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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918224/driving-on-urban-roads-how-we-come-to-expect-the-correct-speed
#1
Samuel G Charlton, Nicola J Starkey
The subjective categories that drivers use to distinguish between different road types have been shown to influence the speeds they choose to drive but as yet we do not understand the road features that drivers use to make their discriminations. To better understand how drivers describe and categorise the roads they drive, 55 participants were recruited to drive a video of familiar urban roads in a driving simulator at the speed they would drive these roads in their own cars (using the accelerator and brake pedal in the driving simulator to adjust their speed)...
September 14, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918223/an-ecological-model-to-factors-associated-with-booster-seat-use-a-population-based-study
#2
Sarit Shimony Kanat, Rosa Gofin
Belt-positioning booster seat use (BPB) is an effective technology to prevent severe child injury in cases of car crash. However, in many countries, age-appropriate car restraint use for children aged 4-7 years old remains the lowest among all age groups. The aim of this study was to identify the main determinants of BPB use through a comprehensive approach. An ecological model was used to analyze individual, parent-child relationships, and neighborhood characteristics. Parents of children enrolled in the first and second grades completed a self-reported questionnaire (n=745)...
September 14, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918095/accessibility-and-usability-of-parks-and-playgrounds
#3
Meredith A Perry, Hemakumar Devan, Harry Fitzgerald, Karen Han, Li-Ting Liu, Jack Rouse
BACKGROUND: Public parks and playgrounds are an environment for leisure activity, which all generations can enjoy at low or no financial cost. Evaluating the accessibility and usability of parks and playgrounds is crucial because their design, environment (natural and built) and safety could restrict participation of persons with disabilities. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accessibility and usability of 21 public parks and playgrounds in three metropolitan cities of New Zealand...
September 8, 2017: Disability and Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916320/exosomes-carring-gag-env-of-alv-j-possess-negative-effect-on-immunocytes
#4
Guihua Wang, Zhenzhen Wang, Pingping Zhuang, Xiaomin Zhao, Ziqiang Cheng
J subgroup avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) is an exogenous retrovirus of avian. A key feature of ALV-J infection is leading to severe immunosuppressive characteristic of diseases. Viral components of retrovirus were reported closely associated with immunosuppression, and several similarities between exosomes and retrovirus preparations have lead to the hypotheses of retrovirus hijacker exosomes pathway. In this study, we purified exosomes from DF-1 cells infected and uninfected by ALV-J. Electron microscopy and mass spectrometry (MS) analysis showed that ALV-J not only increased the production of exosomes from ALV-J infected DF-1 cells (Exo-J) but also stimulated some proteins expression, especially ALV-J components secreted in exosomes...
September 12, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915813/the-relationship-between-burden-of-childhood-disease-and-foreign-aid-for-child-health
#5
J Clay Bavinger, Paul Wise, Eran Bendavid
BACKGROUND: We sought to examine the relationship between child specific health aid (CHA) and burden of disease. Based on existing evidence, we hypothesized that foreign aid for child health would not be proportional to burden of disease. METHODS: In order to examine CHA and burden of disease, we obtained estimates of these parameters from established sources. Estimates of disability adjusted life years (DALYs) in children (0-5 years) were obtained from the World Health Organization for 2000 and 2012...
September 15, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914102/5-httlpr-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-bdnf-gene-interactions-and-early-adverse-life-events-effect-on-impulsivity-in-suicide-attempters
#6
Luis Jiménez-Treviño, Pilar Alejandra Saiz, Maria Paz García-Portilla, Hilario Blasco-Fontecilla, Vladimir Carli, Miriam Iosue, Isabelle Jaussent, Jorge López-Castroman, Concepcion Vaquero-Lorenzo, Marco Sarchiapone, Enrique Baca-García, Philippe Courtet, Julio Bobes
OBJECTIVES: An expanding body of research suggests that childhood adverse experiences can lead to different negative health outcomes, including attempted suicide. Serotonergic genes such as the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) have been associated both with impulsivity in suicide attempts and reactivity to environmental stress exposure. BDNF gene may play an epigenetic role. METHODS: We studied the influence of childhood stressful events and 5-HTTLPR genotype on impulsivity measured by Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-10) in a multicentre sample of 1,655 suicide attempters (69...
September 15, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913520/evidential-value-of-polymeric-materials-chemometric-tactics-for-spectral-data-compression-combined-with-likelihood-ratio-approach
#7
A Menżyk, A Martyna, G Zadora
Polymers have become a ubiquitous element of our culture. Therefore, these materials may play an important role in forensic investigations, serving as mute witnesses of occurrences such as car accidents. In this study, the possibilities provided by the likelihood ratio (LR) approach to estimate the evidential value of observed similarities and differences, and to discriminate among NIR spectral data originating from polypropylene automotive parts and household items, were investigated. Since the construction of LR models requires the introduction of only a few variables, the main objective was to reduce the dimensionality of registered spectra, which are characterised by over a thousand variables...
September 15, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913432/experimental-phase-diagram-of-zero-bias-conductance-peaks-in-superconductor-semiconductor-nanowire-devices
#8
Jun Chen, Peng Yu, John Stenger, Moïra Hocevar, Diana Car, Sébastien R Plissard, Erik P A M Bakkers, Tudor D Stanescu, Sergey M Frolov
Topological superconductivity is an exotic state of matter characterized by spinless p-wave Cooper pairing of electrons and by Majorana zero modes at the edges. The first signature of topological superconductivity is a robust zero-bias peak in tunneling conductance. We perform tunneling experiments on semiconductor nanowires (InSb) coupled to superconductors (NbTiN) and establish the zero-bias peak phase in the space of gate voltage and external magnetic field. Our findings are consistent with calculations for a finite-length topological nanowire and provide means for Majorana manipulation as required for braiding and topological quantum bits...
September 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912259/nod2-nucleotide-binding-oligomerization-domain-2-is-a-major-pathogenic-mediator-of-coxsackievirus-b3-induced-myocarditis
#9
Carsten Tschöpe, Irene Müller, Yu Xia, Konstantinos Savvatis, Kathleen Pappritz, Sandra Pinkert, Dirk Lassner, Markus M Heimesaat, Frank Spillmann, Kapka Miteva, Stefan Bereswill, Heinz-Peter Schultheiss, Henry Fechner, Burkert Pieske, Uwe Kühl, Sophie Van Linthout
BACKGROUND: The cytoplasmatic pattern recognition receptor, NOD2 (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2), belongs to the innate immune system and is among others responsible for the recognition of single-stranded RNA. With Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) being a single-stranded RNA virus, and the recent evidence that the NOD2 target, NLRP3 (NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3) is of importance in the pathogenesis of CVB3-induced myocarditis, we aimed to unravel the role of NOD2 in CVB3-induced myocarditis...
September 2017: Circulation. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912137/enhanced-cancer-immunotherapy-by-chimeric-antigen-receptor-modified-t-cells-engineered-to-secrete-checkpoint-inhibitors
#10
Pin Wang, Si Li, Natnaree Siriwon, Xiaoyang Zhang, Shuai Yang, Tao Jin, Feng He, Yu Jeong Kim, John Mac, Zhengfei Lu, Sijie Wang, Xiaolu Han
PURPOSE: Despite favorable responses of CAR-engineered T cell therapy in patients with hematologic malignancies, the outcome has been far from satisfactory in the treatment of solid tumors, partially owing to the development of an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. To overcome this limitation, we engineered CAR-T cells secreting checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs) targeting PD-1 (CAR.αPD1-T) and evaluated their efficacy in a human lung carcinoma xenograft mouse model. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: To evaluate the effector function and expansion capacity of CAR...
September 14, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911851/cortisol-awakening-response-in-patients-with-bipolar-disorder-during-acute-episodes-and-partial-remission-a-pilot-study
#11
Ming-Chyi Huang, Shan-Chi Chuang, Mei-Chih Meg Tseng, Yi-Ling Chien, Shih-Cheng Liao, Hsi-Chung Chen, Po-Hsiu Kuo
This exploratory study examined the cortisol awakening response (CAR) in patients with bipolar disorder (BPD) at acute phases and partial remission of manic or depressive episodes. Saliva samples of twenty-seven BPD inpatients and 25 healthy controls were collected to determine the CAR patterns, and 12 patients were sampled again at partial remission. BPD patients exhibited a non-enhanced CAR pattern. Lower cortisol expression and a blunted CAR distinguished bipolar-depressive patients from the controls. The intra-individual follow-up for both patient groups revealed a non-significant improvement in CAR patterns, indicating a trend of a normalized CAR after partial remission for BPD patients...
September 1, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910377/parametric-analysis-of-occupant-ankle-and-tibia-injuries-in-frontal-impact
#12
Fuhao Mo, Xiaoqing Jiang, Shuyong Duan, Zhi Xiao, Sen Xiao, Wei Shi
OBJECTIVE: Non-fatal tibia and ankle injuries without proper protection from the restraint system has gotten wide attention from researchers. This study aimed to investigate occupant tibia and ankle injuries under realistic frontal impact environment that is rarely considered in previous experimental and simulant studies. METHODS: An integrated occupant-vehicle model was established by coupling an isolated car cab model and a hybrid occupant model with a biofidelic pelvis-lower limb model, while its loading conditions were extracted from the realistic full-frontal impact test...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905891/post-quantum-cryptography
#13
Daniel J Bernstein, Tanja Lange
Cryptography is essential for the security of online communication, cars and implanted medical devices. However, many commonly used cryptosystems will be completely broken once large quantum computers exist. Post-quantum cryptography is cryptography under the assumption that the attacker has a large quantum computer; post-quantum cryptosystems strive to remain secure even in this scenario. This relatively young research area has seen some successes in identifying mathematical operations for which quantum algorithms offer little advantage in speed, and then building cryptographic systems around those...
September 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905694/sphingomonas-carri-sp-nov-isolated-from-a-car-air-conditioning-system
#14
Hyosun Lee, Dong-Uk Kim, Suyeon Lee, Jungpyo Yun, Sooyeon Park, Jung-Hoon Yoon, So Yoon Park, Jong-Ok Ka
A Gram-stain-negative, yellow-pigmented bacterial strain, designated PR0302T, was isolated from a car evaporator core collected in Korea. The cells were strictly aerobic, non-spore-forming and rod-shaped. The strain grew at 15-37 °C (optimum, 25 °C), at pH 6.0-8.0 (optimum, 7.0) and in the presence of 0-1 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetically, the strain was closely related to members of the genus Sphingomonas(97.04-91.22 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities) and showed the highest sequence similarity of 97...
September 14, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903501/sex-differential-responses-of-tumor-promotion-associated-genes-and-dysregulation-of-novel-long-noncoding-rnas-in-constitutive-androstane-receptor-activated-mouse-liver
#15
Nicholas J Lodato, Tisha Melia, Andy Rampersaud, David J Waxman
Xenobiotic agonists of constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) induce many hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes, but following prolonged exposure, promote hepatocellular carcinoma, most notably in male mouse liver. Here, we used nuclear RNA-seq to characterize global changes in the mouse liver transcriptome following exposure to the CAR-specific agonist ligand 1,4-bis-[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene (TCPOBOP), including changes in novel long noncoding RNAs that may contribute to xenobiotic-induced pathophysiology...
September 1, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903456/tumor-reductive-therapies-and-antitumor-immunity
#16
REVIEW
Huiqin Guo, Kangla Tsung
Tumor reductive therapy is to reduce tumor burden through direct killing of tumor cells. So far, there is no report on the connection between antitumor immunity and tumor reductive therapies. In the last few years, a new category of cancer treatment, immunotherapy, emerged and they are categorized separately from classic cytotoxic treatments (chemo and radiation therapy). The most prominent examples include cellular therapies (LAK and CAR-T) and immune checkpoint inhibitors (anti-PD-1 and CTLA-4). Recent advances in clinical immunotherapy and our understanding of the mechanism behind them revealed that these therapies have a closer relationship with classic cancer treatments than we thought...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902774/subcutaneous-islet-allotransplantation-without-immunosuppression-therapy-the-dream-of-the-diabetologists-and-of-their-patients
#17
Federico Bertuzzi, Luciano Gregorio De Carlis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 12, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902570/tragedy-perseverance-and-chance-the-story-of-car-t-therapy
#18
Lisa Rosenbaum
In 2010, 5-year-old Emily Whitehead was diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Though her parents were told that if you had to have a kid with cancer, ALL was the best one to have, Emily’s course was hardly typical. After two rounds of chemotherapy, necrotizing fasciitis developed in..
September 13, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902343/connexin%C3%A2-43-in-the-development-and-progression-of-breast-cancer-what-s-the-connection-review
#19
Stephanie L Phillips, Carly Bess Williams, Joelle N Zambrano, Christina J Williams, Elizabeth S Yeh
Connexin 43 is a prominent gap junction protein within normal human breast tissue. Thus far, there have been a number of research studies performed to determine the function of connexin 43 in breast tumor formation and progression. Within primary tumors, research suggests that the level of connexin 43 expression in breast tumors is altered when compared to normal human breast tissue. While some reports indicate that connexin 43 levels decrease, other evidence suggests that connexin 43 levels are increased and protein localization shifts from the plasma membrane to the cytoplasm...
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901922/car-t-cells-an-exciting-frontier-in-cancer-therapy
#20
EDITORIAL
The Lancet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 9, 2017: Lancet
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