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Melissa T Merrick, Megan Henly, Heather A Turner, Corinne David-Ferdon, Sherry Hamby, Akadia Kacha-Ochana, Thomas R Simon, David Finkelhor
Predictability in a child's environment is a critical quality of safe, stable, nurturing relationships and environments, which promote wellbeing and protect against maltreatment. Research has focused on residential mobility's effect on this predictability. This study augments such research by analyzing the impact of an instability index-including the lifetime destabilization factors (LDFs) of natural disasters, homelessness, child home removal, multiple moves, parental incarceration, unemployment, deployment, and multiple marriages--on childhood victimizations...
March 17, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Kathryn M Nowotny, Jessica Frankeberger, Victoria E Rodriguez, Avelardo Valdez, Alice Cepeda
Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is among the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections in the United States. Despite this, there has been limited research on the correlates to HSV-2 among disadvantaged and marginalized women, particularly among Latinas. Data for the present analysis include 125 young adult Mexican-American women enrolled in a longitudinal study in a disadvantaged urban community in San Antonio, Texas. The current rate of tested HSV-2 infection is 56.8%. Our findings suggest strong comorbidity of genital herpes with injecting heroin use, Hepatitis C, sexual violence, incarceration, and mental illness...
March 20, 2018: Behavioral Medicine
Emily Shava, Lauren E Lipira, Geetha G Beauchamp, Deborah J Donnell, Shahin Lockman, Yuhua Ruan, Yiming Shao
INTRODUCTION: Understanding the role of opiate dependency treatment in risky sexual behavior could help optimize interventions for people who inject drugs (PWID). OBJECTIVES: We evaluated whether long-term medication-assisted treatment (LT-MAT) of opiate dependency with buprenorphine/naloxone influenced risky sexual behavior among HIV-uninfected PWID and identified predictors of risky sexual behavior. METHODS: We used data from HPTN058, a randomized controlled trial of LT-MAT vs...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Tsegaye Bekele, Jason Globerman, James Watson, Stephen W Hwang, Keith Hambly, Jay Koornstra, Glen Walker, Jean Bacon, Sean B Rourke
We examined social determinants of health associated with all-cause mortality among 602 people living with HIV/AIDS in Ontario, Canada. Mortality status was verified at 1-, 3-, and 5-year follow-up visits with information obtained from proxies (family members, partners, and friends), obituaries, and local AIDS memorial lists. Of the 454 people for whom mortality information was available, 53 individuals died yielding a crude mortality rate of 22.3 deaths per 1000 person-years, a rate substantially higher than the rate in the general population (6...
March 20, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Tonia C Poteat, Mannat Malik, Chris Beyrer
Transgender people experience a disproportionate burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and incarceration. Discrimination, victimization, poverty, and poor mental health drive vulnerability to HIV and related infections, as well as risk of arrest, detention, and incarceration. In this paper, we systematically review published data on HIV, sexually transmitted infections, viral hepatitis, and tuberculosis among incarcerated transgender people; describe potential structural determinants of HIV risk and transmission; identify gaps in the literature; and make recommendations for research and interventions to address this neglected population...
March 15, 2018: Epidemiologic Reviews
Andrea M Pakula, Matthew J Martin
Groin hernia repair is one of the most common general surgical procedures performed worldwide. Though only a small percentage will become incarcerated or strangulated this is an indication for repair. Minimally invasive surgery is becoming standard of care for most procedures and we believe this to be a safe and feasible approach for incarcerated or strangulated groin hernias. We present a description of our recommend approach with technical details and accompanying video clips to highlight these techniques...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Analisa Gagnon
This study is among the first to extend and test social learning theory's ability to understand property and violent victimization. It specifically tests whether aspects of definitions, differential reinforcement, and differential association/modeling can explain the three types of victimization of gang members: actual experience, perception of likelihood, and fear. The sample consists of over 300 male and female gang members incarcerated in jails throughout Florida. The results show that all three types of victimization can be explained by the three aspects of social learning theory...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Robert Joseph Taylor, Reuben Miller, Dawne Mouzon, Verna M Keith, Linda M Chatters
The present study examined the impact of criminal justice contact on experiences of everyday discrimination among a national sample of African American men. African American men have a high likelihood of being targets of major discrimination, as well as experiencing disproportionate contact with the criminal justice system. Few studies, however, examine everyday discrimination (e.g., commonplace social encounters of unfair treatment) among this group. Using data from the National Survey of American Life, we provide a descriptive assessment of different types of everyday discrimination among African American men...
2018: Race and Justice
Alexandria Boutros, Seung Suk Kang, Nash N Boutros
Around 20-25% of the current offenders in Cook County Jail of Chicago Illinois are mentally ill. Each one of these offenders had to be named competent to stand trial when they were first being tried in court. The majority of these offenders that were considered incompetent to stand trial (IST) had to go through the competency restoration process where they were housed in a state hospital and received treatment until the court could deem them to be competent to stand trial. Many defendants with minor offenses that were eventually deemed competent to stand trial, stood trial and were found guilty and sent to jail...
March 2018: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Eric B Elbogen, H Ryan Wagner, Mira Brancu, Nathan A Kimbrel, Jennifer C Naylor, Cindy M Swinkels, John A Fairbank
Introduction: In response to a strong focus on suicide prevention for all veterans, the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) recently revised policy to provide emergency mental healthcare for veterans who received Other Than Honorable (OTH) discharges from the military. This current study takes a preliminary step toward identifying demographic, historic, military, clinical, and social characteristics of veterans with OTH discharges. Materials and Methods: N = 1,172 Iraq/Afghanistan-era veterans were evaluated between 2005 and 2016 in the multi-site VA Mid-Atlantic Mental Illness, Research, Education and Clinical Center (MIRECC) Study of Post-Deployment Mental Health (PDMH Study)...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Grace S Chng, Dongdong Li, Chi Meng Chu, Tabitha Ong, Felicia Lim
Children who enter the child protection system often have complex family problems and have experienced early adverse experiences. Using latent class analysis, this study aimed to identify family classes of child protection cases in Singapore, to ascertain the prevalence of these family classes, and to test the association of family class membership to subsequent recurrence of harm. A sample of 440 cases who entered the Child Protective Service in Singapore was analyzed based on eight familial factors on the household and caregiver levels...
March 13, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Corey M Leidenfrost, Matthew D Scalco, Elizabeth Randall, Peter S Martin, Samuel J Sinclair, Travis J Stewart, Ronald Schoelerman, Daniel Antonius
Early identification of treatment needs in incarcerated individuals with serious mental illness has significant implications. Validated assessment instruments to guide treatment are lacking in correctional settings. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine the predictive validity of the Level of Care Index (LOCI) in 35 inmates admitted to a specialized treatment unit. The LOCI score was predictive of levels of depressogenic psychopathology and psychological well-being as well as changes in these constructs over time...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Correctional Health Care
Dana Crooks, Nathaniel E Anderson, Matthew Widdows, Nia Petseva, Michael Koenigs, Charles Pluto, Kent A Kiehl
Cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) is a neuroanatomical variant of the septum pellucidum that is considered a marker for disrupted brain development. Several small sample studies have reported CSP to be related to disruptive behavior, persistent antisocial traits, and even psychopathy. However, no large-scale samples have comprehensively examined the relationship between CSP, psychopathic traits, and antisocial behavior in forensic samples. Here we test hypotheses about the presence of CSP and its relationship to psychopathic traits in incarcerated males (N=1432)...
March 12, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Ank E Nijhawan, Princess A Iroh, Esmaeil Porsa
Incarcerated individuals are at high risk of HIV and tuberculosis (TB), though combined screening in the criminal justice system is limited. Newer blood tests for TB provide a unique opportunity to combine HIV and TB testing in corrections. Entering jail inmates were offered routine opt-out HIV testing along with TB screening, both via blood draw. Of the 529 individuals enrolled, 524 (99%) agreed to HIV testing. Testing identified 13 (2.5%) previously diagnosed HIV infections and one new positive. One quarter (138, 26%) of participants had never been tested for HIV and were more likely to be young, Hispanic, born outside of the United States, and incarcerated for the first time...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Correctional Health Care
Derek A Kreager, Candace Kruttschnitt
Inmate social organization was once a central area within criminology that stalled just as incarceration rates dramatically climbed. In this review, we return to seminal works on this topic before summarizing the changes that mass incarceration wrought in correctional contexts and the potential impacts of these changes for inmate society. We then review the few recent studies that document contemporary inmate social life and call for increased researcher-practitioner partnerships that embed criminologists within carceral settings...
2018: Annu Rev Criminol
Nina T Harawa, Heather Guentzel-Frank, William Jason McCuller, John K Williams, Gregorio Millet, Lisa Belcher, Heather A Joseph, Ricky N Bluthenthal
We conducted a randomized controlled trial of a six-session behavioral intervention designed to reduce frequency of condomless sex and numbers of sex partners among recently incarcerated, bisexual Black men. One hundred participants were assigned to the small-group intervention, Men in Life Environments (MILE), and 112 were assigned to the control condition. Among those assigned to MILE, 69% attended at least one session, 88% of whom attended all sessions. At 3-months' follow-up, large reductions in risk behaviors were reported by both groups...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
Yoshihiko Satake, Yuji Tomori, Takuya Sawaizumi, Mitsuhiko Nanno, Norie Kodera, Shinro Takai
Medial epicondyle fractures of the humerus account for 11%-20% of all elbow injuries in children. Although intra-articular incarceration of the medial epicondyle occurs in 5%-18% of medial epicondyle fractures associated with an elbow dislocation, the mechanism of intrusion of the fracture fragment is unknown. We report a case of an irreducible elbow fracture and dislocation due to incarceration of the medial epicondyle fragment of the humerus, classified as a Watson-Jones type 3 fracture of the medial epicondyle, and present the mechanism of the intra-articular incarceration of the medial epicondyle fragment...
2018: Journal of Nippon Medical School, Nippon Ika Daigaku Zasshi
William Sledge, Julia Rozanova, Julianne Dorset
OBJECTIVE: To provide a follow up of a 1976 study of the impact of captivity on U.S. Air Force (USAF) POWs and USAF Controls matched for time in Southeast Asia, military rank and aircraft crew position. METHOD: Qualitative study of replies to open ended questions of positive and negative changes due to their captivity/combat experiences made by participants (POWs and Controls) who replied in both 1976 and in 2003. RESULTS: Both groups acknowledged positive and negative effects of the experiences in 1976...
March 13, 2018: Psychiatry
William E Cunningham, Robert E Weiss, Terry Nakazono, Mark A Malek, Steve J Shoptaw, Susan L Ettner, Nina T Harawa
Importance: Diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, linkage and retention in care, and adherence to antiretroviral therapy are steps in the care continuum enabling consistent viral suppression for people living with HIV, extending longevity and preventing further transmission. While incarcerated, people living with HIV receive antiretroviral therapy and achieve viral suppression more consistently than after they are released. No interventions have shown sustained viral suppression after jail release...
March 12, 2018: JAMA Internal Medicine
Lindsey A Drayton, Laurie R Santos, Arielle Baskin-Sommers
Psychopathic individuals display a chronic and flagrant disregard for the welfare of others through their callous and manipulative behavior. Historically, this behavior is thought to result from deficits in social-affective processing. However, we show that at least some psychopathic behaviors may be rooted in a cognitive deficit, specifically an inability to automatically take another person's perspective. Unlike prior studies that rely solely on controlled theory of mind (ToM) tasks, we employ a task that taps into automatic ToM processing...
March 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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