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Neuroscience neurology

Peter J Hamilton, Carissa J Lim, Eric J Nestler, Elizabeth A Heller
Studies of the mammalian nervous system have revealed widespread epigenetic regulation underlying gene expression intrinsic to basic neurobiological function as well as neurological disease. Over the past decade, a critical role has emerged for the neural regulation of chromatin-modifying enzymes during both development and adulthood, and in response to external stimuli. These biochemical data are complemented by numerous next generation sequencing (NGS) studies that quantify the extent of chromatin and DNA modifications in neurons...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Ricardo F Allegri, Pablo Bagnatti
The first step from the neuropsychology in Argentina was in 1883 with the thesis of Antonio Piñeiro about the brain localization of the language and vision disorders, only few years after Broca. The aim of this work has been to describe the development of the neuropsychology in Argentina and its relation with the psychology, neurology and psychiatry. The first period was into the neurology with its French school in?uence. In 1907, Jose Ingeniero published in French his book about "amusia", Cristofredo Jakob the "folia neurobiologica" where he described the organization of the human brain, Vicente Dimitri in 1933 his book "aphasia" and Bernardo de Quiros in 1959 his works about dyslexia...
November 2017: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
Roberta Ronchi, Hyeong-Dong Park, Olaf Blanke
Research in clinical and human neuroscience indicates that important brain mechanisms of self-consciousness are based on the integration of multisensory bodily signals (i.e., bodily self-consciousness: BSC), including signals coming from outside our body (i.e., exteroceptive signals, such as tactile, auditory, and visual information) and the inside of our body (i.e., interoceptive signals). In this chapter, we discuss selected behavioral and neuroimaging studies about how multisensory integration generates and modulates BSC in humans, with particular relevance to parietal mechanisms...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
A Klin, W Jones
The future of neurodevelopmental medicine has the potential of situating child neurology at the forefront of a broad-based public health effort to optimize neurodevelopmental outcomes of children born with high-prevalence and diverse genetic, pre- and peri-natal, and environmental burdens compromising early brain development and leading to lifetime disabilities. Building on advancements in developmental social neuroscience and in implementation science, this shift is already occurring in the case of emblematic neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism...
March 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
Sushma Yerram, Nakul Katyal, Keerthivaas Premkumar, Premkumar Nattanmai, Christopher R Newey
Background: Seizures are a considerable complication in critically ill patients. Their incidence is significantly high in neurosciences intensive care unit patients. Seizure prophylaxis with anti-epileptic drugs is a common practice in neurosciences intensive care unit. However, its utility in patients without clinical seizure, with an underlying neurological injury, is somewhat controversial. Body: In this article, we have reviewed the evidence for seizure prophylaxis in commonly encountered neurological conditions in neurosciences intensive care unit and discussed the possible prognostic role of continuous electroencephalography monitoring in detecting early seizures in critically ill patients...
2018: Journal of Intensive Care
Asim Azhar, Qamar Zia, Shakeel Ahmad Ansari, Muhammad Amjad Kamal, Athanasios Alexiou, Nagendra Sastry Yarla, Ghulam Md Ashraf
Nanotechnology exploits materials and devices with a functional organization that has been engineered at the nanometre scale. The application of nanotechnology in neuroscience involves specific interactions with neurons and glial cells. This property is used for delivering drugs and other small molecules (such as genes, oligonucleotides and contrasting agents) across the blood brain barrier (BBB), an important requirement for delivering the drug successfully to the brain. Nanotechnology based approaches (NBA) favoured transcytosis-mediated delivery of nanoparticles to the brain by crossing the BBB...
March 5, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
Stephen Keddie, Ashok Adams, Andrew R C Kelso, Benjamin Turner, Klaus Schmierer, Sharmilee Gnanapavan, Andrea Malaspina, Gavin Giovannoni, Ian Basnett, Alastair J Noyce
BACKGROUND: Whilst the dangers of 'legal highs' have been widely publicised in the media, very few cases of the neurological syndrome associated with the inhalation of nitrous oxide (N2 O) have been reported. Here we set out to raise awareness of subacute degeneration of the spinal cord arising from recreational N2 O use so that formal surveillance programs and public health interventions can be designed. METHODS: Case series documenting the clinical and investigational features of ten consecutive cases of subacute degeneration of the spinal cord presenting to a hospital with a tertiary neurosciences service in East London...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Elaine Setiawan, Sophia Attwells, Alan A Wilson, Romina Mizrahi, Pablo M Rusjan, Laura Miler, Cynthia Xu, Sarita Sharma, Stephen Kish, Sylvain Houle, Jeffrey H Meyer
BACKGROUND: People with major depressive disorder frequently exhibit increasing persistence of major depressive episodes. However, evidence for neuroprogression (ie, increasing brain pathology with longer duration of illness) is scarce. Microglial activation, which is an important component of neuroinflammation, is implicated in neuroprogression. We examined the relationship of translocator protein (TSPO) total distribution volume (VT ), a marker of microglial activation, with duration of untreated major depressive disorder, and with total illness duration and antidepressant exposure...
February 26, 2018: Lancet Psychiatry
Michelle Freund, Anna Taylor, Cathy Ng, A Roger Little
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) NeuroBioBank is a federally funded research resource for human neurologic diseases and disorders. This chapter will discuss the principles that guided the creation of the NIH NeuroBioBank and the rationale for the resource model selected. In addition, we will describe some performance metrics in the first 2 years and highlight recent advances in biomedical neuroscience that could only have been achieved using postmortem human tissues. The NIH NeuroBioBank was created in order to increase availability of high-quality postmortem human brain tissues to the research community across a broad spectrum of neurologic diseases and disorders, and to achieve economies of scale over previous funding and organizational models...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Colin Smith, Tracey Millar
Brain banks typically receive donations through premortem consent procedures, often through disease-specific patient cohorts, such as dementia. While some control cases can be obtained through this route, access to age-matched control tissues, and some chronic neurologic conditions, particularly psychiatric disorders, can be challenging. The Edinburgh Sudden Death Brain Bank was established to try and increase access to control cases across all ages, and also access to psychiatric disorders through suicides...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Orsolya Györfi, Helga Nagy, Magdolna Bokor, Szabolcs Kéri
The link between the hippocampus and declarative memory dysfunctions following the removal of the medial temporal lobe opened unexplored fields in neuroscience. In the first part of our review, we summarized current theoretical frameworks discussing the role of hippocampus in learning and memory. Several theories are highlighted suggesting that the hippocampus is responsible for assembling stimulus elements into a unitary representation that later can be utilized to simulate future events. The hippocampal formation has been implicated in a growing number of disorders, from neurodegenerative diseases to atypical cognitive ageing and depression...
January 30, 2018: Ideggyógyászati Szemle
K Forbes
Magnetic resonance imaging has become a widely used clinical tool for the assessment of neurologic symptoms, as well as being increasingly used in neuroscience research. White matter hyperintensities are common findings on brain imaging and their discovery leads to questions about best management, especially when findings are incidental or not considered relevant to the patient's presentation. This review will discuss the varied causes of white matter hyperintensities, consider how best to distinguish between them radiologically, and when they might have potential clinical relevance...
September 2017: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
Ethan G Brown, S Andrew Josephson, Noriko Anderson, Mary Reid, Melissa Lee, Vanja C Douglas
BACKGROUND: Delirium is a frequent and detrimental complication of inpatient hospitalization. Multicomponent intervention in selected groups has been shown to prevent and treat delirium, though little data exists on the effect of intervention in neurological patients. We studied the efficacy of a multicomponent delirium care pathway implemented on a largely neurology and neurosurgery hospital ward among unselected patients. METHODS: We incorporated a multicomponent delirium care pathway into the workflow of a university hospital for patients older than 50 years...
February 12, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Beatriz M Fonseca, Ana C Cristóvão, Gilberto Alves
INTRODUCTION: To comprehend the normal function and pathological characteristics of certain neurological disorders it is important to evaluate the neuroactive amino acids levels in animal models. METHODS: This work describes a simple liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection (LC-FLD) method for the simultaneous determination of aspartic acid (Asp), glutamic acid (Glu), glutamine (Gln), taurine (Tau) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), using methyl-L-arginine as internal standard, in samples of rat brain tissue...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
David B Bylund, S J Enna
Although Solomon Snyder authored hundreds of research reports and several books covering a broad range of topics in the neurosciences, he is best known by many as the person who developed neurotransmitter receptor radioligand binding assays. By demonstrating the utility of this approach for studying transmitter receptors in brain, Dr. Snyder provided the scientific community with a powerful new tool for identifying and characterizing these sites, for defining their relationship to neurological and psychiatric disorders, and their involvement in mediating the actions of psychotherapeutics...
2018: Advances in Pharmacology
Björn Nitzsche, Johannes Boltze, Eberhard Ludewig, Thomas Flegel, Martin J Schmidt, Johannes Seeger, Henryk Barthel, Olivia W Brooks, Matthew J Gounis, Michael H Stoffel, Sabine Schulze
Stereotaxic systems and automatic tissue segmentation routines enable neuronavigation as well as reproducible processing of neuroimage datasets. Such systems have been developed for humans, non-human-primates, sheep, and rodents, but not for dogs. Although dogs share important neurofunctional and -anatomical features with humans, and in spite of their importance in translational neuroscience, little is known about the variability of the canine brain morphology and, possibly related, function. Moreover, we lack templates, tissue probability maps (TPM), and stereotaxic brain labels for implementation in standard software utilities such as Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM)...
January 30, 2018: NeuroImage
Pratibha Surathi, Nitish Kamble, Ketaki Swapnil Bhalsing, Ravi Yadav, Pramod Kumar Pal
BACKGROUND: Several factors determine the choice of medications in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). We aimed to analyze the pattern of prescription of drugs in patients with PD before attending a tertiary-care center. METHODS: The study included chart review of 800 PD patients attending the Department of Neurology of the National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences in Bangalore, India. RESULTS: The mean age at onset was 51...
November 2017: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
Samr Dawood, Norman Poole, Robert Fung, Niruj Agrawal
Aims and method Psychiatric disorders are common in neurological in-patients, but they are under-recognised and undertreated. We investigated the frequency of detection of mental disorder and referral to psychiatric services in a regional neuroscience centre. The results were compared with the expected prevalence. All in-patient referrals received in 2014 from the in-patient wards of the regional neuroscience centre and acute neurological unit were reviewed. RESULTS: A total of 129 ward referrals were identified; of these, 78 were from the regional in-patient neurological unit, which comprised 11...
February 2018: BJPsych Bulletin
Stefan Frässle, Yu Yao, Dario Schöbi, Eduardo A Aponte, Jakob Heinzle, Klaas E Stephan
Despite the success of modern neuroimaging techniques in furthering our understanding of cognitive and pathophysiological processes, translation of these advances into clinically relevant tools has been virtually absent until now. Neuromodeling represents a powerful framework for overcoming this translational deadlock, and the development of computational models to solve clinical problems has become a major scientific goal over the last decade, as reflected by the emergence of clinically oriented neuromodeling fields like Computational Psychiatry, Computational Neurology, and Computational Psychosomatics...
January 25, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Hélio A Ghizoni Teive, Paulo Caramelli
This year marks the 75th year of publication of Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria (ANP), the official journal of the Brazilian Academy of Neurology and one of the most important neuroscience journals in Latin America. ANP was initially edited by Oswaldo Lange, its founder, and subsequently by Antonio Spina-França Netto and, in recent years, by José Antonio Livramento and Luís dos Ramos Machado.
January 2018: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
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