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antibiotics treatment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931235/monoclonal-antibody-protects-against-acinetobacter-baumannii-infection-by-enhancing-bacterial-clearance-and-evading-sepsis
#1
Travis B Nielsen, Paul Pantapalangkoor, Brian M Luna, Kevin W Bruhn, Jun Yan, Ken Dekitani, Sarah Hsieh, Brandon Yeshoua, Bryan Pascual, Evgeny Vinogradov, Kristine M Hujer, T Nicholas Domitrovic, Robert A Bonomo, Thomas A Russo, Magda Lesczcyniecka, Thomas Schneider, Brad Spellberg
Background: Extremely drug-resistant (XDR) Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the most commonly encountered, highly resistant pathogens requiring novel therapeutic interventions. Methods: We developed C8, a monoclonal antibody (mAb), by immunizing mice with sublethal inocula of a hypervirulent XDR clinical isolate. Results: C8 targets capsular carbohydrate on the bacterial surface, enhancing opsonophagocytosis. Treating with a single dose of C8 as low as 0...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931099/-treatment-of-chemotherapy-induced-febrile-neutropenia-in-solid-tumors
#2
Gabriella Gálffy
One of the most dangerous complications of bone marrow suppression due to chemotherapy is febrile neutropenia. The treatment of the affected patients is a multidisciplinary task. In addition to chemotherapy, adequate G-CSF therapy as a primary and secondary prophylaxis can be used to prevent a large part of febrile neutropenic events. Before each chemotherapy cycle, the risk of febrile neutropenia should be evaluated, taking into account the chemotherapeutic combination and patient-specific parameters. Appropriate antibiotic and G-CSF therapy initiated in the course of febrile neutropenia is essential for the success of the therapy...
September 20, 2017: Magyar Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930979/analysis-of-18fdg-pet-ct-imaging-as-a-tool-for-studying-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-and-treatment-in-non-human-primates
#3
Alexander G White, Pauline Maiello, M Teresa Coleman, Jaime A Tomko, L James Frye, Charles A Scanga, Philana Ling Lin, JoAnne L Flynn
Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains the number one infectious agent in the world today. With the emergence of antibiotic resistant strains, new clinically relevant methods are needed that evaluate the disease process and screen for potential antibiotic and vaccine treatments. Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (PET/CT) has been established as a valuable tool for studying a number of afflictions such as cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and inflammation/infection. Outlined here are a number of strategies that have been employed to evaluate PET/CT images in cynomolgus macaques that are infected intrabronchially with low doses of M...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930567/molecular-mechanisms-of-chlamydia-trachomatis-resistance-to-antimicrobial-drugs
#4
Tomislav Mestrovic, Suncanica Ljubin-Sternak
Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) is a leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infections in developed and undeveloped countries, and therefore a global public health issue. In an era of increasing bacterial resistance to antibiotics, resistance has been an exceedingly rare phenomenon in C. trachomatis; however, clinical treatment failures attributed to multidrug-resistant C. trachomatis strains have been described on several occasions. Cell culture systems using McCoy cells and subsequent immunofluorescent staining are still the most common methodology used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing, but the presence of resistance markers should be appraised by further genetic analysis...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930155/identification-of-agents-active-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-usa300-from-a-clinical-compound-library
#5
Hongxia Niu, Rebecca Yee, Peng Cui, Lili Tian, Shuo Zhang, Wanliang Shi, David Sullivan, Bingdong Zhu, Wenhong Zhang, Ying Zhang
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) poses a significant threat for effective treatment of several difficult-to-treat infections in humans. To identify potential new treatment options for MRSA infections, we screened a clinical compound library consisting of 1524 compounds using a growth inhibition assay in 96-well plates. We identified 34 agents which are either bacteriostatic or bactericidal against log-phase clinical MRSA strain USA300. Among them, 9 candidates (thonzonium, cetylpyridinium, trilocarban, benzododecinium, bithionol, brilliant green, chlorquinaldol, methylbenzethonium and green violet) are known antiseptics, 11 candidates are known antibiotics currently recommended for the treatment of MRSA...
September 20, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930136/methanol-extract-from-anogeissus-leiocarpus-dc-guill-et-perr-combretaceae-stem-bark-quenches-the-quorum-sensing-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pao1
#6
Vincent Ouedraogo, Martin Kiendrebeogo
Background: Due to its extensive arsenal of virulence factors and inherent resistance to antibiotics, Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a threat particularly in immunocompromised patients. Considering the central role of quorum sensing in the production of virulence factors, inhibition of bacterial communication mechanism constitute an opportunity to attenuate pathogenicity of bacteria resistant to available antibiotics. Our study aimed to assess the anti-quorum sensing activity of Anogeissus leiocarpus, traditionally used in Burkina Faso, for the treatment of infected burn wounds...
October 6, 2016: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930045/antibiotic-use-among-older-adults-on-an-acute-care-general-surgery-service
#7
André S Pollmann, Jon G Bailey, Philip J B Davis, Paul M Johnson
BACKGROUND: Antibiotics play an important role in the treatment of many surgical diseases that affect older adults, and the potential for inappropriate use of these drugs is high. Our objective was to describe antibiotic use among older adults admitted to an acute care surgical service at a tertiary care teaching hospital. METHODS: Detailed data regarding diagnosis, comorbidities, surgery and antibiotic use were retrospectively collected for patients 70 years and older admitted to an acute care surgical service...
October 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Surgery. Journal Canadien de Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929963/-comparison-of-phenotypic-methods-and-polymerase-chain-reaction-for-the-detection-of-carbapenemase-production-in-clinical-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolates
#8
Yamaç Tekintaş, Feriha Çilli, Bayrı Eraç, Melike Yaşar, Sabire Şöhret Aydemir, Mine Hoşgör Limoncu
Being a member of the Enterobacteriaceae family, Klebsiella pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen that inhabits normal human microbiota and causes predominantly hospital-acquired infections. The emergence of K.pneumoniae isolates which are resistant particularly to the carbapenem group of antibiotics has led to an increase in hospitalization period, mortality and morbidity. Although different rates of resistance are observed between countries, regions and even healthcare facilities, there has been a rapid increase in the prevalence of carbapenem-resistant strains in the last 10 years...
July 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929962/-determination-of-in-vitro-susceptibilities-of-brucella-spp-strains-against-11-different-antibacterial-gents-isolated-from-blood-cultures
#9
Recep Keşli, Hüseyin Bilgin, Halim Yılmaz
Brucellosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease and still continuous to be a major public health problem. In this study, it was aimed to identify the Brucella strains to the species level isolated from blood cultures, and to determine the rate of antimicrobial susceptibility against eleven antibacterial agents. A total of 106 Brucella spp. strains were included in the study, which were isolated from blood cultures in University of Health Sciences, Konya Training and Research Hospital, Medical Microbiology Laboratory between January 2011 and June 2013...
July 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929959/-in-vitro-effect-of-vancomycin-and-daptomycin-on-biofilm-formation-of-coagulase-negative-staphylococci-strains
#10
Duygu Nilüfer Öcal, İştar Dolapçı, Zeynep Gençtürk, Alper Tekeli
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are one of the primer agents of blood stream infections (BSI) and catheter-related bloodstream infections (CR-BSI) which are associated mostly with the usage of central venous catheters and, important causes of morbidity and mortality despite the usage of antibacterial and supportive treatment. It is important to determine the properties of these causative microorganisms in order to make appropriate treatment of such infections. The aims of our study were to evaluate the biofilm formation of coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) which were causative agents of bloodstream (BSI) and catheter related bloodstream infections (CR-BSI), to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of planktonic forms and minimal biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) of sessile forms for vancomycin and daptomycin and to evaluate the efficacy of these antibiotics in infections with biofilm-forming isolates in vitro...
July 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929957/-serotype-distribution-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-strains-isolated-from-the-adult-patients-in-a-turkish-%C3%A3-niversity-hospital
#11
Lütfiye Öksüz, Nezahat Gürler
Infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae are the most important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. S.pneumoniae is the most common cause of community-acquired pneumonia, especially in adults. Invasive pneumococcal disease can usually occur in the elderly, children and immunocompromised individuals. Usage of the vaccines for the protection against S.pneumoniae infections, is an effective method to reduce the burden of disease in both children and adults. Serotypes frequently isolated from purified capsular polysaccharides of S...
July 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929862/the-accuracy-of-the-computed-tomography-diagnosis-of-acute-appendicitis-does-the-experience-of-the-radiologist-matter
#12
E Lietzén, P Salminen, I Rinta-Kiikka, H Paajanen, T Rautio, P Nordström, M Aarnio, T Rantanen, J Sand, J-P Mecklin, A Jartti, J Virtanen, P Ohtonen, N Ånäs, J M Grönroos
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To assess the accuracy of computed tomography in diagnosing acute appendicitis with a special reference to radiologist experience. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data were collected prospectively in our randomized controlled trial comparing surgery and antibiotic treatment for uncomplicated acute appendicitis (APPAC trial, NCT01022567). We evaluated 1065 patients who underwent computed tomography for suspected appendicitis. The on-call radiologist preoperatively analyzed these computed tomography images...
September 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Surgery: SJS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929769/design-and-solidification-of-fast-releasing-clofazimine-nanoparticles-for-treatment-of-cryptosporidiosis
#13
Yingyue Zhang, Jie Feng, Simon A McManus, Hoang D Lu, Kurt D Ristroph, Eugene J Cho, Ellen L Dobrijevic, Hak-Kim Chan, Robert K Prud'homme
Clofazimine, a lipophilic (log P = 7.66) riminophenazine antibiotic approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) with a good safety record, was recently identified as a lead hit for cryptosporidiosis through a high-throughput phenotypic screen. Cryptosporidiosis requires fast-acting treatment as it leads to severe symptoms which, if untreated, result in morbidity for infants and small children. Consequently, a fast-releasing oral formulation of clofazimine in a water-dispersible form for pediatric administration is highly desirable...
September 20, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929696/-clinical-analysis-of-cervus-and-cucumis-polypeptide-injection-based-on-real-world-hospital-information-system
#14
Shuai-Ling Sun, Yan-Ming Xie, Yuan-Yuan Li, Yin Zhang, Dan-Hui Yi, Yan Zhuang
To analyze the clinical application of Cervus and Cucumis Polypeptide injection in the real world, in order to define the characteristics of clinical drug use and correlation, and provide reference for risk management and further study for Cervus and Cucumis Polypeptide injection. Descriptive analysis and association rules analysis were performed on 37 721 cases using Cervus and Cucumis Polypeptide injection in 26 hospitals nationwide. Cervus and Cucumis Polypeptide injection were mostly adopted by patients aged between 45 and 64(39...
November 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929289/treatment-of-aortic-graft-infection-in-the-endovascular-era
#15
REVIEW
Rebecca Sorber, Michael J Osgood, Christopher J Abularrage, James H Black, Ying Wei Lum
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review provides an overview of the current literature surrounding the medical and surgical treatment of aortic graft infection with particular focus on the role of endovascular aortic grafts in the changing demographics and management of these infections. RECENT FINDINGS: Definitive therapy for aortic graft infection continues to include parenteral antibiotics and surgical explantation and revascularization procedures, which are historically vast operations and sources of significant operative stress...
September 19, 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929236/-criteria-for-treating-mrsa-in-sputum
#16
REVIEW
J Lorenz, M Unnewehr, B Schaaf, S Gatermann
Methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are of particular significance for the management of patients with airway infections, since the disease course is often complicated and treatment rendered difficult by multiple resistance. Their prevalence is now slowly declining, but still alarmingly high. Hospital-acquired infections are predominant, but hospital-associated and community-acquired infections do occur, as do rare infections with livestock-acquired strains. Non-nosocomial strains are characterized by different pathogenic factors and a different spectrum of antibacterial resistance; they often have a threatening disease course...
September 19, 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928635/d-tubocurarine-and-berbamine-alkaloids-that-are-permeant-blockers-of-the-hair-cell-s-mechano-electrical-transducer-channel-and-protect-from-aminoglycoside-toxicity
#17
Nerissa K Kirkwood, Molly O'Reilly, Marco Derudas, Emma J Kenyon, Rosemary Huckvale, Sietse M van Netten, Simon E Ward, Guy P Richardson, Corné J Kros
Aminoglycoside antibiotics are widely used for the treatment of life-threatening bacterial infections, but cause permanent hearing loss in a substantial proportion of treated patients. The sensory hair cells of the inner ear are damaged following entry of these antibiotics via the mechano-electrical transducer (MET) channels located at the tips of the hair cell's stereocilia. d-Tubocurarine (dTC) is a MET channel blocker that reduces the loading of gentamicin-Texas Red (GTTR) into rat cochlear hair cells and protects them from gentamicin treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928454/a-comprehensive-characterization-of-pnca-polymorphisms-that-confer-resistance-to-pyrazinamide
#18
Adam N Yadon, Kashmeel Maharaj, John H Adamson, Yi-Pin Lai, James C Sacchettini, Thomas R Ioerger, Eric J Rubin, Alexander S Pym
Tuberculosis chemotherapy is dependent on the use of the antibiotic pyrazinamide, which is being threatened by emerging drug resistance. Resistance is mediated through mutations in the bacterial gene pncA. Methods for testing pyrazinamide susceptibility are difficult and rarely performed, and this means that the full spectrum of pncA alleles that confer clinical resistance to pyrazinamide is unknown. Here, we performed in vitro saturating mutagenesis of pncA to generate a comprehensive library of PncA polymorphisms resultant from a single-nucleotide polymorphism...
September 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928251/whipple-s-endocarditis-presenting-as-ulnar-artery-aneurysm-if-you-don-t-look-you-won-t-find
#19
Owen Seddon, Irasha Hettiarachchi
A 54-year-old female patient presented to her local district general hospital with a painful, swollen left arm. Imaging revealed an ulnar artery aneurysm. The aetiology was embolic, with an echocardiogram revealing vegetations on the aortic valve. The patient was treated empirically for 6 weeks with amoxicillin and gentamicin for endocarditis. Eight months later, she had an elective aortic valve replacement for symptomatic aortic regurgitation. The valve was culture negative but analysis by 16S rDNA PCR was positive for Tropheryma whipplei In retrospect, the ulnar artery aneurysm and a history of arthralgia were attributed to an underlying diagnosis of Whipple's endocarditis...
September 19, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928207/a-perfect-storm-increased-colonization-and-failure-of-vaccination-leads-to-severe-secondary-bacterial-infection-in-influenza-virus-infected-obese-mice
#20
Erik A Karlsson, Victoria A Meliopoulos, Nicholas C van de Velde, Lee-Ann van de Velde, Beth Mann, Geli Gao, Jason Rosch, Elaine Tuomanen, Jon McCullers, Peter Vogel, Stacey Schultz-Cherry
Obesity is a risk factor for developing severe disease following influenza virus infection; however, the comorbidity of obesity and secondary bacterial infection, a serious complication of influenza virus infections, is unknown. To fill this gap in knowledge, lean and obese C57BL/6 mice were infected with a nonlethal dose of influenza virus followed by a nonlethal dose of Streptococcus pneumoniae Strikingly, not only did significantly enhanced death occur in obese coinfected mice compared to lean controls, but also high mortality was seen irrespective of influenza virus strain, bacterial strain, or timing of coinfection...
September 19, 2017: MBio
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