied from the chemical and physical point of view, whereas soil biochemical and microbiological parameters are relatively more scarcely explored to assess the effect of management practices. This study aimed to evaluate soil organic carbon (SOC) and its pools; soil microbial activity parameters; and the Biological Fertility Index (BFI), in six land uses characteristics of the Mediterranean basin in north-eastern Sardinia. These land uses differed in management intensity and consisted of: tilled vineyard (TV), no tilled grassed vineyard (GV), former vineyards (FV), hay crop and pasture (HC and PA), cork oak forest (CO)...
May 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497296/preferential-flow-characteristics-of-reclaimed-mine-soils-in-a-surface-coal-mine-dump
#20
Lv Gang, Li Jun, Li Yexin, Wang Ting, Liu Yazhuo, Fu Xinyang
There are a large number of macropores/tubular channels of a few centimeters and plant roots in reclaimed dump soils, which are the main reasons for the formation of soil macropores and soil preferential flow. To systematically study the morphological characteristics and variation of soil preferential flow for different reclaimed vegetations in a dump, a dye-staining experiment and physical and chemical analysis were carried out to investigate the formation mechanism and influencing factors of soil preferential flow in the vegetation restoration process...
June 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
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