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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463058/generating-facial-expressions-of-disgust-activates-neurons-in-the-thoracic-spinal-cord-a-spinal-fmri-study
#1
Stephen D Smith, Jennifer Kornelsen, Theresa A McIver
Facial expressions of disgust, which involve movement of the levator labii muscles on the nose, allow an organism to restrict the intake of potentially aversive stimuli by constricting the air cavities in the nostrils and reducing the speed of air intake. In the current research, we used fMRI of the thoracic spinal cord to measure neural activity related to (1) the contraction of the intercostal muscles that modulate the velocity of air intake and (2) the sensory feedback associated with this contraction. Thirteen participants completed two spinal fMRI runs in which the thoracic segments of the spinal cord were measured...
May 8, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379190/assessment-of-the-indoor-odour-impact-in-a-naturally-ventilated-room
#2
Lidia Eusebio, Marco Derudi, Laura Capelli, Giuseppe Nano, Selena Sironi
Indoor air quality influences people's lives, potentially affecting their health and comfort. Nowadays, ventilation is the only technique commonly used for regulating indoor air quality. CO₂ is the reference species considered in order to calculate the air exchange rates of indoor environments. Indeed, regarding air quality, the presence of pleasant or unpleasant odours can strongly influence the environmental comfort. In this paper, a case study of indoor air quality monitoring is reported. The indoor field tests were conducted measuring both CO₂ concentration, using a photoacoustic multi-gas analyzer, and odour trends, using an electronic nose, in order to analyze and compare the information acquired...
April 5, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244843/a-simple-diagnostic-scale-based-on-the-analysis-and-screening-of-clinical-parameters-in-paediatric-obstructive-sleep-apnoea-hypopnea-syndrome
#3
D Wu, X Li, X Guo, J Qin, S Li
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to develop a simple and accurate method to diagnose paediatric obstructive sleep apnoea hypopnea syndrome. METHODS: A total of 311 children with suspected paediatric obstructive sleep apnoea hypopnea syndrome were included in the study. Multiple clinical parameters, including sex, age, body mass index, history of snoring or gasping, history of nasal obstruction, history of running nose, palatine tonsil size, adenoid to nasopharynx ratio, and tympanogram type, were compared with polysomnography results using relevant correlation and regression analyses...
April 2017: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139171/correlation-between-subjective-nasal-patency-and-intranasal-airflow-distribution
#4
Kevin P Casey, Azadeh A T Borojeni, Lisa J Koenig, John S Rhee, Guilherme J M Garcia
Objectives (1) Analyze the relationship between intranasal airflow distribution and subjective nasal patency in healthy and nasal airway obstruction (NAO) cohorts using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). (2) Determine whether intranasal airflow distribution is an important objective measure of airflow sensation that should be considered in future NAO virtual surgery planning. Study Design Cross-sectional. Setting Academic tertiary medical center and academic dental clinic. Subjects and Methods Three-dimensional models of nasal anatomy were created based on computed tomography scans of 15 patients with NAO and 15 healthy subjects and used to run CFD simulations of nasal airflow and mucosal cooling...
April 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116549/run-hide-or-fight-anti-predation-strategies-in-endangered-red-nosed-cuxi%C3%A3%C2%BA-chiropotes-albinasus-pitheciidae-in-southeastern-amazonia
#5
Adrian A Barnett, João M Silla, Tadeu de Oliveira, Sarah A Boyle, Bruna M Bezerra, Wilson R Spironello, Eleonore Z F Setz, Rafaela F Soares da Silva, Samara de Albuquerque Teixeira, Lucy M Todd, Liliam P Pinto
Although primate predation is rarely observed, a series of primate anti-predation strategies have been described. Energetic costs of such strategies can vary from high-cost mobbing, via less costly alarm calling, to low-cost furtive concealment. Here we report the anti-predation strategies of red-nosed cuxiú, Chiropotes albinasus, based on direct observations from four study sites in southeastern Brazilian Amazonia. Over a collective period of 1255 fieldwork hours, we observed nine direct interactions between raptors (all potential predators) and red-nosed cuxiús...
January 23, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047809/su-c-brc-07-parametrized-gpu-accelerated-electron-monte-carlo-second-check
#6
J Haywood
PURPOSE: I am presenting a parameterized 3D GPU accelerated electron Monte Carlo second check program. METHOD: I wrote the 3D grid dose calculation algorithm in CUDA and utilized an NVIDIA GeForce GTX 780 Ti to run all of the calculations. The electron path beyond the distal end of the cone is governed by four parameters: the amplitude of scattering (AMP), the mean and width of a Gaussian energy distribution (E and α), and the percentage of photons. In my code, I adjusted all parameters until the calculated PDD and profile fit the measured 10×10 open beam data within 1%/1mm...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974120/-influencing-factors-for-duration-of-viral-nucleic-acid-shedding-in-children-with-influenza-a
#7
Gao-Feng Zhou, Hong-Mei Wang, Rui-Mu Zhang, Ji-Kui Deng
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the features and duration of viral nucleic acid shedding in children with influenza A. METHODS: The clinical data of 90 children with influenza A with positive influenza A virus nucleic acid in nasopharyngeal swab detected by PCR were collected, and these children were divided into simple influenza A group (n=10), influenza A-pneumonia group (n=61), influenza A-nervous system damage group (n=10), and influenza A-underlying disease group (n=9)...
December 2016: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928962/neural-circuits-underlying-fly-larval-locomotion
#8
Hiroshi Kohsaka, Pierre A Guertin, Akinao Nose
Locomotion is a complex motor behavior that may be expressed in different ways using a variety of strategies depending upon species and pathological or environmental conditions. Quadrupedal or bipedal walking, running, swimming, flying and gliding constitute some of the locomotor modes enabling the body, in all cases, to move from one place to another. Despite these apparent differences in modes of locomotion, both vertebrate and invertebrate species share, at least in part, comparable neural control mechanisms for locomotor rhythm and pattern generation and modulation...
December 8, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659361/intraoperative-use-of-a-tablet-computer-to-aid-rhinoplasty
#9
M Tsounis, D Papadopoulou, C Faris
Open septorhinoplasty enables excellent exposure to the structural components of the nasal tip. Nevertheless, it runs the risk of weakening its support mechanisms, which can lead to notable changes to tip projection and rotation as well as to the nasolabial angle. It is therefore paramount that the surgeon reconstructs the nose to the desired endpoint at the end of the operation. Currently, the gold standard of care in rhinoplasty uses preoperative photographs with the patient sitting or standing. However, this is not a true representation of the face in the operative position as the patient is placed supine and so gravity affects the appearance of the nose in a different way...
January 2017: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641976/influenza-in-children
#10
REVIEW
Virendra Kumar
In children, influenza is one among the commonest causes of acute respiratory illness and loss of school days. Influenza A, B, and C are 3 types of viruses responsible for illness. Type A virus has many subtypes based on antigens but Type B and Type C viruses have no known subtypes. Currently, influenza A/H1N1, A/H3N2, and influenza type B viruses are circulating in humans. Transmission of influenza occurs through droplets from infected person or through direct contact with person or fomites. Clinically, influenza is characterized by acute onset fever, chills, running nose, cough, sore throat, headache and myalgia...
February 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27369840/preservation-of-nostril-morphology-in-nasal-base-reduction
#11
Norihiro Ohba, Mayuko Ohba
BACKGROUND: Asian patients often desire reduction of the base and alar lobules of the Asian mesorrhine nose. Sill excision is commonly used, but may result in an angular or notched nostril rim. METHODS: We developed an internal method of alar base reduction involving triangle flaps for sill resection. This method avoids alar rim notching and teardrop deformity. Cinching sutures and double-layer closure avoid tension on the wound. We categorized the results in 50 patients (4 men, 46 women) who underwent surgery between November 2012 and August 2015 and who could be followed up for more than 3 months...
October 2016: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27260579/the-effect-of-mouth-breathing-on-exercise-induced-fall-in-lung-function-in-children-with-allergic-asthma-and-rhinitis
#12
Mirjana Turkalj, Jelena Živković, Marcel Lipej, Sandra Bulat Lokas, Damir Erceg, Srđan Ante Anzić, Robert Magdić, Davor Plavec
OBJECTIVES: Exercise induced bronchospasm (EIB) represents a common feature of childhood asthma which is most commonly revealed during free running. On the other hand aerobic exercise shows significant beneficial effects in asthmatics especially on the reduction of the level of systemic inflammation and is recommended as part of its treatment. The aim of this study was to test how mandatory mouth breathing influences the exercise induced level of decrease in lung function according to the level of severity of allergic rhinitis (AR)...
July 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27182735/sequential-measurement-of-intermodal-variability-in-public-transportation-pm2-5-and-co-exposure-concentrations
#13
W W Che, H Christopher Frey, Alexis K H Lau
A sequential measurement method is demonstrated for quantifying the variability in exposure concentration during public transportation. This method was applied in Hong Kong by measuring PM2.5 and CO concentrations along a route connecting 13 transportation-related microenvironments within 3-4 h. The study design takes into account ventilation, proximity to local sources, area-wide air quality, and meteorological conditions. Portable instruments were compacted into a backpack to facilitate measurement under crowded transportation conditions and to quantify personal exposure by sampling at nose level...
August 16, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27128405/-evidence-and-evidence-gaps-an-introduction
#14
G Dreier, J Löhler
BACKGROUND: Treating patients requires the inclusion of existing evidence in any health care decision, to be able to choose the best diagnosis or treatment measure or to make valid prognosis statements for a particular patient in consideration of the physician's own expertise.The basis are clinical trials, the results of which are ideally gathered in systematic reviews, rated, summarized and published. In addition to the GCP (Good Clinical Practice)-compliant planning, conducting and analysis of clinical studies it is essential, that all study results are made publicly available, in order to avoid publication bias...
April 2016: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27116494/temporary-medial-upper-eyelid-lagophthalmos-after-external-dacryocystorhinostomy
#15
I O Haefliger, O Meienberg, A R Pimentel de Figueiredo
Background. Report of three cases of medial upper eyelid lagophthalmos as complication of external dacryocystorhinostomy. History and Signs. Shortly after dacryocystorhinostomy (skin incision on the side of the nose), three of ten consecutive patients (28 ± 4 years; mean ± standard deviation), presented with an ipsilateral lagophthalmos of 4 ± 1 mm in voluntary eyelid closure and 6 ± 1 mm in spontaneous blink. The lagophthalmos was due to a selective paresis of the medial part of the orbicularis oculi muscle of the upper eyelid...
April 2016: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26919465/antibiotic-self-prescribing-trends-experiences-and-attitudes-in-upper-respiratory-tract-infection-among-pharmacy-and-non-pharmacy-students-a-study-from-lahore
#16
Zikria Saleem, Hamid Saeed, Mobasher Ahmad, Mahrukh Yousaf, Hafsa Binte Hassan, Ayesha Javed, Nida Anees, Sonu Maharjan
Pharmacists are the custodians of drugs; hence their education, training, behaviors and experiences would affect the future use of drugs at community and hospital pharmacies. Therefore, we aimed at evaluating the self-prescribing antibiotic trends, knowledge and attitudes among pharmacy and non-pharmacy students. We found that pharmacy students had higher risks of experiencing URIs related symptoms such as cough (RR; 1.7, p = 0.002), allergy (RR; 2.07, p = 0.03) and running nose (RR; 3.17, p<0.005), compared to non-pharmacy students -resulting in higher probabilities of selecting cough syrups (OR; 2...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26846122/randomized-trial-of-acupoints-herbal-patching-in-sanfu-days-for-asthma-in-clinical-remission-stage
#17
Libing Zhu, Wei Zhang, Vivian Wong, Ziea Eric, Lixing Lao, Kwaiching Lo, Waichung Chan, To Yau, Lei Li
BACKGROUND: Although China has a long history of using acupoints herbal patching (acupoints herbal patching means applying herbal patch on special acupoints to stimulate skin to form blisters, hyperemia, and even suppuration) in Sanfu Days (Sanfu Days are supposed to be the three hottest days in a year which is calculated by the ancient calendar) for the treatment of asthma, there is insufficient evidence to support its effectiveness and safety issues. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of acupoints herbal patching compared with placebo in participants with asthma in clinical remission stage...
March 2016: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26773939/large-scale-cfd-simulations-of-the-transitional-and-turbulent-regime-for-the-large-human-airways-during-rapid-inhalation
#18
Hadrien Calmet, Alberto M Gambaruto, Alister J Bates, Mariano Vázquez, Guillaume Houzeaux, Denis J Doorly
The dynamics of unsteady flow in the human large airways during a rapid inhalation were investigated using highly detailed large-scale computational fluid dynamics on a subject-specific geometry. The simulations were performed to resolve all the spatial and temporal scales of the flow, thanks to the use of massive computational resources. A highly parallel finite element code was used, running on two supercomputers, solving the transient incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured meshes. Given that the finest mesh contained 350 million elements, the study sets a precedent for large-scale simulations of the respiratory system, proposing an analysis strategy for mean flow, fluctuations and wall shear stresses on a rapid and short inhalation (a so-called sniff)...
February 1, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26602290/effect-of-bovine-lactoferrin-from-iron-fortified-formulas-on-diarrhea-and-respiratory-tract-infections-of-weaned-infants-in-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Ke Chen, Lingying Chai, Hua Li, Ying Zhang, Hu-Mina Xie, Jia Shang, Weizheng Tian, Ping Yang, Alice C Jiang
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplementation with bovine lactoferrin (bLf) from iron-fortified formulas on diarrhea and respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in weaned infants. METHODS: In this prospective, multicenter, controlled intervention study, 260 infants ages 4 to 6 mo who previously were exclusively breastfed but weaned were randomized into two groups: a lactoferrin-fortified formula milk group (fortified group, FG, containing lactoferrin 38 mg/100 g milk) and a no lactoferrin-fortified milk (control group, CG); breastfed infants were enrolled and served as a reference group (breastfed group, BG)...
February 2016: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26567471/factors-associated-with-allergic-rhinitis-in-colombian-subpopulations-aged-1-to-17-and-18-to-59
#20
Augusto Peñaranda, Elizabeth Garcia, Ana M Barragán, Martín A Rondón, Adriana Pérez, María X Rojas, Luis Caraballo, Rodolfo J Dennis
BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown variations in the prevalence of allergic rhinitis (AR) around the world, and different potential predisposing factors. More studies are needed on risk factors, specifically in developing countries. This study explored the association of several factors and AR among urban residents in six cities of Colombia. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional study and a nested case-control study were carried out between 2009 and 2010 involving two Colombian subpopulations: children/adolescents and adults...
March 2016: Rhinology
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