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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816481/individuals-eye-movements-in-reading-are-highly-consistent-across-time-and-trial
#1
Benjamin T Carter, Steven G Luke
Eye movements are used to study a variety of cognitive phenomena, including attention, perception, memory, language, reading, decision making, and many others, as well as cognitive impairments and individual differences in cognition. These studies assume, with little evidence, that eye movements are stable across time and trials. Eye movement stability must be better characterized to understand the full theoretical and clinical implications of individual differences in eye movement behavior. The present study examined eye movement reliability in normal individuals during reading...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795834/contrasting-gist-based-and-template-based-guidance-during-real-world-visual-search
#2
Brett Bahle, Michi Matsukura, Andrew Hollingworth
Visual search through real-world scenes is guided both by a representation of target features and by knowledge of the sematic properties of the scene (derived from scene gist recognition). In 3 experiments, we compared the relative roles of these 2 sources of guidance. Participants searched for a target object in the presence of a critical distractor object. The color of the critical distractor either matched or mismatched (a) the color of an item maintained in visual working memory for a secondary task (Experiment 1), or (b) the color of the target, cued by a picture before search commenced (Experiments 2 and 3)...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765992/inhibition-in-movement-plan-competition-reach-trajectories-curve-away-from-remembered-and-task-irrelevant-present-but-not-from-task-irrelevant-past-visual-stimuli
#3
Tobias Moehler, Katja Fiehler
The current study investigated the role of automatic encoding and maintenance of remembered, past, and present visual distractors for reach movement planning. The previous research on eye movements showed that saccades curve away from locations actively kept in working memory and also from task-irrelevant perceptually present visual distractors, but not from task-irrelevant past distractors. Curvature away has been associated with an inhibitory mechanism resolving the competition between multiple active movement plans...
August 1, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762028/word-predictability-affects-saccade-length-in-chinese-reading-an-evaluation-of-the-dynamic-adjustment-model
#4
Yanping Liu, Siyuan Guo, Lei Yu, Erik D Reichle
How does a word's within-sentence predictability influence saccade length during reading? An eye-movement experiment manipulating the predictability of target words indicates that, relative to low-predictability target words, high-predictability targets elicit longer saccades to themselves. Simulations using computational models that respectively instantiate the targeting of saccades to default locations (Yan, Kliegl, Richter, Nuthmann, & Shu in Journal of Experimental Psychology, 63, 705-725, 2010) versus the dynamic adjustment of saccade length (Liu, Reichle, & Li in Journal of Experimental Psychology Learning Memory and Cognition, 41, 1229-1236, 2015, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 42, 1008-1025, 2016) indicate that the latter model provides a more accurate and parsimonious account of saccade-targeting behavior in Chinese reading...
July 31, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700673/the-trickle-down-effect-of-predictability-secondary-task-performance-benefits-from-predictability-in-the-primary-task
#5
Magdalena Ewa Król, Michał Król
Predictions optimize processing by reducing attentional resources allocation to expected or predictable sensory data. Our study demonstrates that these saved processing resources can be then used on concurrent stimuli, and in consequence improve their processing and encoding. We illustrate this "trickle-down" effect with a dual task, where the primary task varied in terms of predictability. The primary task involved detection of a pre-specified symbol that appeared at some point of a short video of a dot moving along a random, semi-predictable or predictable trajectory...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690501/cortical-activation-during-landmark-centered-vs-gaze-centered-memory-of-saccade-targets-in-the-human-an-fmri-study
#6
Ying Chen, J D Crawford
A remembered saccade target could be encoded in egocentric coordinates such as gaze-centered, or relative to some external allocentric landmark that is independent of the target or gaze (landmark-centered). In comparison to egocentric mechanisms, very little is known about such a landmark-centered representation. Here, we used an event-related fMRI design to identify brain areas supporting these two types of spatial coding (i.e., landmark-centered vs. gaze-centered) for target memory during the Delay phase where only target location, not saccade direction, was specified...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654960/the-cost-of-making-an-eye-movement-a-direct-link-between-visual-working-memory-and-saccade-execution
#7
Martijn J Schut, Nathan Van der Stoep, Albert Postma, Stefan Van der Stigchel
To facilitate visual continuity across eye movements, the visual system must presaccadically acquire information about the future foveal image. Previous studies have indicated that visual working memory (VWM) affects saccade execution. However, the reverse relation, the effect of saccade execution on VWM load is less clear. To investigate the causal link between saccade execution and VWM, we combined a VWM task and a saccade task. Participants were instructed to remember one, two, or three shapes and performed either a No Saccade-, a Single Saccade- or a Dual (corrective) Saccade-task...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651744/eying-the-future-eye-movement-in-past-and-future-thinking
#8
Mohamad El Haj, Quentin Lenoble
We investigated eye movement during past and future thinking. Participants were invited to retrieve past events and to imagine future events while their scan path was recorded by an eye-tracker. Past thinking triggered more fixation (p < .05), and saccade counts (p < .05) than future thinking. Past and future thinking triggered a similar duration of fixations and saccades, as well as a similar amplitude of saccades. Interestingly, participants rated past thinking as more vivid than future thinking (p < ...
June 7, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638208/eye-movement-indices-in-the-study-of-depressive-disorder
#9
Yu Li, Yangyang Xu, Mengqing Xia, Tianhong Zhang, Junjie Wang, Xu Liu, Yongguang He, Jijun Wang
BACKGROUND: Impaired cognition is one of the most common core symptoms of depressive disorder. Eye movement testing mainly reflects patients' cognitive functions, such as cognition, memory, attention, recognition, and recall. This type of testing has great potential to improve theories related to cognitive functioning in depressive episodes as well as potential in its clinical application. AIMS: This study investigated whether eye movement indices of patients with unmedicated depressive disorder were abnormal or not, as well as the relationship between these indices and mental symptoms...
December 25, 2016: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579056/-computerized-oculomotor-training-in-dyslexia-a-randomized-crossover-clinical-trial-in-pediatric-population
#10
H Peyre, C-L Gérard, I Dupong Vanderhorst, S Larger, C Lemoussu, J Vesta, E Bui Quoc, N Gouleme, R Delorme, M P Bucci
OBJECTIVE: Several studies have reported abnormal oculomotor capacities leading to reading/writing difficulties among dyslexic children. However, no randomized clinical trial has been conducted to determine whether oculomotor training improves reading/writing skills of these children. The present study aims to evaluate the efficacy of computer-based oculomotor training among dyslexic children. METHOD: Crossover randomized trial with enrollment from January 12, 2015 to July 24, 2015, and follow-up to February 4, 2016...
June 1, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578187/pupillometric-and-saccadic-measures-of-affective-and-executive-processing-in-anxiety
#11
Piril Hepsomali, Julie A Hadwin, Simon P Liversedge, Matthew Garner
Anxious individuals report hyper-arousal and sensitivity to environmental stimuli, difficulties concentrating, performing tasks efficiently and inhibiting unwanted thoughts and distraction. We used pupillometry and eye-movement measures to compare high vs. low anxious individuals hyper-reactivity to emotional stimuli (facial expressions) and subsequent attentional biases in a memory-guided pro- and antisaccade task during conditions of low and high cognitive load (short vs. long delay). High anxious individuals produced larger and slower pupillary responses to face stimuli, and more erroneous eye-movements, particularly following long delay...
May 31, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572407/simultaneous-analysis-of-the-lfp-and-spiking-activity-reveals-essential-components-of-a-visuomotor-transformation-in-the-frontal-eye-field
#12
Naveen Sendhilnathan, Debaleena Basu, Aditya Murthy
The frontal eye field (FEF) is a key brain region to study visuomotor transformations because the primary input to FEF is visual in nature, whereas its output reflects the planning of behaviorally relevant saccadic eye movements. In this study, we used a memory-guided saccade task to temporally dissociate the visual epoch from the saccadic epoch through a delay epoch, and used the local field potential (LFP) along with simultaneously recorded spike data to study the visuomotor transformation process. We showed that visual latency of the LFP preceded spiking activity in the visual epoch, whereas spiking activity preceded LFP activity in the saccade epoch...
June 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562618/hebbian-learning-of-hand-centred-representations-in-a-hierarchical-neural-network-model-of-the-primate-visual-system
#13
Jannis Born, Juan M Galeazzi, Simon M Stringer
A subset of neurons in the posterior parietal and premotor areas of the primate brain respond to the locations of visual targets in a hand-centred frame of reference. Such hand-centred visual representations are thought to play an important role in visually-guided reaching to target locations in space. In this paper we show how a biologically plausible, Hebbian learning mechanism may account for the development of localized hand-centred representations in a hierarchical neural network model of the primate visual system, VisNet...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559807/eeg-and-eye-tracking-signatures-of-target-encoding-during-structured-visual-search
#14
Anne-Marie Brouwer, Maarten A Hogervorst, Bob Oudejans, Anthony J Ries, Jonathan Touryan
EEG and eye tracking variables are potential sources of information about the underlying processes of target detection and storage during visual search. Fixation duration, pupil size and event related potentials (ERPs) locked to the onset of fixation or saccade (saccade-related potentials, SRPs) have been reported to differ dependent on whether a target or a non-target is currently fixated. Here we focus on the question of whether these variables also differ between targets that are subsequently reported (hits) and targets that are not (misses)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559375/stable-and-dynamic-coding-for-working-memory-in-primate-prefrontal-cortex
#15
Eelke Spaak, Kei Watanabe, Shintaro Funahashi, Mark G Stokes
Working memory (WM) provides the stability necessary for high-level cognition. Influential theories typically assume that WM depends on the persistence of stable neural representations, yet increasing evidence suggests that neural states are highly dynamic. Here we apply multivariate pattern analysis to explore the population dynamics in primate lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) during three variants of the classic memory-guided saccade task (recorded in four animals). We observed the hallmark of dynamic population coding across key phases of a working memory task: sensory processing, memory encoding, and response execution...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537005/active-listening-delays-attentional-disengagement-and-saccadic-eye-movements
#16
Benjamin D Lester, Shaun P Vecera
Successful goal-directed visual behavior depends on efficient disengagement of attention. Attention must be withdrawn from its current focus before being redeployed to a new object or internal process. Previous research has demonstrated that occupying cognitive processes with a secondary cellular phone conversation impairs attentional functioning and driving behavior. For example, attentional processing is significantly impacted by concurrent cell phone use, resulting in decreased explicit memory for on-road information...
May 23, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525567/saccadic-eye-movements-and-attentional-control-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Nicolas Noiret, Nicolas Carvalho, Éric Laurent, Gilles Chopard, Mickaël Binetruy, Magali Nicolier, Julie Monnin, Eloi Magnin, Pierre Vandel
Objective: Several studies have demonstrated saccadic eye movement (SEM) abnormalities in Alzheimer's disease (AD) when patients performed prosaccade (PS) and antisaccade (AS) tasks. Some studies have also showed that SEM abnormalities were correlated with dementia rating tests such as the Mini Mental State Evaluation (MMSE). Therefore, it has been suggested that SEMs could provide useful information for diagnosis. However, little is known about predictive saccades (PreS)-saccades triggered before or very quickly after stimuli appearance-and their relationships with cognition in AD...
May 19, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456583/protracted-development-of-executive-and-mnemonic-brain-systems-underlying-working-memory-in-adolescence-a-longitudinal-fmri-study
#18
Daniel J Simmonds, Michael N Hallquist, Beatriz Luna
Working memory (WM), the ability to hold information on-line to guide planned behavior, improves through adolescence in parallel with continued maturation of critical brain systems supporting cognitive control. Initial developmental neuroimaging studies with one or two timepoints have provided important though varied results limiting our understanding of which and how neural systems change during this transition into mature WM. In this study, we leverage functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) longitudinal data spanning up to 9 years in 129 normally developing individuals to identify which systems demonstrate growth changes that accompany improvements in WM performance...
April 26, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443002/to-wait-or-not-to-wait-separate-mechanisms-in-the-oculomotor-circuit-of-basal-ganglia
#19
Masaharu Yasuda, Okihide Hikosaka
We reach a goal immediately after detecting the target, or later by withholding the immediate action. Each time, we choose one of these actions by suppressing the other. How does the brain control these antagonistic actions? We hypothesized that the output of basal ganglia (BG), substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), suppresses antagonistic oculomotor signals by sending strong inhibitory output to superior colliculus (SC). To test this hypothesis, we trained monkeys to perform two kinds of saccade task: Immediate (visually guided) and delayed (visually-withheld but memory-guided) saccade tasks...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439249/cross-modal-action-complexity-action-and-rule-related-memory-retrieval-in-dual-response-control
#20
Aleks Pieczykolan, Lynn Huestegge
Normally, we do not act within a single effector system only, but rather coordinate actions across several output modules (cross-modal action). Such cross-modal action demands can vary substantially with respect to their complexity in terms of the number of task-relevant response combinations and to-be-retrieved stimulus-response (S-R) mapping rules. In the present study, we study the impact of these two types of cross-modal action complexity on dual-response costs (i.e., performance differences between single- and dual-action demands)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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