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a cis-acting acting element in the promoter

Joanna Szewińska, Joanna Simińska, Wiesław Bielawski
Proteolysis is an important process for development and germination of cereal seeds. Among the many types of proteases identified in plants are the cysteine proteases (CPs) of the papain and legumain families, which play a crucial role in hydrolysing storage proteins during seed germination as well as in processing the precursors of these proteins and the inactive forms of other proteases. Moreover, all of the tissues of cereal seeds undergo progressive degradation via programed cell death, which is integral to their growth...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
Kengo Yokosho, Naoki Yamaji, Miho Kashino-Fujii, Jian Feng Ma
High Al tolerance of rice (Oryza sativa) is controlled by multiple tolerance genes, but the regulatory mechanisms underlying differential expression of these genes are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the factors regulating the expression of OsFRDL4, a gene encoding citrate efflux transporter involved in Al-induced citrate secretion from the roots. Analysis with chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSL) derived from Nipponbare (high OsFRDL4 expression) and Kasalath (low OsFRDL4 expression) revealed that differential expression of OsFRDL4 is responsible for the QTL for Al tolerance detected previously on chromosome 1...
October 15, 2016: Plant Physiology
Hongju Jian, Kun Lu, Bo Yang, Tengyue Wang, Li Zhang, Aoxiang Zhang, Jia Wang, Liezhao Liu, Cunmin Qu, Jiana Li
Sucrose is the principal transported product of photosynthesis from source leaves to sink organs. SUTs/SUCs (sucrose transporters or sucrose carriers) and SWEETs (Sugars Will Eventually be Exported Transporters) play significant central roles in phloem loading and unloading. SUTs/SUCs and SWEETs are key players in sucrose translocation and are associated with crop yields. The SUT/SUC and SWEET genes have been characterized in several plant species, but a comprehensive analysis of these two gene families in oilseed rape has not yet been reported...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Franco Santin, Sneha Bhogale, Elisa Fantino, Carolina Grandellis, Anjan K Banerjee, Rita M Ulloa
Among the many factors that regulate potato tuberization, calcium and Calcium Dependent Protein Kinases (CDPKs) play an important role. CDPK activity increases at the onset of tuber formation with StCDPK1 expression being strongly induced in swollen stolons. However, not much is known about the transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of StCDPK1 or its downstream targets in potato development. To elucidate further, we analyzed its expression in different tissues and stages of the life cycle. Histochemical analysis of StCDPK1::GUS plants demonstrated that StCDPK1 is strongly associated with the vascular system in stems, roots, during stolon to tuber transition, and in tuber sprouts...
October 7, 2016: Physiologia Plantarum
Paz Merelo, Hathi Ram, Monica Pia Caggiano, Carolyn Ohno, Felix Ott, Daniel Straub, Moritz Graeff, Seok Keun Cho, Seong Wook Yang, Stephan Wenkel, Marcus G Heisler
A defining feature of plant leaves is their flattened shape. This shape depends on an antagonism between the genes that specify adaxial (top) and abaxial (bottom) tissue identity; however, the molecular nature of this antagonism remains poorly understood. Class III homeodomain leucine zipper (HD-ZIP) transcription factors are key mediators in the regulation of adaxial-abaxial patterning. Their expression is restricted adaxially during early development by the abaxially expressed microRNA (MIR)165/166, yet the mechanism that restricts MIR165/166 expression to abaxial leaf tissues remains unknown...
October 3, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Yasuyuki Yamada, Tadashi Yoshimoto, Sayumi T Yoshida, Fumihiko Sato
The presence of alkaloids is rather specific to certain plant species. However, berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid, is relatively broadly distributed in the plant kingdom. Thus, berberine biosynthesis has been intensively investigated, especially using Coptis japonica cell cultures. Almost all biosynthetic enzyme genes have already been characterized at the molecular level. Particularly, two transcription factors (TFs), a plant-specific WRKY-type TF, CjWRKY1, and a basic helix-loop-helix TF, CjbHLH1, were shown to comprehensively regulate berberine biosynthesis in C...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Stilianos Arhondakis, Craita E Bita, Andreas Perrakis, Maria E Manioudaki, Afroditi Krokida, Dimitrios Kaloudas, Panagiotis Kalaitzis
Tomato fruit ripening is a complex developmental programme partly mediated by transcriptional regulatory networks. Several transcription factors (TFs) which are members of gene families such as MADS-box and ERF were shown to play a significant role in ripening through interconnections into an intricate network. The accumulation of large datasets of expression profiles corresponding to different stages of tomato fruit ripening and the availability of bioinformatics tools for their analysis provide an opportunity to identify TFs which might regulate gene clusters with similar co-expression patterns...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Shan Xin, Chengcheng Tao, Hongbin Li
Apoplastic ascorbate oxidase (AO) plays significant roles in plant cell growth. However, the mechanism of underlying the transcriptional regulation of AO in Gossypium hirsutum remains unclear. Here, we obtained a 1,920-bp promoter sequence from the Gossypium hirsutum ascorbate oxidase (GhAO1) gene, and this GhAO1 promoter included a number of known cis-elements. Promoter activity analysis in overexpressing pGhAO1::GFP-GUS tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) showed that the GhAO1 promoter exhibited high activity, driving strong reporter gene expression in tobacco trichomes, leaves and roots...
2016: PloS One
Jian Pu, Haina Sun, Jinda Wang, Min Wu, Kangxu Wang, Ian Denholm, Zhaojun Han
As well as arising from single point mutations in binding sites or detoxifying enzymes, it is likely that insecticide resistance mechanisms are frequently controlled by multiple genetic factors, resulting in resistance being inherited as a quantitative trait. However, empirical evidence for this is still rare. Here we analyse the causes of up-regulation of CYP6FU1, a monoxygenase implicated in resistance to deltamethrin in the rice pest Laodelphax striatellus. The 5'-flanking region of this gene was cloned and sequenced from individuals of a susceptible and a resistant strain...
August 31, 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Ganesh Selvaraj Duraisamy, Ajay Kumar Mishra, Tomas Kocabek, Jaroslav Matoušek
Molecular and biochemical studies have shown that gene contains single or combination of different cis-acting regulatory elements are actively controlling the transcriptional regulation of associated genes, downstream effects of these result in the modulation of various biological pathways such as biotic/abiotic stress responses, hormonal responses to growth and development processes and secondary metabolite production. Therefore, the identification of promoters and their cis-regulatory elements is one of intriguing area to study the dynamic complex regulatory network of genes activities by integrating computational, comparative, structural and functional genomics...
August 24, 2016: Computational Biology and Chemistry
Zhenqian Zhang, Xiaona Hu, Yunqin Zhang, Zhenyan Miao, Can Xie, Xiangzhao Meng, Jie Deng, Jiangqi Wen, Kirankumar S Mysore, Florian Frugier, Tao Wang, Jiangli Dong
Cold acclimation is an important process by which plants respond to low temperature and enhance their winter hardiness. C-REPEAT BINDING FACTOR1 (CBF1), CBF2, and CBF3 genes were shown previously to participate in cold acclimation in Medicago truncatula In addition, MtCBF4 is transcriptionally induced by salt, drought, and cold stresses. We show here that MtCBF4, shown previously to enhance drought and salt tolerance, also positively regulates cold acclimation and freezing tolerance. To identify molecular factors acting upstream and downstream of the MtCBF4 transcription factor (TF) in cold responses, we first identified genes that are differentially regulated upon MtCBF4 overexpression using RNAseq Digital Gene Expression Profiling...
October 2016: Plant Physiology
Paul J Rushton
The molecular components of transcriptional regulation are modular. Transcription factors have domains for specific functions such as DNA binding, dimerization, and protein-protein interactions associated with transcriptional activation and repression. Similarly, promoters are modular. They consist of combinations of cis-acting elements that are the binding sites for transcription factors. It is this promoter architecture that largely determines the expression pattern of a gene. The modular nature of promoters is supported by the observation that many cis-acting elements retain their activities when they are taken out of their native promoter context and used as building blocks in synthetic promoters...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Benoit Van Driessche, Anthony Rodari, Nadège Delacourt, Sylvain Fauquenoy, Caroline Vanhulle, Arsène Burny, Olivier Rohr, Carine Van Lint
Bovine leukemia virus latency is a viral strategy used to escape from the host immune system and contribute to tumor development. However, a highly expressed BLV micro-RNA cluster has been reported, suggesting that the BLV silencing is not complete. Here, we demonstrate the in vivo recruitment of RNA polymerase III to the BLV miRNA cluster both in BLV-latently infected cell lines and in ovine BLV-infected primary cells, through a canonical type 2 RNAPIII promoter. Moreover, by RPC6-knockdown, we showed a direct functional link between RNAPIII transcription and BLV miRNAs expression...
2016: Scientific Reports
Yu-Chun Wang, Wen-Jun Qian, Na-Na Li, Xin-Yuan Hao, Lu Wang, Bin Xiao, Xin-Chao Wang, Ya-Jun Yang
Tea plant (Camellia sinensis) is one of the most economically valuable crops in the world. Anthracnose can affect the growth of leaves and cause serious yield losses of tea. Tea plants are rich in secondary metabolites; however, their roles in resistance to anthracnose are unclear. Herein we compared the contents of total phenolics, catechins, and caffeine in two cultivars with different resistances to anthracnose during Colletotrichum fructicola infection. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), (+)-catechin (C), caffeine, and critical regulatory genes were induced in C...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Masahiko Ajiro, Shuang Tang, John Doorbar, Zhi-Ming Zheng
UNLABELLED: Human papillomavirus 18 (HPV18) is the second most common oncogenic HPV type associated with cervical, anogenital, and oropharyngeal cancers. Like other oncogenic HPVs, HPV18 encodes two major (one early and one late) polycistronic pre-mRNAs that are regulated by alternative RNA splicing to produce a repertoire of viral transcripts for the expression of individual viral genes. However, RNA cis-regulatory elements and trans-acting factors contributing to HPV18 alternative RNA splicing remain unknown...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Virology
Ying Fei, Yuanxia Xue, Peixiu Du, Shushen Yang, Xiping Deng
Cytosolic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPC) catalyzes a key reaction in glycolysis and encoded by a multi-gene family which showed instability expression under abiotic stress. DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that plays an important role in gene regulation in response to abiotic stress. The comprehension of DNA methylation at promoter region of TaGAPC1 can provide insights into the transcription regulation mechanisms of plant genes under abiotic stress. In this study, we cloned TaGAPC1 genes and its promoters from two wheat genomes, then investigated the expression patterns of TaGAPC1 under osmotic and salinity stress, and analyzed the promoter sequences...
August 3, 2016: Protoplasma
Carlo Randise-Hinchliff, Jason H Brickner
In yeast, inducible genes such as INO1, PRM1 and HIS4 reposition from the nucleoplasm to nuclear periphery upon activation. This leads to a physical interaction with nuclear pore complex (NPC), interchromosomal clustering, and stronger transcription. Repositioning to the nuclear periphery is controlled by cis-acting transcription factor (TF) binding sites located within the promoters of these genes and the TFs that bind to them. Such elements are both necessary and sufficient to control positioning of genes to the nuclear periphery...
July 3, 2016: Nucleus
Sreeramaiah N Gangappa, Javier F Botto
ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5), a member of the bZIP transcription factor family, inhibits hypocotyl growth and lateral root development, and promotes pigment accumulation in a light-dependent manner in Arabidopsis. Recent research on its role in different processes such as hormone, nutrient, abiotic stress (abscisic acid, salt, cold), and reactive oxygen species signaling pathways clearly places HY5 at the center of a transcriptional network hub. HY5 regulates the transcription of a large number of genes by directly binding to cis-regulatory elements...
October 10, 2016: Molecular Plant
Jin Zhang, Huixia Jia, Jianbo Li, Yu Li, Mengzhu Lu, Jianjun Hu
Heat shock transcription factor (Hsf) family is one of the most important regulators in the plant kingdom. Hsf has been demonstrated to be involved in various processes associated with plant growth, development as well as in response to hormone and abiotic stresses. In this study, we carried out a comprehensive analysis of Hsf family in desert poplar, Populus euphratica. Total of 32 genes encoding Hsf were identified and they were classified into three main classes (A, B, and C). Gene structure and conserved motif analyses indicated that the members in each class were relatively conserved...
2016: Scientific Reports
Mir Munir A Rahim, Frederic Vigneault, William Zerges
Photosystem II is the first of two light-driven oxidoreductase complexes in oxygenic photosynthesis. The biogenesis of photosystem II requires the synthesis of polypeptide subunits encoded by the genomes in the chloroplast and the nucleus. In the chloroplast of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the synthesis of each subunit requires interactions between the 5' UTR of the mRNA encoding it and gene-specific translation factors. Here, we analyze the sequences and structures in the 5' UTR of the psbC mRNA, which are known to be required to promote translation and genetic interaction with TBC1, a nuclear gene required specifically for psbC translation...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
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