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Fenix W D Huang, Christian M Reidys
: In this paper we introduce a novel, context-free grammar, RNAFeatures(*), capable of generating any RNA structure including pseudoknot structures (pk-structure). We represent pk-structures as orientable fatgraphs, which naturally leads to a filtration by their topological genus. Within this framework, RNA secondary structures correspond to pk-structures of genus zero. RNAFeatures(*) acts on formal, arc-labeled RNA secondary structures, called λ-structures. λ-structures correspond one-to-one to pk-structures together with some additional information...
October 20, 2016: Mathematical Biosciences
Sally Pears, Maaike Bijker, Katie Morton, Joana Vasconcelos, Richard A Parker, Kate Westgate, Soren Brage, Ed Wilson, A Toby Prevost, Ann-Louise Kinmonth, Simon Griffin, Stephen Sutton, Wendy Hardeman
BACKGROUND: Very brief interventions (VBIs) for physical activity are promising, but there is uncertainty about their potential effectiveness and cost. We assessed potential efficacy, feasibility, acceptability, and cost of three VBIs in primary care, in order to select the most promising intervention for evaluation in a subsequent large-scale RCT. METHODS: Three hundred and ninety four adults aged 40-74 years were randomised to a Motivational (n = 83), Pedometer (n = 74), or Combined (n = 80) intervention, delivered immediately after a preventative health check in primary care, or control (Health Check only; n = 157)...
September 30, 2016: BMC Public Health
Christopher Barrett, Fenix W Huang, Christian M Reidys
MOTIVATION: DNA data is transcribed into single-stranded RNA, which folds into specific molecular structures. In this paper we pose the question to what extent sequence- and structure-information correlate. We view this correlation as structural semantics of sequence data that allows for a different interpretation than conventional sequence alignment. Structural semantics could enable us to identify more general embedded "patterns" in DNA and RNA sequences. RESULTS: We compute the partition function of sequences with respect to a fixed structure and connect this computation to the mutual information of a sequence-structure pair for RNA secondary structures...
September 30, 2016: Bioinformatics
Russell C Kirks, T E Barnes, Patrick D Lorimer, Allyson Cochran, Imran Siddiqui, John B Martinie, Erin H Baker, David A Iannitti, Dionisios Vrochides
BACKGROUND: Outcomes following repair of common bile duct injury (CBDI) are influenced by center and surgeon experience. Determinants of morbidity related to timing of repair are not fully described in this population. METHODS: Patients with CBDI managed surgically at a single center from January 2008 to June 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Outcomes of patients undergoing early (≤48 h from injury) and delayed (>48 h) repair were compared. Predictive modeling for readmission was performed for patients undergoing delayed repair...
September 2016: HPB: the Official Journal of the International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association
M S Ulu, M Beker-Acay, S Ulu, E Unlu, A Bucak, G Yaman, A Altug, M S Tekin, S Oruc
OBJECTIVES: Vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI) is a pathology arising from the reduction in flow rate of vertebral arteries and mainly caused by inflammation and atherosclerosis. Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) is a marker which has been recently recognized as a marker of inflammation and atherosclerosis. We aimed to investigate the relationship between GGT levels and VBI for the first time. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, of 3100 subjects who had vertebrobasilar doppler ultrasonography (VBU) were evaluated and 1042 of them who met the inclusion criterias were included...
2016: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
Bili Su, Yongjun Kan, Jianwei Xie, Juan Hu, Wensheng Pang
The complexity of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) is related to their multi-component system. TCM aqueous decoction is a common clinical oral formulation. Between molecules in solution, there exist intermolecular strong interactions to form chemical bonds or weak non-bonding interactions such as hydrogen bonds and Van der Waals forces, which hold molecules together to form "molecular aggregates". Taking the TCM Puerariae lobatae Radix (Gegen) as an example, we explored four Gegen decoctions of different concentration of 0...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Joanna Mitchell, Wendy Hardeman, Sally Pears, Joana C Vasconcelos, A Toby Prevost, Ed Wilson, Stephen Sutton
BACKGROUND: Physical activity interventions that are targeted at individuals can be effective in encouraging people to be more physically active. However, most such interventions are too long or complex and not scalable to the general population. This trial will test the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a very brief physical activity intervention when delivered as part of preventative health checks in primary care (National Health Service (NHS) Health Check). METHODS/DESIGN: The Very Brief Intervention (VBI) Trial is a two parallel-group, randomised, controlled trial with 1:1 individual allocation and follow-up at 3 months...
2016: Trials
S Attwood, K L Morton, J Mitchell, M Van Emmenis, S Sutton
OBJECTIVES: To explore reasons for non-participation in a primary care-based physical activity trial and understand how these may contribute to recruitment of non-representative research samples. We also aimed to elicit non-participants' own recommendations for enhancing trial uptake in primary care. DESIGN: Semistructured telephone interviews with non-participants to a randomised controlled trial of a very brief intervention for promoting physical activity conducted in primary care (the Very Brief Interventions trial), with thematic analysis of interview transcripts...
2016: BMJ Open
Yin-Hsuan Hsu, Hsiao-Yun Hu, Yu-Chwen Chiu, Fei-Peng Lee, Hung-Meng Huang
IMPORTANCE: Little is known about the association between sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) and vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI). OBJECTIVE: To explore the association between SSNHL and VBI. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This investigation was a population-based, case-control study. Patients from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2011, were retrospectively identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, which includes claims data on a random sample of 1 million people...
July 1, 2016: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
Cyril Thomas, André Didierjean
In the vanishing ball illusion (VBI), the magician throws a ball up into the air twice and then pretends to do a third throw. On the third (fake) throw, the audience sees the ball go up and then disappear. In this article, we study the psychological mechanisms at play in this magic trick. We test the hypothesis that the illusion is based on representational momentum (RM), a psychological phenomenon in which the observer perceives the stopping point of a moving scene as being located farther ahead in the direction of motion than it really is...
May 16, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
David W McNeal, Dieter D Brandner, Xi Gong, Nadia O Postupna, Thomas J Montine, C Dirk Keene, Stephen A Back
Cerebral white matter injury (WMI) contributes to cognitive dysfunction associated with pathological aging. Because reactive astrocyte-related factors contribute to remyelination failure after WMI, we sought accurate, cost-effective, and reproducible histopathological approaches for quantification of morphometric features of reactive astrogliosis in aged human white matter in patients with vascular brain injury (VBI). We compared 7 distinct approaches to quantify the features of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-labeled astrocytes in the prefrontal white matter of brains from patients with VBI (n = 17, mean age 88...
June 2016: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
Yan-Yan Chen, Wen Chen, Qing Zhang, Hui Li, Ye-Wen Zhang, Qian Kang, Y I Lan, Qing Wu
The present meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of puerarin co-treatment with betahistine in treating vertebrobasilar ischemia (VBI) vertigo. A total of 6 medical databases were searched, identifying randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of VBI vertigo performed until August 2014 that investigated a combined treatment of puerarin with betahistine or with other conventional drugs. The quality of the literature was evaluated using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias, and Rev Man 5...
March 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Kunpeng Li, Zhong Li, Xiaofeng Ren, Hui Xu, Wen Zhang, Dawei Luo, Jinzhu Ma
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of percutaneous pedicle screw fixation at the fractured vertebra in the treatment of thoracolumbar fractures. METHODS: Thirty-two consecutive patients were enrolled in the study. All patients received percutaneous pedicle screw fixation, and they were randomly divided into two groups to undergo either the placement of pedicle screws into the fractured vertebra (fractured group) or not (control group)...
June 2016: International Orthopaedics
Emin Cakmakci, Safiye Tokgoz Ozal, Esra Karabay Ogutcu, Alper Aydin, Suzan Tunc, Umut Kaygusuz, Hasibe Gokce Cinar
BACKGROUND: The aim of the current study was to investigate whether signal intensities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) views and radiological findings on Doppler ultrasonography may have a diagnostic value for vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI). METHODS: This case-control study was performed on demographic and radiologic data derived from 18 VBI patients and 58 healthy controls in the radiology department of a tertiary care center. The blood flow characteristics including peak systolic and end diastolic flow rates, resistance and pulsatility indices, mean velocities, flow rates, diameters and intensity pattern of vertebral arteries on cervical and cranial MRI sequences were noted...
December 2015: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
Cyril Thomas, André Didierjean
In the vanishing ball illusion (VBI), a magician throws a ball up in the air twice, after which he pretends to toss it up again, when in fact it remains secretly concealed in his hand. Observers perceive an imaginary ball disappearing into the air. According to Kuhn and Land (2006), the VBI during the fake throw is mediated by the magician's gaze and/or head direction (also called "social cues") as he looks toward the imaginary ball. The aim of this article is to test an alternative interpretation. According to our hypothesis, the magician's social cues are not essential to the VBI...
January 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Sneha Konda, Samantha Dayawansa, Soren Singel, Jason H Huang
INTRODUCTION: Vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI) is a condition that results from restricted blood flow to the posterior portions of the brain, which are primarily served by the vertebral and basilar arteries. It is the most common cause of vertigo in the elderly and is usually accompanied by impaired vision and sensation. Congenital abnormalities, atherosclerosis, stroke and/or trauma may all lead to decreased vertebrobasilar circulation. A syndrome called Subclavian Steal Syndrome (SSS), which manifests with similar neurological symptoms but with a different pathophysiology, may also cause VBI...
2015: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Vijay GC, Edward C F Wilson, Marc Suhrcke, Wendy Hardeman, Stephen Sutton
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether brief interventions promoting physical activity are cost-effective in primary care or community settings. DESIGN: Systematic review of economic evaluations. METHODS AND DATA SOURCES: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, EconLit, SPORTDiscus, PEDro, the Cochrane library, National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database and the Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Registry up to 20 August 2014. Web of Knowledge was used for cross-reference search...
April 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
D Korb, R Merazka, A Théau, F Goffinet, C Le Ray
OBJECTIVE: Some studies found an association between duration of expulsive efforts (DEE) and risk of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH). But none demonstrated an association between DEE and severe perineal lacerations. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of prolonged expulsive efforts (EE) beyond 45min on the risk of maternal complication, especially risk of severe perineal laceration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective study comparing 2 groups, 1: women with an instrumental vaginal delivery performed before 45min for non-fetal progression without FHR abnormalities (VBI for NP<45min) and 2: women with a DEE longer than 45min (DEE≥45min)...
February 2016: Journal de Gynécologie, Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction
Margaret Flanagan, Eric B Larson, Caitlin S Latimer, Brenna Cholerton, Paul K Crane, Kathleen S Montine, Lon R White, C Dirk Keene, Thomas J Montine
The most common causes of cognitive impairment and dementia are Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular brain injury (VBI), either independently, in combination, or in conjunction with other neurodegenerative disorders. The contribution of VBI to cognitive impairment and dementia, particularly in the context of AD pathology, has been examined extensively yet remains difficult to characterize due to conflicting results. Describing the relative contribution and mechanisms of VBI in dementia is important because of the profound impact of dementia on individuals, caregivers, families, and society, particularly the stability of health care systems with the rapidly increasing age of our population...
May 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Gavin W Britz, Vijay Agarwal, Frank Mihlon, Dinesh Ramanathan, Abhishek Agrawal, Shahid M Nimjee, David Kaylie
BACKGROUND: Vertebrobasilar insufficiency resulting from embolism, atherosclerosis, or arterial dissection has long been a challenge for successful management and outcomes. The main treatment options include medical therapy, angioplasty and stenting, and surgical revascularization. Unlike cardiac or peripheral vascular revascularization, large randomized trials with cerebrorevascularization have not revealed favorable outcomes. In patients who have failed maximal medical therapy, and having persistent debilitating symptomology, cerebral revascularization may still be a viable option...
January 2016: World Neurosurgery
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