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Soil physics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912016/soil-microbial-communities-influence-seedling-growth-of-a-rare-conifer-independent-of-plant-soil-feedback
#1
Jessica L Rigg, Cathy A Offord, Brajesh K Singh, Ian Anderson, Steve Clarke, Jeff R Powell
Plant-soil feedback, the reciprocal relationship between a plant and its associated microbial communities, has been proposed to be an important driver of plant populations and community dynamics. While rarely considered, understanding how plant-soil feedback contributes to plant rarity may have implications for conservation and management of rare species. Wollemi pine (Wollemia nobilis) is a critically endangered species, of which fewer than 100 trees are known to exist in the wild. Seedling survival within the first year after germination and subsequent recruitment of Wollemi pine is limited in the wild...
December 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904457/altering-conidial-dispersal-of-alternaria-solani-by-modifying-microclimate-in-tomato-crop-canopy
#2
Prashant Prakash Jambhulkar, Nitiprasad Jambhulkar, Madanlal Meghwal, Gauri Shankar Ameta
Early blight of tomato caused by Alternaria solani, is responsible for severe yield losses in tomato. The conidia survive on soil surface and old dry lower leaves of the plant and spread when suitable climatic conditions are available. Macroclimatic study reveals that highest inoculum concentration of Alternaria spores appeared in May 2012 to 2013 and lowest concentration during January 2012 to 2013. High night temperature positively correlated and significantly (P < 0.01) involved in conidial spore dispersal and low relative humidity (RH) displayed significant (P < 0...
December 2016: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898778/drainage-and-nitrate-leaching-from-artificially-drained-maize-fields-simulated-by-the-precision-nitrogen-management-model
#3
Rebecca D Marjerison, Jeff Melkonian, John L Hutson, Harold M van Es, Shai Sela, Larry D Geohring, Jeffrey Vetsch
Environmental nitrogen (N) losses (e.g., nitrate leaching, denitrification, and ammonia volatilization) frequently occur in maize ( L.) agroecosystems. Decision support systems, designed to optimize the application of N fertilizer in these systems, have been developed using physically based models such as the Precision Nitrogen Management (PNM) model of soil and crop processes, which is an integral component of Adapt-N, a decision support tool providing N fertilizer recommendations for maize production. Such models can also be used to estimate N losses associated with particular management practices and over a range of current climates and future climate projections...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897191/massive-remobilization-of-permafrost-carbon-during-post-glacial-warming
#4
T Tesi, F Muschitiello, R H Smittenberg, M Jakobsson, J E Vonk, P Hill, A Andersson, N Kirchner, R Noormets, O Dudarev, I Semiletov, Ö Gustafsson
Recent hypotheses, based on atmospheric records and models, suggest that permafrost carbon (PF-C) accumulated during the last glaciation may have been an important source for the atmospheric CO2 rise during post-glacial warming. However, direct physical indications for such PF-C release have so far been absent. Here we use the Laptev Sea (Arctic Ocean) as an archive to investigate PF-C destabilization during the last glacial-interglacial period. Our results show evidence for massive supply of PF-C from Siberian soils as a result of severe active layer deepening in response to the warming...
November 29, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896582/effect-of-irrigation-on-soil-health-a-case-study-of-the-ikere-irrigation-project-in-oyo-state-southwest-nigeria
#5
M A Adejumobi, G O Awe, T P Abegunrin, O M Oyetunji, T S Kareem
Irrigated agriculture is one of the significant contributors to the food security of the millennium development goals (MDGs); however, the modification of soil matrix by irrigation could alter the overall soil health due to changes in soil properties and processes. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of irrigation on soil quality status of the Ikere center pivot irrigation project site in Oyo State, southwest Nigeria. Disturbed soil samples were collected from 0 to 30, 30 to 60, and 60 to 90-cm layers from four different sites in three replicates, within the project location for the determination of soil bio-chemical properties...
December 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889482/the-red-light-receptor-phytochrome-b-directly-enhances-substrate-e3-ligase-interactions-to-attenuate-ethylene-responses
#6
Hui Shi, Xing Shen, Renlu Liu, Chang Xue, Ning Wei, Xing Wang Deng, Shangwei Zhong
Plants germinating under subterranean darkness assume skotomorphogenesis, a developmental program strengthened by ethylene in response to mechanical pressure of soil. Upon reaching the surface, light triggers a dramatic developmental transition termed de-etiolation that requires immediate termination of ethylene responses. Here, we report that light activation of photoreceptor phyB results in rapid degradation of EIN3, the master transcription factor in the ethylene signaling pathway. As a result, light rapidly and efficiently represses ethylene actions...
November 16, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885418/phylogenetic-and-functional-traits-of-ectomycorrhizal-assemblages-in-top-soil-from-different-biogeographic-regions-and-forest-types
#7
Rodica Pena, Christa Lang, Gertrud Lohaus, Steffen Boch, Peter Schall, Ingo Schöning, Christian Ammer, Markus Fischer, Andrea Polle
Ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungal taxonomic, phylogenetic, and trait diversity (exploration types) were analyzed in beech and conifer forests along a north-to-south gradient in three biogeographic regions in Germany. The taxonomic community structures of the ectomycorrhizal assemblages in top soil were influenced by stand density and forest type, by biogeographic environmental factors (soil physical properties, temperature, and precipitation), and by nitrogen forms (amino acids, ammonium, and nitrate). While α-diversity did not differ between forest types, β-diversity increased, leading to higher γ-diversity on the landscape level when both forest types were present...
November 25, 2016: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884529/spatial-distribution-of-heavy-metals-in-the-surface-soil-of-source-control-stormwater-infiltration-devices-inter-site-comparison
#8
Damien Tedoldi, Ghassan Chebbo, Daniel Pierlot, Philippe Branchu, Yves Kovacs, Marie-Christine Gromaire
Stormwater runoff infiltration brings about some concerns regarding its potential impact on both soil and groundwater quality; besides, the fate of contaminants in source-control devices somewhat suffers from a lack of documentation. The present study was dedicated to assessing the spatial distribution of three heavy metals (copper, lead, zinc) in the surface soil of ten small-scale infiltration facilities, along with several physical parameters (soil moisture, volatile matter, variable thickness of the upper horizon)...
November 21, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876159/natural-radionuclides-in-lichens-mosses-and-ferns-in-a-thermal-power-plant-and-in-an-adjacent-coal-mine-area-in-southern-brazil
#9
Juliana Aparecida Galhardi, Rafael García-Tenorio, Inmaculada Díaz Francés, Daniel Marcos Bonotto, Marcelo Pinto Marcelli
The radio-elements (234)U, (235)U, (238)U, (230)Th, (232)Th and (210)Po were characterized in lichens, mosses and ferns species sampled in an adjacent coal mine area at Figueira City, Paraná State, Brazil, due to their importance for the assessment of human exposure related to the natural radioactivity. The coal is geologically associated with a uranium deposit and has been used as a fossil fuel in a thermal power plant in the city. Samples were initially prepared at LABIDRO (Isotopes and Hydrochemistry Laboratory), UNESP, Rio Claro (SP), Brazil...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873107/assessment-of-potential-impacts-of-climate-change-on-agricultural-development-in-the-lower-benue-river-basin
#10
Roland Clement Abah, Brilliant Mareme Petja
Agriculture in the Lower Benue River Basin faces several challenges which threaten the future of agricultural development. This study was an assessment of potential impacts of climate change on agricultural development in the Lower Benue River Basin. Through analysis of physical and socioeconomic parameters, the study adapted an impact assessment model to rank potential impacts on agricultural development in the study area. Rainfall intensity seemed to be increasing with a gradual reduction in the number of rainy days...
December 0: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871667/transport-of-soil-aged-silver-nanoparticles-in-unsaturated-sand
#11
Samuel K Kumahor, Pavel Hron, George Metreveli, Gabriele E Schaumann, Sondra Klitzke, Friederike Lang, Hans-Jörg Vogel
Engineered nanoparticles released into soils may be coated with humic substances, potentially modifying their surface properties. Due to their amphiphilic nature, humic coating is expected to affect interaction of nanoparticle at the air-water interface. In this study, we explored the roles of the air-water interface and solid-water interface as potential sites for nanoparticle attachment and the importance of hydrophobic interactions for nanoparticle attachment at the air-water interface. By exposing Ag nanoparticles to soil solution extracted from the upper soil horizon of a floodplain soil, the mobility of the resulting "soil-aged" Ag nanoparticles was investigated and compared with the mobility of citrate-coated Ag nanoparticles as investigated in an earlier study...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870036/seedling-performance-covaries-with-dormancy-thresholds-maintaining-cryptic-seed-heteromorphism-in-a-fire-prone-system
#12
Ganesha S Liyanage, David J Ayre, Mark K J Ooi
The production of morphologically different seeds or fruits by the same individual plant is known as seed heteromorphism. Such variation is expected to be selected for in disturbance-prone environments to allow germination into inherently variable regeneration niches. However, there are few demonstrations that heteromorphic seed characteristics should be favored by selection or how they may be maintained. In fire-prone ecosystems, seed heteromorphism is found in the temperatures needed to break physical dormancy, with seeds responding to high or low temperatures, ensuring emergence under variable fire-regime-related soil heating...
November 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870025/elephants-in-the-understory-opposing-direct-and-indirect-effects-of-consumption-and-ecosystem-engineering-by-megaherbivores
#13
Tyler C Coverdale, Tyler R Kartzinel, Kathryn L Grabowski, Robert K Shriver, Abdikadir A Hassan, Jacob R Goheen, Todd M Palmer, Robert M Pringle
Positive indirect effects of consumers on their resources can stabilize food webs by preventing overexploitation, but the coupling of trophic and non-trophic interactions remains poorly integrated into our understanding of community dynamics. Elephants engineer African savanna ecosystems by toppling trees and breaking branches, and although their negative effects on trees are well documented, their effects on small-statured plants remain poorly understood. Using data on 117 understory plant taxa collected over 7 yr within 36 1-ha experimental plots in a semi-arid Kenyan savanna, we measured the strength and direction of elephant impacts on understory vegetation...
November 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867297/soil-stabilization-linked-to-plant-diversity-and-environmental-context-in-coastal-wetlands
#14
Hilary Ford, Angus Garbutt, Cai Ladd, Jonathan Malarkey, Martin W Skov
BACKGROUND: Plants play a pivotal role in soil stabilization, with above-ground vegetation and roots combining to physically protect soil against erosion. It is possible that diverse plant communities boost root biomass, with knock-on positive effects for soil stability, but these relationships are yet to be disentangled. QUESTION: We hypothesize that soil erosion rates fall with increased plant species richness, and test explicitly how closely root biomass is associated with plant diversity...
March 2016: Journal of Vegetation Science: Official Organ of the International Association for Vegetation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859102/large-herbivores-promote-habitat-specialization-and-beta-diversity-of-african-savanna-trees
#15
Robert M Pringle, Kirsten M Prior, Todd M Palmer, Truman P Young, Jacob R Goheen
Edaphic variation in plant community composition is widespread, yet its underlying mechanisms are rarely understood and often assumed to be physiological. In East African savannas, Acacia tree species segregate sharply across soils of differing parent material: the ant-defended whistling thorn, A. drepanolobium (ACDR), is monodominant on cracking clay vertisols that are nutrient rich but physically stressful, whereas poorly defended species such as A. brevispica (ACBR) dominate on nutrient-poor but otherwise less-stressful sandy loams...
October 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855328/nutrient-conservation-during-spent-mushroom-compost-application-using-spent-mushroom-substrate-derived-biochar
#16
Zimo Lou, Yue Sun, Shuping Bian, Shams Ali Baig, Baolan Hu, Xinhua Xu
Spent mushroom compost (SMC), a spent mushroom substrate (SMS) derived compost, is always applied to agriculture land to enhance soil organic matter and nutrient contents. However, nitrogen, phosphate and organic matter contained in SMC can leach out and contaminate ground water during its application. In this study, biochars prepared under different pyrolytic temperatures (550 °C, 650 °C or 750 °C) from SMS were applied to soil as a nutrient conservation strategy. The resultant biochars were characterized for physical and mineralogical properties...
November 14, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853179/spatial-analysis-of-pahs-in-soils-along-an-urban-suburban-rural-gradient-scale-effect-distribution-patterns-diffusion-and-influencing-factors
#17
Chi Peng, Meie Wang, Weiping Chen
Spatial statistical methods including Cokriging interpolation, Morans I analysis, and geographically weighted regression (GWR) were used for studying the spatial characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) accumulation in urban, suburban, and rural soils of Beijing. The concentrations of PAHs decreased spatially as the level of urbanization decreased. Generally, PAHs in soil showed two spatial patterns on the regional scale: (1) regional baseline depositions with a radius of 16.5 km related to the level of urbanization and (2) isolated pockets of soil contaminated with PAHs were found up to around 3...
November 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853060/physical-chemical-and-proteomic-evidence-of-potato-suberin-degradation-by-the-plant-pathogenic-bacterium-streptomyces-scabiei
#18
Carole Beaulieu, Amadou Sidibé, Raoudha Jabloune, Anne-Marie Simao-Beaunoir, Sylvain Lerat, Ernest Monga, Mark A Bernards
Potato peels consist of a tissue called phellem, which is formed by suberized cell layers. The degradation of suberin, a lipidic and recalcitrant polymer, is an ecological process attributed to soil fungal populations; however, previous studies have suggested that Streptomyces scabiei, the causal agent of potato common scab, possesses the ability to degrade suberin. In the present study, S. scabiei was grown in medium containing suberin-enriched potato phellem as the sole carbon source and its secretome was analyzed periodically (10- to 60-d-old cultures) with a special focus on proteins potentially involved in cell wall degradation...
November 17, 2016: Microbes and Environments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844108/transcriptional-responses-of-the-bacterium-burkholderia-terrae-bs001-to-the-fungal-host-lyophyllum-sp-strain-karsten-under-soil-mimicking-conditions
#19
Irshad Ul Haq, Francisco Dini-Andreote, Jan Dirk van Elsas
In this study, the mycosphere isolate Burkholderia terrae BS001 was confronted with the soil fungus Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten on soil extract agar plates in order to examine its transcriptional responses over time. At the initial stages of the experiment (T1-day 3; T2-day 5), contact between both partner organisms was absent, whereas in the final stage (T3-day 8), the two populations made intimate physical contact. Overall, a strong modulation of the strain BS001 gene expression patterns was found. First, the stationary-phase sigma factor RpoS, and numerous genes under its control, were strongly expressed as a response to the soil extract agar, and this extended over the whole temporal regime...
November 14, 2016: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843024/landfill-mining-wet-mechanical-treatment-of-fine-msw-with-a-wet-jigger
#20
Sebastian Wanka, Kai Münnich, Klaus Fricke
The motives for landfill mining are various. In the last couple of years Enhanced Landfill Mining (ELFM) has become increasingly important in academic discourse and practical implementation. The main goal of ELFM is to recover as much material as possible from deposited municipal solid waste (MSW). In most of the projects carried out so far, the main focus has been set on coarse materials such as plastics, woods, papers and metals. These fractions can be separated easily by sieving in combination with magnetic separation...
November 11, 2016: Waste Management
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