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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913429/heritability-of-the-effective-connectivity-in-the-resting-state-default-mode-network
#1
Junhai Xu, Xuntao Yin, Haitao Ge, Yan Han, Zengchang Pang, Baolin Liu, Shuwei Liu, Karl Friston
The default mode network (DMN) is thought to reflect endogenous neural activity, which is considered as one of the most intriguing phenomena in cognitive neuroscience. Previous studies have found that key regions within the DMN are highly interconnected. Here, we characterized the genetic influences on causal or directed information flow within the DMN during the resting state. In this study, we recruited 46 pairs of twins and collected fMRI imaging data using a 3.0 T scanner. Dynamic causal modeling was conducted for each participant, and a structural equation model was used to calculate the heritability of DMN in terms of its effective connectivity...
November 23, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902445/focus-issue-new-horizons-for-treating-neurological-disease
#2
EDITORIAL
Leslie K Ferrarelli
This issue of Science Signaling highlights research that uncovers protein interaction networks and potential drug targets, as well as research that identifies molecular mechanisms of action of novel or existing drugs, for neurological and psychological disease. This Editorial Guide features a handful of papers from 2016 that join the ranks of Science Signaling's vast archive of articles related to neuroscience.
November 15, 2016: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891018/legal-challenges-in-neurological-practice
#3
REVIEW
Sita Jayalakshmi, Sudhindra Vooturi
Clinical neuroscience has made tremendous advances over the last century. Neurology as a discipline is still considered challenging and at times risky due to the natural history and progressive course of few of the neurological diseases. Encouragingly, the patient and their caregivers are now increasingly willing to be actively involved in making decisions. The patients' relationship with the doctor is a reflection of the society. A society that is orienting itself toward "rating" and "feedback" has made this doctor-patient relationship, a consumer-service provider relationship...
October 2016: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884966/setting-up-a-neuroscience-stroke-and-rehabilitation-centre-in-brunei-darussalam-by-a-transcontinental-on-site-and-telemedical-cooperation
#4
U Meyding-Lamadé, B Bassa, E Craemer, C Jacobi, C Chan, W Hacke, B Kress
Due to the world-wide aging population, there is a need for specialist neurological knowledge, treatment and care. Stroke treatment is effective in reducing mortality and disability, but it is still not available in many areas of the world. We describe the set-up process of a specialized Neuroscience, Stroke and Rehabilitation Centre in Brunei Darussalam (BNSRC) in cooperation with a German hospital. This study details the setup of a stroke-, neurological intensive care- and neurorehabilitation unit, laboratories and a telemedical network to perform all evidence-based stroke treatments...
November 24, 2016: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876662/-views-on-careers-in-clinical-neurosciences-amongst-neurosurgeons-and-neurologists-in-china
#5
Rimas V Lukas, Chao Ma, Jingcao Chen, Hongmei Dong, Jinxin Li, Zefen Wang, Ivy Jiang, Kai Fu, Samita Satnarayan, Dara V F Albert, Renslow Sherer
BACKGROUND: China has a large and aging population. The need for physicians with training in clinical neurosciences will grow. Currently there is little known regarding the factors which lead physicians in China to pursue careers in clinical neurosciences. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to garner a clearer understanding of the factors which impact physicians to pursue careers in neurosurgery and neurology in China. METHODS: We surveyed attendees at a national neuroscience conference on the factors which influence their pursuit of careers in clinical neurosciences...
November 19, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876292/reprint-of-the-new-approach-to-classification-rethinking-cognition-and-behavior-in-epilepsy
#6
REVIEW
Sarah J Wilson, Sallie Baxendale
There has been considerable debate surrounding the benefits and drawbacks of the new approach to classifying the epilepsies released by the ILAE Commission on Classification and Terminology (2005-2009). This new approach has significant implications for the way we conceptualize and assess cognition and behavior in epilepsy; however, as yet, there has been limited discussion of these issues in the field. The purpose of this Targeted Review is to spark this discussion by encouraging researchers and clinicians to think about the changes that the new approach may bring...
November 18, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872676/progressive-and-self-limiting-neurodegenerative-disorders-in-africa-a-new-prominent-field-of-research-led-by-south-africa-but-without-strong-health-policy
#7
Brice Poreau
INTRODUCTION: Neurodegenerative disorders are involved in mortality and morbidity of every country. A high prevalence is estimated in Africa. Neurodegenerative disorders are defined by a progressive or self-limiting alteration of neurons implied in specific functional and anatomical functions. It encompasses a various range of clinical disorders from self-limiting to progressive. Focus on public health policies and scientific research is needed to understand the mechanisms to reduce this high prevalence...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870452/sex-hormones-and-genotype-interact-to-influence-psychiatric-disease-treatment-and-behavioral-research
#8
REVIEW
Aarthi R Gobinath, Elena Choleris, Liisa A M Galea
Sex differences exist in the vulnerability, incidence, manifestation, and treatment of numerous neurological and psychiatric diseases. Despite this observation prominent in the literature, little consideration has been given to possible sex differences in outcome in both preclinical and clinical research. This Mini-Review highlights evidence supporting why studying sex differences matter for advances in brain health as well as improving treatment for neurological and psychiatric disease. Additionally, we discuss some statistical and methodological considerations in evaluating sex differences as well as how differences in the physiology of the sexes can contribute to sex difference in disease incidence and manifestation...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870405/sex-differences-in-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-signaling-functions-and-implications
#9
REVIEW
Yi-Chao Wei, Shao-Ran Wang, Xiao-Hong Xu
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) regulates diverse processes such as neuronal survival, differentiation, and plasticity. Accumulating evidence suggests that molecular events that direct sexual differentiation of the brain interact with BDNF signaling pathways. This Mini-Review first examines potential hormonal and epigenetic mechanisms through which sex influences BDNF signaling. We then examine how sex-specific regulation of BDNF signaling supports the development and function of sexually dimorphic neural circuits that underlie male-specific genital reflexes in rats and song production in birds...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857752/correction-remodeling-neuroscience-education-in-medical-student-training-how-early-exposure-and-mentorship-are-promoting-student-interest-in-neurology-and-neurosurgery
#10
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article on p. 1064 in vol. 11, PMID: 27630681.].
September 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855424/arts-brain-and-cognition
#11
Vida Demarin, Marina Roje Bedeković, Marijana Bosnar Puretić, Marija Bošnjak Pašić
Art is a product of human creativity; it is a superior skill that can be learned by study, practice and observation. Modern neuroscience and neuroimaging enable study of the processes during artistic performance. Creative people have less marked hemispheric dominance. It was found that the right hemisphere is specialized for metaphoric thinking, playfulness, solution finding and synthesizing, it is the center of visualization, imagination and conceptualization, but the left hemisphere is still needed for artistic work to achieve balance...
December 2016: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845941/magnetic-resonance-elastography-mre-of-the-human-brain-technique-findings-and-clinical-applications
#12
Lucy V Hiscox, Curtis L Johnson, Eric Barnhill, Matt D J McGarry, John Huston, Edwin J R van Beek, John M Starr, Neil Roberts
Neurological disorders are one of the most important public health concerns in developed countries. Established brain imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and x-ray computerised tomography (CT) have been essential in the identification and diagnosis of a wide range of disorders, although usually are insufficient in sensitivity for detecting subtle pathological alterations to the brain prior to the onset of clinical symptoms-at a time when prognosis for treatment is more favourable. The mechanical properties of biological tissue provide information related to the strength and integrity of the cellular microstructure...
December 21, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826264/from-savannas-to-settlements-exploring-cognitive-foundations-for-the-design-of-urban-spaces
#13
M Gordon Brown, Charles C Lee
Urban configurations in developing countries have become the subject of urban design, with good design promoting economic benefits. Yet, the common practice of urban design lacks a principled scientific foundation. In this respect, cognitive neuroscience could provide a unique perspective and potential foundational insights regarding how embodied cognition links configuration with movement. Although the neural networks that underlie navigation abilities in the brain have been extensively studied, the manner in which these networks might best constrain urban configurations has not been examined specifically...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824957/central-nervous-system-disorders-affecting-the-heart-insights-from-radionuclide-imaging
#14
EDITORIAL
Alexandros Georgakopoulos, Nikoletta Pianou, Constantinos Anagnostopoulos
There is a growing research activity focusing on the brain heart cross-talk. A great variety of brain disorders affect the heart and recent developments in neurosciences have revealed the particular role of specific neuroanatomic sites on heart rhythm and rate, myocardial function and vascular tone. Cardiac radionuclide imaging plays a pivotal role in this setting, since not only helps elucidating underlying pathobiological mechanisms but in addition, it promises exciting possibilities for early identification of patients at risk of developing cardiovascular manifestations of certain neurological diseases...
November 8, 2016: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822902/frontiers-of-neurology-and-neuroscience-2016-vol-38-war-neurology-editor-l-tatu-j-bogousslavsky-isbn-978-3-318-05605-1-karger
#15
Granit Molliqaj, Karl Schaller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 8, 2016: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798256/how-should-neuroscience-study-emotions-by-distinguishing-emotion-states-concepts-and-experiences
#16
Ralph Adolphs
In this debate with Lisa Feldman Barrett, I defend a view of emotions as biological functional states. Affective neuroscience studies emotions in this sense, but it also studies the conscious experience of emotion ("feelings"), our ability to attribute emotions to others and to animals ("attribution", "anthropomorphizing"), our ability to think and talk about emotion ("concepts of emotion", "semantic knowledge of emotion"), and the behaviors caused by an emotion ("expression of emotions", "emotional reactions")...
October 19, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794521/quantitative-in-vivo-neurochemical-profiling-in-humans-where-are-we-now
#17
REVIEW
Jessica McKay, Ivan Tkáč
Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of biofluids has become one of the key techniques for metabolic profiling and phenotyping. This technique has been widely used in a number of epidemiological studies and in a variety of health disorders. However, its utilization in brain disorders is limited due to the blood-brain barrier, which not only protects the brain from unwanted substances in the blood, but also substantially limits the potential of finding biomarkers for neurological disorders in serum...
October 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788914/it-s-all-in-the-brain-a-review-of-available-functional-genomic-annotations
#18
REVIEW
Sarah A Gagliano
What makes the molecular study of psychiatric and other neurological conditions particularly challenging compared with other complex traits is the difficulty of accessing the relevant tissue. The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project was one of the earliest producers of brain-derived epigenetic functional genomic data, albeit initially from only two cancerous brain cell lines for a limited number of epigenetic marks. It has only been in very recent years that such data from human brain tissue have been made available from various sources...
August 11, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774210/neuroscience-and-behavioral-genetics-in-us-criminal-law-an-empirical-analysis
#19
Nita A Farahany
The goal of this study was to examine the growing use of neurological and behavioral genetic evidence by criminal defendants in US criminal law. Judicial opinions issued between 2005-12 that discussed the use of neuroscience or behavioral genetics by criminal defendants were identified, coded and analysed. Criminal defendants are increasingly introducing such evidence to challenge defendants' competency, the effectiveness of defense counsel at trial, and to mitigate punishment.
November 2015: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753149/functional-dystonia-and-the-borderland-between-neurology-and-psychiatry-new-concepts
#20
Rachel Newby, Jane Alty, Peter Kempster
Mind-brain dualism has dominated historical commentary on dystonia, a dichotomous approach that has left our conceptual grasp of it stubbornly incomplete. This is particularly true of functional dystonia, most diagnostically challenging of all functional movement disorders, in which the question of inherent psychogenicity remains a focus of debate. Phenomenological signs considered in isolation lack the specificity to distinguish organic and nonorganic forms, and dystonia's variability has frustrated attempts to develop objective laboratory-supported standards...
October 18, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
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