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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647916/impact-of-site-selection-and-study-conduct-on-outcomes-in-global-clinical-trials
#1
REVIEW
Chaudhry M S Sarwar, Muthiah Vaduganathan, Javed Butler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There are over 25 million patients living with heart failure globally. Overall, and especially post-discharge, clinical outcomes have remained poor in heart failure despite multiple trials, with both successes and failures over the last two decades. Matching therapies to the right patient population, identifying high-quality sites, and ensuring optimal trial design and execution represent important considerations in the development of novel therapeutics in this space...
June 24, 2017: Current Heart Failure Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647126/mers-cov-infection-mind-the-public-knowledge-gap
#2
Amen Bawazir, Eman Al-Mazroo, Hoda Jradi, Anwar Ahmed, Motasim Badri
In August 2015, the Corona outbreak caused by Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was the 9th episode since June 2012 in Saudi Arabia. Little is known about the public awareness toward the nature or prevention of the disease. The aim of this work was to assess the knowledge of the adult population in Riyadh toward the MERS-CoV. In this cross-sectional survey, a self-administrated questionnaire was distributed to randomly selected participants visiting malls in Riyadh. The questionnaire contained measurable epidemiological and clinical MERS-CoV knowledge level variables and relevant source of information...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646535/targeting-stat3-by-ho3867-induces-apoptosis-in-ovarian-clear-cell-carcinoma
#3
Kristin Bixel, Uksha Saini, Hemant Kumar Bid, John Fowler, Maria Riley, Ross Wanner, Kalpana Deepa Priya Dorayappan, Sneha Rajendran, Ikuo Konishi, Noriomi Matsumura, David E Cohn, Karuppaiyah Selvendiran
Advanced ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC) carries a very poor prognosis in large part secondary to the extremely high rate of resistance to standard platinum and taxane chemotherapy. STAT3 expression and activation has been shown to regulate tumor progression in various human cancers, though has not been well studied in OCCC. Preliminary work in our lab has demonstrated constitutive activation of STAT3 (pSTAT3Tyr705 or pSTAT3727) in OCCC cell lines as well as human OCCC tumor tissue samples. Significantly, pSTAT3 is expressed in the absence of other forms of activated STAT (pSTAT1, 2, 6)...
June 24, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646197/upregulate-kif4a-enhances-proliferation-invasion-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-and-indicates-poor-prognosis-across-human-cancer-types
#4
Guojun Hou, Chuanpeng Dong, Zihui Dong, Gang Liu, Huilin Xu, Lei Chen, Lei Liu, Hongyang Wang, Weiping Zhou
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most aggressive and heterogeneous cancers worldwide. Herein, we demonstrate KIF4A (Chromosome-associated kinesin KIF4A) as a potential biomarker, is up-regulated in most samples of HCC. The expression level of KIF4A in tumor tissue is significantly associated with the survival time, and a significant correlation between KIF4A expression and clinical information stage, metastasis and tumor dimension was observed. We further measured the proliferation and migration ability of two HCC cell lines, HCC-LM3 and PLC/PRF/5, following KIF4A-siRNA transfection...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646083/does-depression-increase-the-risk-of-stroke-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-a-population-based-cohort-study
#5
Tzung-Yi Tsai, Ming-Chi Lu, Hanoch Livneh, Shan-Yun Chiu, Ning-Sheng Lai, How-Ran Guo
OBJECTIVES: Comorbid depression is common and undertreated in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). It remains uncertain whether comorbid depression provoked the risk of poor clinical outcome, stroke in particular, among patients with RA. This work aimed to determine if depression onset during the treatment process increases stroke risk for patients with RA as compared with those with (1) neither RA nor depression, (2) RA only and (3) depression only. DESIGN: A nationwide, population-based cohort study...
June 22, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645209/genome-wide-mapping-of-in-vivo-er%C3%AE-binding-sites-in-male-mouse-efferent-ductules
#6
Guangxin Yao, Shuanggang Hu, Lu Yu, Yanfei Ru, Charlie Degui Chen, Qiang Liu, Yonglian Zhang
As an important nuclear hormone receptor, estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), which is encoded by Esr1 gene, regulates the expression of hundreds of genes in a stimulus-specific, temporal and tissue-specific fashion, mainly by binding to specific DNA sequences-estrogen response elements (EREs). As an important estrogen target tissue in males, the function of the efferent ductules relies on the presence of the ERα protein, but the underlying regulatory mechanisms are poorly illustrated. In this study, genome-wide ERα-binding sites in mouse efferent ductules were mapped by ChIP-seq...
June 22, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644839/genomic-introgression-mapping-of-field-derived-multiple-anthelmintic-resistance-in-teladorsagia-circumcincta
#7
Young-Jun Choi, Stewart A Bisset, Stephen R Doyle, Kymberlie Hallsworth-Pepin, John Martin, Warwick N Grant, Makedonka Mitreva
Preventive chemotherapy has long been practiced against nematode parasites of livestock, leading to widespread drug resistance, and is increasingly being adopted for eradication of human parasitic nematodes even though it is similarly likely to lead to drug resistance. Given that the genetic architecture of resistance is poorly understood for any nematode, we have analyzed multidrug resistant Teladorsagia circumcincta, a major parasite of sheep, as a model for analysis of resistance selection. We introgressed a field-derived multiresistant genotype into a partially inbred susceptible genetic background (through repeated backcrossing and drug selection) and performed genome-wide scans in the backcross progeny and drug-selected F2 populations to identify the major genes responsible for the multidrug resistance...
June 23, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644830/optimal-chemotactic-responses-in-stochastic-environments
#8
Martin Godány, Bhavin S Khatri, Richard A Goldstein
Although the "adaptive" strategy used by Escherichia coli has dominated our understanding of bacterial chemotaxis, the environmental conditions under which this strategy emerged is still poorly understood. In this work, we study the performance of various chemotactic strategies under a range of stochastic time- and space-varying attractant distributions in silico. We describe a novel "speculator" response in which the bacterium compare the current attractant concentration to the long-term average; if it is higher then they tumble persistently, while if it is lower than the average, bacteria swim away in search of more favorable conditions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644541/assessment-of-executive-functioning-in-binge-eating-disorder-independent-of-weight-status
#9
Kalina T Eneva, Jean M Arlt, Angelina Yiu, Susan M Murray, Eunice Y Chen
OBJECTIVE: Executive functioning (EF) problems may serve as vulnerability or maintenance factors for Binge-Eating Disorder (BED). However, it is unclear if EF problems observed in BED are related to overweight status or BED status. The current study extends this literature by examining EF in overweight and normal-weight BED compared to weight-matched controls. METHOD: Participants were normal-weight women with BED (n = 23), overweight BED (n = 32), overweight healthy controls (n = 48), and normal-weight healthy controls (n = 29)...
June 23, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644463/hypersensitive-dual-function-luminescence-switching-of-a-silver-chalcogenolate-cluster-based-metal-organic-framework
#10
Ren-Wu Huang, Yong-Sheng Wei, Xi-Yan Dong, Xiao-Hui Wu, Chen-Xia Du, Shuang-Quan Zang, Thomas C W Mak
Silver(i) chalcogenide/chalcogenolate clusters are promising photofunctional materials for sensing, optoelectronics and solar energy harvesting applications. However, their instability and poor room-temperature luminescent quantum yields have hampered more extensive study. Here, we graft such clusters to adaptable bridging ligands, enabling their interconnection and the formation of rigid metal-organic frameworks. By controlling the spatial separation and orientation of the clusters, they then exhibit enhanced stability (over one year) and quantum yield (12...
July 2017: Nature Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644247/surface-electromyographic-activity-of-the-upper-trapezius-before-and-after-a-single-dry-needling-session-in-female-office-workers-with-trapezius-myalgia
#11
Kayleigh De Meulemeester, Patrick Calders, Vincent Dewitte, Tom Barbe, Lieven Danneels, Barbara Cagnie
OBJECTIVE: Myofascial pain can be accompanied by a disturbed surface electromyographic (sEMG) activity. Nevertheless, the effect of myofascial treatment techniques, such as dry needling (DN), on the sEMG activity is poorly investigated. Several DN studies also emphasize the importance of eliciting local twitch responses (LTRs) during treatment. However, studies investigating the added value of LTRs are scarce. Therefore, the aims of this study were first to evaluate the effect of DN on the sEMG activity of myalgic muscle tissue, compared with no intervention (rest), and secondly to identify whether this effect is dependent of eliciting LTRs during DN...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643721/surgical-treatment-of-metarhizium-anisopliae-sclerokeratitis-and-endophthalmitis
#12
Dan Derhy, Arnaud Sauer, Marcela Sabou, Jonathan Letsch, Ermanno Candolfi, Valérie Letscher-Bru, Tristan Bourcier
A 55-year-old nurse was referred with a 5-month history of right eye corneal abscess. The initial injury occurred when doing lawn work. The infection worsened despite multiple antibiotic, antiviral, and steroid treatments. Visual acuity was limited to hand motion. On examination, there was keratitis, ocular hypertension, and a secondary cataract. Corneal scrapings grew a filamentous fungus, identified as Metarhizium anisopliae (MA). Despite intensive antifungal treatment with topical, intravitreous, and systemic voriconazole, purulent corneal melting and scleritis with endophthalmitis rapidly appeared...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643056/deep-neuromuscular-blockade-improves-surgical-conditions-during-low-pressure-pneumoperitoneum-laparoscopic-donor-nephrectomy
#13
D M D Özdemir-van Brunschot, A E Braat, M F P van der Jagt, G J Scheffer, C H Martini, J F Langenhuijsen, R E Dam, V A Huurman, D Lam, F C d'Ancona, A Dahan, M C Warlé
BACKGROUND: Evidence indicates that low-pressure pneumoperitoneum (PNP) reduces postoperative pain and analgesic consumption. A lower insufflation pressure may hamper visibility and working space. The aim of the study is to investigate whether deep neuromuscular blockade (NMB) improves surgical conditions during low-pressure PNP. METHODS: This study was a blinded randomized controlled multicenter trial. 34 kidney donors scheduled for laparoscopic donor nephrectomy randomly received low-pressure PNP (6 mmHg) with either deep (PTC 1-5) or moderate NMB (TOF 0-1)...
June 22, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642747/propionibacterium-freudenreichii-surface-protein-slpb-is-involved-in-adhesion-to-intestinal-ht-29-cells
#14
Fillipe L R do Carmo, Houem Rabah, Song Huang, Floriane Gaucher, Martine Deplanche, Stéphanie Dutertre, Julien Jardin, Yves Le Loir, Vasco Azevedo, Gwénaël Jan
Propionibacterium freudenreichii is a beneficial bacterium traditionally used as a cheese ripening starter and more recently for its probiotic abilities based on the release of beneficial metabolites. In addition to these metabolites (short-chain fatty acids, vitamins, and bifidogenic factor), P. freudenreichii revealed an immunomodulatory effect confirmed in vivo by the ability to protect mice from induced acute colitis. This effect is, however, highly strain-dependent. Local action of metabolites and of immunomodulatory molecules is favored by the ability of probiotics to adhere to the host cells...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642641/inequality-in-human-capital-and-endogenous-credit-constraints
#15
Rong Hai, James J Heckman
This paper investigates the determinants of inequality in human capital with an emphasis on the role of the credit constraints. We develop and estimate a model in which individuals face uninsured human capital risks and invest in education, acquire work experience, accumulate assets and smooth consumption. Agents can borrow from the private lending market and from government student loan programs. The private market credit limit is explicitly derived by extending the natural borrowing limit of Aiyagari (1994) to incorporate endogenous labor supply, human capital accumulation, psychic costs of working, and age...
April 2017: Review of Economic Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641599/association-between-level-of-exposure-to-death-and-dying-and-professional-quality-of-life-among-palliative-care-workers
#16
Tali Samson, Pesach Shvartzman
BACKGROUND: Exposure to the death and dying of others is an anxiety-provoking condition that can contribute to psychological stress. However, the results of empirical studies that evaluated work-related outcomes among physicians and nurses with repeated exposure to dying patients are not consistent. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to evaluate whether a high level of exposure to death and dying (LED) can increase the risk for poor professional quality of life (ProQoL) in most healthcare workers, but it can also improve ProQoL in a subset of healthcare workers with specific characteristics...
June 23, 2017: Palliative & Supportive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641444/toward-mentoring-in-palliative-social-work-a-narrative-review-of-mentoring-programs-in-social-work
#17
Ying Pin Toh, R Karthik, Chia Chia Teo, Sarasvathy Suppiah, Siew Li Cheung, Lalit Krishna
BACKGROUND: Mentoring by an experienced practitioner enhances professional well-being, promotes resilience, and provides a means of addressing poor job satisfaction and high burnout rates among medical social workers. This is a crucial source of support for social workers working in fields with high risk of compassion fatigue and burnout like palliative care. Implementing such a program, however, is hindered by differences in understanding and application of mentoring practice. AIM: This narrative review of mentoring practice in social work seeks to identify key elements and common approaches within successful mentoring programs in social work that could be adapted to guide the design of new mentoring programs in medical social work...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640797/rural-and-urban-differences-in-air-quality-2008-2012-and-community-drinking-water-quality-2010-2015-united-states
#18
Heather Strosnider, Caitlin Kennedy, Michele Monti, Fuyuen Yip
PROBLEM/CONDITION: The places in which persons live, work, and play can contribute to the development of adverse health outcomes. Understanding the differences in risk factors in various environments can help to explain differences in the occurrence of these outcomes and can be used to develop public health programs, interventions, and policies. Efforts to characterize urban and rural differences have largely focused on social and demographic characteristics. A paucity of national standardized environmental data has hindered efforts to characterize differences in the physical aspects of urban and rural areas, such as air and water quality...
June 23, 2017: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640686/prevalence-of-financial-fraud-and-scams-among-older-adults-in-the-united-states-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
David Burnes, Charles R Henderson, Christine Sheppard, Rebecca Zhao, Karl Pillemer, Mark S Lachs
BACKGROUND: The financial exploitation of older adults was recently recognized by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a serious public health problem. Knowledge of the prevalence of elder financial exploitation is mostly limited to the category of financial abuse, which occurs in relationships involving an expectation of trust. Little is known about the other major category of elder financial exploitation-elder financial fraud and scams, which is perpetrated by strangers...
June 22, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640659/phlda1-pleckstrin-homology-like-domain-family-a-member-1-knockdown-promotes-migration-and-invasion-of-mcf10a-breast-epithelial-cells
#20
Naieli Bonatto, Maria José Carlini, Simone Aparecida de Bessa Garcia, Maria Aparecida Nagai
PHLDA1 (pleckstrin homology-like domain, family A, member 1) is a multifunctional protein that plays distinct roles in several biological processes including cell death and therefore its altered expression has been identified in different types of cancer. Progressively loss of PHLDA1 was found in primary and metastatic melanoma while its overexpression was reported in intestinal and pancreatic tumors. Previous work from our group showed that negative expression of PHLDA1 protein was a strong predictor of poor prognosis for breast cancer disease...
June 22, 2017: Cell Adhesion & Migration
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