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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087945/innate-immune-responses-to-tuberculosis
#1
Jeffrey S Schorey, Larry S Schlesinger
Tuberculosis remains one of the greatest threats to human health. The causative bacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is acquired by the respiratory route. It is exquisitely adapted to humans and is a prototypic intracellular pathogen of macrophages, with alveolar macrophages being the primary conduit of infection and disease. However, M. tuberculosis bacilli interact with and are affected by several soluble and cellular components of the innate immune system which dictate the outcome of primary infection, most commonly a latently infected healthy human host, in whom the bacteria are held in check by the host immune response within the confines of tissue granuloma, the host histopathologic hallmark...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087802/cytochrome-c-peroxidase-ccp-is-a-molecular-determinant-of-the-oxidative-stress-response-in-the-extreme-acidophilic-leptospirillum-sp-cf-1
#2
C Zapata, B Paillavil, R Chávez, P Álamos, G Levicán
Bioleaching processes are used to recover metals from sulfidic ores. Biofilm formation on ores is important for bioleaching because the attached microorganisms start the leaching process by concentrating ferric ions in the extracellular matrix. It has been shown that hydrogen peroxide is spontaneously generated on the surface of ores and that it negatively influences the growth and activity of microorganisms. However, the mechanism by which bioleaching microorganisms tolerate exogenous H2O2 as an adaptive trait remains elusive...
January 12, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086788/comprehensive-circrna-expression-profile-and-selection-of-key-circrnas-during-priming-phase-of-rat-liver-regeneration
#3
Lifei Li, Jianlin Guo, Yanhui Chen, Cuifang Chang, Cunshuan Xu
BACKGROUND: Rat liver regeneration (LR) proceeds along a process of highly organized and ordered tissue growth in response to the loss or injury of liver tissue, during which many physiological processes may play important roles. The molecular mechanism of hepatocyte proliferation, energy metabolism and substance metabolism during rat LR had been elucidated. Further, the correlation of circular RNA (circRNA) abundance with proliferation has recently been clarified. However, the regulatory capacity of circRNA in rat LR remains a fascinating topic...
January 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081250/cutaneous-deficiency-of-filaggrin-and-stat3-exacerbates-vaccinia-disease-in-vivo
#4
Yong He, Ishrat Sultana, Kazuyo Takeda, Jennifer L Reed
RATIONALE: Defects in filaggrin and STAT3 are associated with atopic dermatitis (AD) and susceptibility to severe skin infection. METHODS: We evaluated skin infection with the current smallpox vaccine, ACAM-2000, in immunosuppressed mice with combined cutaneous deficiency in filaggrin and STAT3. In parallel, early events post-infection with ACAM-2000 were investigated in cultured keratinocytes in which filaggrin expression was knocked down via siRNA. RESULTS: Immunosuppressed, filaggrin-deficient mice, treated with the topical STAT3 inhibitor Stattic® prior to ACAM-2000 infection, demonstrated rapid weight loss, prolonged vaccinia burden in skin, and dermatitis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081176/radiation-induced-apoptosis-of-murine-bone-marrow-cells-is-independent-of-early-growth-response-1-egr1
#5
Karine Z Oben, Beth W Gachuki, Sara S Alhakeem, Mary K McKenna, Ying Liang, Daret K St Clair, Vivek M Rangnekar, Subbarao Bondada
An understanding of how each individual 5q chromosome critical deleted region (CDR) gene contributes to malignant transformation would foster the development of much needed targeted therapies for the treatment of therapy related myeloid neoplasms (t-MNs). Early Growth Response 1 (EGR1) is a key transcriptional regulator of myeloid differentiation located within the 5q chromosome CDR that has been shown to regulate HSC (hematopoietic stem cell) quiescence as well as the master regulator of apoptosis-p53. Since resistance to apoptosis is a hallmark of malignant transformation, we investigated the role of EGR1 in apoptosis of bone marrow cells; a cell population from which myeloid malignancies arise...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079409/promoting-awareness-of-neonatal-menstruation
#6
Paola Bianchi, Giuseppe Benagiano, Ivo Brosens
Neonatal uterine bleeding (NUB) has been carefully studied in the past through case reports, small series, clinical cohort studies, pathology investigations of fetal and neonatal. Following a historical recount, this review summarizes biological mechanisms conditioning NUB, starting from the persistence till birth of an 'ontogenetic progesterone resistance' (OPR), causing decreased responsiveness of target tissues to bioavailable progesterone. Several pregnancy-related conditions, such as preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction, prematurity, post-maturity and even Rhesus or ABO incompatibility, influence the occurrence of NUB...
January 12, 2017: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078486/two-nadph-protochlorophyllide-oxidoreductase-por-isoforms-play-distinct-roles-in-environmental-adaptation-in-rice
#7
Choon-Tak Kwon, Suk-Hwan Kim, Giha Song, Dami Kim, Nam-Chon Paek
BACKGROUND: NADPH: protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) is an essential enzyme that catalyzes the photoreduction of protochlorophyllide to chlorophyllide, which is ultimately converted to chlorophyll in developing leaves. Rice has two POR isoforms, OsPORA and OsPORB. OsPORA is expressed in the dark during early leaf development; OsPORB is expressed throughout leaf development regardless of light conditions. The faded green leaf (fgl) is a loss-of-function osporB mutant that displays necrotic lesions and variegation in the leaves due to destabilized grana thylakoids, and has increased numbers of plastoglobules in the chloroplasts...
December 2017: Rice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078132/impressive-response-to-dual-braf-and-mek-inhibition-in-patients-with-braf-mutant-intrahepatic-cholangiocarcinoma-2-case-reports-and-a-brief-review
#8
Viraj Lavingia, Marwan Fakih
Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) typically presents at an advanced stage and is associated with a poor oncological outcome. The median survival for metastatic ICC is less than 1 year with standard chemotherapy. ICC is associated with distinct oncogenic drivers including IDH (isocitrate dehydrogenase), HER-2 (human epidermal growth factor 2), and BRAF (v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B), which may benefit from matching targeted therapies. Hereby we report 2 cases of BRAF V600E refractory ICC treated with dual BRAF and MEK inhibitors (dabrafenib and trametinib) with excellent clinical and radiological response to therapy and with protracted duration of disease control...
December 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077323/high-glucose-down-regulates-microrna-181a-5p-to-increase-pro-fibrotic-genes-expression-by-targeting-early-growth-response-factor-1-in-hk-2-cells
#9
Ping Xu, Mei-Ping Guan, Jian-Gang Bi, Dan Wang, Zong-Ji Zheng, Yao-Ming Xue
Tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF) plays an important role in the progression of renal fibrosis in diabetic nephropathy (DN). Accumulating evidence supports a crucial effect of early growth response factor 1 (Egr1) on renal fibrosis in DN, but the underlying mechanisms are not entirely clear. Here, we explored the aggravating role of Egr1 and identified microRNA-181a-5p (miR-181a-5p) as an upstream regulator of Egr1 in TIF of DN. We demonstrated that overexpression of Egr1 enhanced, whereas small interfering RNA targeting Egr1 decreased the expressions of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and fibrosis-related genes including fibronectin and collagen I in human proximal tubule cell line (HK-2) cells...
January 7, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072411/the-early-growth-response-protein-1-mir-30a-5p-neurogenic-differentiation-factor-1-axis-as-a-novel-biomarker-for-schizophrenia-diagnosis-and-treatment-monitoring
#10
S Liu, F Zhang, Y Y Shugart, L Yang, X Li, Z Liu, N Sun, C Yang, X Guo, J Shi, L Wang, L Cheng, K Zhang, T Yang, Y Xu
To date, diagnosis of schizophrenia is still based on clinical interviews and careful observations, which is subjective and variable, and can lead to misdiagnosis and/or delay in diagnosis. As early intervention in schizophrenia is important in improving outcomes, objective tests that can be used for schizophrenia diagnosis or treatment monitoring are thus in great need. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) negatively regulate target gene expression and their biogenesis is tightly controlled by various factors including transcription factors (TFs)...
January 10, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071984/particulate-matter-mediated-release-of-long-pentraxin-3-ptx3-and-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-vegf-in-vitro-limited-importance-of-endotoxin-and-organic-content
#11
J I Herseth, V Volden, A K Bolling
Exposure to particulate matter (PM) is associated with adverse health effects, but it is still relatively unknown which role PM sources and physicochemical properties play in the observed effects. It was postulated that PM in vitro induces release of long pentraxin 3 (PTX3) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and that endotoxin and organic compounds present in the PM regulate this release. A contact coculture of THP-1 human leukemia monocytes and A549 human adenocarcinoma alveolar pneumocytes was exposed to PM from Traffic, Wood, Diesel, and Quartz (10-40 µg/cm(2)) for 12-64 h to determine release of PTX3 and VEGF...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070994/involvement-of-microrna-718-a-new-regulator-of-egr3-in-regulation-of-malignant-phenotype-of-hcc-cells
#12
Zhong-Dong Wang, Fan-Yong Qu, Yuan-Yuan Chen, Zhang-Shen Ran, Hai-Yan Liu, Hai-Dong Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still one of the most common death-related malignancies worldwide. Because the way onset and progression are hidden most, HCC diagnoses are made at an advanced stage, when they are unsuitable for surgical resection. MicroRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs, participating in many aspects of cancers. In this study, we tried to establish the role of microRNA-718 (miR-718) in the malignant phenotype of HCC cells and its possible role in HCC diagnosis...
2017: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070760/the-generation-r-study-design-and-cohort-update-2017
#13
Marjolein N Kooijman, Claudia J Kruithof, Cornelia M van Duijn, Liesbeth Duijts, Oscar H Franco, Marinus H van IJzendoorn, Johan C de Jongste, Caroline C W Klaver, Aad van der Lugt, Johan P Mackenbach, Henriëtte A Moll, Robin P Peeters, Hein Raat, Edmond H H M Rings, Fernando Rivadeneira, Marc P van der Schroeff, Eric A P Steegers, Henning Tiemeier, André G Uitterlinden, Frank C Verhulst, Eppo Wolvius, Janine F Felix, Vincent W V Jaddoe
The Generation R Study is a population-based prospective cohort study from fetal life until adulthood. The study is designed to identify early environmental and genetic causes and causal pathways leading to normal and abnormal growth, development and health from fetal life, childhood and young adulthood. This multidisciplinary study focuses on several health outcomes including behaviour and cognition, body composition, eye development, growth, hearing, heart and vascular development, infectious disease and immunity, oral health and facial growth, respiratory health, allergy and skin disorders of children and their parents...
January 9, 2017: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070736/genome-wide-analysis-of-mirnas-and-tasi-rnas-in-zea-mays-in-response-to-phosphate-deficiency
#14
Saurabh Gupta, Manju Kumari, Himansu Kumar, Pritish Kumar Varadwaj
Globally important cereal crop maize provides important nutritions and starch in dietary foods. Low phosphate (LPi) availability in the soil frequently limits the maize quality and yield across the world. Small non-coding RNAs (Snc-RNAs) play crucial roles in growth and adaptation of plants to the environment. Snc-RNAs like microRNAs (miRs) and trans-acting small interfering RNAs (Tasi-Rs) play important functions in posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression, which controls plant development, reproduction, and biotic/abiotic stress responses...
January 9, 2017: Functional & Integrative Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067847/the-impact-of-growth-hormone-therapy-on-the-apoptosis-assessment-in-cd34-hematopoietic-cells-from-children-with-growth-hormone-deficiency
#15
Miłosz Piotr Kawa, Iwona Stecewicz, Katarzyna Piecyk, Edyta Paczkowska, Dorota Rogińska, Anna Sobuś, Karolina Łuczkowska, Ewa Pius-Sadowska, Elżbieta Gawrych, Elżbieta Petriczko, Mieczysław Walczak, Bogusław Machaliński
Growth hormone (GH) modulates hematopoietic cell homeostasis and is associated with apoptosis control, but with limited mechanistic insights. Aim of the study was to determine whether GH therapeutic supplementation (GH-TS) could affect apoptosis of CD34+ cells enriched in hematopoietic progenitor cells of GH deficient (GHD) children. CD34+ cells from peripheral blood of 40 GHD children were collected before and in 3rd and 6th month of GH-TS and compared to 60 controls adjusted for bone age, sex, and pubertal development...
January 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067830/bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-chronic-lung-disease-of-infancy-and-long-term-pulmonary-outcomes
#16
REVIEW
Lauren M Davidson, Sara K Berkelhamer
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic lung disease most commonly seen in premature infants who required mechanical ventilation and oxygen therapy for acute respiratory distress. While advances in neonatal care have resulted in improved survival rates of premature infants, limited progress has been made in reducing rates of BPD. Lack of progress may in part be attributed to the limited therapeutic options available for prevention and treatment of BPD. Several lung-protective strategies have been shown to reduce risks, including use of non-invasive support, as well as early extubation and volume ventilation when intubation is required...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067796/combined-effects-of-androgen-and-growth-hormone-on-osteoblast-marker-expression-in-mouse-c2c12-and-mc3t3-e1-cells-induced-by-bone-morphogenetic-protein
#17
Kosuke Kimura, Tomohiro Terasaka, Nahoko Iwata, Takayuki Katsuyama, Motoshi Komatsubara, Ryota Nagao, Kenichi Inagaki, Fumio Otsuka
Osteoblasts undergo differentiation in response to various factors, including growth factors and steroids. Bone mass is diminished in androgen- and/or growth hormone (GH)-deficient patients. However the functional relationship between androgen and GH, and their combined effects on bone metabolism, remains unclear. Here we investigated the mutual effects of androgen and GH on osteoblastic marker expression using mouse myoblastic C2C12 and osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells. Combined treatment with dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and GH enhanced BMP-2-induced expression of Runx2, ALP, and osteocalcin mRNA, compared with the individual treatments in C2C12 cells...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067383/the-functional-consequences-and-prognostic-value-of-dosage-sensitivity-in-ovarian-cancer
#18
Zichuang Yan, Yongjing Liu, Yunzhen Wei, Ning Zhao, Qiang Zhang, Cheng Wu, Zhiqiang Chang, Yan Xu
Copy number alteration (CNA) represents an important class of genetic variations that may contribute to tumorigenesis, tumor growth and metastatic spread. CNA can directly affect the expression of genes within the CNA regions; however, genes within the CNA regions exhibit heterogeneity in gene dosage sensitivity. In this study, a computational framework was built to identify 1170 dosage-sensitive genes (DSGs) and 1215 dosage-resistant genes (DRGs) that were related to ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma (OV) through the association between CNA and gene expression...
January 9, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063987/a-mathematical-model-for-the-determination-of-forming-tissue-moduli-in-needled-nonwoven-scaffolds
#19
Joao S Soares, Will Zhang, Michael S Sacks
Formation of engineering tissues (ET) remains an important scientific area of investigation for both clinical translational and mechanobiological studies. Needled-nonwoven (NNW) scaffolds represent one of the most ubiquitous biomaterials based on their well-documented capacity to sustain tissue formation and the unique property of substantial construct stiffness amplification, the latter allowing for very sensitive determination of forming tissue modulus. Yet, their use in more fundamental studies is hampered by the lack of (1) substantial understanding of the mechanics of the NNW scaffold itself under finite deformations and means to model the complex mechanical interactions between scaffold fibers, cells, and de novo tissue; and (2) rational models with reliable predictive capabilities describing their evolving mechanical properties and their response to mechanical stimulation...
January 4, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062617/growth-differentiation-factor-15-as-a-biomarker-in-cardiovascular-disease
#20
REVIEW
Kai C Wollert, Tibor Kempf, Lars Wallentin
BACKGROUND: Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) is expressed and secreted in response to inflammation, oxidative stress, hypoxia, telomere erosion, and oncogene activation. Cardiovascular (CV) disease is a major driver of GDF-15 production. GDF-15 has favorable preanalytic characteristics and can be measured in serum and plasma by immunoassay. CONTENT: In community-dwelling individuals higher concentrations of GDF-15 are associated with increased risks of developing CV disease, chronic kidney disease, and cancer, independent of traditional CV risk factors, renal function, and other biomarkers (C-reactive protein, B-type natriuretic peptide, cardiac troponin)...
January 2017: Clinical Chemistry
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