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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543749/substance-use-disorders-in-prisoners-an-updated-systematic-review-and-meta-regression-analysis-in-recently-incarcerated-men-and-women
#1
REVIEW
Seena Fazel, Isabel A Yoon, Adrian J Hayes
AIMS: The aims were to (1) estimate the prevalence of alcohol and drug use disorders in prisoners on reception to prison, and (2) estimate and test sources of between study heterogeneity METHODS: Studies reporting the 12 month prevalence of alcohol and drug use disorders in prisoners on reception to prison from 1 January 1966 to 11 August 2015 were identified from 7 bibliographic indexes. Primary studies involving clinical interviews or validated instruments leading to DSM or ICD diagnoses were included; self-report surveys and investigations that assessed individuals more than 3 months after arrival to prison were not...
May 21, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535945/the-inventory-of-callous-unemotional-traits-psychometric-properties-among-referred-and-non-referred-portuguese-female-juveniles
#2
Pedro Pechorro, James V Ray, Rui Abrunhosa Gonçalves, Saul Neves Jesus
The presence of callous-unemotional (CU) traits delineates a subgroup of male youth with severe conduct disorder and antisocial behavior, but little research has been done among female youth. Drawing on 377 female adolescents (103 selected from forensic settings and 274 selected from school settings) from Portugal, the current study is the first to simultaneously examine the psychometric properties of the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits (ICU) in incarcerated female youth and community youth. The results support the use of the ICU in terms of its factor structure, and internal consistency despite the fact an item had to be removed from the Callousness dimension...
May 20, 2017: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534304/an-american-crisis-the-lack-of-black-men-in-medicine
#3
Cato T Laurencin, Marsha Murray
The current state of diversity within the US medical workforce does not reflect representative numbers of the Black male population. Research data continues to reveal continuing trends in the areas of discrimination, incarceration, health disparities, and mortality with respect to Black males. The lack of increase in Black male medical school applications and matriculation contrasted by the continuing trends mentioned above illustrates that there is in fact an American crisis. We present here a call to arms, to address the need of African-American men in medicine...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534020/incarceration-of-a-pedunculated-uterine-fibroid-in-an-umbilical-hernia
#4
Mi Ju Kim, Hyun-Hwa Cha, Won Joon Seong
Uterine fibroids are common benign tumors that may cause an umbilical hernia in patients with increased intra-abdominal pressure due to pregnancy, obesity, ascites, and intra-abdominal tumors. However, the simultaneous occurrence of uterine fibroids and umbilical hernias, or fibroids and an associated umbilical hernia, during pregnancy has rarely been reported. Here, we present the case of a fibroid presenting as an incarcerated umbilical hernia in a menopausal patient.
May 2017: Obstetrics & Gynecology Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533584/reversal-learning-deficits-in-criminal-offenders-effects-of-psychopathy-substance-use-and-childhood-maltreatment-history
#5
Monika Dargis, Richard C Wolf, Michael Koenigs
Deficits in reinforcement learning are presumed to underlie the impulsive and incorrigible behavior exhibited by psychopathic criminals. However, previous studies documenting reversal learning impairments in psychopathic individuals have not investigated this relationship across a continuous range of psychopathy severity, nor have they examined how reversal learning impairments relate to different psychopathic traits, such as the interpersonal-affective and lifestyle-antisocial dimensions. Furthermore, previous studies have not considered the role that childhood maltreatment and substance use may have in this specific cognitive deficit...
June 2017: Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532296/recently-released-black-men-s-perceptions-of-the-impact-of-incarceration-on-sexual-partnering
#6
Julie C Fields, Kelly M King, Kamila A Alexander, Katherine C Smith, Susan G Sherman, Amy Knowlton
Evidence suggests that men with recent histories of incarceration are more likely to engage in high-risk sexual activity, however there is limited research exploring how having been recently released from prison might impact men's sexual risk behaviours or sexual partnering. This qualitative study explores the ways in which exposure to incarceration impacts the dynamics of sexual partnering among recently released Black men in Baltimore, USA. In-depth interviews were conducted with 19 recently released Black men between 21-45 years of age living in the city...
May 23, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531654/seattle-s-law-enforcement-assisted-diversion-lead-program-effects-on-recidivism-outcomes
#7
Susan E Collins, Heather S Lonczak, Seema L Clifasefi
Drug users and dealers frequently cycle through the criminal justice system in what is sometimes referred to as a "revolving door." Arrest, incarceration and prosecution have not deterred this recidivism. Seattle's Law Enforcement Assisted Diversion (LEAD) program was established to divert these individuals to case management and supportive services instead of jail and prosecution. A nonrandomized controlled evaluation was conducted to examine LEAD effects on criminal recidivism (i.e., arrests, criminal charges)...
May 10, 2017: Evaluation and Program Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531653/characteristics-needs-and-experiences-of-u-s-veterans-on-a-specialized-prison-unit
#8
Jack Tsai, Elizabeth Goggin
The Veterans Service Unit (VSU) in Connecticut is one of several all-veterans prison units that are being created throughout the United States. This study examined the characteristics, needs, and experiences of veterans on the Connecticut VSU. This study utilized data from a quality improvement survey that was completed by 87 of the 110 veterans on the Connecticut VSU (79% response rate). The majority of veterans on the VSU were white, aged 41-56, never married, and had an honorable or general military discharge making them potentially eligible for Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare upon release...
May 17, 2017: Evaluation and Program Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521281/functional-connectivity-in-incarcerated-male-adolescents-with-psychopathic-traits
#9
Sandra Thijssen, Kent A Kiehl
The present study examined the association between psychopathic traits and functional connectivity in 177 incarcerated male adolescents. We hypothesized that psychopathic symptoms would be associated with functional connectivity within networks encompassing limbic and paralimbic regions, such as the default mode (DMN), salience networks (SN), and executive control network (ECN). The present sample was drawn from the Southwest Advanced Neuroimaging Cohort, Youth sample, and from research at a youth detention facility in Wisconsin...
May 11, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520974/the-neuropsychological-assessment-of-justice-involved-men-descriptive-analysis-preliminary-data-and-a-case-for-group-specific-norms
#10
Casey LaDuke, David DeMatteo, Kirk Heilbrun, Jennifer Gallo, Thomas Swirsky-Sacchetti
Objective: Neuropsychological expertise has played an increasing role in legal decision-making in criminal contexts. Valid neuropsychological evidence in criminal forensic contexts requires normative data that are representative of justice-involved individuals. Unfortunately, existing normative data appear unlikely to represent justice-involved individuals due to significant demographic and clinical factors specific to this population. As a result, the interpretation of neuropsychological performance with justice-involved individuals using existing normative data may increase the risk of inaccurate description, invalid clinical conceptualization, misdiagnosis of impairment, and misattribution of deficits in functional-legal capacities...
May 18, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520482/foodborne-disease-outbreaks-in-correctional-institutions-united-states-1998-2014
#11
Mariel A Marlow, Ruth E Luna-Gierke, Patricia M Griffin, Antonio R Vieira
OBJECTIVES: To present the first update on the epidemiology of US foodborne correctional institution outbreaks in 20 years. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System to describe correctional institution outbreaks from 1998 to 2014 and compare them with other foodborne outbreaks. RESULTS: Two hundred foodborne outbreaks in correctional institutions were reported, resulting in 20 625 illnesses, 204 hospitalizations, and 5 deaths...
May 18, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516858/southern-women-at-risk-narratives-of-familial-and-social-hiv-risk-in-justice-involved-u-s-women-in-alabama
#12
Courtenay Sprague, Bharathi Radhakrishnan, Shelley Brown, Theresa Sommers, David W Pantalone
Justice-involved HIV-positive women, particularly those in the U.S. South, are a hidden, understudied population. Little work has explored their psychosocial histories in relation to their HIV risk. We conducted a content analysis of their life history narratives from childhood to present, via in-depth interviews with 24 such women in 2 Alabama cities. Findings included the following: (a) In childhood/adolescence, consistent HIV risk factors were present, beginning with early sexual abuse and induction into alcohol/substance use; (b) By early adulthood, HIV and incarceration risks were compounded in social settings, through cyclical substance use, revictimization, and reoffending;...
May 17, 2017: Violence and Victims
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516111/transhiatal-herniation-of-the-pancreas-a-rare-cause-of-acute-pancreatitis
#13
Jeremy Wang, Adarsh M Thaker, Wael Noor El-Nachef, Rabindra R Watson
Transhiatal herniation of the pancreas is rare. Acute pancreatitis secondary to this phenomenon is particularly unusual. A 102-year-old woman presented with 1 day of severe chest pain, vomiting, dyspnea, and diaphoresis. Serum lipase was elevated, and computed tomography angiogram of the chest and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography revealed a hiatal hernia containing the pancreas, with associated findings of pancreatitis. Pancreatitis in this setting may be due to repetitive trauma or ischemia from sliding, intermittent folding of the pancreatic duct, or pancreatic incarceration...
2017: ACG Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515014/hiv-and-the-criminalisation-of-drug-use-among-people-who-inject-drugs-a-systematic-review
#14
Kora DeBeck, Tessa Cheng, Julio S Montaner, Chris Beyrer, Richard Elliott, Susan Sherman, Evan Wood, Stefan Baral
BACKGROUND: Mounting evidence suggests that laws and policies prohibiting illegal drug use could have a central role in shaping health outcomes among people who inject drugs (PWID). To date, no systematic review has characterised the influence of laws and legal frameworks prohibiting drug use on HIV prevention and treatment. METHODS: Consistent with PRISMA guidelines, we did a systematic review of peer-reviewed scientific evidence describing the association between criminalisation of drug use and HIV prevention and treatment-related outcomes among PWID...
May 12, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511680/cohort-profile-seek-test-treat-and-retain-united-states-criminal-justice-cohort
#15
Redonna Chandler, Michael S Gordon, Bridget Kruszka, Lauren N Strand, Frederick L Altice, Curt G Beckwith, Mary L Biggs, William Cunningham, J A Chris Delaney, Patrick M Flynn, Carol E Golin, Kevin Knight, Alex H Kral, Irene Kuo, Jennifer Lorvick, Robin M Nance, Lawrence J Ouellet, Josiah D Rich, Stanley Sacks, David Seal, Anne Spaulding, Sandra A Springer, Faye Taxman, David Wohl, Jeremy D Young, Rebekah Young, Heidi M Crane
BACKGROUND: The STTR treatment cascade provides a framework for research aimed at improving the delivery of services, care and outcomes of PLWH. The development of effective approaches to increase HIV diagnoses and engage PLWH in subsequent steps of the treatment cascade could lead to earlier and sustained ART treatment resulting in viral suppression. There is an unmet need for research applying the treatment cascade to improve outcomes for those with criminal justice involvement. METHODS: The Seek, Test, Treat, and Retain (STTR) criminal justice (CJ) cohort combines data from 11 studies across the HIV treatment cascade that focused on persons involved in the criminal justice system, often but not exclusively for reasons related to substance use...
May 16, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507592/incarcerated-recurrent-inguinal-hernia-containing-an-acute-appendicitis-amyand-hernia-an-extremely-rare-surgical-situation
#16
Georgios Velimezis, Nikolaos Vassos, Georgios Kapogiannatos, Dimitrios Koronakis, Evangelos Perrakis, Aristotelis Perrakis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506311/one-fourth-of-the-prisoners-are-underweight-in-northern-ethiopia-a-cross-sectional-study
#17
Semaw Ferede Abera, Kelemework Adane
BACKGROUND: Despite the fact that prisoners are exposed to different health problems, prison health problems are often overlooked by researchers and no previous study has investigated nutritional problems of prisoners in Ethiopia. METHODS: Cross-sectional data were collected from 809 prisoners from nine major prison setups in the Tigray region of Ethiopia. A proportional stratified sampling technique was used to select the total number of participants needed from each prison site...
May 15, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505488/predictors-of-buprenorphine-treatment-success-of-opioid-dependence-in-two-baltimore-city-grassroots-recovery-programs
#18
April Joy Damian, Tamar Mendelson, Deborah Agus
INTRODUCTION: Despite evidence for the efficacy of buprenorphine treatment in primary care, few studies have identified factors associated with treatment success, nor have such factors been evaluated in community settings. Identifying correlates of treatment success can facilitate the development of treatment models tailored for distinct populations, including low-income communities of color. The current study examined client-level socio-demographic factors associated with treatment success in community-based buprenorphine programs serving vulnerable populations...
May 10, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503013/to-educate-or-to-incarcerate-factors-in-disproportionality-in-school-discipline
#19
Matthew L Mizel, Jeremy N V Miles, Eric R Pedersen, Joan S Tucker, Brett A Ewing, Elizabeth J D'Amico
The school-to-prison pipeline describes the process by which school suspension/expulsion may push adolescents into the justice system disproportionately based on race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and gender. The current study moves the field forward by analyzing a survey of a diverse sample of 2,539 students in 10(th) to 12(th) grade in Southern California to examine how demographic, individual, and family factors contribute to disparities in office referral and suspension/expulsion. African Americans, boys, and students whose parents had less education were more likely to be suspended/expelled...
November 2016: Children and Youth Services Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494791/a-cohort-study-examining-emergency-department-visits-and-hospital-admissions-among-people-who-use-drugs-in-ottawa-canada
#20
Claire E Kendall, Lisa M Boucher, Amy E Mark, Alana Martin, Zack Marshall, Rob Boyd, Pam Oickle, Nicola Diliso, Dave Pineau, Brad Renaud, Tiffany Rose, Sean LeBlanc, Mark Tyndall, Olivia M Lee, Ahmed M Bayoumi
BACKGROUND: The health of people who use drugs (PWUD) is characterized by multimorbidity and chronicity of health conditions, necessitating an understanding of their health care utilization. The objective of this study was to evaluate emergency department (ED) visits and hospital admissions among a cohort of PWUD. METHODS: We used a retrospective observational design between 2012 and 2013. The population was a marginalized cohort of PWUD (the PROUD study) for whom survey data was linked (n = 663) to provincial health administrative data housed at the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences...
May 12, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
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