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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149022/pyogenic-brain-abscess-caused-by-peptostreptococcus-in-a-patient-with-hiv-1-infection
#1
Jose Armando Gonzales Zamora, Luis Alberto Espinoza
In the setting of HIV, cerebral lesions are usually secondary to lymphoma and opportunistic infections; however, in patients with CD4 counts above 200 cells/uL, other pathologies such as pyogenic brain abscess could gain importance. The microbiology of pyogenic brain abscess has Staphylococcus and Streptococcus as the leading etiologic pathogens in immunocompetent individuals. Peptostreptococcus is also recognized as a common cause of brain abscess in this patient population. In HIV-infected individuals, there have been sporadic reports of Peptostreptococcus infections but none of brain abscess...
November 17, 2017: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148730/the-effect-of-different-treatment-technologies-on-the-fate-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-and-class-1-integrons-when-residual-municipal-wastewater-solids-are-applied-to-soil
#2
Tucker Burch, Michael J Sadowsky, Timothy M LaPara
Residual wastewater solids are a significant reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). While treatment technologies can reduce ARG levels in residual wastewater solids, the effects of these technologies on ARGs in soil during subsequent land-application are unknown. In this study we investigated the use of numerous treatment technologies (air drying, aerobic digestion, mesophilic anaerobic digestion, thermophilic anaerobic digestion, pasteurization, and alkaline stabilization) on the fate of ARGs and class 1 integrons in wastewater solids-amended soil microcosms...
November 17, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148199/five-lessons-in-uncomplicated-appendicitis-can-we-remove-the-surgery
#3
Andrew Read, Jane Xu, Susan Adams, Jonathan Karpelowsky
Appendicectomy has remained the treatment of choice for appendicitis for over a century and is the most commonly performed emergency operation in children. However, emerging evidence suggests that appendicectomy may not always be necessary in uncomplicated appendicitis, with early paediatric trials demonstrating that antibiotic-only therapy can be safe and effective. Further rigorously designed and appropriately powered studies are necessarily to establish the place of non-operative management of uncomplicated appendicitis in the future...
November 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148198/ear-nose-and-throat-surgery-all-you-need-to-know-about-the-surgical-approach-to-the-management-of-middle-ear-effusions-in-australian-indigenous-and-non-indigenous-children
#4
REVIEW
Kelvin Kong, Francis J Lannigan, Peter S Morris, Amanda J Leach, Stephen J O'Leary
Otitis media (OM) is a common condition in Australia. It represents a spectrum of diseases from otitis media with effusion (OME) to chronic suppurative otitis media. For all the OM diagnoses, Australian Indigenous children have higher rates of early onset, severe and persistent disease. OME is the most common form of OM and often occurs after an upper respiratory tract infection. It can be difficult to diagnose (and often goes unrecognised). Hearing loss is the most important complication. The middle-ear effusion impedes the movement of the tympanic membrane and causes a conductive hearing loss of around 25 dB...
November 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147962/retrospective-review-of-ceftriaxone-versus-levofloxacin-for-treatment-of-e-coli-urinary-tract-infections
#5
Samantha S Wang, Patrick D Ratliff, William R Judd
Background Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections. Options for initial treatment of pyelonephritis or UTI requiring hospitalization include levofloxacin (LVF) or extended-spectrum cephalosporins. Globally, uropathogenic Escherichia coli resistance rates to fluoroquinolones have increased in recent years. Objective To compare clinical outcomes of patients receiving ceftriaxone (CTX) to those who received LVF empirically for the treatment of E. coli UTI. Setting 433-bed community hospital in Lexington, KY...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147674/pediatric-otogenic-sigmoid-sinus-thrombosis-case-report-and-literature-reappraisal
#6
Andrea Scherer, Andrew Jea
The purpose of this study was to review our experience with a single case of mastoiditis associated with sigmoid sinus thrombosis and increased intracranial pressure, and to review the experience of others through prior publications. We reviewed a case of a 6-year-old boy with an acute otitis media and mastoiditis, with associated ipsilateral sigmoid sinus and contralateral distal transverse sinus thrombosis. Based on the literature and our own experience, we conclude that most children with dural sinus thrombosis from acute otitis media and mastoiditis, in the setting of increased intracranial pressure, attain a good neurological outcome with a conservative neurosurgical approach...
2017: Global Pediatric Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147471/experience-with-ceftaroline-for-treatment-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-pneumonia-in-a-community-hospital
#7
Apurwa Karki, Craig Thurm, Kelly Cervellione
Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an organism causing significant mortality and morbidity with nosocomial infections. Ceftaroline is a new cephalosporin antibiotic that has activity against MRSA. In the USA, this antibiotic has not been approved for use in pneumonia caused by MRSA. Objectives: To review the use of ceftaroline in MRSA pneumonia in a US hospital and evaluate its clinical success. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in an urban community hospital assessing the use of ceftaroline for MRSA pneumonia...
2017: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147464/treatment-of-the-fluoroquinolone-associated-disability-the-pathobiochemical-implications
#8
REVIEW
Krzysztof Michalak, Aleksandra Sobolewska-Włodarczyk, Marcin Włodarczyk, Justyna Sobolewska, Piotr Woźniak, Bogusław Sobolewski
Long-term fluoroquinolone-associated disability (FQAD) after fluoroquinolone (FQ) antibiotic therapy appears in recent years as a significant medical and social problem, because patients suffer for many years after prescribed antimicrobial FQ treatment from tiredness, concentration problems, neuropathies, tendinopathies, and other symptoms. The knowledge about the molecular activity of FQs in the cells remains unclear in many details. The effective treatment of this chronic state remains difficult and not effective...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146760/blepharitis-as-an-early-sign-of-metabolic-syndrome-a-nationwide-population-based-study
#9
Chia-Yi Lee, Hung-Chi Chen, Hui-Wen Lin, Jing-Yang Huang, Shih-Chun Chao, Chao-Bin Yeh, Hung-Yu Lin, Shun-Fa Yang
BACKGROUND: To investigate the relationship between blepharitis and metabolic syndrome (MetS) by using the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database (LHID) of Taiwan. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was conducted using data collected from the LHID for the period from 2009 to 2013. This study enrolled patients who received a diagnosis of blepharitis according to the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, diagnostic code. The exclusion criteria were legal blindness, eyeball removal, ocular tumours prior to the diagnosis of blepharitis, and patients diagnosed with blepharitis and initiated antibiotic treatment concurrently...
November 16, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146662/comparative-effectiveness-of-injectable-penicillin-versus-a-combination-of-penicillin-and-gentamicin-in-children-with-pneumonia-characterised-by-indrawing-in-kenya-a-retrospective-observational-study
#10
Lucas Malla, Rafael Perera-Salazar, Emily McFadden, Mike English
OBJECTIVES: Kenyan guidelines for antibiotic treatment of pneumonia recommended treatment of pneumonia characterised by indrawing with injectable penicillin alone in inpatient settings until early 2016. At this point, they were revised becoming consistent with WHO guidance after results of a Kenyan trial provided further evidence of equivalence of oral amoxicillin and injectable penicillin. This change also made possible use of oral amoxicillin for outpatient treatment in this patient group...
November 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146647/initial-non-operative-management-of-uncomplicated-appendicitis-in-children-a-protocol-for-a-multicentre-randomised-controlled-trial-apac-trial
#11
Max Knaapen, Johanna H van der Lee, Roel Bakx, Sarah-May L The, Ernst W E van Heurn, Hugo A Heij, Ramon R Gorter
INTRODUCTION: Based on epidemiological, immunological and pathology data, the idea that appendicitis is not necessarily a progressive disease is gaining ground. Two types are distinguished: simple and complicated appendicitis. Non-operative treatment (NOT) of children with simple appendicitis has been investigated in several small studies. So far, it is deemed safe. However, its effectiveness and effect on quality of life (QoL) have yet to be established in an adequately powered randomised trial...
November 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146635/antibiotic-use-and-bacterial-complications-following-upper-respiratory-tract-infections-a-population-based-study
#12
Thomas Cars, Irene Eriksson, Anna Granath, Björn Wettermark, Jenny Hellman, Christer Norman, Anders Ternhag
OBJECTIVES: To investigate if use of antibiotics was associated with bacterial complications following upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs). DESIGN: Ecological time-trend analysis and a prospective cohort study. SETTING: Primary, outpatient specialist and inpatient care in Stockholm County, Sweden. All analyses were based on administrative healthcare data on consultations, diagnoses and dispensed antibiotics from January 2006 to January 2016...
November 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146633/comparison-of-outcomes-of-antibiotic-drugs-and-appendectomy-coda-trial-a-protocol-for-the-pragmatic-randomised-study-of-appendicitis-treatment
#13
Giana H Davidson, David R Flum, David A Talan, Larry G Kessler, Danielle C Lavallee, Bonnie J Bizzell, Farhood Farjah, Skye D Stewart, Anusha Krishnadasan, Erin E Carney, Erika M Wolff, Bryan A Comstock, Sarah E Monsell, Patrick J Heagerty, Annie P Ehlers, Daniel A DeUgarte, Amy H Kaji, Heather L Evans, Julianna T Yu, Katherine A Mandell, Ian C Doten, Kevin S Clive, Karen M McGrane, Brandon C Tudor, Careen S Foster, Darin J Saltzman, Richard C Thirlby, Erin O Lange, Amber K Sabbatini, Gregory J Moran
INTRODUCTION: Several European studies suggest that some patients with appendicitis can be treated safely with antibiotics. A portion of patients eventually undergo appendectomy within a year, with 10%-15% failing to respond in the initial period and a similar additional proportion with suspected recurrent episodes requiring appendectomy. Nearly all patients with appendicitis in the USA are still treated with surgery. A rigorous comparative effectiveness trial in the USA that is sufficiently large and pragmatic to incorporate usual variations in care and measures the patient experience is needed to determine whether antibiotics are as good as appendectomy...
November 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146383/not-just-antibiotics-is-cancer-chemotherapy-driving-antimicrobial-resistance
#14
REVIEW
Lito E Papanicolas, David L Gordon, Steve L Wesselingh, Geraint B Rogers
The global spread of antibiotic-resistant pathogens threatens to increase the mortality of cancer patients significantly. We propose that chemotherapy contributes to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria within the gut and, in combination with antibiotics, drives pathogen overgrowth and translocation into the bloodstream. In our model, these processes are mediated by the effects of chemotherapy on bacterial mutagenesis and horizontal gene transfer, the disruption of commensal gut microbiology, and alterations to host physiology...
November 13, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146265/sawr-a-new-regulator-controlling-pyomelanin-synthesis-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#15
Yossi Ben-David, Elena Zlotnik, Itzhak Zander, Gal Yerushalmi, Sivan Shoshani, Ehud Banin
Surface Acoustic Waves (SAW) were previously shown to inhibit biofilm formation, increase bacterial susceptibility to antibiotic treatment and alter the transcription pattern of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Here we characterize one gene, sawR (PA3133), that is highly overexpressed when P. aeruginosa is exposed to SAW. SawR is a putative transcription factor belonging to the TetR regulator family. When overexpressed sawR causes numerous phenotypes, including the accumulation of a brown pigment which we identified as pyomelanin...
January 2018: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146039/clinical-features-and-outcomes-of-bacteraemia-due-to-oxa-48-like-carbapenemase-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-a-tertiary-hospital
#16
Ana Madueño, Jonathan González-García, María Del Mar Alonso Socas, María Antonia Miguel Gómez, María Lecuona
INTRODUCTION: Limited therapeutic options and high mortality make the management of OXA-48-like carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPOXA-48) bacteraemia complicated. The aim of the study was to describe the clinical characteristics of KPOXA-48 bacteraemia between October 2013 and December 2016. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The variables to analyse were retrospectively collected from medical records. Carbapenemase production was confirmed by phenotypic and molecular methods...
November 13, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145962/bone-union-with-an-in-situ-spacer-after-the-first-stage-of-the-induced-membrane-technique
#17
Matheus Lemos Azi, Armando Augusto de Almeida Teixeira, Ricardo Britto Cotias, Alexander Joeris, Mauricio Kfuri Junior
INTRODUCTION: We report a case of an infected bone defect in the tibia in which the treatment was stopped in the first stage of the induced membrane technique. The polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) spacer, retained in the bone defect, was encapsulated by the bone regeneration. CASE REPORT: A 37-year-old male patient with a 7-cm infected bone defect in the tibia was submitted to the first stage of the induced membrane technique with debridement and implantation of a PMMA spacer with antibiotics...
October 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145887/postpartum-infective-endocarditis-with-enterococcus-faecalis-in-japan-a-case-report
#18
Miku Tamura, Mitsutaka Shoji, Ken Fujita, Shohei Nakamura, Yurika Takahashi, Yurika Suzuki, Mika Asakura, Shun Kimizuka, Makiko Sasaki, Katsuya Sugawara
BACKGROUND: The clinical characteristics of infective endocarditis include the presence of predisposing cardiac disease, a history of illegal drug use, and high morbidity in the elderly. Only a few cases of the disease after delivery have been reported in the literature. We describe here a first case of enterococcal postpartum infective endocarditis without underlying disease in Japan. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 31-year-old Japanese woman with postpartum infective endocarditis by Enterococcus faecalis...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145857/treatment-of-charcot-neuroarthropathy-and-osteomyelitis-of-the-same-foot-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#19
Martin Berli, Lazaros Vlachopoulos, Sabra Leupi, Thomas Böni, Charlotte Baltin
BACKGROUND: We evaluated treatment of osteomyelitis in the foot in the presence of Charcot neuroarthropathy, a devastating condition with progressive degeneration and joint destruction. We hypothesized that there was a difference in (1) amputation rate, (2) amputation level, (3) duration of antibiotic therapy, and (4) duration of immobilization for treatment of osteomyelitis within versus outside the Charcot zone. METHODS: Forty patients (43 ft) diagnosed with Charcot neuroarthropathy and osteomyelitis of the same foot were retrospectively analyzed...
November 16, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145328/endocarditis-due-to-abiotrophia-defectiva-a-biofilm-related-infection-associated-with-the-presence-of-fixed-braces-a-case-report
#20
Victoria Birlutiu, Rares Mircea Birlutiu
RATIONALE: Endocarditis with Abiotrophia defectiva represents 4.3% to 6% of all streptococcal endocarditis. The article presents diagnosis issues and the complexity of the treatment. PATIENT CONCERNS: We present the case of a female white patient, aged 26 years, who developed infectious endocarditis caused by A defectiva, in the last trimester of pregnancy, a biofilm-related infection associated with the presence of fixed braces. DIAGNOSES: The diagnosis of infectious endocarditis was confirmed by the cardiac ultrasound examination that revealed a voluminous vegetation on the mitral valve, and acute mitral regurgitation caused by chordae tendinae rupture, and also by isolating Abiotrophia defectiva from two positive blood cultures...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
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