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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055122/differential-declines-in-alaskan-boreal-forest-vitality-related-to-climate-and-competition
#1
A T Trugman, D Medvigy, W R L Anderegg, S W Pacala
Rapid warming and changes in water availability at high latitudes alter resource abundance, tree competition, and disturbance regimes. While these changes are expected to disrupt the functioning of boreal forests, their ultimate implications for forest composition are uncertain. In particular, recent site-level studies of the Alaskan boreal forest have reported both increases and decreases in productivity over the past few decades. Here, we test the idea that variations in Alaskan forest growth and mortality rates are contingent on species composition...
October 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051029/recent-advances-in-localized-rcc-a-focus-on-vegf-and-immuno-oncology-therapies
#2
REVIEW
Pearl Subramanian, Naomi B Haas Md
Recent advances in advanced renal cell cancer (RCC) research have produced new drugs and therapies for patients with metastatic disease leading to higher response rates, improvements in progression-free survival, and longer overall survival. These advances have yet to be realized in patients with early-stage kidney cancer, and to date, no drug has been approved for the adjuvant treatment of localized kidney cancer. The current standard of care for localized high-risk kidney cancers is resection of the primary tumor...
October 16, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050357/oncomir-17-5p-alarm-signal-in-cancer
#3
REVIEW
Madhusudhan Reddy Bobbili, Robert M Mader, Johannes Grillari, Hanna Dellago
Soon after microRNAs entered the stage as novel regulators of gene expression, they were found to regulate -and to be regulated by- the development, progression and aggressiveness of virtually all human types of cancer. Therefore, miRNAs in general harbor a huge potential as diagnostic and prognostic markers as well as potential therapeutic targets in cancer. The miR-17-92 cluster was found to be overexpressed in many human cancers and to promote unrestrained cell growth, and has therefore been termed onco-miR-1...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050239/application-of-in-vivo-imaging-techniques-to-monitor-therapeutic-efficiency-of-plx4720-in-an-experimental-model-of-microsatellite-instable-colorectal-cancer
#4
Sarah Rohde, Tobias Lindner, Stefan Polei, Jan Stenzel, Luise Borufka, Sophie Achilles, Eric Hartmann, Falko Lange, Claudia Maletzki, Michael Linnebacher, Änne Glass, Sarah Marie Schwarzenböck, Jens Kurth, Alexander Hohn, Brigitte Vollmar, Bernd Joachim Krause, Robert Jaster
OBJECTIVES: Patient-derived tumor cell lines are a powerful tool to analyze the sensitivity of individual tumors to specific therapies in mice. An essential prerequisite for such an approach are reliable quantitative techniques to monitor tumor progression in vivo. METHODS: We have employed HROC24 cells, grown heterotopically in NMRI Foxn1(nu) mice, as a model of microsatellite instable colorectal cancer to investigate the therapeutic efficiencies of 5'-fluorouracil (5'-FU) and the mutant BRAF inhibitor PLX4720, a vemurafenib analogue, by three independent methods: external measurement by caliper, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with 2-deoxy-2-((18)F)fluoro-D-glucose ((18)F-FDG)...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050203/loss-of-egr1-a-human-del5q-gene-accelerates-bcr-abl-driven-chronic-myelogenous-leukemia
#5
Silvia Maifrede, Andrew Magimaidas, Xiaojin Sha, Kaushiki Mukherjee, Dan A Liebermann, Barbara Hoffman
There is substantial evidence that early growth response-1 (Egr1) gene, a zinc-finger transcription factor, behaves as a tumor suppressor in leukemia. This includes reports from this laboratory that constitutive Egr1 overrides leukemia conferred by deregulated c-Myc or E2F-1 in the M1 myeloid leukemic cell line by promoting differentiation. To investigate the effect of Egr1 on the initiation and progression of Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML), lethally irradiated syngeneic wild type mice were reconstituted with bone marrow (BM) from either wild type or Egr1 null mice transduced with a 210-kD BCR-ABL-expressing MSCV-retrovirus (bone marrow transplantation {BMT})...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049797/astrocyte-elevated-gene-1-is-overexpressed-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-and-associated-with-increased-tumour-angiogenesis
#6
Qiuping Ding, Yingrong Chen, Shunli Dong, Xuting Xu, Jin Liu, Pengtao Song, Caihua Yu, Zhihong Ma
OBJECTIVES: Astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) functions to mediate angiogenesis, and its upregulation is responsible for tumour angiogenesis during cancer development. This study analysed AEG-1 expression in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) for association with NSCLC clinicopathological features and tumour angiogenesis. METHODS: The expression of AEG-1, vascular endothelial growth factor and intratumoural microvessel density (assessed using the expression of CD105) was detected by immunohistochemistry in 88 paired tumour tissue and adjacent normal tissue specimens obtained from NSCLC patients...
October 13, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049010/biofilm-related-diseases-and-omics-global-transcriptional-profiling-of-enterococcus-faecium-reveals-different-gene-expression-patterns-in-the-biofilm-and-planktonic-cells
#7
Shu Yong Lim, Cindy Shuan Ju Teh, Kwai Lin Thong
Enterococcus faecium is an opportunistic pathogen with a remarkable ability to acquire resistance toward multiple antibiotics, including those of last-resort drugs such as vancomycin and daptomycin. The occurrence of vancomycin-resistant E. faecium is on the rise and there is a need to understand the virulence of this organism. One of the factors that contributes to the virulence is the ability to form biofilms. Since bacteria in biofilm state are more resistant to antibiotics and host immune response, understanding the molecular mechanism of biofilm development is important to control biofilm-related diseases...
October 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048927/early-origins-of-asthma-role-of-microbial-dysbiosis-and-metabolic-dysfunction
#8
Fernando D Martinez, Stefano Guerra
Asthma is a developmental disease that affects airway growth and is characterized by inappropriate responses to a variety of environmental stimuli. Recent advances point to two altered early life pathways as major determinants of asthma risk. In the "microbial" pathway, pre- and post-natal exposures to microbiota-loaded farm environments block gene-virus interactions (e.g., interactions between risk alleles in chromosome 17q21 and lower respiratory illnesses [LRI] by rhinovirus) that are associated with asthma development...
October 19, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047233/overexpression-of-mir-191-predicts-poor-prognosis-and-promotes-proliferation-and-invasion-in-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#9
Xiaotian Gao, Zhanqiang Xie, Zhigang Wang, Keluo Cheng, Ke Liang, Zeqing Song
PURPOSE: Accumulating evidence has shown that dysregulation of microRNA-191 (miR-191) is closely associated with tumorigenesis and progression in a wide range of cancers. This study aimed to explore the potential role of miR-191 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: miR-191 expression was assessed in 93 ESCC tissue specimens by real-time polymerase chain reaction, and survival analysis was performed via Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses...
November 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047142/relevance-of-liver-limited-disease-in-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-subgroup-findings-of-the-fire-3-aio-krk0306-trial
#10
Julian Walter Holch, Ingrid Ricard, Sebastian Stintzing, Ludwig Fischer von Weikersthal, Thomas Decker, Alexander Kiani, Ursula Vehling-Kaiser, Salah-Eddin Al-Batran, Tobias Heintges, Christian Lerchenmüller, Christoph Kahl, Frank Kullmann, Werner Scheithauer, Michael Scholz, Sebastian Müller, Hartmut Link, Andreas Rost, Heinz-Gert Höffkes, Markus Moehler, Reinhard Udo Lindig, Lisa Miller-Phillips, Thomas Kirchner, Andreas Jung, Jobst Christian von Einem, Dominik Paul Modest, Volker Heinemann
In metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), liver-limited disease (LLD) is associated with a higher chance of metastectomy leading to long-term survival. However, limited data describes the prognostic and predictive relevance of initially unresectable LLD with regard to targeted first-line therapy. The present analysis investigated the relevance of initially unresectable LLD in mCRC patients treated with targeted therapy against either the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) or vascular epithelial growth factor (VEGF)...
October 19, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045593/a-teleost-androgen-promotes-development-of-primary-ovarian-follicles-in-coho-salmon-and-rapidly-alters-the-ovarian-transcriptome
#11
Christopher Monson, Kristy Forsgren, Giles Goetz, Louisa Harding, Penny Swanson, Graham Young
Recent studies using several teleost models have revealed that androgens increase the size of previtellogenic (primary and/or early secondary) ovarian follicles. To explore our hypothesis that androgens drive the development of primary follicles into early secondary follicles, and to determine the mechanisms underlying these androgenic effects, we exposed juvenile coho salmon to near-physiological and relatively sustained levels of the non-aromatizable androgen 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT). This resulted in significant growth of primary ovarian follicles after 10 and 20 days, with follicles after 20 days displaying a morphological phenotype characteristic of early secondary follicles (presence of cortical alveoli)...
October 13, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044167/impact-of-heavy-metal-lead-stress-on-polyamine-levels-in-halomonas-bvr-1-isolated-from-an-industry-effluent
#12
Manasi, Sridev Mohapatra, N Rajesh, Vidya Rajesh
In living systems, environmental stress due to biotic and abiotic factors triggers the production of myriad metabolites as a potential mechanism for combating stress. Among these metabolites are the small polycationic aliphatic amine molecules - polyamines, which are ubiquitous in all living organisms. In this work, we demonstrate a correlation between cellular concentration of three major polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) with lead exposure on bacteria for a period of 6-24 h. We report that indigenously isolated Halomonas sp...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044106/a-mechanosensitive-ca-2-channel-activity-is-dependent-on-the-developmental-regulator-dek1
#13
Daniel Tran, Roberta Galletti, Enrique D Neumann, Annick Dubois, Reza Sharif-Naeini, Anja Geitmann, Jean-Marie Frachisse, Olivier Hamant, Gwyneth C Ingram
Responses of cells to mechanical stress are thought to be critical in coordinating growth and development. Consistent with this idea, mechanically activated channels play important roles in animal development. For example, the PIEZO1 channel controls cell division and epithelial-layer integrity and is necessary for vascular development in mammals. In plants, the actual contribution of mechanoperception to development remains questionable because very few putative mechanosensors have been identified and the phenotypes of the corresponding mutants are rather mild...
October 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040628/genetic-relationships-between-spring-emergence-canopy-phenology-and-biomass-yield-increase-the-accuracy-of-genomic-prediction-in-miscanthus
#14
Christopher L Davey, Paul Robson, Sarah Hawkins, Kerrie Farrar, John C Clifton-Brown, Iain S Donnison, Gancho T Slavov
Miscanthus has potential as a bioenergy crop but the rapid development of high-yielding varieties is challenging. Previous studies have suggested that phenology and canopy height are important determinants of biomass yield. Furthermore, while genome-wide prediction was effective for a broad range of traits, the predictive ability for yield was very low. We therefore developed models clarifying the genetic associations between spring emergence, consequent canopy phenology and dry biomass yield. The timing of emergence was a moderately strong predictor of early-season elongation growth (genetic correlation >0...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040417/neonatal-immune-activation-depletes-the-ovarian-follicle-reserve-and-alters-ovarian-acute-inflammatory-mediators-in-neonatal-rats
#15
Erin A Fuller, Luba Sominsky, Jessie M Sutherland, Kate A Redgrove, Lauren Harms, Eileen A McLaughlin, Deborah M Hodgson
Normal ovarian development is crucial for female reproductive success and longevity. Interruptions to the delicate process of initial folliculogenesis may lead to ovarian dysfunction. We have previously demonstrated that an early life immune challenge in the rat, induced by administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on postnatal day (PND) 3 and 5, depletes ovarian follicle reserve long term. Here, we hypothesised that this neonatal immune challenge leads to an increase in peripheral and ovarian inflammatory signalling, contributing to an acute depletion of ovarian follicles...
October 10, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039764/human-chorionic-gonadotropin-as-a-pivotal-endocrine-immune-regulator-initiating-and-preserving-fetal-tolerance
#16
REVIEW
Anne Schumacher
The pregnancy hormone, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), is crucially involved in processes such as implantation and placentation, two milestones of pregnancy whose successful progress is a prerequisite for adequate fetal growth. Moreover, hCG determines fetal fate by regulating maternal innate and adaptive immune responses allowing the acceptance of the foreign fetal antigens. As one of the first signals provided by the embryo to its mother, hCG has the potential to regulate very early pregnancy-driven immune responses, allowing the establishment and preservation of fetal tolerance...
October 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037469/management-of-patients-with-adenocarcinoma-or-squamous-cancer-of-the-esophagus
#17
David H Ilson, Richard Hillegersberg
Esophageal cancer is characterized by the early and frequent metastasis. Surgery is the primary treatment for early-stage disease, whereas patients with patients with locally advanced disease receive peri-operative chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. Squamous cancers can be treated with primary chemoradiotherapy without surgery, depending on their response to therapy and patient tolerance for subsequent surgery. Chemotherapy with a fluorinated pyrimidine and a platinum agent, followed by later treatment with taxanes and irinotecan, provides some benefit...
October 13, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036594/impaired-defense-reactions-in-apple-replant-disease-affected-roots-of-malus-domestica-m26
#18
Stefan Weiß, Benye Liu, Dennis Reckwell, Ludger Beerhues, Traud Winkelmann
A soil- and site-dependent complex of diverse microbial populations causes apple replant disease (ARD), which leads to economic losses for tree nurseries and apple producers due to reduced plant growth and diminished fruit yields. Soil fumigation has been widely used to mitigate ARD, but the application of these chemicals is restricted in the European Union. Hence, other counteractions have to be developed. Genomics-based breeding may be used to select ARD-tolerant genotypes; however, molecular responses of ARD are not well understood...
September 19, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036339/contribution-of-major-flm-isoforms-to-temperature-dependent-flowering-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#19
Giovanna Capovilla, Efthymia Symeonidi, Rui Wu, Markus Schmid
FLOWERING LOCUS M (FLM), a component of the thermosensory flowering time pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana, is regulated by temperature-dependent alternative splicing (AS). The main splicing variant, FLM-β, is a well-documented floral repressor that is down-regulated in response to increasing ambient growth temperature. Two hypotheses have been formulated to explain how flowering time is modulated by AS of FLM. In the first model a second splice variant, FLM-δ, acts as a dominant negative isoform that competes with FLM-β at elevated ambient temperatures, thereby indirectly promoting flowering...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033844/syngeneic-b16f10-melanoma-causes-cachexia-and-impaired-skeletal-muscle-strength-and-locomotor-activity-in-mice
#20
Fabrício A Voltarelli, Fernando T Frajacomo, Camila de Souza Padilha, Mayra T J Testa, Paola S Cella, Diogo F Ribeiro, Donizete X de Oliveira, Luciana C Veronez, Gabriela S Bisson, Felipe A Moura, Rafael Deminice
Muscle wasting has been emerging as one of the principal components of cancer cachexia, leading to progressive impairment of work capacity. Despite early stages melanomas rarely promotes weight loss, the appearance of metastatic and/or solid tumor melanoma can leads to cachexia development. Here, we investigated the B16F10 tumor-induced cachexia and its contribution to muscle strength and locomotor-like activity impairment. C57BL/6 mice were subcutaneously injected with 5 × 10(4) B16F10 melanoma cells or PBS as a Sham negative control...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
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