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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353312/child-labour-and-health-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Brice Lionel Batomen Kuimi, Oduro Oppong-Nkrumah, Jay Kaufman, Jose Ignacio Nazif-Munoz, Arijit Nandi
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to synthesise the available knowledge, identify unexplored areas and discuss general limits of the published evidence. We focused on outcomes commonly hypothesised to be affected by child labour: nutritional status, harmful exposures and injuries. METHODS: Four electronic databases (EMBASE, MEDLINE, Scopus, ISI Web of Science) were searched in November 2017. All articles published since 1996, without restrictions on language, were considered for inclusion...
January 20, 2018: International Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352754/providing-ethical-healthcare-in-resource-poor-environments
#2
Kenneth V Iserson
The ethics of providing health care in resource-poor environments is a complex topic. It implies two related questions: What can we do with the resources on hand? Of all the things we can do, which ones should we do? "Resource-poor" (i.e., resource-challenged, resource-constrained) environments are situations in which clinicians, organizations, or healthcare systems have the knowledge and skills, but not the means, to carry out highly effective and beneficial interventions. Determinants of a population's health often rely less on disease and injury management than on recognizing and meeting their basic needs...
January 19, 2018: HEC Forum: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Hospitals' Ethical and Legal Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352735/s-nitrosated-poly-propylene-sulfide-nanoparticles-for-enhanced-nitric-oxide-delivery-to-lymphatic-tissues
#3
Alex Schudel, Lauren F Sestito, Susan N Thomas
Nitric oxide (NO) is a therapeutic implicated for the treatment of diseases affecting lymphatic tissues, which range from infectious and cardiovascular diseases to cancer. Existing technologies available for NO therapy, however, provide poor bioactivity within lymphatic tissues. In this work, we address this technology gap with a NO encapsulation and delivery strategy leveraging the formation of S-nitrosothiols on lymphatic-targeting Pluronic-stabilized, poly(propylene sulfide)-core nanoparticles (SNO-NP). We evaluated in vivo the lymphatic versus systemic delivery of NO resulting from intradermal administration of SNO-NP benchmarked against a commonly used, commercially available small molecule S-nitrosothiol NO donor, examined signs of toxicity systemically as well as localized to the site of injection, and investigated SNO effects on lymphatic transport and NP uptake by LN-resident cells...
January 20, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352306/prognostic-and-predictive-role-of-egfr-pathway-alterations-in-biliary-cancer-patients-treated-with-chemotherapy-and-anti-egfr
#4
Caterina Peraldo-Neia, Giuliana Cavalloni, Elisabetta Fenocchio, Celeste Cagnazzo, Loretta Gammaitoni, Stefano Cereda, Guglielmo Nasti, Maria Antonietta Satolli, Giuseppe Aprile, Michele Reni, Antonio Avallone, Rosella Spadi, Tiziana Venesio, Vittoria Martin, Claudio Doglioni, Milo Frattini, Massimo Aglietta, Francesco Leone
The association of anti-EGFR to gemcitabine and oxaliplatin (GEMOX) chemotherapy did not improve survival in biliary tract carcinoma (BTC) patients. Multiple mechanisms might be involved in the resistance to anti-EGFR. Here, we explored the mutation profile of EGFR extracellular domain (ECD), of tyrosine kinase domain (TKD), and its amplification status. EGFR mutational status of exons 12, 18-21 was analyzed in 57 tumors by Sanger sequencing. EGFR amplification was evaluated in 37 tumors by Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351571/the-barriers-and-facilitators-for-recognising-distress-in-people-with-severe-dementia-on-general-hospital-wards
#5
G J E Crowther, C A Brennan, M I Bennett
Introduction: psychological symptoms and delirium are common, but underreported in people with dementia on hospital wards. Unrecognised and untreated symptoms can manifest as distress. Identifying distress accurately therefore could act as a trigger for better investigation and treatment of the underlying causes. The challenges faced by healthcare professionals to recognise and report distress are poorly understood. Methods: semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of 25 healthcare professionals working with older people in general hospitals were conducted...
January 17, 2018: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351373/a-facile-space-confined-solid-phase-sulfurization-strategy-for-growth-of-high-quality-ultrathin-molybdenum-disulfide-single-crystals
#6
Dawei Li, Zhiyong Xiao, Sai Mu, Fei Wang, Ying Liu, Jingfeng Song, Xi Huang, Lijia Jiang, Jun Xiao, Lei Liu, Stephen Ducharme, Bai Cui, Xia Hong, Lan Jiang, Jean-Francois Silvain, Yongfeng Lu
Single-crystal transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) and TMD-based hetero-junctions have recently attracted significant research and industrial interest owing to their intriguing optical and electrical properties. However, the lack of a simple, low-cost, environmentally friendly, synthetic method and a poor understanding of the growth mechanism post a huge challenge to implementing TMDs in practical applications. In this work, we developed a novel approach for direct formation of high-quality, monolayer and few-layer MoS2 single crystal domains via a single-step rapid thermal processing of a sandwiched reactor with sulfur and molybdenum (Mo) film in a confined reaction space...
January 19, 2018: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351222/association-between-work-related-stress-and-health-related-quality-of-life-the-impact-of-socio-demographic-variables-a-cross-sectional-study-in-a-region-of-central-italy
#7
Giuseppe La Torre, Cristina Sestili, Alice Mannocci, Alessandra Sinopoli, Massimiliano De Paolis, Sara De Francesco, Laura Rapaccini, Marco Barone, Valentina Iodice, Bruno Lojodice, Sabina Sernia, Simone De Sio, Angela Del Cimmuto, Maria De Giusti
The aim of this work is investigate relationship between health-related quality of life and work-related stress and the impact of gender, education level, and age on this relationship. A cross-sectional study was conducted among workers of various setting in Rome and Frosinone. Work-related stress was measured with a demand-control questionnaire and health-related functioning by SF (short form)-12 health survey. There were 611 participants. Men reported high mental composite summary (MCS) and physical composite summary (PCS)...
January 19, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351125/central-inhibition-of-granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating-factor-is-analgesic-in-experimental-neuropathic-pain
#8
Louise S C Nicol, Peter Thornton, Jon P Hatcher, Colin P Glover, Carl I Webster, Matthew Burrell, Kessia Hammett, Clare A Jones, Matthew A Sleeman, Andrew Billinton, Iain Chessell
With less than 50% of patients responding to the current standard of care and poor efficacy and selectivity of current treatments, neuropathic pain continues to be an area of considerable unmet medical need. Biological therapeutics such as monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) provide better intrinsic selectivity; however, delivery to the central nervous system (CNS) remains a challenge. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is well described in inflammation-induced pain, and early-phase clinical trials evaluating its antagonism have exemplified its importance as a peripheral pain target...
January 16, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350643/calcaneal-fractures-radiological-and-ct-evaluation-and-classification-systems
#9
Michele Galluzzo, Federico Greco, Michele Pietragalla, Alioscia De Renzis, Mattia Carbone, Marcello Zappia, Nicola Maggialetti, Alfredo D'andrea, Giuseppe Caracchini, Vittorio Miele
BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE WORK: The calcaneus, the more lower bone of the body, has the task of supporting the axial load from the weight of the body. Calcaneal fractures represent about 1-2% of all fractures and 60% of the tarsal bones fractures. The articular involvement has been associated with a poor functional outcome. The aim of this work is to describe the radiologic evaluation, the classification systems, the morphological preoperative diagnostic imaging features of calcaneal fractures, highlighting the correlation with the choice of treatment and predictive capacity for the fracture surgical outcome...
January 19, 2018: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350552/role-strain-part-2-perceptions-among-athletic-trainers-employed-in-the-professional-practice-setting
#10
Manual G Romero, William A Pitney, Stephanie M Mazerolle, Kirk Brumels
CONTEXT:   Athletic trainers (ATs) employed in the professional sports setting (ATPSSs) demonstrate moderate to high degrees of role strain. The experiences and perceptions of these ATs provide insight regarding the sources of role strain as well as ways to reduce it. OBJECTIVE:   To investigate the perceptions of ATPSSs regarding role strain. DESIGN:   Qualitative study. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS:   From a purposeful sampling of 389 ATs employed in the 5 major sport leagues (Major League Baseball, Major League Soccer, National Basketball Association, National Football League, and National Hockey League), we identified 34 participants willing to participate in a phone interview...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350440/abrupt-burial-imparts-persistent-changes-to-the-bacterial-diversity-of-turbidite-associated-sediment-profiles
#11
B K Harrison, A Myrbo, B E Flood, J V Bailey
The emplacement of subaqueous gravity-driven sediment flows imposes a significant physical and geochemical impact on underlying sediment and microbial communities. Although previous studies have established lasting mineralogical and biological signatures of turbidite deposition, the response of bacteria and archaea within and beneath debris flows remains poorly constrained. Both bacterial cells associated with the underlying sediment and those attached to allochthonous material must respond to substantially altered environmental conditions and selective pressures...
January 19, 2018: Geobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350332/sleep-in-ankylosing-spondylitis-and-non-radiographic-axial-spondyloarthritis-associations-with-disease-activity-gender-and-mood
#12
Alison Wadeley, Emily Clarke, Shaaron Leverment, Raj Sengupta
The study aims were to assess the prevalence of good or poor sleep in a cohort of axial spondyloarthritis patients and to investigate its correlation with a range of objectively and subjectively measured variables in order to develop a model for distinguishing good from poor sleepers. Five hundred ninety-eight patients with ankylosing spondylitis and 61 with non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis completed the Jenkins Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire. Measures of disease activity, mobility, function, mood, fatigue, quality of life, work productivity, night-time pain and general health were gathered...
January 19, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350264/linking-muscle-metabolism-and-functional-variation-to-field-swimming-performance-in-bluegill-sunfish-lepomis-macrochirus
#13
David J Ellerby, Shauna Cyr, Angela X Han, Mika Lin, Lloyd A Trueblood
Skeletal muscle has diverse mechanical roles during locomotion. In swimming fish, power-producing muscles work in concert with the accessory muscles of the fins which augment and control power transfer to the water. Although fin muscles represent a significant proportion of the locomotor muscle mass, their physiological properties are poorly characterized. To examine the relationship between muscle metabolism and the differing mechanical demands placed on distinct muscle groups, we quantified the aerobic and glycolytic capacities of the myotomal, pectoral and caudal muscles of bluegill sunfish...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349902/association-between-pre-sarcopenia-sarcopenia-and-bone-mineral-density-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c
#14
Tatiana Bering, Kiara G D Diniz, Marta Paula P Coelho, Diego A Vieira, Maria Marta S Soares, Adriana M Kakehasi, Maria Isabel T D Correia, Rosângela Teixeira, Dulciene M M Queiroz, Gifone A Rocha, Luciana D Silva
BACKGROUND: Preserved skeletal muscle is essential for the maintenance of healthy bone. Loss of bone mineral density (BMD) and muscle strength, considered a predictor of BMD, have been demonstrated in patients with cirrhosis, but they are poorly studied in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) without cirrhosis. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the prevalence of low BMD and its association with body composition, muscle strength, and nutritional status in CHC. METHODS: One hundred and four subjects [mean age, 50...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349858/efficient-hysteresis-free-and-stable-perovskite-solar-cells-with-zno-as-electron-transport-layer-effect-of-surface-passivation
#15
Jing Cao, Binghui Wu, Ruihao Chen, Youyunqi Wu, Yong Hui, Bing-Wei Mao, Nanfeng Zheng
The power conversion efficiency of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) has ascended from 3.8% to 22.1% in recent years. ZnO has been well-documented as an excellent electron-transport material. However, the poor chemical compatibility between ZnO and organo-metal halide perovskite makes it highly challenging to obtain highly efficient and stable PSCs using ZnO as the electron-transport layer. It is demonstrated in this work that the surface passivation of ZnO by a thin layer of MgO and protonated ethanolamine (EA) readily makes ZnO as a very promising electron-transporting material for creating hysteresis-free, efficient, and stable PSCs...
January 19, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349852/what-really-matters-to-people-with-aphasia-when-it-comes-to-group-work-a-qualitative-investigation-of-factors-impacting-participation-and-integration
#16
Lucette Lanyon, Linda Worrall, Miranda Rose
BACKGROUND: Participation in a group environment is an inherently complex undertaking for people with aphasia. It involves engaging in multi-person interactions with other people who may have a range of communication strengths and strategies at their disposal. The potential challenges of community aphasia-group participation and practice has had limited attention in the research literature. Evidence from group users have primarily been drawn from the perspective of long-term members or those participating in highly specific and time-bound groups...
January 19, 2018: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349670/working-longer-than-9-to-5-are-there-cardiometabolic-health-risks-for-young-australian-workers-who-report-longer-than-38-h-working-weeks
#17
Amy C Reynolds, Romola S Bucks, Jessica L Paterson, Sally A Ferguson, Trevor A Mori, Nigel McArdle, Leon Straker, Lawrence J Beilin, Peter R Eastwood
PURPOSE: The average Australian working week in middle-aged and older workers exceeds government recommendations. Long working weeks are associated with poor health outcomes; however, the relationship between long working weeks and health in young Australian workers is unknown. METHODS: Data were drawn from the 22-year follow-up of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study in Perth, Western Australia. Information was available from 873 young adults about working hours per week, shift work and sleep duration...
January 18, 2018: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349663/ibandronate-metal-complexes-solution-behavior-and-antiparasitic-activity
#18
Bruno Demoro, Santiago Rostán, Mauricio Moncada, Zhu-Hong Li, Roberto Docampo, Claudio Olea Azar, Juan Diego Maya, Julia Torres, Dinorah Gambino, Lucía Otero
To face the high costs of developing new drugs, researchers in both industry and academy are looking for ways to repurpose old drugs for new uses. In this sense, bisphosphonates that are clinically used for bone diseases have been studied as agents against Trypanosoma cruzi, causative parasite of Chagas disease. In this work, the development of first row transition metal complexes (M = Co2+, Mn2+, Ni2+) with the bisphosphonate ibandronate (iba, H4iba representing the neutral form) is presented. The in-solution behavior of the systems containing iba and the selected 3d metal ions was studied by potentiometry...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349447/theoretical-study-on-the-charge-transport-in-single-crystals-of-tcnq-f2-tcnq-and-f4-tcnq
#19
Li-Fei Ji, Jian-Xun Fan, Shou-Feng Zhang, Ai-Min Ren
2,5-Difluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F2-TCNQ) was recently reported to display excellent electron transport properties in single crystal field-effect transistors (FETs). Its carrier mobility can reach 25 cm2 V-1 s-1 in devices. However, its counterparts TCNQ and F4-TCNQ (tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane) do not exhibit the same highly efficient behavior. To better understand this significant difference in charge carrier mobility, a multiscale approach combining semiclassical Marcus hopping theory, a quantum nuclear enabled hopping model and molecular dynamics simulations was performed to assess the electron mobilities of the Fn-TCNQ (n = 0, 2, 4) systems in this work...
January 19, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349242/the-negative-effects-on-mental-health-of-being-in-a-non-desired-occupation-in-an-increasingly-precarious-labour-market
#20
Catarina Canivet, Gunnar Aronsson, Claudia Bernhard-Oettel, Constanze Leineweber, Mahnaz Moghaddassi, Johanna Stengård, Hugo Westerlund, Per-Olof Östergren
Precarious employment has been associated with poor mental health. Moreover, increasing labour market precariousness may cause individuals to feel 'locked-in', in non-desired workplaces or occupations, out of fear of not finding a new employment. This could be experienced as a 'loss of control', with similar negative health consequences. It is plausible that the extent to which being in a non-desired occupation (NDO) or being in precarious employment (PE) has a negative impact on mental health differs according to age group...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
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