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Saccade and memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302586/mantisbot-is-a-robotic-model-of-visually-guided-motion-in-the-praying-mantis
#1
Nicholas S Szczecinski, Andrew P Getsy, Joshua P Martin, Roy E Ritzmann, Roger D Quinn
Insects use highly distributed nervous systems to process exteroception from head sensors, compare that information with state-based goals, and direct posture or locomotion toward those goals. To study how descending commands from brain centers produce coordinated, goal-directed motion in distributed nervous systems, we have constructed a conductance-based neural system for our robot MantisBot, a 29 degree-of-freedom, 13.3:1 scale praying mantis robot. Using the literature on mantis prey tracking and insect locomotion, we designed a hierarchical, distributed neural controller that establishes the goal, coordinates different joints, and executes prey-tracking motion...
March 13, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287758/cerebral-hemodynamics-during-scene-viewing-hemispheric-lateralization-predicts-temporal-gaze-behavior-associated-with-distinct-modes-of-visual-processing
#2
Mark Mills, Mohammed Alwatban, Benjamin Hage, Erin Barney, Edward J Truemper, Gregory R Bashford, Michael D Dodd
Systematic patterns of eye movements during scene perception suggest a functional distinction between 2 viewing modes: an ambient mode (characterized by short fixations and large saccades) thought to reflect dorsal activity involved with spatial analysis, and a focal mode (characterized by long fixations and small saccades) thought to reflect ventral activity involved with object analysis. Little neuroscientific evidence exists supporting this claim. Here, functional transcranial Doppler ultrasound (fTCD) was used to investigate whether these modes show hemispheric specialization...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258438/clinical-application-of-eye-movement-tasks-as-an-aid-to-understanding-parkinson-s-disease-pathophysiology
#3
REVIEW
Kikuro Fukushima, Junko Fukushima, Graham R Barnes
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder of the basal ganglia. Most PD patients suffer from somatomotor and oculomotor disorders. The oculomotor system facilitates obtaining accurate information from the visual world. If a target moves slowly in the fronto-parallel plane, tracking eye movements occur that consist primarily of smooth-pursuit interspersed with corrective saccades. Efficient smooth-pursuit requires appropriate target selection and predictive compensation for inherent processing delays...
March 3, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251336/the-effects-of-task-relevant-saccadic-eye-movements-performed-during-the-encoding-of-a-serial-sequence-on-visuospatial-memory-performance
#4
Leonardo Martin, Anthony Tapper, David A Gonzalez, Michelle Leclerc, Ewa Niechwiej-Szwedo
Visuospatial working memory (VSWM) is a set of cognitive processes used to encode, maintain and manipulate spatial information. One important feature of VSWM is that it has a limited capacity such that only few items can be actively stored and manipulated simultaneously. Given the limited capacity, it is important to determine the conditions that affect memory performance as this will improve our understanding of the architecture and function of VSWM. Previous studies have shown that VSWM is disrupted when task-irrelevant eye movements are performed during the maintenance phase; however, relatively fewer studies examined the role of eye movements performed during the encoding phase...
March 1, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242799/cerebellar-roles-in-self-timing-for-sub-and-supra-second-intervals
#5
Shogo Ohmae, Jun Kunimatsu, Masaki Tanaka
Previous studies suggest that the cerebellum and basal ganglia are involved in sub- and supra-second timing, respectively. To test this hypothesis at the cellular level, we examined the activity of single neurons in the cerebellar dentate nucleus in monkeys performing the oculomotor version of the self-timing task. Animals were trained to report the passage of time of 400, 600, 1200, or 2400 ms following a visual cue by making self-initiated memory-guided saccades. We found a sizeable preparatory neuronal activity prior to self-timed saccades across delay intervals, while the time course of activity correlated with the trial-by-trial variation of saccade latency in different ways depending on the length of the delay intervals...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239342/informative-cues-facilitate-saccadic-localization-in-blindsight-monkeys
#6
Masatoshi Yoshida, Ziad M Hafed, Tadashi Isa
Patients with damage to the primary visual cortex (V1) demonstrate residual visual performance during laboratory tasks despite denying having a conscious percept. The mechanisms behind such performance, often called blindsight, are not fully understood, but the use of surgically-induced unilateral V1 lesions in macaque monkeys provides a useful animal model for exploring such mechanisms. For example, V1-lesioned monkeys localize stimuli in a forced-choice condition while at the same time failing to report awareness of identical stimuli in a yes-no detection condition, similar to human patients...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222190/salient-object-changes-influence-overt-attentional-prioritization-and-object-based-targeting-in-natural-scenes
#7
Nicola C Anderson, Mieke Donk
A change to an object in natural scenes attracts attention when it occurs during a fixation. However, when a change occurs during a saccade, and is masked by saccadic suppression, it typically does not capture the gaze in a bottom-up manner. In the present work, we investigated how the type and direction of salient changes to objects affect the prioritization and targeting of objects in natural scenes. We asked observers to look around a scene in preparation for a later memory test. After a period of time, an object in the scene was increased or decreased in salience either during a fixation (with a transient signal) or during a saccade (without transient signal), or it was not changed at all...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187309/eye-movement-during-retrieval-of-emotional-autobiographical-memories
#8
Mohamad El Haj, Jean-Louis Nandrino, Pascal Antoine, Muriel Boucart, Quentin Lenoble
This study assessed whether specific eye movement patterns are observed during emotional autobiographical retrieval. Participants were asked to retrieve positive, negative and neutral memories while their scan path was recorded by an eye-tracker. Results showed that positive and negative emotional memories triggered more fixations and saccades but shorter fixation duration than neutral memories. No significant differences were observed between emotional and neutral memories for duration and amplitude of saccades...
February 7, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169987/theta-and-beta-synchrony-coordinate-frontal-eye-fields-and-anterior-cingulate-cortex-during-sensorimotor-mapping
#9
Sahand Babapoor-Farrokhran, Martin Vinck, Thilo Womelsdorf, Stefan Everling
The frontal eye fields (FEFs) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) are commonly coactivated for cognitive saccade tasks, but whether this joined activation indexes coordinated activity underlying successful guidance of sensorimotor mapping is unknown. Here we test whether ACC and FEF circuits coordinate through phase synchronization of local field potential and neural spiking activity in macaque monkeys performing memory-guided and pro- and anti-saccades. We find that FEF and ACC showed prominent synchronization at a 3-9 Hz theta and a 12-30 Hz beta frequency band during the delay and preparation periods with a strong Granger-causal influence from ACC to FEF...
February 7, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134550/competition-in-saccade-target-selection-reveals-attentional-guidance-by-simultaneously-active-working-memory-representations
#10
Valerie M Beck, Andrew Hollingworth
The content of visual working memory (VWM) guides attention, but whether this interaction is limited to a single VWM representation or functional for multiple VWM representations is under debate. To test this issue, we developed a gaze-contingent search paradigm to directly manipulate selection history and examine the competition between multiple cue-matching saccade target objects. Participants first saw a dual-color cue followed by two pairs of colored objects presented sequentially. For each pair, participants selectively fixated an object that matched one of the cued colors...
February 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119401/electrical-microstimulation-of-the-pulvinar-biases-saccade-choices-and-reaction-times-in-a-time-dependent-manner
#11
Adan-Ulises Dominguez-Vargas, Lukas Schneider, Melanie Wilke, Igor Kagan
The pulvinar complex is interconnected extensively with brain regions involved in spatial processing and eye movement control. Recent inactivation studies have shown that the dorsal pulvinar (dPul) plays a role in saccade target selection; however, it remains unknown whether it exerts effects on visual processing or at planning/execution stages. We used electrical microstimulation of the dPul while monkeys performed saccade tasks toward instructed and freely chosen targets. Timing of stimulation was varied, starting before, at, or after onset of target(s)...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072451/the-impact-of-salience-and-visual-working-memory-on-the-monitoring-and-control-of-saccadic-behavior-an-eye-tracking-and-eeg-study
#12
Matthew D Weaver, Clayton Hickey, Wieske van Zoest
In a concurrent eye-tracking and EEG study, we investigated the impact of salience on the monitoring and control of eye movement behavior and the role of visual working memory (VWM) capacity in mediating this effect. Participants made eye movements to a unique line-segment target embedded in a search display also containing a unique distractor. Target and distractor salience was manipulated by varying degree of orientation offset from a homogenous background. VWM capacity was measured using a change-detection task...
January 10, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024879/dynamic-representations-of-visual-space-for-perception-and-action
#13
REVIEW
W Pieter Medendorp, Anouk J de Brouwer, Jeroen B J Smeets
The division of labor in visual processing between two anatomically relatively separate cortical pathways, a ventral and a dorsal stream, has been hotly debated in the last decades. One influential model is the What & How pathway model, suggesting that the separation is along ventral perception versus dorsal action, although the degree of functional separation between the two streams is controversial. An implication of this model is that perception and memory-guided movements are highly sensitive to visual contextual illusions, whereas visually-guided movements are largely immune to them...
November 30, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006075/a-behavioral-task-sets-an-upper-bound-on-the-time-required-to-access-object-memories-before-object-segregation
#14
Joseph L Sanguinetti, Mary A Peterson
Traditional theories of vision assume that object segregation occurs before access to object memories. Yet, behavioral evidence shows that familiar configuration is a prior for segregation, and electrophysiological experiments demonstrate these memories are accessed rapidly. A behavioral index of the speed of access is lacking, however. Here we asked how quickly behavior is influenced by object memories that are accessed in the course of object segregation. We investigated whether access to object memories on the groundside of a border can slow behavior during a rapid categorization task...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000252/dealing-with-ocular-artifacts-on-lateralized-erps-in-studies-of-visual-spatial-attention-and-memory-ica-correction-versus-epoch-rejection
#15
Brandi Lee Drisdelle, Sébrina Aubin, Pierre Jolicoeur
The objective of the present study was to assess the robustness and reliability of independent component analysis (ICA) as a method for ocular artifact correction in electrophysiological studies of visual-spatial attention and memory. The N2pc and sustained posterior contralateral negativity (SPCN), electrophysiological markers of visual-spatial attention and memory, respectively, are lateralized posterior ERPs typically observed following the presentation of lateral stimuli (targets and distractors) along with instructions to maintain fixation on the center of the visual search for the entire trial...
January 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916709/insights-to-the-schizophrenia-continuum-a-systematic-review-of-saccadic-eye-movements-in-schizotypy-and-biological-relatives-of-schizophrenia-patients
#16
REVIEW
Jessica B Myles, Susan L Rossell, Andrea Phillipou, Elizabeth Thomas, Caroline Gurvich
Myles, J.B., S. Rossell, A. Phillipou, Thomas, E and C. Gurvich. A systematic review of saccadic eye movements across the schizophrenia continuum: Characterisation, pathophysiology and genetic associations. NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV 21(1) XXX-XXX, 2015. One of the cognitive hallmarks of schizophrenia is impaired eye movements, particularly for the antisaccade task. Less saccade research has been conducted in relation to the broader schizophrenia continuum, that is, people with high schizotypy or first-degree relatives of people with schizophrenia...
January 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866117/distinguishing-spinocerebellar-ataxia-with-pure-cerebellar-manifestation-from-multiple-system-atrophy-msa-c-through-saccade-profiles
#17
Yasuo Terao, Hideki Fukuda, Shin-Ichi Tokushige, Satomi Inomata-Terada, Akihiro Yugeta, Masashi Hamada, Yoshikazu Ugawa
OBJECTIVE: Patients with spinocerebellar ataxia with pure cerebellar presentation (SCD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA-C) show similar symptoms at early stages, although cerebellofugal pathology predominates in SCD, and cerebellopetal pathology in MSA-C. We studied whether saccade velocity profiles, which reflect the accelerating and braking functions of the cerebellum, can differentiate these two disorders. METHODS: We recorded visually guided (VGS) and memory guided saccades (MGS) in 29 MSA-C patients, 12 SCD patients, and 92 age-matched normal subjects, and compared their amplitude, peak velocity and duration (accelerating and decelerating phases)...
January 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859647/spatial-but-not-oculomotor-information-biases-perceptual-memory-evidence-from-face-perception-and-cognitive-modeling
#18
Andrea L Wantz, Janek S Lobmaier, Fred W Mast, Walter Senn
Recent research put forward the hypothesis that eye movements are integrated in memory representations and are reactivated when later recalled. However, "looking back to nothing" during recall might be a consequence of spatial memory retrieval. Here, we aimed at distinguishing between the effect of spatial and oculomotor information on perceptual memory. Participants' task was to judge whether a morph looked rather like the first or second previously presented face. Crucially, faces and morphs were presented in a way that the morph reactivated oculomotor and/or spatial information associated with one of the previously encoded faces...
November 17, 2016: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807173/correlation-between-pupil-size-and-subjective-passage-of-time-in-non-human-primates
#19
Tomoki W Suzuki, Jun Kunimatsu, Masaki Tanaka
Our daily experience of time is strongly influenced by internal states, such as arousal, attention, and mood. However, the underlying neuronal mechanism remains largely unknown. To investigate this, we recorded pupil diameter, which is closely linked to internal factors and neuromodulatory signaling, in monkeys performing the oculomotor version of the time production paradigm. In the self-timed saccade task, animals were required to make a memory-guided saccade during a predetermined time interval following a visual cue...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807140/fef-inactivation-with-improved-optogenetic-methods
#20
Leah Acker, Erica N Pino, Edward S Boyden, Robert Desimone
Optogenetic methods have been highly effective for suppressing neural activity and modulating behavior in rodents, but effects have been much smaller in primates, which have much larger brains. Here, we present a suite of technologies to use optogenetics effectively in primates and apply these tools to a classic question in oculomotor control. First, we measured light absorption and heat propagation in vivo, optimized the conditions for using the red-light-shifted halorhodopsin Jaws in primates, and developed a large-volume illuminator to maximize light delivery with minimal heating and tissue displacement...
November 15, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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