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Paul Smith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 20, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Kelly E Moore, June P Tangney, Jeffrey B Stuewig
Upon conviction, individuals receive the stigmatizing label "criminal offender." Existing stereotypes about criminal offenders may be integrated into the self-concept, a phenomenon known as self-stigma. In many stigmatized groups, self-stigma is a robust predictor of poor functioning (Livingston & Boyd, 2010; Schomerus et al., 2011). However, little is known about how self-stigma occurs (Corrigan et al., 2006), and there has been limited research with criminal offenders. This study examines a theoretical model of self-stigma in which perceived stigma leads to stereotype agreement, internalized stigma, and then to anticipated stigma...
August 2016: Stigma Health
Kelsie Y Chesnut, Melissa Barragan, Jason Gravel, Natalie A Pifer, Keramet Reiter, Nicole Sherman, George E Tita
OBJECTIVES: California has strict firearm-related laws and is exceptional in its regulation of firearms retailers. Though evidence suggests that these laws can reduce illegal access to guns, high levels of gun violence persist in Los Angeles (LA), California. This research seeks to describe the sources of guns accessed by active offenders in LA, California and reports offenders' motivations for obtaining guns. SETTING: Los Angeles County Jail (LACJ) system (four facilities)...
October 6, 2016: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
Alfreda Holloway-Beth, Linda Forst, Julia Lippert, Sherry Brandt-Rauf, Sally Freels, Lee Friedman
BACKGROUND: Current research regarding injuries caused during interactions between police officers and civilians is conducted intermittently or on a very narrow sample frame which provides very little clinical information about the injuries suffered or the adverse outcomes. The aim of this study is to identify comorbid risk factors and describe acute outcomes of medically treated traumatic injuries occurring as a result of contact with law enforcement personnel. METHODS: For this retrospective study, patients injured as a result of contact with law enforcement personnel were identified using ICD-9 external cause of injury codes from medical record databases of patients treated in all hospitals and trauma units in Illinois between 2000 and 2009...
December 2016: Injury Epidemiology
Ryan D McDonald, Babak Tofighi, Eugene Laska, Keith Goldfeld, Wanda Bonilla, Mara Flannery, Nadina Santana-Correa, Christopher W Johnson, Neil Leibowitz, John Rotrosen, Marc N Gourevitch, Joshua D Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2016: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Ramneet Kalra, Sarah Glowa Kollisch, Ross MacDonald, Nathaniel Dickey, Zachary Rosner, Homer Venters
This article reviewed a program evaluation conducted among correctional health care staff in New York City (NYC) using a 68-question electronic survey to assess satisfaction, attitudes, and beliefs in relation to ethics and burnout of health care employees in NYC jails. Descriptive statistics were tabulated and reviewed, and further assessment of burnout and ethics was performed through group sessions with participants. This evaluation has led to changes in agency policies and procedures and an emphasis on the human rights issue of the dual loyalty challenges that the security setting places on the overall mission to care for patients...
October 2016: Journal of Correctional Health Care
Nicholas R Degner, Alfred Joshua, Rex Padilla, Holly H Vo, Gary M Vilke
This study compares purified protein derivative (PPD) screening to digital chest radiography (CXR) screening for tuberculosis (TB) in newly admitted inmates in the San Diego County Jail system. The study period lasted from 2002 to 2014, during which 45 cases of active TB were detected, a rate of 69.2 cases per 100,000 person-years. Compared to PPD, CXR reduces the median number of days active TB cases were in the general population from 44.4 to 5.2 days and the number of exposures from 1,222 to 138 persons...
October 2016: Journal of Correctional Health Care
Brent R Gibson, Gary Phillips
This descriptive analysis examines data collected as part of the accreditation program of the National Commission on Correctional Health Care (NCCHC). Based on the NCCHC Standards for Health Services, the accreditation program uses external peer review to determine whether correctional institutions meet these standards in their provision of health services. Analysis of compliance patterns looked at four facility characteristics-total annual admission, capacity, average daily population, and average daily intake-for jails and prisons...
October 2016: Journal of Correctional Health Care
Courtenay Sprague, Michael L Scanlon, Bharathi Radhakrishnan, David W Pantalone
Incarcerated women face significant barriers to achieve continuous HIV care. We employed a descriptive, exploratory design using qualitative methods and the theoretical construct of agency to investigate participants' self-reported experiences accessing HIV services in jail, in prison, and post-release in two Alabama cities. During January 2014, we conducted in-depth interviews with 25 formerly incarcerated HIV-positive women. Two researchers completed independent coding, producing preliminary codes from transcripts using content analysis...
October 14, 2016: Qualitative Health Research
Mara Hvistendahl
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 14, 2016: Science
Ank E Nijhawan, Princess A Iroh, Larry S Brown, Daniel Winetsky, Esmaeil Porsa
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) disproportionately affects immigrants, HIV-infected individuals, and those living in crowded settings such as homeless shelters and correctional facilities. Although the majority of jails and prisons use a tuberculin skin test (TST) for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) screening, limited data exist on the clinical performance and costs of the TST compared to interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) in this setting. METHODS: A prospective pilot study comparing cost between TST and an IGRA (QuantiFERON Gold In-tube, QFT-GIT) for the detection of LTBI in a convenience sample of inmates entering the Dallas County Jail (DCJ) was conducted June-October 2014...
October 12, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Robert P Schwartz, Sharon M Kelly, Shannon G Mitchell, Laura Dunlap, Gary A Zarkin, Anjalee Sharma, Kevin E O'Grady, Jerome H Jaffe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 8, 2016: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Hung-Hao Lee, Po-Chao Hsu, Wen-Hsien Lee, Chun-Yuan Chu, Ho-Ming Su, Tsung-Hsien Lin, Wen-Chol Voon, Wen-Ter Lai, Sheng-Hsiung Sheu, Cheng-An Chiu
A 66-year-old male was treated percutaneously for a bifurcation lesion of the left anterior descending coronary artery by provisional stenting using the jailed wire technique. After successfully stenting the main branch, retraction of the looped main branch guidewire was impossible. After using an intravascular ultrasound we discovered the guidewire was entangled with a stent strut. Thereafter, the proximal stent elongated after retraction. With the support of an over-the-wire microcatheter, we finally pulled out the entrapped guidewire...
September 2016: Acta Cardiol Sin
Verner S Westerberg, Barbara S McCrady, Mandy Owens, Paul Guerin
Because it is not common in the U.S. for jails to allow inmates to continue opioid medications that have been started in the community, we aimed to assess whether inmates maintained on methadone showed different rates of recidivism, lengths of incarceration, and types of offenses than other incarcerated groups. We also analyzed rates of return to home clinics after release. In order to answer these questions this study used extant data from 960 adult inmates in a large metropolitan detention center who were in 1 of 4 groups: general population with no known substance use disorders, alcohol detoxification, methadone maintenance (MMT), and opioid detoxification...
November 2016: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
Gulzar H Shah, Joshua R Vest, Kay Lovelace, J Mac McCullough
BACKGROUND: Unprecedented amounts of data are produced by the health care and other sectors, presenting opportunities for local health departments (LHDs) to access these data. LHDs will need to participate in health information exchange (HIE) with a number of partners in order to benefit from these data resources. LHDs' participation in HIEs with specific partners has not been studied. OBJECTIVES: To describe the level of and challenges in LHD participation in HIE with other partners, and variation by LHD population size and governance type...
November 2016: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
Hans Schnittler
Force generation in non-muscle cells is vital for many cellular and tissue functions. Force-generating mechanisms include actomyosin-mediated contraction, actin polymerization that drives plasma membrane protrusions and filopodia as well as kinesin- and dynein-controlled transport of vesicles and organelles along the microtubule cytoskeleton. The actomyosin-mediated contractility and actin remodeling in both epithelium and endothelium were shown to have significant impact on cell migration, shape change and formation and control of intercellular junctions...
September 28, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Eleanor Bard, Marian Knight, Emma Plugge
BACKGROUND: Women are an increasing minority of prisoners worldwide, and most are of childbearing age. Prisons offer unique opportunities for improving the pregnancy outcomes of these high-risk women, and no systematic review to date has looked at their care. This systematic review identified studies describing models of perinatal health care for imprisoned women which report maternal and child health and care outcomes. METHODS: We systematically searched for literature published between 1980 and April 2014...
September 29, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Débora Raquel Soares Guedes Trigueiro, Sandra Aparecida de Almeida, Aline Aparecida Monroe, Gilka Paiva Oliveira Costa, Valéria Peixoto Bezerra, Jordana de Almeida Nogueira
OBJECTIVE: To graspthe AIDS social representations built by freedom-deprived women. METHOD: Descriptive study with a quali-quantitative approach that involved 174 convicted women in a women's prison in a capital city of the Brazilian northeastern region. Aword-association test was applied in October and November 2014, using AIDS as a stimulus. The corpuswas processed usingIramuteq software. Descending Hierarchical Classification and Correspondence Factor Analysis were applied...
July 2016: Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da U S P
Winnie Mucherah, Elizabeth Owino, Kaleigh McCoy
While the past decade has seen an improvement in attitudes toward homosexuality, negative attitudes are still prevalent in many parts of the world. In general, increased levels of education tend to be predictive of relatively positive attitudes toward homosexuality. However, in most sub-Saharan countries, it is still believed that people are born heterosexual and that nonheterosexuals are social deviants who should be prosecuted. One such country is Kenya, where homosexuality is illegal and attracts a fine or jail term...
2016: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
Karen E Schaefer, Christianne Esposito-Smythers, June P Tangney
Suicidal behavior is a significant problem in United States jails. Suicidal ideation (SI) is an established precursor to suicidal behavior in incarcerated populations. No studies to date have examined the prevalence of SI or its correlates in a mixed gender U.S. jail sample. The purpose of the present study was to document rates of SI in a mixed gender jail sample and examine socio-demographic and psychiatric correlates. This study of 511 jail inmates found that approximately 16% of participants reported clinically significant SI upon incarceration...
2016: Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology
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