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Neuroscience neurology

Nita A Farahany
The goal of this study was to examine the growing use of neurological and behavioral genetic evidence by criminal defendants in US criminal law. Judicial opinions issued between 2005-12 that discussed the use of neuroscience or behavioral genetics by criminal defendants were identified, coded and analysed. Criminal defendants are increasingly introducing such evidence to challenge defendants' competency, the effectiveness of defense counsel at trial, and to mitigate punishment.
November 2015: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
Rachel Newby, Jane Alty, Peter Kempster
Mind-brain dualism has dominated historical commentary on dystonia, a dichotomous approach that has left our conceptual grasp of it stubbornly incomplete. This is particularly true of functional dystonia, most diagnostically challenging of all functional movement disorders, in which the question of inherent psychogenicity remains a focus of debate. Phenomenological signs considered in isolation lack the specificity to distinguish organic and nonorganic forms, and dystonia's variability has frustrated attempts to develop objective laboratory-supported standards...
October 18, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Barbara Schildkrout
A new nosology for mental disorders is needed as a basis for effective scientific inquiry. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and International Classification of Diseases diagnoses are not natural, biological categories, and these diagnostic systems do not address mental phenomena that exist on a spectrum. Advances in neuroscience offer the hope of breakthroughs for diagnosing and treating major mental illness in the future. At present, a neuroscience-based understanding of brain/behavior relationships can reshape clinical thinking...
October 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Pamela Sarkar, Alice Cole, Neil J Scolding, Claire M Rice
Background/Aims: With the notable exceptions of dementia, stroke, and motor neuron disease, relatively little is known about the safety and utility of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube insertion in patients with neurodegenerative disease. We aimed to determine the safety and utility of PEG feeding in the context of neurodegenerative disease and to complete a literature review in order to identify whether particular factors need to be considered to improve safety and outcome...
October 13, 2016: Clinical Endoscopy
E Carlino, A Piedimonte, F Benedetti
Placebos have long been considered a nuisance in clinical research, for they have always been used as comparators for the validation of new treatments. By contrast, today they represent an active field of research, and, due to the involvement of many mechanisms, the study of the placebo effect can actually be viewed as a melting pot of concepts and ideas for neuroscience. There is not a single placebo effect, but many, with different mechanisms across different medical conditions and therapeutic interventions...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
D M Baguley, T E Cope, D J McFerran
There are a number of auditory symptom syndromes that can develop without an organic basis. Some of these, such as nonorganic hearing loss, affect populations similar to those presenting with functional somatosensory and motor symptoms, while others, such as musical hallucination, affect populations with a significantly different demographic and require different treatment strategies. Many of these conditions owe their origin to measurably abnormal peripheral sensory pathology or brain network activity, but their pathological impact is often due, at least in part, to overamplification of the salience of these phenomena...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
A Carson, L Ludwig, K Welch
In this chapter we review key psychologic theories that have been mooted as possible explanations for the etiology of functional neurologic symptoms, conversion disorder, and hysteria. We cover Freudian psychoanalysis and later object relations and attachment theories, social theories, illness behavior, classic and operant conditioning, social learning theory, self-regulation theory, cognitive-behavioral theories, and mindfulness. Dissociation and modern cognitive neuroscience theories are covered in other chapters in this series and, although of central importance, are omitted from this chapter...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Agustín Ibáñez, Adolfo M García, Sol Esteves, Adrián Yoris, Edinson Muñoz, Lucila Reynaldo, Marcos Luis Pietto, Federico Adolfi, Facundo Manes
Multiple disorders once jointly conceived as 'nervous diseases' became segregated by the distinct institutional traditions forged in neurology and psychiatry. As a result, each field specialized in the study and treatment of a subset of such conditions. Here we propose new avenues for interdisciplinary interaction through a triangulation of both fields with social neuroscience. To this end, we review evidence from five relevant domains (facial emotion recognition, empathy, theory of mind, moral cognition, social context assessment), highlighting their common disturbances across neurological and psychiatric conditions and discussing their multiple pathophysiological mechanisms...
October 6, 2016: Social Neuroscience
Jaak Panksepp
During the past half century of research with preclinical animal models, affective neuroscience has helped identify and illuminate the functional neuroanatomies and neurochemistries of seven primary process, i.e., genetically provided emotional systems of mammalian brains. All are subcortically localized, allowing animal models to guide the needed behavioral and neuroscientific analyses at levels of detail that cannot be achieved through human research, including modern brain imaging. They consist of the following neuronal processes: SEEKING/Enthusiasm, RAGE/Anger, FEAR/Anxiety, sexual LUST/Passion, maternal CARE/Nurturance, separation-distress PANIC/Grief and PLAY/Social Joy...
October 2, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
P Moore, C Jackson, K Mutch, A Methley, C Pollard, S Hamid, A Jacob
OBJECTIVE: This study outlines the development of a patient-reported outcome measure (PROM), an instrument to obtain self-reported health status for neuromyeltis optica (NMO), a disabling neurological condition. DESIGN: Development was conducted in accordance with international guidance for PROMs including systematic review of existing literature, item generation guided by qualitative interviews, health-related quality of life conceptual framework and clinical expert panel and cognitive interviews with NMO patients...
September 30, 2016: BMJ Open
Joanne Trinh, Emil K Gustavsson, Carles Vilariño-Güell, Stephanie Bortnick, Jeanne Latourelle, Marna B McKenzie, Chelsea Szu Tu, Ekaterina Nosova, Jaskaran Khinda, Austen Milnerwood, Suzanne Lesage, Alexis Brice, Meriem Tazir, Jan O Aasly, Laura Parkkinen, Hazal Haytural, Tatiana Foroud, Richard H Myers, Samia Ben Sassi, Emna Hentati, Fatma Nabli, Emna Farhat, Rim Amouri, Fayçal Hentati, Matthew J Farrer
BACKGROUND: Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) mutation 6055G→A (Gly2019Ser) accounts for roughly 1% of patients with Parkinson's disease in white populations, 13-30% in Ashkenazi Jewish populations, and 30-40% in North African Arab-Berber populations, although age of onset is variable. Some carriers have early-onset parkinsonism, whereas others remain asymptomatic despite advanced age. We aimed to use a genome-wide approach to identify genetic variability that directly affects LRRK2 Gly2019Ser penetrance...
November 2016: Lancet Neurology
Marina A Pavlova
As the most fascinating, complex, and dynamic part of our organism, the human brain is shaped by many interacting factors that not only are of neurobiological (including sex hormones) and environmental origin but are also sociocultural in their very nature (such as social roles). Gender is one of these factors. Most neurological, neurodevelopmental, neuropsychiatric, and psychosomatic disorders are characterized by impairments in visual social cognition (primarily body language reading and face perception) and a skewed sex ratio: females and males are affected differently in terms of clinical picture, prevalence, and severity...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Dorota Monies, Hindi N Alhindi, Mohamed A Almuhaizea, Mohamed Abouelhoda, Anas M Alazami, Ewa Goljan, Banan Alyounes, Dyala Jaroudi, Abdulelah AlIssa, Khalid Alabdulrahman, Shazia Subhani, Mohamed El-Kalioby, Tariq Faquih, Salma M Wakil, Nada A Altassan, Brian F Meyer, Saeed Bohlega
BACKGROUND: Fifty random genetically unstudied families (limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD)/myopathy) were screened with a gene panel incorporating 759 OMIM genes associated with neurological disorders. Average coverage of the CDS and 10 bp flanking regions of genes was 99 %. All families were referred to the Neurosciences Clinic of King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Saudi Arabia. Patients presented with muscle weakness affecting the pelvic and shoulder girdle. Muscle biopsy in all cases showed dystrophic or myopathic changes...
September 27, 2016: Human Genomics
Christopher S Graffeo, Avital Perry, Eelco F M Wijdicks
BACKGROUND: Intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and spinal subdural hematoma (SDH) are rare complications of spine surgery, thought to be precipitated by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypotension in the setting of an intraoperative durotomy or postoperative CSF leak. Considerable clinical variability has been reported, requiring a high level of clinical suspicion in patients with a new, unexplained neurologic deficit after spine surgery. METHODS: Case report...
September 22, 2016: Neurocritical Care
Carolin S Hoefig, Riccardo Zucchi, Josef Koehrle
Thyronamines (3-T1AM, T0AM) are endogenous compounds probably derived from T4 or its intermediate metabolites. Combined activities of intestinal deiodinases and ornithine decarboxylase generate 3-T1AM in vitro. Alternatively, 3-T1AM might be formed by the thyroid gland and secreted into the blood. 3-T1AM and T0AM concentrations have been determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis (LC-MS/MS) in tissues, serum and cell lines. However, large variations of 3-T1AM concentrations in human serum were reported by LC-MS/MS compared to a monoclonal antibody-based immunoassay...
September 21, 2016: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
Yichen Lu, Hongming Lyu, Andrew G Richardson, Timothy H Lucas, Duygu Kuzum
Neural sensing and stimulation have been the backbone of neuroscience research, brain-machine interfaces and clinical neuromodulation therapies for decades. To-date, most of the neural stimulation systems have relied on sharp metal microelectrodes with poor electrochemical properties that induce extensive damage to the tissue and significantly degrade the long-term stability of implantable systems. Here, we demonstrate a flexible cortical microelectrode array based on porous graphene, which is capable of efficient electrophysiological sensing and stimulation from the brain surface, without penetrating into the tissue...
September 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Natalya Lisovska, Zholtay Daribayev, Yevgeny Lisovskyy, Kenzhe Kussainova, Lana Austin, Sholpan Bulekbayeva
BACKGROUND: The cerebral palsy is highly actual issue of pediatrics, causing significant neurological disability. Though the great progress in the neuroscience has been recently achieved, the pathogenesis of cerebral palsy is still poorly understood. METHODS: In this work, we reviewed available experimental and clinical data concerning the role of immune cells in pathogenesis of cerebral palsy. Maintaining of homeostasis in nervous tissue and its transformation in case of periventricular leukomalacia were analyzed...
September 14, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
J Lansley, C Selai, A S Krishnan, K Lobotesis, H R Jäger
OBJECTIVES: To establish if emergency medicine and neuroscience specialist consultants have different risk tolerances for investigation of suspected spontaneous subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), and to establish if their risk-benefit appraisals concur with current guidelines. SETTING: 4 major neuroscience centres in London. PARTICIPANTS: 58 consultants in emergency medicine and neuroscience specialities (neurology, neurosurgery and neuroradiology) participated in an anonymous survey...
September 15, 2016: BMJ Open
Andrew D Tieniber, William J Readdy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
Miguel Lafarga, Olga Tapia, Ana M Romero, Maria T Berciano
Cajal is commonly regarded as the father of modern neuroscience in recognition of his fundamental work on the structure of the nervous system. But Cajal also made seminal contributions to the knowledge of nuclear structure in the early 1900s, including the discovery of the "accessory body" later renamed "Cajal body" (CB). This important nuclear structure has emerged as a center for the assembly of ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) required for splicing, ribosome biogenesis and telomere maintenance. The modern era of CB research started in the 1990s with the discovery of coilin, now known as a scaffold protein of CBs, and specific probes for small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs)...
September 14, 2016: RNA Biology
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