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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786583/incidence-and-risk-factors-of-spina-bifida-in-children
#1
Mariana O Ryznychuk, Mariana I Kryvchanska, Irina V Lastivka, Roman Ye Bulyk
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: The pathogenesis of spina bifida depends on time, region, race and ethnicity. It is found in 4.7 per 10.000 of live born children worldwide. The aim: The incidence in children of Northern Bukovina was analyzed. The spina bifida incidence for 2007-2016 in this region, as well as, compared to some countries according to EUROCAT data was studied. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: A retrospective study to analyze the risk factors for spina bifida was carried out...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786524/veterinary-herd-health-management-experience-among-farmers-and-farm-managers-in-swedish-dairy-production
#2
C Svensson, K Alvåsen, A C Eldh, J Frössling, H Lomander
A preventive herd health approach will most likely reduce incidences of clinical and subclinical disease. Swedish veterinary organizations offer specific veterinary herd health management (HHM) programs, but these services are not used to a large extent. The aim of this study was to investigate dairy farmers' experience of HHM and the conditions for collaboration with veterinarians in HHM. Six focus group discussions were conducted in March 2015 in West Sweden. In total, 33 dairy farmers participated. The recordings were transcribed and coded using thematic analysis, and the transcripts were reviewed to identify potential factors indicating barriers for farmers to engage a veterinarian in HHM...
July 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786168/variation-in-electrode-redox-potential-selects-for-different-microorganisms-under-cathodic-current-flow-from-electrodes-in-marine-sediments
#3
Bonita R Lam, Annette R Rowe, Kenneth H Nealson
Extracellular electron transport (EET) is a microbial process that allows microorganisms to transport electrons to and from insoluble substrates outside of the cell. Although progress has been made in understanding how microbes transfer electrons to insoluble substrates, the process of receiving electrons has largely remained unexplored. We investigated redox potentials favorable for donating electrons to dissolved and insoluble components in Catalina Harbor marine sediment by combining electrochemical techniques with geochemistry and molecular methods...
May 22, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786114/endothelium-dependent-vasodilation-in-the-cerebral-arterioles-of-rats-deteriorates-during-acute-hyperglycemia-and-then-is-restored-by-reducing-the-glucose-level
#4
Kazuhiro Kito, Kumiko Tanabe, Koji Sakata, Naokazu Fukuoka, Kiyoshi Nagase, Mami Iida, Hiroki Iida
PURPOSE: Acute hyperglycemia in patients with traumatic brain injury correlates with a poor neurological outcome. We investigated the endothelium function of rat cerebral arterioles during acute hyperglycemia and after reducing the glucose levels using insulin. We also examined whether or not oxidative stress was involved in the cerebral arteriole response to acute hyperglycemia. METHODS: In isoflurane-anesthetized, mechanically ventilated rats, we used closed cranial window preparation to measure the changes in the pial arteriolar diameter following the topical application of acetylcholine (ACh) or adenosine...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785780/electrochemical-reduction-of-co2-to-ch3oh-on-hierarchical-pd-sno2-nanosheets-with-abundant-pd-o-sn-interfaces
#5
Wuyong Zhang, Qing Qin, Lei Dai, Ruixuan Qin, Xiaojing Zhao, Xumao Chen, Daohui Ou, Tracy T Chuong, Binghui Wu, Nanfeng Zheng
Electrochemical conversion of CO2 into fuels using electricity generated from renewable sources helps to create an artificial carbon cycle. However, the low efficiency and poor stability hinder the practical use of most conventional electrocatalysts. In this work, a 2D hierarchical Pd/SnO2 structure, ultrathin Pd nanosheets partially capped by SnO2 nanoparticles, is designed to enable multi-electron transfer for selective electroreduction of CO2 into CH3OH. Such a structure design not only enhances the adsorption of CO2 on SnO2, but also weakens the binding strength of CO on Pd due to the as-built Pd-O-Sn interfaces, which is demonstrated to be critical to improve the electrocatalytic selectivity and stability of Pd catalysts...
May 22, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784885/-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-regulated-intramembrane-proteolysis-rip-protease-mucp-can-overcome-mutations-in-the-algo-periplasmic-protease-to-restore-alginate-production-in-nonmucoid-revertants
#6
Camila Delgado, Laura Florez, Ivonne Lollett, Christine Lopez, Shiva Kangeyan, Hansi Kumari, Marios Stylianou, Robert J Smiddy, Lisa Schneper, Robert T Sautter, George Szatmari, Kalai Mathee
The progression of cystic fibrosis (CF) from an acute to a chronic disease is often associated with the conversion of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa from a nonmucoid form to a mucoid form in the lung. This conversion involves the overproduction of the exopolysaccharide alginate, whose production is under control of the AlgT/U sigma factor. This factor is regulated posttranslationally by an extremely unstable process and has been commonly attributed to mutations in the algT/U gene. By exploiting this unstable phenotype, we isolated 34 spontaneous nonmucoid variants arising from the mucoid strain PDO300, a PAO1 derivative containing the mucA22 allele commonly found in mucoid CF isolates...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783794/missed-work-due-to-occupational-illness-among-hispanic-horse-workers
#7
Ashley M Bush, Susan Westneat, Steven R Browning, Jennifer Swanberg
Occupational illnesses are inadequately reported for agriculture, an industry dominated by a vulnerable Hispanic population and high fatal and nonfatal injury rates. Work-related illnesses can contribute to missed work, caused by a combination of personal and work factors, with costs to the individual, employer, and society. To better understand agricultural occupational illnesses, 225 Hispanic horse workers were interviewed via community-based convenience sampling. Descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses, and log binomial regression modeling were used to: (1) describe the prevalence of missed work due to work-related illnesses among Hispanic horse workers, (2) examine work-related and personal factors associated with missed work, and (3) identify health symptoms and work-related characteristics potentially associated with missed work...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783228/awareness-of-pediatric-palliative-care-among-health-care-workers
#8
Oryna Z Detsyk, Zhanna M Zolotarova, Iryna V Stovban, Roman M Melnyk
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: In order to develop such a relatively new type of medical care in Ukraine, as pediatric palliative care, first of all, qualified medical workers are needed. The aim: to assess the awareness of pediatric palliative care among healthcare workers providing medical services to children. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: It was carried out a survey at health facilities of Ivano-Frankivsk region, which provided medical care for children...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783152/functionalized-graphene-oxides-for-drug-loading-release-and-delivery-of-poorly-water-soluble-anticancer-drug-a-comparative-study
#9
Neha Karki, Himani Tiwari, Mintu Pal, Alok Chaurasia, Rajaram Bal, Penny Joshi, Nanda Gopal Sahoo
In this work, the modification of graphene oxides (GOs) have been done with hydrophilic and biodegradable polymer, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and other excipient β -cyclodextrin (β-CD) through covalent functionalization for efficient loading and compatible release of sparingly water soluble aromatic anticancer drug SN-38 (7-ethyl-10-hydroxy camptothecin). The drug was loaded onto both GO-PVP and GO-β-CD through the π-π interactions.The release of drug from both the nanocarriers were analyzed in different pH medium of pH 7 (water, neutral medium), pH 5 (acidic buffer) and pH 12 (basic buffer)...
May 18, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782965/membrane-cholesterol-delays-cellular-apoptosis-induced-by-ginsenoside-rh2-a-steroid-saponin
#10
Sandrine L Verstraeten, Marie Albert, Adrien Paquot, Giulio G Muccioli, Donatienne Tyteca, Marie-Paule Mingeot-Leclercq
Saponins exhibit several biological and pharmacological activities, such as antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects. Many studies attribute their activities to their interactions with cholesterol. In this study, we focus on the steroid saponin ginsenoside Rh2, one of the active principles of Panax ginseng root. Some evidence suggests that lipid rafts, defined as nanodomains enriched in cholesterol and sphingolipids, could be involved in the Rh2-induced apoptosis. However, the role of membrane lipids, especially cholesterol, in this process is still poorly understood...
May 18, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782187/effects-of-maternal-vitamin-d-supplementation-on-the-maternal-and-infant-epigenome
#11
Cindy M Anderson, Shannon L Gillespie, Doria K Thiele, Jody L Ralph, Joyce E Ohm
INTRODUCTION: Mothers and infants are at high risk for inadequate vitamin D status. Mechanisms by which vitamin D may affect maternal and infant DNA methylation are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: This study quantified the effects of vitamin D3 supplementation on DNA methylation in pregnant and lactating women and their breastfed infants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this randomized controlled pilot study, pregnant women received vitamin D3 400 international units (IU) (n = 6; control) or 3,800 IU (n = 7; intervention) daily from late second trimester through 4-6 weeks postpartum...
May 21, 2018: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782068/comparison-of-outcomes-following-culture-directed-vs-non-culture-directed-antibiotics-in-treatment-of-acute-exacerbations-of-chronic-rhinosinusitis
#12
Carol H Yan, Navarat Tangbumrungtham, Ximena A Maul, Yifei Ma, Jayakar V Nayak, Peter H Hwang, Zara M Patel
BACKGROUND: Acute exacerbations in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) are often treated with courses of systemic antibiotics. Poor correlation between microbiologic culture results and the sinus microbiome in CRS has caused increased debate as to the relevance of culture-directed antibiotics. There is currently sparse data comparing outcomes of culture-directed antibiotics vs non-culture-directed antibiotics for treatment of CRS. METHODS: This work reports a retrospective review...
May 21, 2018: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782030/the-genomes-of-three-bradyrhizobium-sp-isolated-from-root-nodules-of-lupinus-albescens-grown-in-extremely-poor-soils-display-important-genes-for-resistance-to-environmental-stress
#13
Camille E Granada, Luciano K Vargas, Fernando Hayashi Sant'Anna, Eduardo Balsanelli, Valter Antonio de Baura, Fábio de Oliveira Pedrosa, Emanuel Maltempi de Souza, Tiago Falcon, Luciane M P Passaglia
Lupinus albescens is a resistant cover plant that establishes symbiotic relationships with bacteria belonging to the Bradyrhizobium genus. This symbiosis helps the development of these plants in adverse environmental conditions, such as the ones found in arenized areas of Southern Brazil. This work studied three Bradyrhizobium sp. (AS23, NAS80 and NAS96) isolated from L. albescens plants that grow in extremely poor soils (arenized areas and adjacent grasslands). The genomes of these three strains were sequenced in the Ion Torrent platform using the IonXpress library preparation kit, and presented a total number of bases of 1,230,460,823 for AS23, 1,320,104,022 for NAS80, and 1,236,105,093 for NAS96...
May 17, 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781985/testing-the-role-of-multicopy-plasmids-in-the-evolution-of-antibiotic-resistance
#14
Jose Antonio Escudero, R Craig MacLean, Alvaro San Millan
Multicopy plasmids are extremely abundant in prokaryotes but their role in bacterial evolution remains poorly understood. We recently showed that the increase in gene copy number per cell provided by multicopy plasmids could accelerate the evolution of plasmid-encoded genes. In this work, we present an experimental system to test the ability of multicopy plasmids to promote gene evolution. Using simple molecular biology methods, we constructed a model system where an antibiotic resistance gene can be inserted into Escherichia coli MG1655, either in the chromosome or on a multicopy plasmid...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781781/gene-expression-microarray-analysis-reveals-prognostic-markers-of-survival-in-high-grade-astrocytomas
#15
Jun Yang, Ziming Hou, Changjiang Wang, Hao Wang, Hongbing Zhang
OBJECTIVE: High grade astrocytoma (HGA) as an aggressive brain tumor, is always correlated with poor prognosis. In this paper, we aimed to explore the genetic prognostic biomarkers for HGA. METHODS: The genome-wide expression profile of 26 brain tumor samples obtained from 26 patients with HGA was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus. The risk genes for prognosis of HGA were identified and verified by the data in TCGA database. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of risk factor genes was constructed and significant module was screened...
May 21, 2018: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781703/male-students-perceptions-about-gender-imbalances-in-a-speech-language-pathology-and-audiology-training-programme-of-a-south-african-institution-of-higher-education
#16
Sandra Du Plessis
 The professions of speech-language pathology and audiology (SLPA) are characterised by occupational gender segregation. Reasons given by men are a lack of awareness of SLPA; a perception of poor salaries; a perception of poor working conditions; a stereotype that the profession is a female occupation; and a perception that working with children is feminine. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe the perceptions of male students in a specific SLPA training programme regarding gender imbalances...
May 16, 2018: South African Journal of Communication Disorders. die Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Kommunikasieafwykings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781640/interactive-effects-of-baseline-executive-functioning-and-working-memory-depletion-on-alcohol-use-among-heavy-drinking-young-adults
#17
Alison Looby, Mara Norton-Baker, Tiffany D Russell
Binge drinking is frequently reported by young adults, despite being associated with a number of negative consequences. This type of heavy drinking is associated with deficits in many executive functions, including working memory. Poor working memory may contribute to increased alcohol use by limiting one's ability to modulate their behavior, including drinking. Furthermore, the limited resource model of executive functioning predicts that individuals with poorer premorbid executive functioning abilities, whose working memory is taxed or depleted, should experience the highest levels of dysregulated behavior...
May 21, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781185/helper-t-cell-responses-and-pulmonary-fungal-infections
#18
REVIEW
Andrew J McDermott, Bruce S Klein
The mucosal surface of the respiratory tract encounters microbes, such as fungal particles, with every inhaled breath. When pathogenic fungi breach the physical barrier and innate immune system within the lung to establish an infection, adaptive immunity is engaged often in the form of helper CD4 T-cell responses. Type 1 responses, characterized by IFNγ production from CD4 cells, promote clearance of Histoplasma capsulatum and Cryptococcus neoformans infection. Likewise, IL-17A production from Th17 cells promotes immunity to Blastomyces dermatitidis and Coccidiodes species infection by recruiting neutrophils...
May 20, 2018: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781055/psychosocial-comorbidities-related-to-return-to-work-rates-following-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#19
Eleanor R Turi, Yvette Conley, Elizabeth Crago, Paula Sherwood, Samuel M Poloyac, Dianxu Ren, Ansley G Stanfill
Purpose Ability to return to work (RTW) after stroke has been shown to have positive psychosocial benefits on survivors. Although one-fifth of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) survivors suffer from poor psychosocial outcomes, the relationship between such outcomes and RTW post-stroke is not clear. This project explores the relationship between age, gender, race, marital status, anxiety and depression and RTW 3 and 12 months post-aSAH. Methods Demographic and clinical variables were collected from the electronic medical record at the time of aSAH admission...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780970/three-challenges-for-future-research-on-cochlear-implants
#20
REVIEW
David B Pisoni, William G Kronenberger, Michael S Harris, Aaron C Moberly
Cochlear implants (CIs) often work very well for many children and adults with profound sensorineural (SNHL) hearing loss. Unfortunately, while many CI patients display substantial benefits in recognizing speech and understanding spoken language following cochlear implantation, a large number of patients achieve poor outcomes. Understanding and explaining the reasons for poor outcomes following implantation is a very challenging research problem that has received little attention despite the pressing clinical significance...
December 2017: World Journal of Otorhinolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
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