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Neuroscience neurology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732515/sexually-divergent-induction-of-microglial-associated-neuroinflammation-with-hippocampal-aging
#1
Colleen A Mangold, Benjamin Wronowski, Mei Du, Dustin R Masser, Niran Hadad, Georgina V Bixler, Robert M Brucklacher, Matthew M Ford, William E Sonntag, Willard M Freeman
BACKGROUND: The necessity of including both males and females in molecular neuroscience research is now well understood. However, there is relatively limited basic biological data on brain sex differences across the lifespan despite the differences in age-related neurological dysfunction and disease between males and females. METHODS: Whole genome gene expression of young (3 months), adult (12 months), and old (24 months) male and female C57BL6 mice hippocampus was analyzed...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730936/an-industry-update-what-is-the-latest-news-in-therapeutic-delivery
#2
Iain Simpson
This Industry Update covers the period from 1 through 30 April 2017, and is based on information sourced from company press releases, scientific literature, patents and various news websites. Biogen expanded its portfolio of developmental drugs targeting neurological diseases by licensing a drug from Bristol-Myers Squibb which is currently under investigation for the treatment of progressive supranuclear palsy. Takeda announced a deal with NuBiyota focused on developing treatments for gastrointestinal disorders, based on the manipulation of microbes living in the gut...
July 2017: Therapeutic Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718304/the-role-of-surgery-in-low-grade-gliomas-do-timing-and-extent-of-resection-matter
#3
Hugues Duffau
Hugues Duffau is a Professor and Chairman of the Neurosurgery Department in the Montpellier University Medical Center and Head of the INSERM 1051 Team "plasticity of the central nervous system, human stem cells and glial tumors" at the Institute for Neurosciences of Montpellier (France). He is an expert in the awake cognitive neurosurgery of slow-growing brain tumors, such as low-grade gliomas, a routine which he has developed since 20 years. His fundamental approach is centered on the concepts of the brain connectomics and neuroplasticity, breaking with the traditional localizationist view of cerebral processing...
July 18, 2017: CNS Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716272/the-need-for-a-global-neurology-alliance
#4
William M Carroll
BACKGROUND: With increasing rapidity of advances in neuroscience and widening gaps in the accessibility to quality neurological care the risks of unpreparedness are growing. METHOD: To summarise the potential risks to the equal provision of neurological care and the resources available to improve the ability to plan and respond to the unexpected. RESULTS: To describe three examples of cooperative effort involving the World Federation of Neurology acting in concert with other neurological organisations...
August 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713493/a-new-strategy-in-neurocritical-care-nurse-continuing-stroke-education-a-hybrid-simulation-pilot-study
#5
Christopher Ryan Newey, Robert Bell, Melody Burks, Premkumar Nattanmai
INTRODUCTION: High-fidelity simulation is frequently utilized in medical education. Its use in the neurosciences is limited by the inherent limitations of the manikin to simulate neurological changes. We report here the use of a hybrid simulation - a combination of lecture and high-fidelity manikin - in the education of neurosciences nurses, involved in care of neurocritical care patients. METHODS: Neurosciences nurses from at the University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA, which is an academic, tertiary-care medical center participated in the simulation during Spring of 2016...
May 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688701/basic-and-functional-effects-of-transcranial-electrical-stimulation-tes-an-introduction
#6
REVIEW
Fatemeh Yavari, Asif Jamil, Mohsen Mosayebi Samani, Liliane Pinto Vidor, Michael A Nitsche
Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) has been gaining increased popularity in human neuroscience research during the last years. Among the emerging NIBS tools is transcranial electrical stimulation (tES), whose main modalities are transcranial direct, and alternating current stimulation (tDCS, tACS). In tES, a small current (usually less than 3mA) is delivered through the scalp. Depending on its shape, density, and duration, the applied current induces acute or long-lasting effects on excitability and activity of cerebral regions, and brain networks...
July 5, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677169/fibre-dissection-and-sectional-study-of-the-major-porcine-cerebral-white-matter-tracts
#7
R Pascalau, B Szabo
White matter anatomy is the basis for numerous applications in neurology, neurosurgery and fundamental neuroscience. Although the porcine brain is frequently used as experimental model in these fields of research, the description of its white matter is not as thorough as in the human brain or other species. Thus, the aim of this study is to describe the porcine white matter tracts in a complex manner. Two stepwise dissection protocols adapted from human anatomy were performed on six adult pig brain hemispheres prepared according to the Klingler method...
July 4, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675555/rna-sequencing-in-postmortem-human-brains-of-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#8
Chun Wu, Raphael M Bendriem, Susanna P Garamszegi, Lei Song, Chun-Ting Lee
RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq), a revolutionary tool for transcriptome profiling, is becoming increasingly important for neuroscientists in studying the transcriptional landscape of the human brain. Studies using this next generation sequencing (NGS) technique have already revealed novel insights into the complexity of neurons in the human brain and pathogenesis of complex neurological diseases. In clinical neuroscience, RNA-Seq provides exciting opportunities for improving diagnosis and treatment of neurological diseases by facilitating the development of pharmacotherapies able to modulate gene expression...
July 4, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675111/outcomes-of-tracheostomy-with-concomitant-and-delayed-percutaneous-endoscopic-gastrostomy-in-the-neuroscience-critical-care-unit
#9
Christa O'Hana S Nobleza, Vinciya Pandian, Ravirasmi Jasti, David H Wu, Marek A Mirski, Romergryko G Geocadin
BACKGROUND: In patients with severe neurologic conditions, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is typically performed either alone or with a tracheostomy. The characteristics and outcomes of patients receiving PEG concomitantly with a tracheostomy (CTPEG) and those receiving delayed PEG (DPEG) after a tracheostomy were compared. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study in a 24-bed neuroscience critical care unit (NCCU) at a tertiary care hospital. Consecutive patients admitted to the NCCU from April 2007 to July 2013 who underwent percutaneous tracheostomy and gastrostomy by the percutaneous tracheostomy team were included and grouped according to the timing of PEG placement: CTPEG versus DPEG...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667062/epilepsy-and-optogenetics-can-seizures-be-controlled-by-light
#10
REVIEW
Jan Tønnesen, Merab Kokaia
Over the past decade, 'optogenetics' has been consolidated as a game-changing tool in the neuroscience field, by allowing optical control of neuronal activity with high cell-type specificity. The ability to activate or inhibit targeted neurons at millisecond resolution not only offers an investigative tool, but potentially also provides a therapeutic intervention strategy for acute correction of aberrant neuronal activity. As efficient therapeutic tools are in short supply for neurological disorders, optogenetic technology has therefore spurred considerable enthusiasm and fostered a new wave of translational studies in neuroscience...
July 15, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661950/establishing-normative-data-for-pupillometer-assessment-in-neuroscience-intensive-care-the-end-panic-registry
#11
DaiWai M Olson, Sonja E Stutzman, Folefac Atem, Julia D Kincaide, Thuy-Tien Ho, Byron A Carlisle, Venkatesh Aiyagari
BACKGROUND: Trained medical practitioners have been assessing the pupillary light reflex for more than 2 millennia. However, the interrater reliability of the pupillary light reflex remains low. To overcome the drawbacks of a subjective interpretation of pupillary size and reactivity, automated pupillometers are becoming increasingly commonplace, but practitioners do not have adequate data from which to judge whether the numerical values provided by the pupillometer are "within reference limits...
August 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Nursing: Journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661727/transcriptomic-perspectives-on-neocortical-structure-development-evolution-and-disease
#12
Ed S Lein, T Grant Belgard, Michael Hawrylycz, Zoltán Molnár
The cerebral cortex is the source of our most complex cognitive capabilities and a vulnerable target of many neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. Transcriptomics offers a new approach to understanding the cortex at the level of its underlying genetic code, and rapid technological advances have propelled this field to the high-throughput study of the complete set of transcribed genes at increasingly fine resolution to the level of individual cells. These tools have revealed features of the genetic architecture of adult cortical areas, layers, and cell types, as well as spatiotemporal patterning during development...
June 29, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642938/correlation-weighted-sparse-group-representation-for-brain-network-construction-in-mci-classification
#13
Renping Yu, Han Zhang, Le An, Xiaobo Chen, Zhihui Wei, Dinggang Shen
Analysis of brain functional connectivity network (BFCN) has shown great potential in understanding brain functions and identifying biomarkers for neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and its early stage, mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In all these applications, the accurate construction of biologically meaningful brain network is critical. Due to the sparse nature of the brain network, sparse learning has been widely used for complex BFCN construction. However, the conventional l1-norm penalty in the sparse learning equally penalizes each edge (or link) of the brain network, which ignores the link strength and could remove strong links in the brain network...
October 2016: Medical Image Computing and Computer-assisted Intervention: MICCAI ..
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642836/cultural-neuroscience-and-global-mental-health-addressing-grand-challenges
#14
Joan Y Chiao, Shu-Chen Li, Robert Turner, Su Yeon Lee-Tauler, Beverly A Pringle
Mental, neurological and substance-use (MNS) disorders comprise approximately 13% of the global burden of disease. The Grand Challenges in Global Mental Health Initiative has recently identified research priorities for the next decade to address prevention and treatment of MNS disorders. One main research priority is to identify the root causes, risks and protective factors associated with global mental health. Recent advances in cultural neuroscience have identified theoretical, methodological, and empirical methods of identifying biomarkers associated with mental health disorders across nations...
April 2017: Culture and Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641510/recent-advances-on-the-role-of-neurogenesis-in-the-adult-brain-therapeutic-potential-in-parkinson-s-and-alzheimer-s-diseases
#15
Khaled Salman Radad, Rudolf Moldzio, Mubarak Al-Shraim, Barbara Kranner, Christopher Krewenka, Wolf-Dieter Rausch
Generation of nascent functional neurons from neural stem cells in the adult brain has recently become largely accepted by the neuroscience community. In adult mammals including humans, the process of neurogenesis has been well documented in two brain regions; the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Some evidence has indicated neurogenesis in other regions of the adult mammalian brain such as the neocortex, cerebellum, striatum, amygdala and hypothalamus...
June 22, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620348/the-utility-of-fdg-pet-ct-in-clinically-suspected-paraneoplastic-neurological-syndrome-a-literature-review-and-retrospective-case-series
#16
Mark P Maskery, Jonathan Hill, John R Cain, Hedley C A Emsley
Paraneoplastic neurological syndrome (PNS) describes a spectrum of rare, heterogeneous neurological conditions associated with an underlying malignancy. Diagnosis of PNS is inherently difficult, with frequent misdiagnosis and delay. The literature suggests an underlying immune-mediated pathophysiology, and patients are usually tested for the presence of onconeural antibodies. With direct tumor therapy being the most effective method of stabilizing patients, there is a strong emphasis on detecting underlying tumors...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619447/similar-movements-are-associated-with-drastically-different-muscle-contraction-velocities
#17
Daniel A Hagen, Francisco J Valero-Cuevas
We investigated how kinematic redundancy interacts with the neurophysiological control mechanisms required for smooth and accurate, rapid limb movements. Biomechanically speaking, tendon excursions are over-determined because the rotation of few joints determines the lengths and velocities of many muscles. But how different are the muscle velocity profiles induced by various, equally valid hand trajectories? We used an 18-muscle sagittal-plane arm model to calculate 100,000 feasible shoulder, elbow, and wrist joint rotations that produced valid basketball free throws with different hand trajectories, but identical initial and final hand positions and velocities...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612130/acute-brain-diseases-as-triggers-for-stress-cardiomyopathy-clinical-characteristics-and-outcomes
#18
Deena M Nasr, Sara Tomasini, Abhiram Prasad, Alejandro A Rabinstein
OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with neurogenic stress cardiomyopathy (NSC) among patients admitted to our neuroscience intensive care unit (NICU). METHODS: Following institutional review board approval, consecutive adult patients admitted to the NICU between 2009 and 2013 with definite and possible NSC were included. Data on patient demographics, baseline clinical information, cardiac function, and laboratory values were collected...
June 13, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612089/the-intensive-care-delirium-research-agenda-a-multinational-interprofessional-perspective
#19
REVIEW
Pratik P Pandharipande, E Wesley Ely, Rakesh C Arora, Michele C Balas, Malaz A Boustani, Gabriel Heras La Calle, Colm Cunningham, John W Devlin, Julius Elefante, Jin H Han, Alasdair M MacLullich, José R Maldonado, Alessandro Morandi, Dale M Needham, Valerie J Page, Louise Rose, Jorge I F Salluh, Tarek Sharshar, Yahya Shehabi, Yoanna Skrobik, Arjen J C Slooter, Heidi A B Smith
Delirium, a prevalent organ dysfunction in critically ill patients, is independently associated with increased morbidity. This last decade has witnessed an exponential growth in delirium research in hospitalized patients, including those critically ill, and this research has highlighted that delirium needs to be better understood mechanistically to help foster research that will ultimately lead to its prevention and treatment. In this invited, evidence-based paper, a multinational and interprofessional group of clinicians and researchers from within the fields of critical care medicine, psychiatry, pediatrics, anesthesiology, geriatrics, surgery, neurology, nursing, pharmacy, and the neurosciences sought to address five questions: (1) What is the current standard of care in managing ICU delirium? (2) What have been the major recent advances in delirium research and care? (3) What are the common delirium beliefs that have been challenged by recent trials? (4) What are the remaining areas of uncertainty in delirium research? (5) What are some of the top study areas/trials to be done in the next 10 years? Herein, we briefly review the epidemiology of delirium, the current best practices for management of critically ill patients at risk for delirium or experiencing delirium, identify recent advances in our understanding of delirium as well as gaps in knowledge, and discuss research opportunities and barriers to implementation, with the goal of promoting an integrated research agenda...
June 13, 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602852/repeated-ethanol-exposure-alters-social-behavior-and-oxidative-stress-parameters-of-zebrafish
#20
Talise Ellwanger Müller, Stenio Zimermann Nunes, Ariane Silveira, Vania Lucia Loro, Denis Broock Rosemberg
Repeated ethanol (EtOH) consumption induces neurological disorders in humans and is considered an important public health problem. The physiological effects of EtOH are dose- and time-dependent, causing relevant changes in the social behavior. In addition, alcohol-induced oxidative stress has been proposed as a key mechanism involved in EtOH neurotoxicity. Here we investigate for the first time whether repeated EtOH exposure (REE) alters the social behavior of zebrafish and influences brain oxidation processes...
June 7, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
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