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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545247/how-does-psychosocial-behavior-contribute-to-cognitive-health-in-old-age
#1
Robert S Wilson, David A Bennett
With the aging of the U.S. population, the number of cognitively disabled persons is expected to substantially increase in coming decades, underscoring the urgent need for effective interventions. Here, we review the current evidence linking psychosocial factors to late-life cognitive loss and consider the study design needed to illuminate the biologic bases of the associations. We then examine an ongoing study that includes several of the key design elements, the Rush Memory and Aging Project. In this longitudinal clinical-pathological cohort study, indicators of personality, social connectedness, and psychological well-being were shown to predict late-life cognitive outcomes...
May 23, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541543/validation-of-the%C3%A2-d%C3%A3-pistage-cognitif-de-qu%C3%A3-bec-a-new-cognitive-screening-tool-for-atypical-dementias
#2
Robert Laforce, Leila Sellami, David Bergeron, Audrey Paradis, Louis Verret, Marie-Pierre Fortin, Michèle Houde, Martin Roy, Stéphane Poulin, Joël Macoir, Carol Hudon, Rémi W Bouchard
Objective: This study aimed to validate and provide normative data for the Dépistage Cognitif de Québec (DCQ; www.dcqtest.org), a new cognitive screening tool for atypical dementias. Method: The DCQ was developed by expert behavioral neurologists and clinical neuropsychologists based on updated criteria for Alzheimer's disease, primary progressive aphasia, and behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia. It targets five relevant domains: Memory, Visuospatial, Executive, Language, and Behavior...
May 25, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529242/hyperuricemia-as-a-protective-factor-for-mild-cognitive-impairment-in-non-obese-elderly
#3
Feng Wang, Minghui Zhao, Zhaoli Han, Dai Li, Shishuang Zhang, Yongqiang Zhang, Xiaodong Kong, Ning Sun, Qiang Zhang, Ping Lei
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is regarded as incipient dementia. Patients with MCI have increased risk of later progressing to dementia. Blood uric acid (UA) is an important non-enzymatic antioxidant in peripheral circulation, and plays an unconfirmed protective role in MCI. Furthermore, obesity-induced inflammation, which affects UA metabolism and MCI onset, might regulate such protective role. Thus, the aim of the study was to determine the relationship of UA to MCI and the potential effect from inflammation...
2017: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527525/age-related-white-matter-integrity-differences-in-oldest-old-without-dementia
#4
Ilana J Bennett, Dana E Greenia, Pauline Maillard, S Ahmad Sajjadi, Charles DeCarli, Maria M Corrada, Claudia H Kawas
Aging is known to have deleterious effects on cerebral white matter, yet little is known about these white matter alterations in advanced age. In this study, 94 oldest-old adults without dementia (90-103 years) underwent diffusion tensor imaging to assess relationships between chronological age and multiple measures of integrity in 18 white matter regions across the brain. Results revealed significant age-related declines in integrity in regions previously identified as being sensitive to aging in younger-old adults (corpus callosum, fornix, cingulum, external capsule)...
April 26, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526049/psychological-status-and-quality-of-life-among-primary-caregivers-of-individuals-with-mental-illness-a-hospital-based-study
#5
Anitha Jeyagurunathan, Vathsala Sagayadevan, Edimansyah Abdin, YunJue Zhang, Sherilyn Chang, Saleha Shafie, Restria Fauziana Abdul Rahman, Janhavi Ajit Vaingankar, Siow Ann Chong, Mythily Subramaniam
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to explore the psychological status and quality of life among primary caregivers of individuals suffering from various mental illnesses including early psychosis, chronic schizophrenia, depressive disorders, anxiety disorders and dementia. METHODS: A total of 350 primary caregivers with relatives seeking treatment at a tertiary psychiatric hospital were recruited for this study. Socio-demographic data was obtained and the brief version of the World Health Organisation Quality of Life instrument was used to assess caregiver's quality of life (QOL)...
May 19, 2017: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522369/electroencephalographic-monitoring-during-sevoflurane-anaesthesia-in-an-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-patient-with-locked-in-state
#6
Kazuko Hayashi, Ryuhei Araki, Akiko Tanaka
Recently, the cognitive abilities of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have been found to be impaired along with the neurodegeneration of motor neurons. Electroencephalography (EEG) of end-stage ALS patients has reportedly shown specific features based on neuronal network modulations, differing from EEG of other patients with cognitive failure and dementia. However, EEG of end-stage ALS patients during anaesthesia has not yet been reported. A 64-year-old male ALS patient with locked-in state (LIS), supported by tracheostomy positive-pressure ventilation (TPPV) and enteral nourishment for 9years, underwent scheduled general anaesthesia for repair of a fractured mandible...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516371/perforated-emphysematous-cholecystitis-managed-by-endoscopic-transpapillary-gallbladder-drainage
#7
Chikara Iino, Tadashi Shimoyama, Takasato Igarashi, Tomoyuki Aihara, Kentaro Ishii, Juichi Sakamoto, Hiroshi Tono, Shinsaku Fukuda
An 88-year-old woman with dementia was diagnosed as having perforated emphysematous cholecystitis with localized peritonitis. Because she was at high risk for surgery, gallbladder drainage was required before surgery. Endoscopic transpapillary gallbladder drainage instead of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage was performed because bile could leak from the puncture site to free space around the perforated gallbladder. After the insertion of a nasobiliary drainage tube, the gallbladder was drained and cleaned with saline solution...
May 17, 2017: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502803/gene-co-expression-networks-identify-trem2-and-tyrobp-as-major-hubs-in-human-apoe-expressing-mice-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#8
Emilie L Castranio, Anais Mounier, Cody M Wolfe, Kyong Nyon Nam, Nicholas F Fitz, Florent Letronne, Jonathan Schug, Radosveta Koldamova, Iliya Lefterov
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is strongly linked to an increased risk of developing dementia, including chronic traumatic encephalopathy and possibly Alzheimer's disease (AD). APOEε4 allele of human Apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene is the major genetic risk factor for late onset AD and has been associated with chronic traumatic encephalopathy and unfavorable outcome following TBI. To determine if there is an APOE isoform-specific response to TBI we performed controlled cortical impact on 3-month-old mice expressing human APOE3 or APOE4 isoforms...
May 11, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499387/evolution-of-the-fourth-stage-of-epidemiologic-transition-in-people-aged-80%C3%A2-years-and-over-population-based-cohort-study-using-electronic-health-records
#9
Nisha C Hazra, Martin Gulliford
BACKGROUND: In the "fourth stage" of epidemiological transition, the distribution of non-communicable diseases is expected to shift to more advanced ages, but age-specific changes beyond 80 years of age have not been reported. METHODS: This study aimed to evaluate demographic and health transitions in a population aged 80 years and over in the United Kingdom from 1990 to 2014, using primary care electronic health records. Epidemiological analysis of chronic morbidities and age-related impairments included a cohort of 299,495 participants, with stratified sampling by five-year age group up to 100 years and over...
May 12, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499342/dementia-and-the-privilege-of-growing-old
#10
Renée L Beard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: Dementia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491313/positron-emission-tomography-imaging-in-a-case-of-e200k-mutation-related-spongiform-encephalopathy-with-non-diagnostic-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-testing
#11
Pravin George, Christopher R Newey, Karin P Mente, Erik P Pioro
OBJECTIVE: Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is a rapidly progressive spongiform encephalopathy. The E200K mutation is found in a majority of genetically transmitted Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease cases. METHODS: We describe the case and associated neuroimaging of an E200K-129M gene-mutation-related fatal spongiform encephalopathy with resultant clinical insomnia and thalamic changes. RESULTS: A 46-year-old Caucasian male presented with, who was well until 2 months prior to admission, a rapidly progressive dementia followed by a change in personality with auditory and visual hallucinations...
2017: SAGE open medical case reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491285/midlife-interventions-are-critical-in-prevention-delay-or-improvement-of-alzheimer-s-disease-and-vascular-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia
#12
Sam Gandy, Tamas Bartfai, Graham V Lees, Mary Sano
The basic strategy for focusing exclusively on genetically identified targets for intervening in late life dementias was formulated 30 years ago.  Three decades and billions of dollars later, all efforts at disease-modifying interventions have failed.  Over that same period, evidence has accrued pointing to dementias as late-life clinical phenotypes that begin as midlife pathologies.  Effective prevention therefore may need to begin in midlife, in order to succeed. No current interventions are sufficiently safe to justify their use in midlife dementia prevention trials...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488889/experiencing-place-younger-people-with-dementia-facing-aged-care
#13
Sally Rimkeit, Jacqueline McIntosh
OBJECTIVES: There are currently few facilities for people with younger onset dementia and they are placed by default into dementia care facilities designed for the elderly. There is limited understanding of how people with younger onset dementia and their care givers anticipate or experience aged residential care. This qualitative study has used semi-structured interviews to give voice to the opinions and perspectives of nine people with younger onset dementia and 11 care givers. METHOD: Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was used for idiographic analysis, allowing examination of the lived experience of younger people with dementia and an iterative exploration of what their experiences mean...
May 1, 2017: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481752/preoperative-cognitive-performance-and-postoperative-delirium-are-independently-associated-with-future-dementia-in-older-people-who-have-undergone-cardiac-surgery-a-longitudinal-cohort-study
#14
Helena Claesson Lingehall, Nina S Smulter, Elisabeth Lindahl, Marie Lindkvist, Karl Gunnar Engström, Yngve G Gustafson, Birgitta Olofsson
OBJECTIVE: To investigate if postoperative delirium was associated with the development of dementia within 5 years after cardiac surgery. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study. SETTING: Cardiothoracic Division, Umeå University Hospital, Sweden. PATIENTS: Patients aged 70 years old or older (n = 114) scheduled for routine cardiac procedures with cardiopulmonary bypass without documented dementia were enrolled in 2009. INTERVENTION: Structured assessments were performed preoperatively, 1 and 4 days after extubation, and 1, 3, and 5 years postoperatively...
May 5, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472611/coexisting-cortical-atrophy-plays-a-crucial-role-in-cognitive-impairment-in-moderate-to-severe-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-patients
#15
Jie Tang, Langfeng Shi, Qianhua Zhao, Miaoyi Zhang, Ding Ding, Bo Yu, Jianhui Fu
Whether white matter lesion (WML) is associated with vascular cognitive impairment in cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) remains controversial; some severe CSVD patients retain normal cognitive function, and cortical thinning associated with WMLs has also been recently reported. The contribution of cortical atrophy to vascular cognitive impairment in severe CSVD and whether WML affects cortical atrophy remain unknown. From November 2012 to January 2015, 50- to 80-year-old patients with moderate to severe WMLs or more than four lacunar infarctions and cognitive complaints, excluding those with large vascular diseases diagnosed by transcranial cerebral Doppler, were recruited...
March 2017: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469589/experiences-of-loneliness-associated-with-being-an-informal-caregiver-a-qualitative-investigation
#16
Konstantina Vasileiou, Julie Barnett, Manuela Barreto, John Vines, Mark Atkinson, Shaun Lawson, Michael Wilson
Although providing care to a family member or friend may provide psychological benefits, informal (i.e., unpaid) caregivers also encounter difficulties which may negatively affect their quality of life as well as their mental and physical health. Loneliness is one important challenge that caregivers face, with this psychological state being associated with morbidity and premature mortality. Although previous research has identified loneliness as an issue associated with being an informal caregiver, there is a paucity of evidence that attempts to understand this phenomenon in depth...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467211/hippocampal-sclerosis-in-older-patients-practical-examples-and-guidance-with-a-focus-on-cerebral-age-related-tdp-43-with-sclerosis
#17
Matthew D Cykowski, Suzanne Z Powell, Paul E Schulz, Hidehiro Takei, Andreana L Rivera, Robert E Jackson, Gustavo Roman, Gregory A Jicha, Peter T Nelson
CONTEXT: - Autopsy studies of the older population (≥65 years of age), and particularly of the "oldest-old" (≥85 years of age), have identified a significant proportion (∼20%) of cognitively impaired patients in which hippocampal sclerosis is the major substrate of an amnestic syndrome. Hippocampal sclerosis may also be comorbid with frontotemporal lobar degeneration, Alzheimer disease, and Lewy body disease. Until recently, the terms hippocampal sclerosis of aging or hippocampal sclerosis dementia were applied in this context...
May 3, 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464382/they-are-still-the-same-family-members-stories-about-their-relatives-with-dementia-disorders-as-residents-in-a-nursing-home
#18
Berit Seiger Cronfalk, Astrid Norberg, Britt-Marie Ternestedt
In order to better understand the context of suffering from dementia disorders, greater efforts should be made to understand and identify what persons with such disorders experience when living in a nursing home. The aim of this qualitative study was to gain further understanding of how persons with dementia disorders experienced and coped with their changed life situation after being relocated to a nursing home as described by their family members' perceptions. Qualitative data were collected from ten interviews with family members and evaluated using content analysis...
May 2, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463828/anxiety-anxiety-symptoms-and-their-correlates-in-persons-with-dementia-in-norwegian-nursing-homes-a-cause-for-concern
#19
Alka Rani Goyal, Sverre Bergh, Knut Engedal, Marit Kirkevold, Øyvind Kirkevold
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Little is known about anxiety and its associations among persons with dementia in nursing homes. This study aims to examine anxiety, anxiety symptoms, and their correlates in persons with dementia in Norwegian nursing homes. METHODS: In all, 298 participants with dementia ≥65 years old from 17 nursing homes were assessed with a validated Norwegian version of the Rating Anxiety in Dementia scale (RAID-N). Associations between anxiety (RAID-N score) and demographic and clinical characteristics were analyzed with linear regression models...
May 3, 2017: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455505/apoe-%C3%A9-4-effects-on-longitudinal-decline-in-olfactory-and-non-olfactory-cognitive-abilities-in-middle-aged-and-old-adults
#20
Maria Josefsson, Maria Larsson, Steven Nordin, Rolf Adolfsson, Jonas Olofsson
Characterizing aging-related decline trajectories in mental abilities, and relationships of the ɛ4 allele of the Apolipoprotein gene, helps to identify individuals at high risk for dementia. However, longitudinal changes in olfactory and non-olfactory cognitive abilities have not been investigated in relation to the ɛ4 allele. In the present study, participants from a large population-based study (657 middle-aged and 556 old) were tested over 10 years on their performance on an odor identification task and three non-olfactory cognitive tasks; MMSE, episodic memory, and semantic memory...
April 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
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