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Dementia AND older e

Andrea Gruneir, Lauren E Griffith, Kathryn Fisher, Dilzayn Panjwani, Sima Gandhi, Li Sheng, Chris Patterson, Amiram Gafni, Jenny Ploeg, Maureen Markle-Reid
OBJECTIVE: To characterize comorbid chronic conditions, describe health services use, and estimate health care costs among community-dwelling older adults with prior stroke. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study using administrative data from Ontario, Canada. We identified all community-dwelling individuals aged 66 and over on April 1, 2008 (baseline), who had experienced a stroke at least 6 months prior. We estimated the prevalence of 14 comorbid conditions at baseline; we captured all physician visits, emergency department visits, hospital admissions, home care contacts, and associated costs over 5 years stratifying by number of comorbid conditions...
October 19, 2016: Neurology
L Su, Y O Faluyi, Y T Hong, T D Fryer, E Mak, S Gabel, L Hayes, S Soteriades, G B Williams, R Arnold, L Passamonti, P Vázquez Rodríguez, A Surendranathan, R W Bevan-Jones, J Coles, F Aigbirhio, J B Rowe, J T O'Brien
We studied neuroinflammation in individuals with late-life depression, as a risk factor for dementia, using [(11)C]PK11195 positron emission tomography (PET). Five older participants with major depression and 13 controls underwent PET and multimodal 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with blood taken to measure C-reactive protein (CRP). We found significantly higher CRP levels in those with late-life depression and raised [(11)C]PK11195 binding compared with controls in brain regions associated with depression, including subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, and significant hippocampal subfield atrophy in cornu ammonis 1 and subiculum...
October 6, 2016: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Adrian Noriega De La Colina, Rong Wu, Laurence Desjardins-Crépeau, Pierre Larochelle, Maxime Lamarre-Cliche, Louis Bherer, Hélène Girouard
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess cognitive performance in older adults treated and controlled for blood pressure (BP) when compared to untreated normotensive subjects, and to determine whether blood pressure still correlates with poorer cognitive performances. DESIGN AND METHOD: Forty-eight older adults aged between 65 and 85 years were recruited in the community and divided into two groups: normotensive (n = 26) and controlled hypertensive (n = 22)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Jennifer L Schroeck, James Ford, Erin L Conway, Kari E Kurtzhalts, Megan E Gee, Krista A Vollmer, Kari A Mergenhagen
PURPOSE: Insomnia is problematic for older adults. After behavioral modifications fail to show adequate response, pharmacologic options are used. The pharmacokinetics of agents used to treat insomnia may be altered. This review focuses on the safety and efficacy of medications used to treat insomnia. METHODS: A literature search of Medline, PubMed, and Embase was conducted (January 1966-June 2016). It included systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, observational studies, and case series that had an emphasis on insomnia in an older population...
October 14, 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
Mary Adams
BACKGROUND: Limited study has been done on proxy responses for non-respondents with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) on the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). OBJECTIVE: To directly compare results for survey respondents with SCD with those for proxies provided for non-respondents with SCD. METHODS: Publicly available 2011 BRFSS data from 120,485 households in 21 states were analyzed using Stata. Respondents ages 40 and older with SCD (n = 10,831) were compared with proxy responses for non-respondents ages 40 and older with SCD (n = 4296) living in households where the respondent did not have SCD...
September 13, 2016: Disability and Health Journal
Karen I Fredriksen-Goldsen, Sarah Jen, Amanda E B Bryan, Jayn Goldsen
Cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, and other dementias are important health concerns for older adults. As a marginalized and growing segment of the older adult population, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults face distinct risk factors related to cognitive impairment and dementias, including social isolation, discrimination, barriers to health care access, limited availability of and support for caregivers, and higher rates of certain chronic illnesses. We examine cognitive impairment and dementias among LGBT older adults, describe their unique risk factors, and outline key competencies for health care and human service providers to ensure culturally relevant care for LGBT older adults experiencing cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, or other dementias, as well as their caregivers, families, and communities...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Applied Gerontology: the Official Journal of the Southern Gerontological Society
Hiroko H Dodge, Jian Zhu, Tiffany F Hughes, Beth E Snitz, Chung-Chou H Chang, Erin P Jacobsen, Mary Ganguli
BACKGROUND: In many developed countries, cognitive functioning (as measured by neuropsychological tests) appears to be improving over time in the population at large, in parallel with the declining age-specific incidence of dementia. Here, we investigated cohort effects in the age-associated trajectories of verbal memory function in older adults. We sought to determine whether they varied by decade of birth and, if so, whether the change would be explained by increasing educational attainment...
October 11, 2016: International Psychogeriatrics
C Ruggiero, L Bonamassa, L Pelini, I Prioletta, L Cianferotti, A Metozzi, E Benvenuti, G Brandi, A Guazzini, G C Santoro, P Mecocci, D Black, M L Brandi
: This study investigates the relationship between cognitive dysfunction or delirium detected in the early post-surgical phase and the 1-year mortality among 514 hip fracture hospitalized older persons. Patients with early cognitive dysfunction or delirium experienced a 2-fold increased mortality risk. Early post-operative cognitive dysfunction and delirium are negative prognostic factors for mortality. BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Premorbid cognitive impairment and dementia in older individuals negatively affect functional recovery after hip fracture...
October 7, 2016: Osteoporosis International
E R Wallace, D S Siscovick, C M Sitlani, S Dublin, P Mitchell, J A Robbins, H A Fink, J A Cauley, P Bůžková, L Carbone, Z Chen, S R Heckbert
: In this prospective cohort of 4462 older adults, incident atrial fibrillation (AF) was not statistically significantly associated with subsequent risk of incident fracture. INTRODUCTION: AF is associated with stroke, heart failure, dementia, and death, but its association with fracture is unknown. Therefore, we examined the association of incident AF with the risk of subsequent fracture in the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) cohort. METHODS: Of the CHS participants aged ≥65 years, 4462 were followed between 1991 and 2009, mean follow-up 8...
October 7, 2016: Osteoporosis International
Brandon E Gavett, Ashita S Gurnani, Jessica L Saurman, Kimberly R Chapman, Eric G Steinberg, Brett Martin, Christine E Chaisson, Jesse Mez, Yorghos Tripodis, Robert A Stern
Two of the most commonly used methods to assess memory functioning in studies of cognitive aging and dementia are story memory and list learning tests. We hypothesized that the most commonly used story memory test, Wechsler's Logical Memory, would generate more pronounced practice effects than a well validated but less common list learning test, the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (NAB) List Learning test. Two hundred eighty-seven older adults, ages 51 to 100 at baseline, completed both tests as part of a larger neuropsychological test battery on an annual basis...
2016: PloS One
Luta Luse Basambombo, Pierre-Hugues Carmichael, Sharlène Côté, Danielle Laurin
BACKGROUND: There are few studies of the association between the use of antioxidant vitamin supplements and the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Cognitive decline is generally viewed as part of the continuum between normal aging and AD. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the use of vitamin E and C supplements is associated with reduced risks of cognitive impairment, not dementia (CIND), AD, or all-cause dementia in a representative sample of older persons ≥65 years old...
October 4, 2016: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Yoritoshi Kobayashi, Yumi Takahashi, Takashi Seki, Tomohiro Kaneta, Kenichi Amarume, Mari Kasai, Kenichi Meguro
BACKGROUND/AIMS: No previous studies have explored the relationship between physical activity (PA) and executive dysfunction. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated the PA for 590 older participants in the Kurihara Project; 221 participants had a Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) of 0 (healthy), 295 CDR 0.5 (very mild dementia), and 74 CDR 1+ (dementia). RESULTS: In the complicated task, whether the motor intensity was high (e.g. farming) or low (e...
May 2016: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
Shelly L Gray, Joseph T Hanlon
Use of medications with anticholinergic activity is widespread in older adults. Several studies have highlighted that anticholinergic use may be associated with an increased risk of dementia. The objective of this narrative review is to describe and evaluate studies of anticholinergic medication use and dementia and provide practical suggestions for avoiding use of these medications in older adults. A comprehensive review of the literature, citations from recent reviews and the author's personal files was conducted...
October 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety
Elyse R Thakur, Amber B Amspoker, Shubhada Sansgiry, A Lynn Snow, Melinda Stanley, Nancy Wilson, Jessica Freshour, Mark E Kunik
OBJECTIVE:  To identify factors associated with no analgesic treatment in community-dwelling older adults with mild-to-moderate dementia and moderate-to-severe pain. DESIGN:  Secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial. SETTING:  Michael E. DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center. SUBJECTS : Two hundred and two older adults (mean age = 79.27 years). METHODS:  Guided by the Behavioral Model of Health Service Utilization, participants completed questionnaires regarding predisposing (age, gender, race, educational level, care partner relationship), enabling (income), and need (pain interference, depressive symptoms, cognitive functioning) characteristics...
September 30, 2016: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
Grace M McPhee, Luke A Downey, Anthony Noble, Con Stough
As the elderly population grows the impact of age associated cognitive decline as well as neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and dementia will increase. Ageing is associated with consistent impairments in cognitive processes (e.g., processing speed, memory, executive function and learning) important for work, well-being, life satisfaction and overall participation in society. Recently, there has been increased effort to conduct research examining methods to improve cognitive function in older citizens...
October 2016: Medical Hypotheses
Morag E Taylor, Stephen R Lord, Henry Brodaty, Susan E Kurrle, Sarah Hamilton, Elisabeth Ramsay, Lyndell Webster, Narelle L Payne, Jacqueline C T Close
BACKGROUND: Older people with dementia are at increased risk of physical decline and falls. Balance and mood are significant predictors of falls in this population. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a tailored home-based exercise program in community-dwelling older people with dementia. METHODS: Forty-two participants with mild to moderate dementia were recruited from routine health services. All participants were offered a six-month home-based, carer-enhanced, progressive, and individually tailored exercise program...
October 3, 2016: International Psychogeriatrics
Ira Driscoll, Sally A Shumaker, Beverly M Snively, Karen L Margolis, JoAnn E Manson, Mara Z Vitolins, Rebecca C Rossom, Mark A Espeland
BACKGROUND: Nonhuman studies suggest a protective effect of caffeine on cognition. Although human literature remains less consistent, reviews suggest a possible favorable relationship between caffeine consumption and cognitive impairment or dementia. We investigated the relationship between caffeine intake and incidence of cognitive impairment or probable dementia in women aged 65 and older from the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study. METHODS: All women with self-reported caffeine consumption at enrollment were included (N = 6,467)...
September 27, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Marta Picascia, B Minafra, Roberta Zangaglia, L Gracardi, N G Pozzi, E Sinforiani, Claudio Pacchetti
Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a syndrome characterized by ventricular dilation accompanied by a progressive triad of a gait disturbance, "dementia" and incontinence. We retrospectively evaluated cognitive profile, and its relationship with disease variables, in 64 iNPH patients. The iNPH group performed significantly worse than the control group on all neuropsychological tests, except for verbal memory (within the normal range). The patients were subdivided into four groups: group 1 (42%: global cognitive impairment); group 2 (24%: frontosubcortical dysfunction); group 3 (17%: isolated deficit of a single cognitive domain); group 4 (17%: no cognitive impairment)...
July 2016: Functional Neurology
Kathryn S Agarwal, Rabia Kazim, Jiaqiong Xu, Soo Borson, George E Taffet
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether 30-day readmissions were associated with presence of cognitive impairment more in elderly adults with heart failure (HF) than in those with other diagnoses and whether medical teams recognized cognitive impairment. DESIGN: One-year prospective cohort quality improvement program of cognitive screening and retrospective chart review of documentation and outcomes. SETTING: Academic tertiary care hospital medical unit with a cardiovascular focus and an enhanced discharge program of individualized patient education...
September 27, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Helen W Lach, Barbara E Harrison, Sutthida Phongphanngam
Older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early-stage dementia have an increased risk of falling, with risks to their health and quality of life. The purpose of the current integrative review was to evaluate evidence on fall risk and fall prevention in this population. Studies were included if they examined falls or fall risk factors in older adults with MCI or early-stage dementia, or reported interventions in this population; 40 studies met criteria. Evidence supports the increased risk of falls in individuals even in the early stages of dementia or MCI, and changes in gait, balance, and fear of falling that may be related to this increased fall risk...
September 23, 2016: Research in Gerontological Nursing
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