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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024784/causal-role-of-noradrenaline-in-the-timing-of-internally-generated-saccades-in-monkeys
#1
Tomoki W Suzuki, Masaki Tanaka
We recently found that when monkeys performed an oculomotor version of the time production task, the trial-by-trial latency of self-timed saccades was negatively correlated with pupil diameter just before the delay period (Suzuki et al., 2016). Since pupil diameter has been shown to correlate with neuronal activity in the locus coeruleus, the level of noradrenaline (NA) in the brain might regulate the subjective passage of time. To examine this, we orally administered a selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (reboxetine, 0...
October 9, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984524/population-dynamics-of-early-visual-cortex-during-working-memory
#2
Masih Rahmati, Golbarg T Saber, Clayton E Curtis
Although the content of working memory (WM) can be decoded from the spatial patterns of brain activity in early visual cortex, how populations encode WM representations remain unclear. Here, we address this limitation by using a model-based approach that reconstructs the feature encoded by population activity measured with fMRI. Using this approach, we could successfully reconstruct the locations of memory-guided saccade goals based on the pattern of activity in visual cortex during a memory delay. We could reconstruct the saccade goal even when we dissociated the visual stimulus from the saccade goal using a memory-guided antisaccade procedure...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954892/memory-guided-saccades-show-effect-of-perceptual-illusion-whereas-visually-guided-saccades-do-not
#3
Delphine Massendari, Matteo Lisi, Thérèse Collins, Patrick Cavanagh
The double-drift stimulus (a drifting Gabor with orthogonal internal motion) generates a large discrepancy between its physical and perceived path. Surprisingly, saccades directed to the double-drift stimulus land along the physical, and not perceived, path (Lisi & Cavanagh, 2015). Here we asked whether memory-guided saccades exhibited the same dissociation from perception. Participants were asked to keep their gaze centered on a fixation dot while the double-drift stimulus moved back and forth on a linear path in the periphery...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853331/the-effects-of-varying-levels-of-hemispheric-activation-on-episodic-memory
#4
Stephen Prunier, Stephen Christman, John Jasper
Bilateral saccadic eye movements enhance episodic memory retrieval; however, this usually only occurs for consistent-handed, not inconsistent-handed, individuals. It was hypothesized that inconsistent-handers begin closer to the peak of a Yerkes-Dodson-type inverted-U curve and increasing activation pushes them along the curve eventually decreasing performance, while consistent-handers start at a lower baseline and therefore increasing activation increases their performance. The current study tested this hypothesis by using hand clenching (grip strength) to increase activation at 5 different levels for both consistent- and inconsistent-handers...
August 30, 2017: Laterality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826493/the-expression-of-established-cognitive-brain-states-stabilizes-with-working-memory-development
#5
David Florentino Montez, Finnegan J Calabro, Beatriz Luna
We present results from a longitudinal study conducted over 10 years in a sample of 126 8-33 year olds demonstrating that adolescent development of working memory is supported by decreased variability in the amplitude of expression of whole brain states of task-related activity. fMRI analyses reveal that putative gain signals affecting maintenance and retrieval aspects of working memory processing stabilize during adolescence, while those affecting sensorimotor processes do not. We show that trial-to-trial variability in the reaction time and accuracy of eye-movements during a memory guided saccade task are related to fluctuations in the amplitude of expression of task-related brain states, or brain state variability, and also provide evidence that individual developmental trajectories of reaction time variability are related to individual trajectories of brain state variability...
August 19, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816481/individuals-eye-movements-in-reading-are-highly-consistent-across-time-and-trial
#6
Benjamin T Carter, Steven G Luke
Eye movements are used to study a variety of cognitive phenomena, including attention, perception, memory, language, reading, decision making, and many others, as well as cognitive impairments and individual differences in cognition. These studies assume, with little evidence, that eye movements are stable across time and trials. Eye movement stability must be better characterized to understand the full theoretical and clinical implications of individual differences in eye movement behavior. The present study examined eye movement reliability in normal individuals during reading...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795834/contrasting-gist-based-and-template-based-guidance-during-real-world-visual-search
#7
Brett Bahle, Michi Matsukura, Andrew Hollingworth
Visual search through real-world scenes is guided both by a representation of target features and by knowledge of the sematic properties of the scene (derived from scene gist recognition). In 3 experiments, we compared the relative roles of these 2 sources of guidance. Participants searched for a target object in the presence of a critical distractor object. The color of the critical distractor either matched or mismatched (a) the color of an item maintained in visual working memory for a secondary task (Experiment 1), or (b) the color of the target, cued by a picture before search commenced (Experiments 2 and 3)...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765992/inhibition-in-movement-plan-competition-reach-trajectories-curve-away-from-remembered-and-task-irrelevant-present-but-not-from-task-irrelevant-past-visual-stimuli
#8
Tobias Moehler, Katja Fiehler
The current study investigated the role of automatic encoding and maintenance of remembered, past, and present visual distractors for reach movement planning. The previous research on eye movements showed that saccades curve away from locations actively kept in working memory and also from task-irrelevant perceptually present visual distractors, but not from task-irrelevant past distractors. Curvature away has been associated with an inhibitory mechanism resolving the competition between multiple active movement plans...
August 1, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762028/word-predictability-affects-saccade-length-in-chinese-reading-an-evaluation-of-the-dynamic-adjustment-model
#9
Yanping Liu, Siyuan Guo, Lei Yu, Erik D Reichle
How does a word's within-sentence predictability influence saccade length during reading? An eye-movement experiment manipulating the predictability of target words indicates that, relative to low-predictability target words, high-predictability targets elicit longer saccades to themselves. Simulations using computational models that respectively instantiate the targeting of saccades to default locations (Yan, Kliegl, Richter, Nuthmann, & Shu in Journal of Experimental Psychology, 63, 705-725, 2010) versus the dynamic adjustment of saccade length (Liu, Reichle, & Li in Journal of Experimental Psychology Learning Memory and Cognition, 41, 1229-1236, 2015, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 42, 1008-1025, 2016) indicate that the latter model provides a more accurate and parsimonious account of saccade-targeting behavior in Chinese reading...
July 31, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700673/the-trickle-down-effect-of-predictability-secondary-task-performance-benefits-from-predictability-in-the-primary-task
#10
Magdalena Ewa Król, Michał Król
Predictions optimize processing by reducing attentional resources allocation to expected or predictable sensory data. Our study demonstrates that these saved processing resources can be then used on concurrent stimuli, and in consequence improve their processing and encoding. We illustrate this "trickle-down" effect with a dual task, where the primary task varied in terms of predictability. The primary task involved detection of a pre-specified symbol that appeared at some point of a short video of a dot moving along a random, semi-predictable or predictable trajectory...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690501/cortical-activation-during-landmark-centered-vs-gaze-centered-memory-of-saccade-targets-in-the-human-an-fmri-study
#11
Ying Chen, J D Crawford
A remembered saccade target could be encoded in egocentric coordinates such as gaze-centered, or relative to some external allocentric landmark that is independent of the target or gaze (landmark-centered). In comparison to egocentric mechanisms, very little is known about such a landmark-centered representation. Here, we used an event-related fMRI design to identify brain areas supporting these two types of spatial coding (i.e., landmark-centered vs. gaze-centered) for target memory during the Delay phase where only target location, not saccade direction, was specified...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654960/the-cost-of-making-an-eye-movement-a-direct-link-between-visual-working-memory-and-saccade-execution
#12
Martijn J Schut, Nathan Van der Stoep, Albert Postma, Stefan Van der Stigchel
To facilitate visual continuity across eye movements, the visual system must presaccadically acquire information about the future foveal image. Previous studies have indicated that visual working memory (VWM) affects saccade execution. However, the reverse relation, the effect of saccade execution on VWM load is less clear. To investigate the causal link between saccade execution and VWM, we combined a VWM task and a saccade task. Participants were instructed to remember one, two, or three shapes and performed either a No Saccade-, a Single Saccade- or a Dual (corrective) Saccade-task...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651744/eying-the-future-eye-movement-in-past-and-future-thinking
#13
Mohamad El Haj, Quentin Lenoble
We investigated eye movement during past and future thinking. Participants were invited to retrieve past events and to imagine future events while their scan path was recorded by an eye-tracker. Past thinking triggered more fixation (p < .05), and saccade counts (p < .05) than future thinking. Past and future thinking triggered a similar duration of fixations and saccades, as well as a similar amplitude of saccades. Interestingly, participants rated past thinking as more vivid than future thinking (p < ...
June 7, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638208/eye-movement-indices-in-the-study-of-depressive-disorder
#14
Yu Li, Yangyang Xu, Mengqing Xia, Tianhong Zhang, Junjie Wang, Xu Liu, Yongguang He, Jijun Wang
BACKGROUND: Impaired cognition is one of the most common core symptoms of depressive disorder. Eye movement testing mainly reflects patients' cognitive functions, such as cognition, memory, attention, recognition, and recall. This type of testing has great potential to improve theories related to cognitive functioning in depressive episodes as well as potential in its clinical application. AIMS: This study investigated whether eye movement indices of patients with unmedicated depressive disorder were abnormal or not, as well as the relationship between these indices and mental symptoms...
December 25, 2016: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579056/-computerized-oculomotor-training-in-dyslexia-a-randomized-crossover-clinical-trial-in-pediatric-population
#15
H Peyre, C-L Gérard, I Dupong Vanderhorst, S Larger, C Lemoussu, J Vesta, E Bui Quoc, N Gouleme, R Delorme, M P Bucci
OBJECTIVE: Several studies have reported abnormal oculomotor capacities leading to reading/writing difficulties among dyslexic children. However, no randomized clinical trial has been conducted to determine whether oculomotor training improves reading/writing skills of these children. The present study aims to evaluate the efficacy of computer-based oculomotor training among dyslexic children. METHOD: Crossover randomized trial with enrollment from January 12, 2015 to July 24, 2015, and follow-up to February 4, 2016...
June 1, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578187/pupillometric-and-saccadic-measures-of-affective-and-executive-processing-in-anxiety
#16
Piril Hepsomali, Julie A Hadwin, Simon P Liversedge, Matthew Garner
Anxious individuals report hyper-arousal and sensitivity to environmental stimuli, difficulties concentrating, performing tasks efficiently and inhibiting unwanted thoughts and distraction. We used pupillometry and eye-movement measures to compare high vs. low anxious individuals hyper-reactivity to emotional stimuli (facial expressions) and subsequent attentional biases in a memory-guided pro- and antisaccade task during conditions of low and high cognitive load (short vs. long delay). High anxious individuals produced larger and slower pupillary responses to face stimuli, and more erroneous eye-movements, particularly following long delay...
May 31, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572407/simultaneous-analysis-of-the-lfp-and-spiking-activity-reveals-essential-components-of-a-visuomotor-transformation-in-the-frontal-eye-field
#17
Naveen Sendhilnathan, Debaleena Basu, Aditya Murthy
The frontal eye field (FEF) is a key brain region to study visuomotor transformations because the primary input to FEF is visual in nature, whereas its output reflects the planning of behaviorally relevant saccadic eye movements. In this study, we used a memory-guided saccade task to temporally dissociate the visual epoch from the saccadic epoch through a delay epoch, and used the local field potential (LFP) along with simultaneously recorded spike data to study the visuomotor transformation process. We showed that visual latency of the LFP preceded spiking activity in the visual epoch, whereas spiking activity preceded LFP activity in the saccade epoch...
June 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562618/hebbian-learning-of-hand-centred-representations-in-a-hierarchical-neural-network-model-of-the-primate-visual-system
#18
Jannis Born, Juan M Galeazzi, Simon M Stringer
A subset of neurons in the posterior parietal and premotor areas of the primate brain respond to the locations of visual targets in a hand-centred frame of reference. Such hand-centred visual representations are thought to play an important role in visually-guided reaching to target locations in space. In this paper we show how a biologically plausible, Hebbian learning mechanism may account for the development of localized hand-centred representations in a hierarchical neural network model of the primate visual system, VisNet...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559807/eeg-and-eye-tracking-signatures-of-target-encoding-during-structured-visual-search
#19
Anne-Marie Brouwer, Maarten A Hogervorst, Bob Oudejans, Anthony J Ries, Jonathan Touryan
EEG and eye tracking variables are potential sources of information about the underlying processes of target detection and storage during visual search. Fixation duration, pupil size and event related potentials (ERPs) locked to the onset of fixation or saccade (saccade-related potentials, SRPs) have been reported to differ dependent on whether a target or a non-target is currently fixated. Here we focus on the question of whether these variables also differ between targets that are subsequently reported (hits) and targets that are not (misses)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559375/stable-and-dynamic-coding-for-working-memory-in-primate-prefrontal-cortex
#20
Eelke Spaak, Kei Watanabe, Shintaro Funahashi, Mark G Stokes
Working memory (WM) provides the stability necessary for high-level cognition. Influential theories typically assume that WM depends on the persistence of stable neural representations, yet increasing evidence suggests that neural states are highly dynamic. Here we apply multivariate pattern analysis to explore the population dynamics in primate lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) during three variants of the classic memory-guided saccade task (recorded in four animals). We observed the hallmark of dynamic population coding across key phases of a working memory task: sensory processing, memory encoding, and response execution...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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