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Choline Acetyl Transferase

Hengyun Wei, Zixiang Gao, Luping Zheng, Cuili Zhang, Zundong Liu, Yazong Yang, Hongming Teng, Lin Hou, Yuling Yin, Xiangyang Zou
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease which contributes to memory loss and cognitive decline in the elderly. Fucoidan, extracted from brown algae, is a complex sulfated polysaccharide and potential bioactive compound. In this study, we investigated whether fucoidan protects PC12 cells from apoptosis induced by a combination of beta-amyloid 25-35 (Aβ25-35) and d-galactose (d-Gal), and improves learning and memory impairment in AD model mice. The results indicated that fucoidan could inhibit the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to cytosol and activation of caspases, and increase the expression of apoptosis inhibitor proteins (IAPs), including livin and X-linked IAP (XIAP) in PC12 cells damaged by Aβ25-35 and d-Gal-induction...
March 16, 2017: Marine Drugs
Husain Noreen, Yasushi Yabuki, Kohji Fukunaga
Methimazole (MMI) is a first-line therapy used to manage hyperthyroidism and Graves' disease. Despite its therapeutic benefit, chronic MMI administration can lead to hypothyroidism and perturb brain homeostasis in patients, resulting in neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression and cognitive dysfunction. We recently developed the spiroimidazopyridine derivative SAK3 as cognitive enhancer; however, mechanisms underlying its activity remained unclear. Here, we show that SAK3 potentially improves cognitive impairment seen following MMI-induced hypothyroidism...
March 6, 2017: Neurochemistry International
Xu Rui, Li Wenfang, Cheng Jing, Chen Meng, Ding Chengcheng, Xu Jiqu, Rong Shuang
Accumulating epidemiological and experimental studies have confirmed that a high-cholesterol diet is detrimental to cognitive performance in animal models. Phytosterols, a class of naturally occurring structural components in plant foods, have been demonstrated to possess cholesterol-lowering and antioxidant effects. Phytosterol esters (PSE) are esters of phytosterol. The aim of this study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of PSE on cognitive deficit induced by a cholesterol-enriched diet in aged rats, and to explore their underlying mechanisms for these effects...
March 22, 2017: Food & Function
Toshio Kosaka, Seiko Yasuda, Katsuko Kosaka
In the rat striatum numerous secretagogin (SCGN) positive neurons were scattered. They were heterogeneous in their morphological and chemical properties. We examined the colocalization of SCGN with known four interneuron markers, parvalbumin (PV), calretinin (CR), nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and choline acetyl transferase (ChAT). 60-70% of SCGN positive striatal neurons contained either PV or CR or ChAT, but none contained NOS. On the other hand the remaining 30-40% expressed none of these markers, most of which were GAD positive...
February 10, 2017: Neuroscience Research
Shubham Shantanu, K Vijayalakshmi, S Shruthi, B K Chandrasekhar Sagar, T N Sathyaprabha, A Nalini, Trichur R Raju, Phalguni Anand Alladi
Cytoplasmic mislocalisation and aggregation of TDP-43 and FUS/TLS proteins in spinal motor neurons contribute to the pathogenesis of the highly fatal disorder amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We investigated the neuroprotective effect of VEGF on expression of these proteins in the motor neuronal cell line NSC-34 modelled to reminisce sporadic form of ALS. We studied the expression of TDP-43 and FUS/TLS proteins after exposure to ALS-CSF and following VEGF supplementation by quantitative confocal microscopy and electron microscopy...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Naghmeh Bahrami, Mohammad Bayat, Abdolreza Mohamadnia, Mehrdad Khakbiz, Meysam Yazdankhah, Jafar Ai, Somayeh Ebrahimi-Barough
There is variety of stem cell sources but problems in ethical issues, contamination, and normal karyotype cause many limitations in obtaining and using these cells. The cells in Wharton's jelly region of umbilical cord are abundant and available stem cells with low immunological incompatibility, which could be considered for cell replacement therapy. Small molecules have been presented as less expensive biologically active compounds that can regulate different developmental process. Purmorphamine (PMA) is a small molecule that, according to some studies, possesses certain differentiation effects...
September 14, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Shanmukha Shruthi, R Sumitha, Anu Mary Varghese, S Ashok, B K Chandrasekhar Sagar, T N Sathyaprabha, A Nalini, Boris W Kramer, Trichur R Raju, K Vijayalakshmi, Phalguni Anand Alladi
BACKGROUND: The survival of motor neurons is dependent upon neurotrophic factors both during childhood and adolescence and during adult life. In disease conditions, such as in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), the mRNA levels of trophic factors like brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), and vascular endothelial growth factor are downregulated. This was replicated in our in vivo experimental system following the injection of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) of sporadic ALS (ALS-CSF) patients...
September 13, 2016: Neuro-degenerative Diseases
David Sedmera, Jan Neckar, Jiri Benes, Jana Pospisilova, Jiri Petrak, Kamil Sedlacek, Vojtech Melenovsky
Volume overload leads to development of eccentric cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. In our previous report, we have shown myocyte hypertrophy with no fibrosis and decrease in gap junctional coupling via connexin43 in a rat model of aorto-caval fistula at 21 weeks. Here we set to analyze the electrophysiological and protein expression changes in the left ventricle and correlate them with phenotypic severity based upon ventricles to body weight ratio. ECG analysis showed increased amplitude and duration of the P wave, prolongation of PR and QRS interval, ST segment elevation and decreased T wave amplitude in the fistula group...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Ping Jiang, Du-fang Ma, Yue-hua Jiang, Jin-long Yang, Xiang-dong Xu, Xue Wang, Hai-qing Lin, Xiao Li
OBJECTIVE: To observe the preventive effect of different compatibilities of Ramulus Cinnamomi (RC) and Radix Paeomiae alba (RPA) in Guizhi Decoction (GZD) on neurotransmitters and their rate-limiting enzymes, and neurotrophic factors of cardiac sympathetic denervation model rats induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). METHODS: Totally 54 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups, i.e., the blank control group, the model group, the methycobal group, the 2:1 (RC/RPA) Guishao group, the 1:2 Guishao group, and the 1:1 Guishao group, 9 in each group...
May 2016: Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine
Wei Li, Bo Li, Jiaqi Lv, Li Dong, Lili Zhang, Tian Wang
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary choline supplementation on hepatic lipid metabolism and gene expression in finishing pigs with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). Using a 2 × 2 factorial design, eight normal birth weight (NBW) and eight IUGR weaned pigs were fed either a basal diet (NBW pigs fed a basal diet, NC; IUGR pigs fed a basal diet, IC) or a diet supplemented with two times more choline than the basal diet (NBW pigs fed a high-choline diet, NH; IUGR pigs fed a high-choline diet, IH) until 200 d of age...
May 22, 2016: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Irene Chaves-Coira, Natali Barros-Zulaica, Margarita Rodrigo-Angulo, Ángel Núñez
Neocortical cholinergic activity plays a fundamental role in sensory processing and cognitive functions. Previous results have suggested a refined anatomical and functional topographical organization of basal forebrain (BF) projections that may control cortical sensory processing in a specific manner. We have used retrograde anatomical procedures to demonstrate the existence of specific neuronal groups in the BF involved in the control of specific sensory cortices. Fluoro-Gold (FlGo) and Fast Blue (FB) fluorescent retrograde tracers were deposited into the primary somatosensory (S1) and primary auditory (A1) cortices in mice...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Bei Zhang, Ximin Wang, Zhan Li, Weizong Wang, Yong Zhang, J U Liu, Yinglong Hou
BACKGROUND: The study aimed to observe the effects of pacing on the atrial effective refractory period (AERP), inducibility of atrial fibrillation (AF), and changes of atrial autonomic neural remodeling (ANR) by rosuvastatin intervention on the acute model of rapid-pacing-induced AF. METHODS: Thirty rabbits were randomly divided into a control group (C, n = 10), rapid-pacing group (P, n = 10), and rosuvastatin-intervention group (R, n = 10). AERP and inducibility of AF were measured for all groups...
June 2016: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
Parim Brahma Naidu, V V Sathibabu Uddandrao, Ramavat Ravindar Naik, Pothani Suresh, Balaji Meriga, Mustapha Shabana Begum, Rajesh Pandiyan, Ganapathy Saravanan
Obesity, generally linked to hyperlipidemia, has been occurring of late with distressing alarm and has now become a global phenomenon casting a huge economic burden on the health care system of countries around the world. The present study investigated the effects of gingerol over 30 days on the changes in HFD-induced obese rats in marker enzymes of lipid metabolism such as fatty-acid synthase (FAS), Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (ACC), Carnitine Palmitoyl Transferase-1(CPT-1), HMG co-A Reductase (HMGR), Lecithin Choline Acyl Transferase (LCAT) and Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL) and inflammatory markers (TNF-α and IL-6)...
January 5, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Sabine Meinel, Jan Blohberger, Dieter Berg, Ulrike Berg, Gregory A Dissen, Sergio R Ojeda, Artur Mayerhofer
BACKGROUND: Pro-nerve growth factor must be cleaved to generate mature NGF, which was suggested to be a factor involved in ovarian physiology and pathology. Extracellular proNGF can induce cell death in many tissues. Whether extracellular proNGF exists in the ovary and may play a role in the death of follicular cells or atresia was unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemistry of human and rhesus monkey ovarian sections was performed. IVF-derived follicular fluid and human granulosa cells were studied by RT-PCR, qPCR, Western blotting, ATP- and caspase-assays...
November 2015: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
İlhami Gülçin, Andrea Scozzafava, Claudiu T Supuran, Hulya Akıncıoğlu, Zeynep Koksal, Fikret Turkan, Saleh Alwasel
Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is an active component of honeybee propolis extracts. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC are widespread and intensively studied metalloenzymes present in higher vertebrates including humans as many diverse isoforms. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is responsible for acetyl choline (ACh) hydrolysis and plays a fundamental role in nerve impulse transmission by terminating the action of the ACh neurotransmitter at cholinergic synapses and neuromuscular junctions. Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is another enzyme abundantly present in the liver and released into blood in a soluble form...
December 2016: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
Fausto Pierdoná Guzen, Dayane Pessoa de Araújo, Eudes Euler de Souza Lucena, Hécio Henrique Araújo de Morais, José Rodolfo Lopes de Paiva Cavalcanti, Expedito Silva do Nascimento, Miriam Stela Maris de Oliveira Costa, Jeferson Sousa Cavalcante
Neurotrophic factors and peripheral nerves are known to be good substrates for bridging CNS trauma. The involvement of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) activation in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) was examined following spinal cord injury in the rat. We evaluated whether FGF-2 increases the ability of a sciatic nerve graft to enhance neuronal plasticity, in a gap promoted by complete transection of the spinal cord. The rats were subjected to a 4mm-long gap at low thoracic level and were repaired with saline (Saline or control group, n=10), or fragment of the sciatic nerve (Nerve group, n=10), or fragment of the sciatic nerve to which FGF-2 (Nerve+FGF-2 group, n=10) had been added immediately after lesion...
March 11, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Juan Sun, Yanmei Lu, Yan Huang, Najina Wugeti
BACKGROUND: Chronic heart failure (HF) is the main complication of various organic heart diseases. An imbalance of the autonomic nervous system has close associations with arrhythmia, ventricular remodeling, and sudden death upon HF. This study investigated whether unilateral vagus nerve stimulation could increase vagal activity, improve autonomic nerve distribution, and cardiac function in a HF model. METHODS: Eighteen dogs were randomly divided into 3 groups: sham operation, HF, and HF + vagal stimulation, with 6 dogs per group...
2015: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
Tian-Xia Yu, Peng Zhang, Yan Guan, Min Wang, Ming-Qing Zhen
Luteolin can be found in many traditional Chinese medicines, it's a falconoid compound derived from Lonicera japonica Thunb. This study aims to investigate the neuroprotective effects of luteolin against cognitive impairment induced by amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide and the underlying mechanisms in rats. The animal behavioral tests showed that luteolin could ameliorate Aβ-induced learning and memory impairment. In hippocampal tissue, the activity of choline acetyl transferase (ChAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) increased after treated by luteolin...
2015: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology
Marta Słoniecka, Sandrine Le Roux, Peter Boman, Berit Byström, Qingjun Zhou, Patrik Danielson
Keratocytes, the quiescent cells of the corneal stroma, play a crucial role in corneal wound healing. Neuropeptides and neurotransmitters are usually associated with neuronal signaling, but have recently been shown to be produced also by non-neuronal cells and to be involved in many cellular processes. The aim of this study was to assess the endogenous intracellular and secreted levels of the neuropeptides substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA), and of the neurotransmitters acetylcholine (ACh), catecholamines (adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine), and glutamate, as well as the expression profiles of their receptors, in human primary keratocytes in vitro and in keratocytes of human corneal tissue sections in situ...
2015: PloS One
Zohreh Bagher, Somayeh Ebrahimi-Barough, Mahmoud Azami, Hamid Mirzadeh, Mansooreh Soleimani, Jafar Ai, Mohammad Reza Nourani, Mohammad Taghi Joghataei
The most important property of stem cells from different sources is the capacity to differentiate into various cells and tissue types. However, problems including contamination, normal karyotype, and ethical issues cause many limitations in obtaining and using these cells from different sources. The cells in Wharton's jelly region of umbilical cord represent a pool source of primitive cells with properties of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The aim of this study was to determine the potential of human Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells (WJMSCs) for differentiation to motor neuron cells...
October 2015: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
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