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Working poor

Lorra Garey, Lorraine R Reitzel, Julie Neisler, Darla E Kendzor, Michael J Zvolensky, Clayton Neighbors, Daphne C Hernandez, Michael S Businelle
PURPOSE: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is a multidimensional assessment of well-being and health status. Most previous work in this area assumes that HRQoL is a homogenous construct; however, it is possible HRQoL subgroups may exist. The purpose of the study was to characterize common classes of HRQoL among adult, homeless smokers, a particularly vulnerable group of the larger population, and to evaluate risk and protective factors of HRQoL class membership. METHODS: Homeless smokers (N = 456; 65...
March 20, 2018: Behavioral Medicine
Kendra E Brett, Lindsay J Ritchie, Emily Ertel, Alexandria Bennett, Greg A Knoll
BACKGROUND: The best approach for determining whether a transplant program is delivering high-quality care is unknown. This review aims to identify and characterize quality metrics in solid organ transplantation. METHODS: Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched from inception until February 1 2017. Relevant full text reports and conference abstracts that examined quality metrics in organ transplantation were included. Two reviewers independently extracted study characteristics and quality metrics from 52 full text reports and 24 abstracts...
March 20, 2018: Transplantation
Silja Fiedler, Holger Pfaff, Renate Soellner, Timo-Kolja Pförtner
OBJECTIVE: Industry managers are typically exposed to high work demands but have received limited attention by research, particularly concerning the issue of health literacy and how this relates to their psychological well-being. The aim of this study was to explore the association between health literacy and psychological well-being among managers in Germany. METHODS: An online survey of a sample of 126 commercial industry managers was conducted. Effects of health literacy on psychological well-being (WHO-5 index) were investigated using path analysis...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Yue-Ying Li, Jian-Gan Wang, Huanhuan Sun, Bingqing Wei
Organic dyes used in the conventional dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) suffer from poor light stability and high cost. In this work, we demonstrate a new inorganic sensitized solar cell based on ordered one-dimensional (1D) semiconductor nanorod arrays of TiO2/NiTiO3 heterostructures prepared via a facile two-step hydrothermal approach. The semiconductor heterostructure arrays are highly desirable and promising for DSSCs due to their direct charge transport capability and slow charge recombination rate. The low-cost NiTiO3 inorganic semiconductor possesses an appropriate band gap that matches well with TiO2, which behaviors like a "dye" to enable efficient light-harvesting and fast electron-hole separation...
March 20, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Min Zhou, Qunhong Weng, Zakhar I Popov, Yijun Yang, Liubov Yu Antipina, Pavel B Sorokin, Xi Wang, Yoshio Bando, Dmitri Golberg
Electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in alkaline solution is hindered by its sluggish kinetics toward water dissociation. Nickel-based catalysts, as low-cost and effective candidates, show great potentials to replace platinum (Pt)-based materials in the alkaline media. The main challenge regarding this type of catalysts is their relatively poor durability. In this work, we conceive and construct a charge-polarized carbon layer derived from carbon quantum dots (CQDs) on Ni3 N nanostructure (Ni3 N@CQDs) surfaces, which simultaneously exhibit durable and enhanced catalytic activity...
March 20, 2018: ACS Nano
Shan-Shan Li, Wen-Yi Zhou, Min Jiang, Zheng Guo, Jinhuai Liu, Lizhi Zhang, Xing-Jiu Huang
Developing a new ultra-sensitive interface to detect As(III) is highly desirable because of its seriously toxic and low concentration in drinking water. Recently, Fe3O4 nanoparticles of high adsorption toward As(III) become very promising to be such an interface, which is still limited by the poor understanding of their surface physicochemical properties. Herein, we report that dumbbell-like Au/Fe3O4 nanoparticles, when being modified the screen-printed carbon electrode, can serve as an efficient sensing interface for As(III) detection with an excellent sensitivity of 9...
March 20, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Christine Angelini, Schuyler G van Montfrans, Marc J S Hensel, Qiang He, Brian R Silliman
Climate change and consumer outbreaks are driving ecosystem collapse worldwide. Although much research has demonstrated that these factors can interact, how heterogeneity in top-down control intensity and physical forcing modulates ecosystem resilience to climate stress remains poorly understood. Here, we explore whether the nocturnal herbivorous crab Sesarma reticulatum can control spatially dominant cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) growth and how its top-down effects vary with crab density, drought stress, and large-scale disturbance in southeastern US salt marshes...
March 20, 2018: Oecologia
Eftychios Hadjittofis, Mark Antonin Isbell, Vikram Karde, Sophia Varghese, Chinmay Ghoroi, Jerry Y Y Heng
Crystalline materials are of crucial importance to the pharmaceutical industry, as a large number of APIs are formulated in crystalline form, occasionally in the presence of crystalline excipients. Owing to their multifaceted character, crystals were found to have strongly anisotropic properties. In fact, anisotropic properties were found to be quite important for a number of processes including milling, granulation and tableting. An understanding of crystal anisotropy and an ability to control and predict crystal anisotropy are mostly subjects of interest for researchers...
March 19, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
A O Akinyamoju, B F Adeyemi, A D Odofin, A O Balogun, C A Akinyamoju
Background: Oral histopathology services are oral diagnostic procedures. General Dental Practitioners (GDPs) are routinely exposed to oral lesions that require biopsies. Hence, the study's objective of assessing the perception and the utilization of oral histopathology services by GDPs. Method: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at dental clinics distributed across Southwest Nigeria. A self-administered questionnaire consisting of sections addressing the socio-demographic/professional aspects; the beliefs of GDPs and their utilization of oral histopathology services was used to collect data...
December 2017: Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine
N A Wardrop, W C Jochem, T J Bird, H R Chamberlain, D Clarke, D Kerr, L Bengtsson, S Juran, V Seaman, A J Tatem
Population numbers at local levels are fundamental data for many applications, including the delivery and planning of services, election preparation, and response to disasters. In resource-poor settings, recent and reliable demographic data at subnational scales can often be lacking. National population and housing census data can be outdated, inaccurate, or missing key groups or areas, while registry data are generally lacking or incomplete. Moreover, at local scales accurate boundary data are often limited, and high rates of migration and urban growth make existing data quickly outdated...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Cheisson Gaëlle, Jacqueminet Sophie, Cosson Emmanuel, Ichai Carole, Leguerrier Anne-Marie, Nicolescu-Catargi Bogdan, Ouattara Alexandre, Tauveron Igor, Valensi Paul, Benhamou Dan
Perioperative hyperglycaemia (>1.80g/L or 10 mmol/L) increases morbidity (particularly due to infection) and mortality. Hypoglycaemia can be managed in the perioperative period by decreasing blood sugar levels with insulin between 0.90 and 1.80g/l but it may occur more frequently when the goal is strict normoglycaemia. We propose continuous administration of insulin therapy via an electronic syringe (IVES) in type-1 diabetes (T1D) and type-2 diabetes (T2D) patients if required or in cases of stress hyperglycaemia...
March 16, 2018: Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain Medicine
Hongyu Yuan, Wei Zhou, Yang Yang, Liyan Xue, Linxiu Liu, Yongmei Song
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most malignant tumors in China with a poor prognosis. Most ESCC patients were diagnosed at advanced stages, losing the opportunity for surgical excision. Hence, it remains a pressing work to identify biomarkers for early detection, prognosis prediction and targeting therapies in ESCC. Interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) encodes a 15-kDa protein, and is involved in the post-translational modification (PTMs) of multiple proteins. However, the molecular functions of ISG15 in ESCC remain unclear...
March 16, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Adanna Uloaku Nwameme, Philip Teg-Nefaah Tabong, Philip Baba Adongo
BACKGROUND: Three-quarters of sub-Saharan Africa's urban population currently live under slum conditions making them susceptible to ill health and diseases. Ghana characterizes the situation in many developing countries where the urban poor have become a group much afflicted by complex health problems associated with their living conditions, and the intra-city inequity between them and the more privileged urban dwellers with respect to health care accessibility. Adopting Ghana's rural Community-Based Health Planning and Service (CHPS) programme in urban areas is challenging due to the differences in social networks and health challenges thus making modifications necessary...
March 20, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Ariel Jaitovich, Esther Barreiro
Skeletal muscle dysfunction occurs in COPD patients and affects both ventilatory and non-ventilatory muscle groups. It represents a very important comorbidity that associates with poor quality of life and reduced survival, and results from a complex combination of functional, metabolic and anatomical alterations leading to suboptimal muscle work. Muscle atrophy, altered fiber type and metabolism and chest wall remodeling -in the case of the respiratory muscles- are relevant etiologic contributors to this process...
March 19, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Lesley Price, Lucyna Gozdzielewska, Mairi Young, Fraser Smith, Jennifer MacDonald, Joanna McParland, Lynn Williams, Darren Langdridge, Mark Davis, Paul Flowers
Background: A global antimicrobial resistance (AMR) awareness intervention targeting the general public has been prioritized. Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of interventions that aim to change AMR awareness and subsequent stewardship behaviours amongst the public. Methods: Five databases were searched between 2000 and 2016 for interventions to change the public's AMR awareness and/or antimicrobial stewardship behaviours. Study designs meeting the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care (EPOC) criteria, non-controlled before-and-after studies and prospective cohort studies were considered eligible...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Irina Tammenmaa-Aho, Rosie Asher, Karla Soares-Weiser, Hanna Bergman
BACKGROUND: Tardive dyskinesia (TD) remains a troublesome adverse effect of conventional antipsychotic (neuroleptic) medication. It has been proposed that TD could have a component of central cholinergic deficiency. Cholinergic drugs have been used to treat TD. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of cholinergic drugs (arecoline, choline, deanol, lecithin, meclofenoxate, physostigmine, RS 86, tacrine, metoxytacrine, galantamine, ipidacrine, donepezil, rivastigmine, eptastigmine, metrifonate, xanomeline, cevimeline) for treating antipsychotic-induced TD in people with schizophrenia or other chronic mental illness...
March 19, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Lisa A Sawicki, Leila H Choe, Katherine L Wiley, Kelvin H Lee, April M Kloxin
Cells interact with and remodel their microenvironment, degrading large extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins (e.g., fibronectin, collagens) and secreting new ECM proteins and small soluble factors (e.g., growth factors, cytokines). Synthetic mimics of the ECM have been developed as controlled cell culture platforms for use in both fundamental and applied studies. However, how cells broadly remodel these initially well-defined matrices remains poorly understood and difficult to probe. In this work, we have established methods for widely examining both large and small proteins that are secreted by cells within synthetic matrices...
March 12, 2018: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
Alexandra K Eicher, H Matthew Berns, James M Wells
Gastric diseases, including peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer, are highly prevalent in human beings. Despite this, the cellular biology of the stomach remains poorly understood relative to other gastrointestinal organs such as the liver, intestine, and colon. In particular, little is known about the molecular basis of stomach development and the differentiation of gastric lineages. Although animal models are useful for studying gastric development, function, and disease, there are major structural and physiological differences in human stomachs that render these models insufficient...
March 2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Anthony Feinstein, Bennis Pavisian, Hannah Storm
Objective: To explore the emotional health of journalists covering the migrations of refugees across Europe. Design: Descriptive. A secure website was established and participants were given their unique identifying number and password to access the site. Setting: Newsrooms and in the field. Participants: Responses were received from 80 (70.2%) of 114 journalists from nine news organisations. Main outcome measures: Symptoms of PTSD (Impact of Events Scale-revised), depression (Beck Depression Inventory-Revised) and moral injury (Moral Injury Events Scale-revised)...
March 2018: JRSM Open
J Conway, O Miera, I Adachi, K Maeda, P Eghtesady, H T Henderson, K Guleserian, C-P S Fan, R Kirk
OBJECTIVES: The primary objectives of this study were to describe the characteristics and survival outcomes for children supported with the HeartWare HVAD® system from the global community. METHODS: This was a retrospective survey of patients <18 years with a HVAD® system. Questionnaires were sent to sites across the world in April 2015 and collected between May 2015-16. Information on 205 patients was collected. RESULTS: The median age of implant was 13...
March 15, 2018: Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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