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Saccade and memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737578/neuronal-connections-of-direct-and-indirect-pathways-for-stable-value-memory-in-caudal-basal-ganglia
#1
Hidetoshi Amita, Hyoung F Kim, Mitchell Smith, Atul Gopal, Okihide Hikosaka
Direct and indirect pathways in the basal ganglia work together for controlling behavior. However, it is still a controversial topic whether these pathways are segregated or merged with each other. To address this issue, we studied the connections of these two pathways in the caudal parts of the basal ganglia of rhesus monkeys using anatomical tracers. Our previous studies showed that the caudal basal ganglia control saccades by conveying long-term values (stable values) of many visual objects toward the superior colliculus...
May 8, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733665/the-capacity-of-trans-saccadic-memory-in-visual-search
#2
Nicholas J Kleene, Melchi M Michel
Maintaining a continuous, stable perception of the visual world relies on the ability to integrate information from previous fixations with the current one. An essential component of this integration is trans-saccadic memory (TSM), memory for information across saccades. TSM capacity may play a limiting role in tasks requiring efficient trans-saccadic integration, such as multiple-fixation visual search tasks. We estimated TSM capacity and investigated its relationship to visual short-term memory (VSTM) using two visual search tasks, one in which participants maintained fixation while saccades were simulated and another where participants made a sequence of actual saccades...
April 2018: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703786/drift-in-neural-population-activity-causes-working-memory-to-deteriorate-over-time
#3
Sebastian Schneegans, Paul M Bays
Short-term memories are thought to be maintained in the form of sustained spiking activity in neural populations. Decreases in recall precision observed with increasing number of memorized items can be accounted for by a limit on total spiking activity, resulting in fewer spikes contributing to the representation of each individual item. Longer retention intervals likewise reduce recall precision, but it is unknown what changes in population activity produce this effect. One possibility is that spiking activity becomes attenuated over time, such that the same mechanism accounts for both effects of set size and retention duration...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593640/vestibular-dysfunction-in-wernicke-s-encephalopathy-predominant-impairment-of-the-horizontal-semicircular-canals
#4
Seung-Han Lee, Sang-Hoon Kim, Ji-Min Kim, Alexander Andrea Tarnutzer
Background: Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE), a metabolic disorder due to thiamine deficiency, manifests with various neurological symptoms and signs. It has been known as a cause of vestibular dysfunction. Preliminary reports have proposed predominant involvement of the horizontal semicircular canals (HSCs). Objective: To better characterize the pattern of vestibular impairment in patients with WE using quantitative video head-impulse testing and to review the literature regarding this topic...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571955/eye-movement-parameters-and-cognitive-functions-in-parkinson-s-disease-patients-without-dementia
#5
Oscar Wh Wong, Anne Yy Chan, Adrian Wong, Claire Ky Lau, Jonas Hm Yeung, Vincent Ct Mok, Linda Cw Lam, Sandra Chan
BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits and eye movement abnormalities have been demonstrated to be detectable early clinical manifestations of Parkinson's disease. Understanding the relationship between these phenotypes may yield insight into the underlying anatomical pathways, assisting in the search for simple non-invasive markers of early neurodegeneration. OBJECTIVE: To explore the correlations between eye movement parameters with multi-domain cognitive functions in patients suffering from Parkinson's disease without dementia...
March 15, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484579/predicting-eye-movement-characteristics-across-multiple-tasks-from-working-memory-and-executive-control
#6
Steven G Luke, Emily S Darowski, Shawn D Gale
Individual differences in working memory (WM) and executive control are stable, related to cognitive task performance, and clinically predictive. Between-participant differences in eye movements are also highly reliable (Carter & Luke, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 2018; Henderson & Luke, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 40(4), 1390-1400, 2014). However, little is known about how higher order individual differences in cognition are related to these eye-movement characteristics...
February 26, 2018: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29481526/change-of-information-represented-by-thalamic-mediodorsal-neurons-during-the-delay-period
#7
Yumiko Watanabe, Shintaro Funahashi
The thalamic mediodorsal (MD) nucleus plays an important role in transforming visual information into motor information during spatial working-memory performances. To understand the neural mechanism of this transformation process, we examined whether or not the information represented in individual MD neuron's activity changes during a trial of the task. Two monkeys performed two oculomotor delayed-response tasks (an ordinary and a rotatory oculomotor delayed-response task). As MD neurons show directional delay-period activity, we compared the directional selectivity of the same MD neuron between these two tasks and determined whether the activity represented the cue direction or the saccade direction...
April 11, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461715/modern-speed-reading-apps-do-not-foster-reading-comprehension
#8
Dina Acklin, Megan H Papesh
New computer apps are gaining popularity by suggesting that reading speeds can be drastically increased when eye movements that normally occur during reading are eliminated. This is done using rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP), where words are presented 1 at a time, thus preventing natural eye movements such as saccades, fixations, and regressions from occurring. Al- though the companies producing these apps suggest that RSVP reading does not yield comprehension deficits, research investigating the role of eye movements in reading documents shows the necessity of natural eye movements for accurate comprehension...
July 2017: American Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451118/a-spatial-memory-signal-shows-that-the-parietal-cortex-has-access-to-a-craniotopic-representation-of-space
#9
Mulugeta Semework, Sara C Steenrod, Michael E Goldberg
Humans effortlessly establish a gist-like memory of their environment whenever they enter a new place, a memory that can guide action even in the absence of vision. Neurons in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) of the monkey exhibit a form of this environmental memory. These neurons respond when a monkey makes a saccade that brings the spatial location of a stimulus that appeared on a number of prior trials, but not on the present trial, into their receptive fields (RFs). The stimulus need never have appeared in the neuron's RF...
February 16, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450807/an-eye-fixation-related-potential-study-in-two-reading-tasks-reading-to-memorize-and-reading-to-make-a-decision
#10
Aline Frey, Benoît Lemaire, Laurent Vercueil, Anne Guérin-Dugué
We investigated how two different reading tasks, namely reading to memorize [Read & Memorize (RM)] and reading to decide whether a text was relevant to a given topic [Read & Decide (RD)], modulated both eye movements (EM) and brain activity. To this end, we set up an ecological paradigm using the eye fixation-related potentials (EFRP) technique, in which participants freely moved their eyes to process short paragraphs, while their electroencephalography (EEG) activity was recorded in synchronization with their EM...
February 15, 2018: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434540/perceptual-color-space-representations-in-the-oculomotor-system-are-modulated-by-surround-suppression-and-biased-selection
#11
Devin H Kehoe, Maryam Rahimi, Mazyar Fallah
The oculomotor system utilizes color extensively for planning saccades. Therefore, we examined how the oculomotor system actually encodes color and several factors that modulate these representations: attention-based surround suppression and inherent biases in selecting and encoding color categories. We measured saccade trajectories while human participants performed a memory-guided saccade task with color targets and distractors and examined whether oculomotor target selection processing was functionally related to the CIE ( x , y ) color space distances between color stimuli and whether there were hierarchical differences between color categories in the strength and speed of encoding potential saccade goals...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432778/-looking-at-nothing-during-sequential-sensorimotor-actions-long-term-memory-based-eye-scanning-of-remembered-target-locations
#12
Rebecca M Foerster
Before acting humans saccade to a target object to extract relevant visual information. Even when acting on remembered objects, locations previously occupied by relevant objects are fixated during imagery and memory tasks - a phenomenon called "looking-at-nothing". While looking-at-nothing was robustly found in tasks encouraging declarative memory built-up, results are mixed in the case of procedural sensorimotor tasks. Eye-guidance to manual targets in complete darkness was observed in a task practiced for days beforehand, while investigations using only a single session did not find fixations to remembered action targets...
March 2018: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406885/preliminary-evidence-of-the-cerebellar-role-on-cognitive-performances-in-clinically-isolated-syndrome
#13
Amandine Moroso, Aurélie Ruet, Delphine Lamargue-Hamel, Fanny Munsch, Mathilde Deloire, Jean-Christophe Ouallet, Stéphanie Cubizolle, Julie Charré-Morin, Aurore Saubusse, Thomas Tourdias, Vincent Dousset, Bruno Brochet
BACKGROUND: Cerebellar and cognitive dysfunction can occur early in clinically isolated syndrome (CIS). Eye tracking is a reliable tool for the evaluation of both subtle cerebellar symptoms and cognitive impairment. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the early cognitive profile using neuropsychological and ocular motor (OM) testing in CIS with and without cerebellar dysfunction with OM testing compared to healthy subjects (HS). METHODS: Twenty-eight patients and 12 HC underwent OM and neuropsychological testing...
February 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372362/large-scale-traveling-waves-in-eeg-activity-following-eye-movement
#14
Marcello Giannini, David M Alexander, Andrey R Nikolaev, Cees van Leeuwen
In spontaneous, stimulus-evoked, and eye-movement evoked EEG, the oscillatory signal shows large scale, dynamically organized patterns of phase. We investigated eye-movement evoked patterns in free-viewing conditions. Participants viewed photographs of natural scenes in anticipation of a memory test. From 200 ms intervals following saccades, we estimated the EEG phase gradient over the entire scalp, and the wave activity, i.e. the goodness of fit of a wave model involving a phase gradient assumed to be smooth over the scalp...
January 25, 2018: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364069/the-signature-of-undetected-change-an-exploratory-electrotomographic-investigation-of-gradual-change-blindness
#15
John Emmanuel Kiat, Michael D Dodd, Robert F Belli, Jacob E Cheadle
Neuroimaging based investigations of change blindness, a phenomenon in which seemingly obvious changes in visual scenes fail to be detected, have significantly advanced our understanding of visual awareness. The vast majority of prior investigations, however, utilize paradigms involving visual disruptions (e.g. intervening blank screens, saccadic movements, "mudsplashes"), making it difficult to cleanly isolate neural responses towards undetected visual changes. To address this issue in this present study, high-density EEG data (256 channel) was collected from 25 participants using a paradigm in which visual changes were progressively introduced into detailed real-world scenes without the use of visual disruption...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348583/rapid-updating-of-spatial-working-memory-across-saccades
#16
Paul J Boon, Silvia Zeni, Jan Theeuwes, Artem V Belopolsky
Each time we make an eye movement, positions of objects on the retina change. In order to keep track of relevant objects their positions have to be updated. The situation becomes even more complex if the object is no longer present in the world and has to be held in memory. In the present study, we used saccadic curvature to investigate the time-course of updating a memorized location across saccades. Previous studies have shown that a memorized location competes with a saccade target for selection on the oculomotor map, which leads to saccades curving away from it...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327042/transsaccadic-memory-of-multiple-spatially-variant-and-invariant-object-features
#17
Jerrold Jeyachandra, Yoongoo Nam, YoungWook Kim, Gunnar Blohm, Aarlenne Z Khan
Transsaccadic memory is a process by which remembered object information is updated across a saccade. To date, studies on transsaccadic memory have used simple stimuli-that is, a single dot or feature of an object. It remains unknown how transsaccadic memory occurs for more realistic, complex objects with multiple features. An object's location is a central feature for transsaccadic updating, as it is spatially variant, but other features such as size are spatially invariant. How these spatially variant and invariant features of an object are remembered and updated across saccades is not well understood...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321562/perception-during-double-step-saccades
#18
E Zimmermann, M C Morrone, P Binda
How the visual system achieves perceptual stability across saccadic eye movements is a long-standing question in neuroscience. It has been proposed that an efference copy informs vision about upcoming saccades, and this might lead to shifting spatial coordinates and suppressing image motion. Here we ask whether these two aspects of visual stability are interdependent or may be dissociated under special conditions. We study a memory-guided double-step saccade task, where two saccades are executed in quick succession...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295669/effects-of-handedness-consistency-and-saccade-execution-on-eyewitness-memory-in-cued-and-free-recall-procedures
#19
Keith B Lyle
Identifying characteristics that distinguish between people with relatively good versus poor episodic memory is an important goal of eyewitness-memory research, as is identifying activities that can improve people's ability to retrieve episodic memories. Consistency of hand preference is a trait associated with the quality of people's episodic memory and repetitive saccade execution is an activity known to improve people's ability to retrieve episodic memories. These factors were examined in relation to cued and free recall of a staged criminal event...
January 2, 2018: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275124/effects-of-saccade-induced-retrieval-enhancement-on-conceptual-and-perceptual-tests-of-explicit-implicit-memory
#20
Andrew Parker, Daniel Powell, Neil Dagnall
The effects of saccadic horizontal (bilateral) eye movements upon tests of both conceptual and perceptual forms of explicit and implicit memory were investigated. Participants studied a list of words and were then assigned to one of four test conditions: conceptual explicit, conceptual implicit, perceptual explicit, or perceptual implicit. Conceptual tests comprised category labels with either explicit instructions to recall corresponding examples from the study phase (category-cued recall), or implicit instructions to generate any corresponding examples that spontaneously came to mind (category-exemplar generation)...
March 2018: Brain and Cognition
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