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a cis-acting acting element in the promoter

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339724/three-cis-regulatory-motifs-auxre-mycrs1-and-mycrs2-are-required-for-modulating-the-auxin-and-mycorrhiza-responsive-expression-of-a-tomato-gh3-gene
#1
Xiao Chen, Dehua Liao, Xiaofeng Yang, Minjie Ji, Shuangshuang Wang, Mian Gu, Aiqun Chen, Guohua Xu
Auxin is well known to be a key regulator that acts in almost all physiological processes during plant growth, and in interactions between plants and microbes. However, to date, the regulatory mechanisms underlying auxin-mediated plant-arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi symbiosis have not been well deciphered. Previously we identified a GH3 gene, SlGH3.4, strongly responsive to both auxin induction and mycorrhizal symbiosis. Here, we reported a refined dissection of the SlGH3.4 promoter activity using the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter...
February 21, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332702/the-mtp1-promoters-from-arabidopsis-halleri-reveal-cis-regulating-elements-for-the-evolution-of-metal-tolerance
#2
Elisa Fasani, Giovanni DalCorso, Claudio Varotto, Mingai Li, Giovanna Visioli, Monica Mattarozzi, Antonella Furini
In the hyperaccumulator Arabidopsis halleri, the zinc (Zn) vacuolar transporter MTP1 is a key component of hypertolerance. Because protein sequences and functions are highly conserved between A. halleri and Arabidopsis thaliana, Zn tolerance in A. halleri may reflect the constitutively higher MTP1 expression compared with A. thaliana, based on copy number expansion and different cis regulation. Three MTP1 promoters were characterized in A. halleri ecotype I16. The comparison with the A. thaliana MTP1 promoter revealed different expression profiles correlated with specific cis-acting regulatory elements...
March 23, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293251/an-active-mitochondrial-complex-ii-present-in-mature-seeds-contains-an-embryo-specific-iron-sulfur-subunit-regulated-by-aba-and-bzip53-and-is-involved-in-germination-and-seedling-establishment
#3
Franko Restovic, Roberto Espinoza-Corral, Isabel Gómez, Jesús Vicente-Carbajosa, Xavier Jordana
Complex II (succinate dehydrogenase) is an essential mitochondrial enzyme involved in both the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the respiratory chain. In Arabidopsis thaliana, its iron-sulfur subunit (SDH2) is encoded by three genes, one of them (SDH2.3) being specifically expressed during seed maturation in the embryo. Here we show that seed SDH2.3 expression is regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) and we define the promoter region (-114 to +49) possessing all the cis-elements necessary and sufficient for high expression in seeds...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265276/abscisic-acid-signaling-and-abiotic-stress-tolerance-in-plants-a-review-on-current-knowledge-and-future-prospects
#4
REVIEW
Kanchan Vishwakarma, Neha Upadhyay, Nitin Kumar, Gaurav Yadav, Jaspreet Singh, Rohit K Mishra, Vivek Kumar, Rishi Verma, R G Upadhyay, Mayank Pandey, Shivesh Sharma
Abiotic stress is one of the severe stresses of environment that lowers the growth and yield of any crop even on irrigated land throughout the world. A major phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays an essential part in acting toward varied range of stresses like heavy metal stress, drought, thermal or heat stress, high level of salinity, low temperature, and radiation stress. Its role is also elaborated in various developmental processes including seed germination, seed dormancy, and closure of stomata. ABA acts by modifying the expression level of gene and subsequent analysis of cis- and trans-acting regulatory elements of responsive promoters...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263861/proximity-of-radiation-desiccation-response-motif-to-the-core-promoter-is-essential-for-basal-repression-as-well-as-gamma-radiation-induced-gyrb-gene-expression-in-deinococcus-radiodurans
#5
Narasimha Anaganti, Bhakti Basu, Rita Mukhopadhyaya, Shree Kumar Apte
The radioresistant D. radiodurans regulates its DNA damage regulon (DDR) through interaction between a 17bp palindromic cis-regulatory element called the Radiation Desiccation Response Motif (RDRM), the DdrO repressor and a protease IrrE. The role of RDRM in regulation of DDR was dissected by constructing RDRM sequence-, position- or deletion-variants of Deinococcal gyrB gene (DR0906) promoter and by RDRM insertion in the non-RDRM groESL gene (DR0606) promoter, and monitoring the effect of such modifications on the basal as well as gamma radiation inducible promoter activity by quantifying fluorescence of a GFP reporter...
March 2, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256531/repression-of-human-t-lymphotropic-virus-type-1-long-terminal-repeat-sense-transcription-by-sp1-recruitment-to-novel-sp1-binding-sites
#6
Sylvain Fauquenoy, Gwenaëlle Robette, Anna Kula, Caroline Vanhulle, Sophie Bouchat, Nadège Delacourt, Anthony Rodari, Céline Marban, Christian Schwartz, Arsène Burny, Olivier Rohr, Benoit Van Driessche, Carine Van Lint
Human T-lymphotropic Virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection is characterized by viral latency in the majority of infected cells and by the absence of viremia. These features are thought to be due to the repression of viral sense transcription in vivo. Here, our in silico analysis of the HTLV-1 Long Terminal Repeat (LTR) promoter nucleotide sequence revealed, in addition to the four Sp1 binding sites previously identified, the presence of two additional potential Sp1 sites within the R region. We demonstrated that the Sp1 and Sp3 transcription factors bound in vitro to these two sites and compared the binding affinity for Sp1 of all six different HTLV-1 Sp1 sites...
March 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246387/functional-characterization-of-populus-psnshn2-in-coordinated-regulation-of-secondary-wall-components-in-tobacco
#7
Yingying Liu, Minjing Wei, Cong Hou, Tingting Lu, Lulu Liu, Hairong Wei, Yuxiang Cheng, Zhigang Wei
Wood formation is a biological process during which the most abundant lignocellulosic biomass on earth is produced. Although a number of transcription factors have been linked to the regulation of wood formation process, none of them has been demonstrated to be a higher hierarchical regulator that coordinately regulates secondary wall biosynthesis genes. Here, we identified a Populus gene, PsnSHN2, a counterpart of the Arabidopsis AP2/ERF type transcription factor, SHINE2. PsnSHN2 is predominantly expressed in xylem tissues and acted evidently as a high hierarchical transcriptional activator...
December 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223997/melatonin-regulates-root-architecture-by-modulating-auxin-response-in-rice
#8
Chengzhen Liang, Aifu Li, Hua Yu, Wenzhen Li, Chengzhi Liang, Sandui Guo, Rui Zhang, Chengcai Chu
It has been suggested that melatonin acts as an important regulator in controlling root growth and development, but the underlying molecular mechanism driving this relationship remains undetermined. In this study, we demonstrated that melatonin acts as a potent molecule to govern root architecture in rice. Treatments with melatonin significantly inhibited embryonic root growth, and promoted lateral root formation and development. Genome-wide expression profiling by RNA-sequencing revealed auxin-related genes were significantly activated under melatonin treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216629/matrix-attachment-region-combinations-increase-transgene-expression-in-transfected-chinese-hamster-ovary-cells
#9
Chun-Peng Zhao, Xiao Guo, Si-Jia Chen, Chang-Zheng Li, Yun Yang, Jun-He Zhang, Shao-Nan Chen, Yan-Long Jia, Tian-Yun Wang
Matrix attachment regions (MARs) are cis-acting DNA elements that can increase transgene expression levels in a CHO cell expression system. To investigate the effects of MAR combinations on transgene expression and the underlying regulatory mechanisms, we generated constructs in which the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) gene flanked by different combinations of human β-interferon and β-globin MAR (iMAR and gMAR, respectively), which was driven by the cytomegalovirus (CMV) or simian virus (SV) 40 promoter...
February 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208770/splicing-and-polyadenylation-of-human-papillomavirus-type-16-mrnas
#10
REVIEW
Chengjun Wu, Naoko Kajitani, Stefan Schwartz
The human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) life cycle can be divided into an early stage in which the HPV16 genomic DNA is replicated, and a late stage in which the HPV16 structural proteins are synthesized and virions are produced. A strong coupling between the viral life cycle and the differentiation state of the infected cell is highly characteristic of all HPVs. The switch from the HPV16 early gene expression program to the late requires a promoter switch, a polyadenylation signal switch and a shift in alternative splicing...
February 9, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174683/post-translational-modifications-of-annexin-a2-are-linked-to-its-association-with-perinuclear-nonpolysomal-mrnp-complexes
#11
Ingvild Aukrust, Linn Andersen Rosenberg, Mia Madeleine Ankerud, Vibeke Bertelsen, Hanne Hollås, Jaakko Saraste, Ann Kari Grindheim, Anni Vedeler
Various post-translational modifications (PTMs) regulate the localisation and function of the multifunctional protein Annexin A2 (AnxA2). In addition to its various tasks as a cytoskeletal- and membrane-associated protein, AnxA2 can function as a trans-acting protein binding to cis-acting sequences of specific mRNAs. In the present study, we have examined the role of Ser25 phosphorylation in subcellular localisation of AnxA2 and its interaction with mRNP complexes. Subcellular fractionation and confocal microscopy of rat neuroendocrine PC12 cells showed that Ser25-phosphorylated AnxA2 (pSer25AnxA2) is absent from the nucleus and mainly localised to the perinuclear region, evidently associating with both membranes and cytoskeletal elements...
February 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174576/comparative-analysis-of-agpase-genes-and-encoded-proteins-in-eight-monocots-and-three-dicots-with-emphasis-on-wheat
#12
Ritu Batra, Gautam Saripalli, Amita Mohan, Saurabh Gupta, Kulvinder S Gill, Pritish K Varadwaj, Harindra S Balyan, Pushpendra K Gupta
ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) is a heterotetrameric enzyme with two large subunits (LS) and two small subunits (SS). It plays a critical role in starch biosynthesis. We are reporting here detailed structure, function and evolution of the genes encoding the LS and the SS among monocots and dicots. "True" orthologs of maize Sh2 (AGPase LS) and Bt2 (AGPase SS) were identified in seven other monocots and three dicots; structure of the enzyme at protein level was also studied. Novel findings of the current study include the following: (i) at the DNA level, the genes controlling the SS are more conserved than those controlling the LS; the variation in both is mainly due to intron number, intron length and intron phase distribution; (ii) at protein level, the SS genes are more conserved relative to those for LS; (iii) "QTCL" motif present in SS showed evolutionary differences in AGPase belonging to wheat 7BS, T...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174238/functional-characterisation-of-cis-regulatory-elements-governing-dynamic-eomes-expression-in-the-early-mouse-embryo
#13
Claire S Simon, Damien J Downes, Matthew E Gosden, Jelena Telenius, Douglas R Higgs, Jim R Hughes, Ita Costello, Elizabeth K Bikoff, Elizabeth J Robertson
The T-box transcription factor (TF) Eomes is a key regulator of cell fate decisions during early mouse development. The cis-acting regulatory elements that direct expression in the anterior visceral endoderm (AVE), primitive streak (PS) and definitive endoderm (DE) have yet to be defined. Here, we identified three gene-proximal enhancer-like sequences (PSE_a, PSE_b and VPE) that faithfully activate tissue specific expression in transgenic embryos. However, targeted deletion experiments demonstrate that PSE_a and PSE_b are dispensable and only the VPE is required for optimal Eomes expression in vivo Embryos lacking this enhancer display variably penetrant defects in anterior-posterior axis orientation and DE formation...
February 7, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168220/the-structurally-disordered-paramyxovirus-nucleocapsid-protein-tail-domain-is-a-regulator-of-the-mrna-transcription-gradient
#14
Robert M Cox, Stefanie A Krumm, Vidhi D Thakkar, Maximilian Sohn, Richard K Plemper
The paramyxovirus RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase (RdRp) complex loads onto the nucleocapsid protein (N)-encapsidated viral N:RNA genome for RNA synthesis. Binding of the RdRp of measles virus (MeV), a paramyxovirus archetype, is mediated through interaction with a molecular recognition element (MoRE) located near the end of the carboxyl-terminal Ntail domain. The structurally disordered central Ntail section is thought to add positional flexibility to MoRE, but the functional importance of this Ntail region for RNA polymerization is unclear...
February 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167039/apple-autophagy-related-protein-mdatg3s-afford-tolerance-to-multiple-abiotic-stresses
#15
Ping Wang, Xun Sun, Xin Jia, Fengwang Ma
The efficient degradation system of autophagy in plant cells has important roles in removing and recycling intracellular components during normal development or under environmental stresses. Formation of autophagosomes requires the conjugation of ubiquitin-like protein ATG8 to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). We isolated two ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2-like ATG3 homologues from Malus domestica - MdATG3a and MdATG3b - that are crucial for ATG8-PE conjugation. Both share a conserved N-terminal, as well as the catalytic and C-terminal domains of ATG3 with HPC and FLKF motifs...
March 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166800/a-purine-rich-element-in-foamy-virus-pol-regulates-env-splicing-and-gag-pol-expression
#16
Rebecca Moschall, Sarah Denk, Steffen Erkelenz, Christian Schenk, Heiner Schaal, Jochen Bodem
BACKGROUND: The foamy viral genome encodes four central purine-rich elements localized in the integrase-coding region of pol. Previously, we have shown that the first two of these RNA elements (A and B) are required for protease dimerization and activation. The D element functions as internal polypurine tract during reverse transcription. Peters et al., described the third element (C) as essential for gag expression suggesting that it might serve as an RNA export element for the unspliced genomic transcript...
February 6, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163300/identification-of-two-novel-rhizoctonia-solani-inducible-cis-acting-elements-in-the-promoter-of-the-maize-gene-grmzm2g315431
#17
Ning Li, Jing Chen, Fangfang Yang, Shutong Wei, Lingguang Kong, Xinhua Ding, Zhaohui Chu
Plants are continuously exposed to myriad pathogen stresses. However, the molecular mechanisms by which these stress signals are perceived and transduced are poorly understood. In this study, the maize gene GRMZM2G315431 was identified to be highly inducible by Rhizoctonia solani infection, suggesting that the promoter of GRMZM2G315431 (pGRMZM2G315431) might contain a specific cis-acting element responsive to R. solani attack. To identify the R. solani-responsive element in pGRMZM2G315431, a series of binary plant transformation vectors were constructed by fusing pGRMZM2G315431 or its deletion-derivatives with the reporter genes...
February 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161858/wheat-drought-responsive-wxpl-transcription-factors-regulate-cuticle-biosynthesis-genes
#18
Huihui Bi, Sukanya Luang, Yuan Li, Natalia Bazanova, Nikolai Borisjuk, Maria Hrmova, Sergiy Lopato
The cuticle forms a hydrophobic waxy layer that covers plant organs and provides protection from biotic and abiotic stresses. Transcription of genes responsible for cuticle formation is regulated by several types of transcription factors (TFs). Five orthologous to WAX PRODUCTION (WXP1 and WXP2) genes from Medicago truncatula were isolated from a cDNA library prepared from flag leaves and spikes of drought tolerant wheat (Triticum aestivum, breeding line RAC875) and designated TaWXP-like (TaWXPL) genes. Tissue-specific and drought-responsive expression of TaWXPL1D and TaWXPL2B was investigated by quantitative RT-PCR in two Australian wheat genotypes, RAC875 and Kukri, with contrasting glaucousness and drought tolerance...
February 4, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128303/analysis-of-carotenogenic-genes-promoters-and-wrky-transcription-factors-in-response-to-salt-stress-in-dunaliella-bardawil
#19
Ming-Hua Liang, Jian-Guo Jiang
The unicellular alga Dunaliella bardawil is a highly salt-tolerant organism, capable of accumulating glycerol, glycine betaine and β-carotene under salt stress, and has been considered as an excellent model organism to investigate the molecular mechanisms of salt stress responses. In this study, several carotenogenic genes (DbCRTISO, DbZISO, DbLycE and DbChyB), DbBADH genes involved in glycine betaine synthesis and genes encoding probable WRKY transcription factors from D. bardawil were isolated, and promoters of DbCRTISO and DbChyB were cloned...
January 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119417/in-vivo-evidence-that-eif3-stays-bound-to-ribosomes-elongating-and-terminating-on-short-upstream-orfs-to-promote-reinitiation
#20
Mahabub Pasha Mohammad, Vanda Munzarová Pondělíčková, Jakub Zeman, Stanislava Gunišová, Leoš Shivaya Valášek
Translation reinitiation is a gene-specific translational control mechanism characterized by the ability of some short upstream ORFs to prevent recycling of the post-termination 40S subunit in order to resume scanning for reinitiation downstream. Its efficiency decreases with the increasing uORF length, or by the presence of secondary structures, suggesting that the time taken to translate a uORF is more critical than its length. This led to a hypothesis that some initiation factors needed for reinitiation are preserved on the 80S ribosome during early elongation...
January 23, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
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