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a cis-acting acting element in the promoter

Arisa Hirano, Pei-Ken Hsu, Luoying Zhang, Lijuan Xing, Thomas McMahon, Maya Yamazaki, Louis J Ptáček, Ying-Hui Fu
Adequate sleep is essential for physical and mental health. We previously identified a missense mutation in the human DEC2 gene ( BHLHE41 ) leading to the familial natural short sleep behavioral trait. DEC2 is a transcription factor regulating the circadian clock in mammals, although its role in sleep regulation has been unclear. Here we report that prepro-orexin , also known as hypocretin ( Hcrt ), gene expression is increased in the mouse model expressing the mutant h DEC2 transgene (h DEC2-P384R ). Prepro-orexin encodes a precursor protein of a neuropeptide producing orexin A and B (hcrt1 and hcrt2), which is enriched in the hypothalamus and regulates maintenance of arousal...
March 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Wei Li, Zhongying Ren, Zhenyu Wang, Kuan Sun, Xiaoyu Pei, Yangai Liu, Kunlun He, Fei Zhang, Chengxiang Song, Xiaojian Zhou, Wensheng Zhang, Xiongfeng Ma, Daigang Yang
The SWEET (sugars will eventually be exported transporters) proteins are sugar efflux transporters containing the MtN3_saliva domain, which affects plant development as well as responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. These proteins have not been functionally characterized in the tetraploid cotton, Gossypium hirsutum , which is a widely cultivated cotton species. In this study, we comprehensively analyzed the cotton SWEET gene family. A total of 55 putative G. hirsutum SWEET genes were identified. The GhSWEET genes were classified into four clades based on a phylogenetic analysis and on the examination of gene structural features...
March 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Peter A Larson, John B Moldovan, Naveen Jasti, Jeffrey M Kidd, Christine R Beck, John V Moran
Human Long interspersed element-1 (L1) retrotransposons contain an internal RNA polymerase II promoter within their 5' untranslated region (UTR) and encode two proteins, (ORF1p and ORF2p) required for their mobilization (i.e., retrotransposition). The evolutionary success of L1 relies on the continuous retrotransposition of full-length L1 mRNAs. Previous studies identified functional splice donor (SD), splice acceptor (SA), and polyadenylation sequences in L1 mRNA and provided evidence that a small number of spliced L1 mRNAs retrotransposed in the human genome...
March 5, 2018: PLoS Biology
Tariq Mahmood, Tamkeen Tahir, Faiza Munir, Zabta Khan Shinwari
Germins and germin-like proteins from cupin superfamily contribute resistance to heat denaturation, chemical degradation and against plant pathogens, further functions in plant growth and development. In this study, from three different Oryza sativa accessions KS-282 and Pak 7178 and Pak 7865, OsRGLP2 gene promoter region was amplified, sequenced and analyzed. Sequencing data was evaluated via different computational tools. The regulatory elements were predicted by Consite tool and mapping was done. Many transcription factors binding sites were discovered in OsRGLP2 gene promoter; among these factors, HFH-1 having a significant role in germination was picked for further investigation...
February 23, 2018: Computational Biology and Chemistry
Dawei Wei, Sayed Haidar Abbas Raza, Jiupan Zhang, Linsheng Gui, Siddiq Ur Rahman, Rajwali Khan, Seyed Mahdi Hosseini, Hubdar Ali Kaleri, Linsen Zan
The sine oculis homeobox homolog 4 (SIX4) gene belongs to the SIX gene family, which plays a critical role in muscle regeneration and early stages of ontogeny. This study aimed to detect promoter variations of bovine SIX4 genes in Qinchuan cattle, and to evaluate the effect of transcription regulations and body measurement traits. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) results showed that the mRNA expression levels of SIX4 gene were found significantly highest in longissimus thoracis tissue and individual before attaining the stage of physiological maturity...
February 26, 2018: Gene
Shivi Tyagi, Himani, Jaspreet K Sembi, Santosh Kumar Upadhyay
Glutathione peroxidases (GPXs) are redox sensor proteins that maintain a steady-state of H2 O2 in plant cells. They exhibit distinct sub-cellular localization and have diverse functionality in response to different stimuli. In this study, a total of 14 TaGPX genes and three splice variants were identified in the genome of Triticum aestivum and evaluated for various physicochemical properties. The TaGPX genes were scattered on the various chromosomes of the A, B, and D sub-genomes and clustered into five homeologous groups based on high sequence homology...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Thassio R Mesquita, Gaelle Auguste, Debora Falcón, Gema Ruiz-Hurtado, Rogelio Salazar-Enciso, Jessica Sabourin, Florence Lefebvre, Say Viengchareun, Hussein Kobeissy, Patrick Lechêne, Valerie Nicolas, Amaya Fernández-Celis, Susana Gomez, Sandra Lauton-Santos, Eric Morel, Angelica Rueda, Natalia López-Andrés, Ana M Gomez, Marc Lombes, Jean-Pierre Benitah
<u>Rationale:</u> The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists belong to the current therapeutic armamentarium for the management of cardiovascular diseases, but the mechanisms conferring their beneficial effects are poorly understood. Part of the cardiovascular effects of MR are due to the regulation of L-type Cav 1.2 Ca2+ channel expression, which is generated by tissue-specific alternative promoters as a long 'cardiac' (Cav 1.2-LNT) or a short 'vascular' (Cav 1.2-SNT) N-terminal transcripts...
February 21, 2018: Circulation Research
Pengfei Wang, Ling Su, Huanhuan Gao, Xilong Jiang, Xinying Wu, Yi Li, Qianqian Zhang, Yongmei Wang, Fengshan Ren
Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors are involved in many abiotic stress responses as well as flavonol and anthocyanin biosynthesis. In grapes ( Vitis vinifera L.), flavonols including anthocyanins and condensed tannins are most abundant in the skins of the berries. Flavonols are important phytochemicals for viticulture and enology, but grape bHLH genes have rarely been examined. We identified 94 grape bHLH genes in a genome-wide analysis and performed Nr and GO function analyses for these genes...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Lu Zhang, Yanqiang Liu, Yunpeng Yang, Weihong Jiang, Yang Gu
The master regulator CcpA (catabolite control protein A) manages a large and complex regulatory network that is essential for cellular physiology and metabolism in gram-positive bacteria. Although CcpA can affect the expression of target genes by binding to a cis-acting catabolite responsive element (cre), whether and how the expression of CcpA is regulated remains poorly explored. Here, we report a novel dual-cre motif that is employed by the CcpA in Clostridium acetobutylicum, a typical solventogenic Clostridium species, for autoregulation...
February 2, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Lanfen Wang, Jifeng Zhu, Xiaoming Li, Shumin Wang, Jing Wu
Mung bean and adzuki bean are warm-season legumes widely cultivated in China. However, bean production in major producing regions is limited by biotic and abiotic stress, such as drought and salt stress. Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) genes play key roles in responses to various biotic and abiotic stresses. However, only several bZIP genes involved in drought and salt stress in legumes, especially Vigna radiata and Vigna angularis, have been identified. In this study, we identified 54 and 50 bZIP proteins from whole-genome sequences of V...
February 6, 2018: Gene
Yacheng Huang, Yongjun Fang, Xiangyu Long, Linya Liu, Jia Wang, Jinheng Zhu, Yanyan Ma, Yunxia Qin, Jiyan Qi, Xinwen Hu, Chaorong Tang
Metallothioneins (MTs) as reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers play important roles in stress response and heavy metal homeostasis. In Hevea brasiliensis (the para rubber tree that is the source of commercial natural rubber) and in other trees, the functions of MTs are not well understood. Latex exudes when the rubber tree is tapped. The flow of latex and its regeneration can be enhanced by tapping, wounding and ethylene treatment, all of which produce ROS as a by-product. Here, we show the presence of four MT genes in H...
February 7, 2018: Tree Physiology
María I Fonseca, Melisa A Molina, Daniana Winnik, María V Busi, Julia I Fariña, Laura L Villalba, Pedro D Zapata
AIMS: Isolate and characterize a laccase-encoding gene (lac I) of Phlebia brevispora BAFC 633, as well as cloning and expressing cDNA of lac I in Pichia pastoris. And to obtain a purified and characterized recombinant laccase to analyze the biotechnological application potential. METHODS AND RESULTS: lac I was cloned and sequenced, it contains 2447 pb obtained by PCR and long-distance inverse PCR. Upstream of the structural region of the laccase gene, response elements such as metals, antioxidants, copper, nitrogen and heat-shock were found...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Samantha B Peeters, Andrea J Korecki, Elizabeth M Simpson, Carolyn J Brown
A long-standing question concerning X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) has been how some genes avoid the otherwise stable chromosome-wide heterochromatinization of the inactive X chromosome. As 20% or more of human X-linked genes escape from inactivation, such genes are an important contributor to sex differences in gene expression. Although both human and mouse have genes that escape from XCI, more genes escape in humans than mice, with human escape genes often clustering in larger domains than the single escape genes of mouse...
February 1, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Yusuke Matsumoto, Keisuke Ohta, Daniel Kolakofsky, Machiko Nishio
The unusual ability of a human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hPIV2) nucleoprotein point mutation (NPQ202A) to strongly enhance minigenome replication was found to depend on the absence of a functional, internal element of the bipartite replication promoter (CRII). This point mutation allows relatively robust CRII-minus minigenome replication in a CRII-independent manner, under conditions in which NPwt is essentially inactive. The nature of the aa at position 202 apparently controls whether viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (vRdRp) can, or cannot, initiate RNA synthesis in a CRII-independent manner...
January 22, 2018: RNA
Tsuyoshi Morita, Kenichiro Hayashi
Although enhanced thymosin beta-ß4 (TMSBX4/Tß4) expression is associated with tumor progression and metastasis, its tumor-promoting functions remain largely unknown. Here it is demonstrated that transforming growth factor beta (TGFß) facilitates Tß4 expression and leads to the activation of myocardin-related transcription factors (MRTFs), which are co-activators of serum response factor (SRF) and regulate the expression of genes critical for the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and tumor metastasis...
January 12, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
Shaista Parveen, Aarti Pandey, Neha Jameel, Subhra Chakraborty, Niranjan Chakraborty
Ferritin, ubiquitous among all living organisms except yeast, exhibits iron-regulated expression. In plants, this regulation is applied through transcriptional control. Previous studies established the presence of two types of cis-acting elements in the promoter region: the iron regulatory element (FRE) in soybean and the iron-dependent regulatory sequence (IDRS) in maize and Arabidopsis. Adverse environmental conditions (e.g. water-deficit and oxidative stress) are known to modulate the expression of phytoferritin genes...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Dipinte Gupta, Rajiv Ranjan
Promoters are specific sequence of nucleotides present upstream of gene coding region involved in initiation and regulation of transcription. Multiple cis-acting element forms the architecture of promoter to which trans-acting nucleic binding factors bind and regulates its activity. Since 1980 genome of pararetrovirus, are being exploited for developing efficient promoters. Among all of them Cauliflower mosaic virus is the most widely used promoter for gene expression. The basic rational behind the strength of promoter lies in the sequence of cis elements and the spacer nucleotide elements between them, thereby strength of these promoter fragments can be regulated by altering these nucleotide sequences...
December 2017: Virusdisease
Cheng Huang, Huayue Sun, Dingyi Xu, Qiuyue Chen, Yameng Liang, Xufeng Wang, Guanghui Xu, Jinge Tian, Chenglong Wang, Dan Li, Lishuan Wu, Xiaohong Yang, Weiwei Jin, John F Doebley, Feng Tian
From its tropical origin in southwestern Mexico, maize spread over a wide latitudinal cline in the Americas. This feat defies the rule that crops are inhibited from spreading easily across latitudes. How the widespread latitudinal adaptation of maize was accomplished is largely unknown. Through positional cloning and association mapping, we resolved a flowering-time quantitative trait locus to a Harbinger-like transposable element positioned 57 kb upstream of a CCT transcription factor (ZmCCT9). The Harbinger-like element acts in cis to repress ZmCCT9 expression to promote flowering under long days...
December 26, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Arunkumar Venkatesan, Kannan Palaniyandi, Sujatha Narayanan
Mycobacterium smegmatis, a rapidly growing non-pathogenic mycobacterium, is currently used as a model organism to study mycobacterial genetics. Acetamidase of M. smegmatis is the highly inducible enzyme of Mycobacteria, which utilizes several amide compounds as sole carbon and nitrogen sources. The acetamidase operon has a complex regulatory mechanism, which involves three regulatory proteins, four promoters, and three operator elements. In our previous study, we showed that over-expression of AmiA leads to a negative regulation of acetamidase by blocking the P2 promoter...
December 22, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
Allison E James, Artem S Rogovskyy, Michael A Crowley, Troy Bankhead
In Borrelia hermsii, antigenic variation occurs as a result of a nonreciprocal gene conversion event that places one of ~60 silent variable major protein genes downstream of a single, transcriptionally active promoter. The upstream homology sequence (UHS) and downstream homology sequence (DHS) are two putative cis-acting DNA elements that have been predicted to serve as crossover points for homologous recombination. In this report, a targeted deletion/in cis complementation technique was used to directly evaluate the role for these elements in antigenic switching...
December 17, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
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