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Angela K Green, Leonard B Saltz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Mark Owyong, Gizem Efe, Michael Owyong, Aamna J Abbasi, Vaishnavi Sitarama, Vicki Plaks
There is a growing list of cancer immunotherapeutics approved for use in a population with an increasing number of aged individuals. Cancer immunotherapy (CIT) mediates tumor destruction by activating anti-tumor immune responses that have been silenced through the oncogenic process. However, in an aging individual, immune deregulation is positively correlated with age. In this context, it is vital to examine the age-related changes in the tumor microenvironment (TME) and specifically, those directly affecting critical players to ensure CIT efficacy...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Christopher Sampson, Marc Borenstein
Background The impact of resident work hours on resident well-being and patient safety has long been a controversial issue. Objectives What has not been considered in resident work hour limitations is whether resident commuting time has any impact on a resident's total work hours or well-being. Methods A self-administered electronic survey was distributed to emergency medicine residents in 2016. Results The survey response was 8% (569/6828). Commuter time was 30 minutes or less in 70%. Two residents reported a commuter time of 76 to 90 minutes and one resident had a commuter time of 91 to 105 minutes...
January 12, 2018: Curēus
Hamid Reza Mirzaei, Hossein Pourghadamyari, Majid Rahmati, Abbas Mohammadi, Javid Sadri Nahand, Abbas Rezaei, Hamed Mirzaei, Jamshid Hadjati
Recently clinical trials utilizing genetically engineered T cells expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) that is half monoclonal antibody and half T-cell receptor have demonstrated remarkable response in patients with advanced cancers like relapsed or refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and lymphoma. Moreover, emerging chimeric genome editing tools such as zinc-finger nucleases (ZNFs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas composed of sequence-specific DNA binding module(s) linked to a non-specific DNA cleavage domain have made possible to dramatically expand the ability to manipulate cells aim to treat and/or study a wide range of diseases including cancer...
March 12, 2018: Cancer Letters
Li-Na Zhang, Yongping Song, Delong Liu
The prognosis of adults with relapsed/refractory (R/R) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) remains dismal even at this day and age. With salvage chemotherapy, only 29% (range 18 to 44%) of the patients with R/R ALL can be induced into complete remission (CR), with a median overall survival (OS) of 4 months (range 2-6 months). Blinatumomab and inotuzumab ozogamycin (IO) are immunotherapeutic agents that increased CR to 80% and extended survival to 7.7 months in this high-risk population of patients. In the last few years, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)--engineered T cells have led to major progress in cancer immunotherapy...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
Xue Xiao, Juan Zou, Yin Fang, Yibo Meng, Chao Xiao, Jiaxin Fu, Shiyu Liu, Peng Bai, Yuan Yao
BACKGROUND: The anti-tumor activities of Natural compounds and their derivatives are of great interest to pharmaceutical industries. Fisetin is one of prospective natural compounds in this regard but unfortunately with poor hydrophilicity. METHODS: The effects of unmodified and modified fisetin in cultured ovarian cancer cells were compared by transmission electronmicroscopy to determine apoptotic bodies, MTT assay to quantitate cell numbers, and fluorescence activated cell sorting analyse of various markers to determine the apoptotic state...
March 15, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Frédéric J Baud, Mohamad K Haidar, Romain Jouffroy, Jean-Herlé Raphalen, Lionel Lamhaut, Pierre Carli
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the magnitude of lactic acidosis in response to cyanide poisoning compared with the secondary response caused by cardiovascular shock. DESIGN: Retrospective case-control observational study. SETTING: University Hospital of Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris. SUBJECTS: Patients admitted for suspicion of cyanide poisoning or drug overdose. Medical charts provided by Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris of patients between January 1988 and December 2015...
March 14, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
Michael J Parks, John H Kingsbury, Raymond G Boyle, Sharrilyn Evered
We examined prevalence and predictors of comprehensive smoke-free household rules (ie, smoke-free homes and cars) among smokers and nonsmokers in Minnesota. Data came from the 2014 Minnesota Adult Tobacco Survey; weighted analyses consisted of descriptive analyses and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Most adult smokers implemented home-only smoke-free rules (43%) while most nonsmokers implemented comprehensive smoke-free rules (home and car; 85%). Comprehensive smoke-free rules were more common among people with high socioeconomic status (SES), married people, and people who did not live with a smoker; those with a child in the home were more likely to implement smoke-free homes but not smoke-free cars...
March 15, 2018: Preventing Chronic Disease
Pawel Posadzki, Josip Car
Clinical Question: Are light therapies effective and safe for treating acne? Bottom Line: The evidence for all light therapies remains weak and inconclusive. Red-light methyl aminolevulinate-photodynamic therapy (MAL-PDT) was the only treatment associated with a small though clinically insignificant reduction in the number of inflamed lesions and in global improvement as assessed by an investigator in moderate to severe acne. Red-light MAL-PDT was not associated with higher rates of severe adverse effects than placebo or no treatment...
March 14, 2018: JAMA Dermatology
Carly D Robinson, Gonzalo A Pons, Angela L Duckworth, Todd Rogers
Commitment devices impose costs on one's future self for failing to follow through on one's intentions, offer no additional benefit to one's future self for following through on the intention, and people voluntarily enroll in them. Enrollment in commitment devices reflects self-awareness that one may lack sufficient self-control to fulfill one's intentions. There is little experimental research on whether school-age children possess the self-awareness necessary to enroll in a commitment device, despite evidence that children and young adolescents have many positive intentions that they fail to live up to, such as demonstrating improved school conduct or eating healthier...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Nia Emami-Shahri, Julie Foster, Roxana Kashani, Patrycja Gazinska, Celia Cook, Jane Sosabowski, John Maher, Sophie Papa
The unprecedented efficacy of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell immunotherapy of CD19+ B-cell malignancy has established a new therapeutic pillar of hematology-oncology. Nonetheless, formidable challenges remain for the attainment of comparable success in patients with solid tumors. To accelerate progress and rapidly characterize emerging toxicities, systems that permit the repeated and non-invasive assessment of CAR T-cell bio-distribution would be invaluable. An ideal solution would entail the use of a non-immunogenic reporter that mediates specific uptake of an inexpensive, non-toxic and clinically established imaging tracer by CAR T cells...
March 14, 2018: Nature Communications
Lisa M Ebert, Wenbo Yu, Tessa Gargett, Michael P Brown
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell therapy has been clinically validated as a curative treatment for the difficult to treat malignancies of relapsed/refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and lymphoma. Here, the CAR-T cells are re-directed towards a single antigen, CD19, which is recognised as a virtually ideal CAR target antigen because it has strong, uniform expression on cancer cells, and is otherwise expressed only on healthy B cells, which are 'dispensable'. Notwithstanding the clinical success of CD19-CAR-T cell therapy, its single specificity has driven therapeutic resistance in 30% or more of cases with CD19-negative leukaemic relapses...
March 14, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
(no author information available yet)
CAR T cells directed against CSPG4 limit the growth of brain tumors in cultured neurospheres and glioma xenograft mouse models, with no signs of immune escape owing to loss of antigen expression.
March 14, 2018: Cancer Discovery
M Denise Dowd
A child dying of heat injury due to being left unattended in a motor vehicle is a needless tragedy. Each year in the United States an average of 38 children mostly younger than age 2 years die of vehicular hyperthermia, frequently the result of a parental lapse of attention and not intentional neglect. Serious illness results quickly from exposure to rising heat within the passenger compartment, even on days when the temperature is fairly moderate. Prevention is paramount in addressing this problem and can best be accomplished by a combination of technological means, such as passive warning systems, laws that make leaving a child in a car alone illegal, and public education campaigns...
March 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
Chaiane Emilia Dalazen, Rafael Aiello Bomfim, Alessandro Diogo De-Carli
The scope of this study was to identify individual and contextual factors associated with the self-perceived need for dental treatment and for prostheses among elderly Brazilians. An analysis was performed with data from the SB Brazil 2010 epidemiological survey conducted by the Ministry of Health with a sample of 7,619 elderly individuals. Multilevel logistic regression models of mixed random and fixed effects were used to the estimate odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) between the dependent variables and individual and contextual factors...
March 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Sachiko Udagawa, Shinji Ohkubo, Aiko Iwase, Yuto Susuki, Shiho Kunimatsu-Sanuki, Takeo Fukuchi, Chota Matsumoto, Yuko Ohno, Hiroshi Ono, Kazuhisa Sugiyama, Makoto Araie
PURPOSE: Traffic accidents are associated with the visual function of drivers, as well as many other factors. Driving simulator systems have the advantage of controlling for traffic- and automobile-related conditions, and using pinhole glasses can control the degree of concentric concentration of the visual field. We evaluated the effect of concentric constriction of the visual field on automobile driving, using driving simulator tests. METHODS: Subjects meeting criteria for normal eyesight were included in the study...
2018: PloS One
Takashi Uchikura, Hiroaki Tanaka, Hidemi Sugiwaki, Morio Yoshimura, Naoko Sato-Masumoto, Takashi Tsujimoto, Nahoko Uchiyama, Takashi Hakamatsuka, Yoshiaki Amakura
A new phenolic compound, 2- O -β-laminaribiosyl-4-hydroxyacetophenone ( 1 ), was isolated from Cynanchi Wilfordii Radix (CWR, the root of Cynanchum wilfordii Hemsley), along with 10 known aromatic compounds, including cynandione A ( 2 ), bungeisides-C ( 7 ) and -D ( 8 ), p -hydroxyacetophenone ( 9 ), 2',5'-dihydroxyacetophenone ( 10 ), and 2',4'-dihydroxyacetophenone ( 11 ). The structure of the new compound ( 1 ) was elucidated using spectroscopic methods and chemical methods. The structure of cynandione A ( 2 ), including a linkage mode of the biphenyl parts that remained uncertain, was unambiguously confirmed using the 2D13 C-13 C incredible natural abundance double quantum transfer experiment (INADEQUATE) spectrum...
March 14, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Abdelaziz M Hussein, Mohamed Adel, Mohamed El-Mesery, Khaled M Abbas, Amr N Ali, Osama A Abulseoud
l-Carnitine is a unique nutritional supplement for athletes that has been recently studied as a potential treatment for certain neuropsychiatric disorders. However, its efficacy in seizure control has not been investigated. Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to receive either saline (Sal) (negative control) or pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) 40 mg/kg i.p. × 3 times/week × 3 weeks. The PTZ group was further subdivided into two groups, the first received oral l-carnitine (l-Car) (100 mg/kg/day × 4 weeks) (PTZ + l-Car), while the second group received saline (PTZ + Sal)...
March 14, 2018: Brain Sciences
Doreen Huppert, Dominik Straumann, Mans Magnusson, Ilmari Pyykkö, Thomas Brandt
A common European Community driving licence was established in 1980. However, there are major differences among the countries as regards medical conditions that legally affect driving ability. This article discusses various assessment guidelines for dizzy patients. These range from a total absence of specified binding requirements in Finland or regulations open to clinical interpretation in Switzerland, to inappropriately strict regulations in Germany. We focus on requirements for patients with vestibular disorders in Germany which have been in force since 2014...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Roberto Scaffaro, Francesco Lopresti, Manuela D'Arrigo, Andreana Marino, Antonia Nostro
Carvacrol (CAR) is one of the most promising essential oil components with antimicrobial activity. New technologies aimed to incorporate this active molecule into carrier matrix to improve the stability and prolong the biological activity. The goal of this study was to investigate the feasibility of incorporating CAR into electrospun membranes of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) for potential applications as active antimicrobial system. To this end, PLA membranes containing homogeneously dispersed CAR were successfully prepared and a series of systematic tests including morpho-mechanical properties, in vitro release rate, and antimicrobial/antibiofilm activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans were carried out...
March 13, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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