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Alessio Ippolito, Roberto Giacchini, Paolo Parenti, Marco Vighi
Biomarkers have been widely employed in ecotoxicology as early warning indicators of exposure to toxicants. Very often, they are used to compare reference and polluted sites, or to analyse time trends. However, very few studies focus on the natural variability range of biomarkers in the environment, which is pivotal to understand if the detected differences are actually determined by any adverse effects due to pollution. This work assesses the natural spatio-temporal variability of some enzymatic levels, frequently used as biomarkers, in freshwater benthic invertebrates...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Ching-Hao Li, Chen-Wei Liu, Chi-Hao Tsai, Yi-Jen Peng, Yu-Hsuan Yang, Po-Lin Liao, Chen-Chen Lee, Yu-Wen Cheng, Jaw-Jou Kang
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), a ligand-activated transcription factor, has been studied extensively in carcinogenesis through the genomic pathway. In recent years, AHR has also been reported to exert positive or negative effects on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), the crucial step in tumor malignant progression. However, the detailed mechanism remains controversial. Analysis of AHR-expression levels in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines and lung cancer tissues revealed an inverse correlation between AHR protein levels and tumor cell invasion and metastasis...
October 17, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Paul Richard Edwin Jarvis
Emergency departments (ED) face significant challenges in delivering high quality and timely patient care on an ever-present background of increasing patient numbers and limited hospital resources. A mismatch between patient demand and the ED's capacity to deliver care often leads to poor patient flow and departmental crowding. These are associated with reduction in the quality of the care delivered and poor patient outcomes. A literature review was performed to identify evidence-based strategies to reduce the amount of time patients spend in the ED in order to improve patient flow and reduce crowding in the ED...
June 2016: Clin Exp Emerg Med
Ashley M Stokes, Charles P Hart, C Chad Quarles
High-grade gliomas are often characterized by hypoxia, which is associated with both poor long-term prognosis and therapy resistance. The adverse role hypoxia plays in treatment resistance and disease progression has led to the development of hypoxia imaging methods and hypoxia-targeted treatments. Here, we determined the tumor hypoxia and vascular perfusion characteristics of 2 rat orthotopic glioma models using 18-fluoromisonidozole positron emission tomography. In addition, we determined tumor response to the hypoxia-activated prodrug evofosfamide (TH-302) in these rat glioma models...
September 2016: Tomography: a Journal for Imaging Research
Brice Faraut, Thomas Andrillon, Marie-Françoise Vecchierini, Damien Leger
Sleep specialists have proposed measures to counteract the negative short- and long-term consequences of sleep debt, and some have suggested the nap as a potential and powerful "public health tool". Here, we address this countermeasure aspect of napping viewed as an action against sleep deprivation rather than an action associated with poor health. We review the physiological functions that have been associated positively with napping in both public health and clinical settings (sleep-related accidents, work and school, and cardiovascular risk) and in laboratory-based studies with potential public health issues (cognitive performance, stress, immune function and pain sensitivity)...
September 13, 2016: Sleep Medicine Reviews
Xin Zhang, Ruyan Wu, Zeyi Wang, Mingxia Gao, Hongge Pan, Yongfeng Liu
Sodium alanate (NaAlH4) has attracted intense interest as a prototypical high-density hydrogen storage material. However, poor reversibility and slow kinetics limit its practical applications. In this work, a nanocrystalline ZrO2@C catalyst is synthesized using Uio-66(Zr) as a precursor and furfuryl alcohol (FA) as a carbon source. The as-synthesized ZrO2@C exhibits good catalytic activity for dehydrogenation and hydrogenation of NaAlH4. The NaAlH4-7 wt% ZrO2@C sample releases hydrogen starting from 126 °C and re-absorbs starting from 54 °C, and these temperatures are reduced by 71 °C and 36 °C, respectively, relative to those of pristine NaAlH4...
October 17, 2016: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Abby R Rosenberg, Joanne Wolfe, Lori Wiener, Maureen Lyon, Chris Feudtner
Importance: For clinicians caring for adolescent patients living with progressive, life-threatening illness, discussions regarding prognosis, goals of care, and treatment options can be extremely challenging. While clinicians should respect and help to facilitate adolescents' emerging autonomy, they often must also work with parents' wishes to protect patients from the emotional distress of hearing bad news. Observations: We reviewed the ethical justifications for and against truth-telling, and we considered the published ethical and practice guidance, as well as the perspectives of patients, parents, and clinicians involved in these cases...
October 17, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
Emily Bariola, Gavin Jack, Marian Pitts, Kathleen Riach, Philip Sarrel
OBJECTIVE: While many women undergo menopausal transition while they are in paid employment, the effect of poor working conditions on women's experience of the menopause has received scant empirical attention. We examined associations between employment conditions, work-related stressors, and menopausal symptom reporting among perimenopausal and postmenopausal working women. METHODS: Data were drawn from an online survey conducted between 2013 and 2014 involving 476 perimenopausal and postmenopausal women working in the higher education sector in Australia...
October 3, 2016: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
Ting-Hua Yang, Chung-Hong Hu, Hsiou-Hsin Tsai
INTRODUCTION: Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a neutrophilic dermatosis that may be associated with systemic diseases. The association of PG with lymphoid malignancies has rarely been reported. Extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTL) is a rare but aggressive entity with a poor prognosis. Here, we report the case of a patient who had idiopathic PG refractory to systemic steroids and subsequently developed ENKTL. CASE REPORT: A 70-year-old man presented with a 2-month history of intermittent fever and multifocal painful papules, plaques, and ulcerations on his extremities...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Magdalena Anna Mozolewska, Pawel Krupa, Bartlomiej Zaborowski, Adam Liwo, Jooyoung Lee, Keehyoung Joo, Cezary Czaplewski
Recently, we developed a new approach to protein-structure prediction, which combines template-based modeling with the physics-based coarse-grained UNited RESidue (UNRES) force field. In this approach, restrained multiplexed replica exchange molecular dynamics (MREMD) simulations with UNRES, with the C(α)-distance and virtual-bond-dihedral-angle restraints derived from knowledge-based models are carried out. In this work, we report a test of this approach in the 11th Community Wide Experiment on the Critical Assessment of Techniques for Protein Structure Prediction (CASP11), in which we used the template-based models from early-stage predictions by the LEE group CASP11 server (group 038, called 'nns'), and further improvement of the method...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
Junshan Liu, Licheng He, Liang Wang, Yuncheng Man, Luyi Huang, Zheng Xu, Dan Ge, Jingmin Li, Chong Liu, Liding Wang
Polymer metallization is extensively used in a variety of micro and nano system technologies. However, the deposited metal film exhibits poor adhesion to polymer substrates, which may cause difficulties in many applications. In this work, ultraviolet (UV)-ozone surface modification is for the first time put forward to enhance the adhesion between metal films and polymer substrates. The adhesion of sputtered Cu films on UV-ozone modified polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) substrates is enhanced by a factor of 6, and that of Au films is improved by a factor of 10...
October 17, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Anna Polomska, Marc A Gauthier, Jean-Christophe Leroux
Drug nanocrystals (NCs) are colloidal dispersions composed almost entirely of drug. As such, there is substantial interest in targeting them to diseased tissues, where they can locally deliver high doses of the therapeutic. However, because of their uncontrolled dissolution characteristics in vivo and uptake by the monomolecular phagocyte system, achieving tumor accumulation is challenging. To address these issues, a layer-by-layer approach is adopted to coat paclitaxel NCs with alternating layers of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes, using a PEGylated copolymer as the top layer...
October 17, 2016: Small
Michelle M Martel, Pedro M Pan, Maurício S Hoffmann, Ary Gadelha, Maria C do Rosário, Jair J Mari, Gisele G Manfro, Eurípedes C Miguel, Tomás Paus, Rodrigo A Bressan, Luis A Rohde, Giovanni A Salum
High rates of comorbidities and poor validity of disorder diagnostic criteria for mental disorders hamper advances in mental health research. Recent work has suggested the utility of continuous cross-cutting dimensions, including general psychopathology and specific factors of externalizing and internalizing (e.g., distress and fear) syndromes. The current study evaluated the reliability of competing structural models of psychopathology and examined external validity of the best fitting model on the basis of family risk and child global executive function (EF)...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Carolyn N Haarmeyer, Matthew D Smith, Shishir Chundawat, Deanne Sammond, Timothy A Whitehead
Biological-mediated conversion of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass to biofuels and biochemicals is a promising avenue towards energy sustainability. However, a critical impediment to the commercialization of cellulosic biofuel production is the high cost of cellulase enzymes needed to deconstruct biomass into fermentable sugars. One major factor driving cost is cellulase adsorption and inactivation in the presence of lignin, yet we currently have a poor understanding of the protein structure-function relationships driving this adsorption...
October 17, 2016: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Shangpeng Shi, Huajun Yang, Ya Hui, Xiang Zhou, Tao Wang, Ya Luo, Huiyun Xiang, Xiuquan Shi
We investigated the knowledge level and risk factors for pediatric unintentional burns in rural Southwest China with an aim to provide basic evidence for the prevention strategies. A stratified sampling method was used to recruit 1842 rural children from 9 schools. Self-reported burns during the past 12 months and relevant risk factors were collected by questionnaires. The burn incidence of all surveyed children was 12.7% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 11.2-14.2%). We found that burn incidence had a trend to increase with the increasing school grade level and a trend to decrease with increasing knowledge scores on burns...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Carmen Brankaer, Pol Ghesquière, Anke De Wel, Ann Swillen, Bert De Smedt
Cross-syndrome comparisons offer an important window onto understanding heterogeneity in mathematical learning disabilities or dyscalculia. The present study therefore investigated symbolic numerical magnitude processing in two genetic syndromes that are both characterized by mathematical learning disabilities: Turner syndrome and 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS). We further verified whether the phenotypic outcomes of these syndromes emerged from the same or different cognitive processes and therefore examined whether numerical impairments were related to working memory deficits, often observed in these syndromes...
October 17, 2016: Developmental Science
J R S Dandrieux
The aim of this review is to discuss why "chronic enteropathy" might be a better term than "inflammatory bowel disease" in dogs, because the treatment and outcome of the disease is very different from that of inflammatory bowel disease in humans. The effect of food, antibiotics and immunosuppressant drugs on chronic enteropathy will be reviewed. New treatments under investigation will also be introduced. Although there are several studies evaluating treatment of chronic enteropathy in dogs, the quality and quantity of evidence supporting individual therapies remains scarce and more work is needed to improve management of this disease...
October 16, 2016: Journal of Small Animal Practice
Kyle R Barnes, Andrew E Kilding
Running economy (RE) is considered an important physiological measure for endurance athletes, especially distance runners. This review considers 1) how RE is defined and measured and 2) physiological and biomechanical factors that determine or influence RE. It is difficult to accurately ascertain what is good, average, and poor RE between athletes and studies due to variation in protocols, gas-analysis systems, and data averaging techniques. However, representative RE values for different caliber of male and female runners can be identified from existing literature with mostly clear delineations in oxygen uptake across a range of speeds in moderately and highly trained and elite runners...
December 2015: Sports Medicine—Open
Tina Ilc, Danièle Werck-Reichhart, Nicolas Navrot
Wine aroma strongly influences wine quality, yet its composition and its evolution during the winemaking process are poorly understood. Volatile compounds that constitute wine aroma are traditionally divided into three classes according to their origin: grape, fermentation, and maturation aroma. We challenge this view with meta-analysis and review of grape and wine volatiles and their precursors from 82 profiling experiments. We compiled a list of 141 common grape and wine volatiles and quantitatively compared 43 of them...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Elisabeth Mansfield, Ian H Bell, Stephanie L Outcalt
To develop comprehensive models for multicomponent natural gas mixtures, it is necessary to have binary interaction parameters for each of the pairs of constituent fluids that form the mixture. The determination of accurate mixture interaction parameters depends on reliably collected experimental data. In this work, we have carried out an experimental campaign to measure the bubble-point pressures of mixtures of n-propane and n-decane, a mixture that has been thus far poorly studied with only four existing data sets...
July 14, 2016: Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data
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