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Choline Acetyl Transferase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652036/clinical-effects-of-selective-drug-regulating-vagus-nerve-signal-pathway-in-vagally-mediated-atrial-fibrillation
#1
Xue Lou, Yanmei Lu, Baopeng Tang, Xianhui Zhou
BACKGROUND The cardiac autonomic nervous system plays a crucial role in genesis and development of atrial fibrillation (AF) through the G protein signal transduction pathway. Therefore, intervening in the G protein signal transduction pathway may be a new "selective drug" method to regulate autonomic nerve activity to prevent vagally-mediated AF. MATERIAL AND METHODS Seventeen adult beagles were randomized into 3 groups: shame-operation control group (group A, n=5), empty vector gene control group (group B, n=6), and Gαi2ctp gene experimental group (group C, n=6)...
April 13, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625471/an-anatomic-characterization-of-the-midbrain-near-response-neurons-in-the-macaque-monkey
#2
Paul J May, Susan Warren, Paul D R Gamlin, Isabelle Billig
Purpose: These experiments were designed to reveal the location of the premotor neurons that have previously been designated physiologically as the midbrain near response cells controlling vergence, lens accommodation, and pupillary constriction in response to target distance. Methods: To identify this population, the fixed N2c strain of rabies virus was injected into the ciliary body of seven Macaca fascicularis monkeys. The virus was trans-synaptically transported to the brain...
March 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497366/confocal-synaptology-synaptic-rearrangements-in-neurodegenerative-disorders-and-upon-nervous-system-injury
#3
REVIEW
Maja Vulovic, Nevena Divac, Igor Jakovcevski
The nervous system is a notable exception to the rule that the cell is the structural and functional unit of tissue systems and organs. The functional unit of the nervous system is the synapse, the contact between two nerve cells. As such, synapses are the foci of investigations of nervous system organization and function, as well as a potential readout for the progression of various disorders of the nervous system. In the past decade the development of antibodies specific to presynaptic terminals has enabled us to assess, at the optical, laser scanning microscopy level, these subcellular structures, and has provided a simple method for the quantification of various synapses...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366872/calcium-binding-protein-secretagogin-specifies-the-microcellular-tegmental-nucleus-and-intermediate-and-ventral-parts-of-the-cuneiform-nucleus-of-the-mouse-and-rat
#4
Toshio Kosaka, Katsuko Kosaka
Secretagogin (SCGN) is a recently discovered calcium binding protein of the EF hand family, cloned from β cells of pancreatic island of Langerhans and endocrine cells of the gastrointestinal gland. SCGN characterizes some particular neuron groups in various regions of the nervous system and is considered as one of the useful neuron subpopulation markers. In the present study we reported that SCGN specifically labelled a particular neuronal cluster in the brainstem of the mice and rats. The comparison of the SCGN immunostaining with the choline acetyltransferase immunostaining and acetylcholinesterase staining clearly indicated that the particular cluster of SCGN positive neurons corresponded to the microcellular tegmental nucleus (MiTg) and the ventral portion of the cuneiform nucleus (CnF), both of which are components of the isthmus...
February 2, 2018: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343737/moderate-decline-in-select-synaptic-markers-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-ba9-of-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease-at-various-cognitive-stages
#5
Odile Poirel, Sébastien Mella, Catherine Videau, Lauriane Ramet, Maria Antonietta Davoli, Etienne Herzog, Pavel Katsel, Naguib Mechawar, Vahram Haroutunian, Jacques Epelbaum, Stéphanie Daumas, Salah El Mestikawy
Synaptic loss, plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are viewed as hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study investigated synaptic markers in neocortical Brodmann area 9 (BA9) samples from 171 subjects with and without AD at different levels of cognitive impairment. The expression levels of vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT1&2), glutamate uptake site (EAAT2), post-synaptic density protein of 95 kD (PSD95), vesicular GABA/glycine transporter (VIAAT), somatostatin (som), synaptophysin and choline acetyl transferase (ChAT) were evaluated...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334787/analysis-of-endocannabinoid-receptors-and-enzymes-in-the-post-mortem-motor-cortex-and-spinal-cord-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-patients
#6
Francisco Espejo-Porras, Javier Fernández-Ruiz, Eva de Lago
OBJECTIVE: We have investigated the endocannabinoid system in the motor cortex of motor neuron disease (MND) patients. METHODS: Post-mortem samples from MND patients and controls were used for immunostaining and/or Western blotting analysis of endocannabinoid elements. RESULTS: We did not find any evidence of neuronal losses in the motor cortex of MND patients, but elevations in glial markers Iba-1 and GFAP were evident. We found no changes in FAAH and MAGL enzymes and in the CB1 receptor, which correlated with the lack of cortical neuron death...
January 15, 2018: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226951/cigarette-smoke-and-non-neuronal-cholinergic-system-in-the-airway-epithelium-of-copd-patients
#7
Angela M Montalbano, Caterina Di Sano, Giuseppina Chiappara, Loredana Riccobono, Anna Bonanno, Giulia Anzalone, Patrizio Vitulo, Loredana Pipitone, Mark Gjomarkaj, Michael P Pieper, Fabio L M Ricciardolo, Rosalia P Gagliardo, Mirella Profita
Acetylcholine (ACh), synthesized by Choline Acetyl-Transferase (ChAT), exerts its physiological effects via mAChRM3 in epithelial cells. We hypothesized that cigarette smoke affects ChAT, ACh, and mAChRM3 expression in the airways from COPD patients promoting airway disease. ChAT, ACh, and mAChRM3 were assessed: "ex vivo" in the epithelium from central and distal airways of COPD patients, Healthy Smoker (S) and Healthy Subjects (C), and "in vitro" in bronchial epithelial cells stimulated with cigarette smoke extract (CSE)...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114569/cholinergic-receptor-alterations-in-the-cerebral-cortex-of-spinal-cord-injured-rat
#8
R Chinthu, T R Anju, C S Paulose
Many areas of the cerebral cortex process sensory information or coordinate motor output necessary for control of movement. Disturbances in cortical cholinergic system can affect locomotor coordination. Spinal cord injury causes severe motor impairment and disturbances in cholinergic signalling can aggravate the situation. Considering the impact of cortical cholinergic firing in locomotion, we focussed the study in understanding the cholinergic alterations in cerebral cortex during spinal cord injury. The gene expression of key enzymes in cholinergic pathway - acetylcholine esterase and choline acetyl transferase showed significant upregulation in the cerebral cortex of spinal cord injured group compared to control with the fold increase in expression of acetylcholine esterase prominently higher than cholineacetyl transferase...
July 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113945/changes-in-the-expression-and-localization-of-signaling-molecules-in-mouse-facial-motor-neurons-during-regeneration-of-facial-nerves
#9
Jeongtae Kim, Shiori Kobayashi, Chigusa Shimizu-Okabe, Akihito Okabe, Changjong Moon, Taekyun Shin, Chitoshi Takayama
After injury, peripheral axons usually re-extend toward their target, and neuronal functions recover. Previous studies have reported that expression of various molecules are transiently altered in motor neurons after nerve injury, but the time course of these changes and their relationship with functional recovery have not been clearly demonstrated. We used the mouse facial nerve transection and suturing model, and examined the changes in expression of five molecules, choline acetyl transferase (ChAT), galanin, calcitonin gene-related protein (CGRP), gephyrin, and potassium chloride co-transporter 2 (KCC2) in the facial motor neurons after surgery until recovery...
March 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037828/chemogenetic-modulation-of-cholinergic-interneurons-reveals-their-regulating-role-on-the-direct-and-indirect-output-pathways-from-the-striatum
#10
Patrick Aldrin-Kirk, Andreas Heuer, Daniella Rylander Ottosson, Marcus Davidsson, Bengt Mattsson, Tomas Björklund
The intricate balance between dopaminergic and cholinergic neurotransmission in the striatum has been thoroughly difficult to characterize. It was initially described as a seesaw with a competing function of dopamine versus acetylcholine. Recent technical advances however, have brought this view into question suggesting that the two systems work rather in concert with the cholinergic interneurons (ChIs) driving dopamine release. In this study, we have utilized two transgenic Cre-driver rat lines, a choline acetyl transferase ChAT-Cre transgenic rat and a novel double-transgenic tyrosine hydroxylase TH-Cre/ChAT-Cre rat to further elucidate the role of striatal ChIs in normal motor function and in Parkinson's disease...
October 14, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749900/increase-of-autonomic-nerve-factors-in-epicardial-ganglionated-plexi-during-rapid-atrial-pacing-induced-acute-atrial-fibrillation
#11
Yang Li, Yan-Mei Lu, Xian-Hui Zhou, Ling Zhang, Yao-Dong Li, Jiang-Hua Zhang, Qiang Xing, Bao-Peng Tang
BACKGROUND The cardiac autonomic nervous system plays an essential role in epicardial ganglionated plexi (GP) regulation of atrial fibrillation onset and progression. To date, the activity of GP and the function of the cardiac autonomic nervous system are not well understood. The aim of this study was to determine alterations in epicardial GP cholinergic nerve, adrenergic nerve, and nerve growth factor expression using rapid atrial pacing to induce atrial fibrillation in canines. MATERIAL AND METHODS Nine healthy adult beagles were divided into two groups: the pacing experimental group (n=6) and the sham-operation control group (n=3)...
July 27, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717348/the-synergistic-effect-of-microwave-radiation-and-hypergravity-on-rats-and-the-intervention-effect-of-rana-sylvatica-le-conte-oil
#12
Wei Sun, Yudan Yang, Hongmei Yu, Luowei Wang, Su Pan
AIM: The phenomena of hypergravity and microwave radiation are widespread, which cause more and more concern for the hazards to human health. The aim of this study was to investigate the synergistic effect of microwave radiation and hypergravity on rats and observe the protective effect of Rana sylvatica Le conte oil. METHODS: Rats were exposed to microwave radiation and hypergravity, and the rat weight, the climbing pole height, serum enzyme activities, blood urea nitrogen concentration, and total antioxidant capacity were detected...
April 2017: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656644/activation-of-gsk-3-disrupts-cholinergic-homoeostasis-in-nucleus-basalis-of-meynert-and-frontal-cortex-of-rats
#13
Yue Wang, Qing Tian, En-Jie Liu, Li Zhao, Jie Song, Xin-An Liu, Qing-Guo Ren, Xia Jiang, Juan Zeng, Yu-Tao Yang, Jian-Zhi Wang
The cholinergic impairment is an early marker in Alzheimer's disease (AD), while the mechanisms are not fully understood. We investigated here the effects of glycogen synthase kinse-3 (GSK-3) activation on the cholinergic homoeostasis in nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) and frontal cortex, the cholinergic enriched regions. We activated GSK-3 by lateral ventricular infusion of wortmannin (WT) and GF-109203X (GFX), the inhibitors of phosphoinositol-3 kinase (PI3-K) and protein kinase C (PKC), respectively, and significantly decreased the acetylcholine (ACh) level via inhibiting choline acetyl transferase (ChAT) rather than regulating acetylcholinesterase (AChE)...
December 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472866/innervation-of-the-syrinx-of-the-zebra-finch-taeniopygia-guttata
#14
Macarena Faunes, João F Botelho, J Martin Wild
In songbirds, the learning and maintenance of song is dependent on auditory feedback, but little is known about the presence or role of other forms of sensory feedback. Here, we studied the innervation of the avian vocal organ, the syrinx, in the zebra finch. Using a combination of immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and neural tracing with subunit B of cholera toxin (CTB), we analysed the peripheral and central endings of the branch of the hypoglossal nerve that supplies the syrinx, the tracheosyringeal nerve...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300775/protective-effects-of-fucoidan-on-a%C3%AE-25-35-and-d-gal-induced-neurotoxicity-in-pc12-cells-and-d-gal-induced-cognitive-dysfunction-in-mice
#15
Hengyun Wei, Zixiang Gao, Luping Zheng, Cuili Zhang, Zundong Liu, Yazong Yang, Hongming Teng, Lin Hou, Yuling Yin, Xiangyang Zou
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease which contributes to memory loss and cognitive decline in the elderly. Fucoidan, extracted from brown algae, is a complex sulfated polysaccharide and potential bioactive compound. In this study, we investigated whether fucoidan protects PC12 cells from apoptosis induced by a combination of beta-amyloid 25-35 (Aβ25-35) and d-galactose (d-Gal), and improves learning and memory impairment in AD model mice. The results indicated that fucoidan could inhibit the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to cytosol and activation of caspases, and increase the expression of apoptosis inhibitor proteins (IAPs), including livin and X-linked IAP (XIAP) in PC12 cells damaged by Aβ25-35 and d-Gal-induction...
March 16, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279752/novel-spiroimidazopyridine-derivative-sak3-improves-methimazole-induced-cognitive-deficits-in-mice
#16
Husain Noreen, Yasushi Yabuki, Kohji Fukunaga
Methimazole (MMI) is a first-line therapy used to manage hyperthyroidism and Graves' disease. Despite its therapeutic benefit, chronic MMI administration can lead to hypothyroidism and perturb brain homeostasis in patients, resulting in neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression and cognitive dysfunction. We recently developed the spiroimidazopyridine derivative SAK3 as cognitive enhancer; however, mechanisms underlying its activity remained unclear. Here, we show that SAK3 potentially improves cognitive impairment seen following MMI-induced hypothyroidism...
March 7, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256666/neuroprotective-effects-of-phytosterol-esters-against-high-cholesterol-induced-cognitive-deficits-in-aged-rat
#17
Xu Rui, Li Wenfang, Cheng Jing, Chen Meng, Ding Chengcheng, Xu Jiqu, Rong Shuang
Accumulating epidemiological and experimental studies have confirmed that a high-cholesterol diet is detrimental to cognitive performance in animal models. Phytosterols, a class of naturally occurring structural components in plant foods, have been demonstrated to possess cholesterol-lowering and antioxidant effects. Phytosterol esters (PSE) are esters of phytosterol. The aim of this study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of PSE on cognitive deficit induced by a cholesterol-enriched diet in aged rats, and to explore their underlying mechanisms for these effects...
March 22, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193530/calcium-binding-protein-secretagogin-characterizes-novel-groups-of-interneurons-in-the-rat-striatum
#18
Toshio Kosaka, Seiko Yasuda, Katsuko Kosaka
In the rat striatum numerous secretagogin (SCGN) positive neurons were scattered. They were heterogeneous in their morphological and chemical properties. We examined the colocalization of SCGN with known four interneuron markers, parvalbumin (PV), calretinin (CR), nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and choline acetyl transferase (ChAT). 60-70% of SCGN positive striatal neurons contained either PV or CR or ChAT, but none contained NOS. On the other hand the remaining 30-40% expressed none of these markers, most of which were GAD positive...
February 11, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163215/vegf-alleviates-als-csf-induced-cytoplasmic-accumulations-of-tdp-43-and-fus-tls-in-nsc-34-cells
#19
Shubham Shantanu, K Vijayalakshmi, S Shruthi, B K Chandrasekhar Sagar, T N Sathyaprabha, A Nalini, Trichur R Raju, Phalguni Anand Alladi
Cytoplasmic mislocalisation and aggregation of TDP-43 and FUS/TLS proteins in spinal motor neurons contribute to the pathogenesis of the highly fatal disorder amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We investigated the neuroprotective effect of VEGF on expression of these proteins in the motor neuronal cell line NSC-34 modelled to reminisce sporadic form of ALS. We studied the expression of TDP-43 and FUS/TLS proteins after exposure to ALS-CSF and following VEGF supplementation by quantitative confocal microscopy and electron microscopy...
April 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629890/purmorphamine-as-a-shh-signaling-activator-small-molecule-promotes-motor-neuron-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-cultured-on-nanofibrous-pcl-scaffold
#20
Naghmeh Bahrami, Mohammad Bayat, Abdolreza Mohamadnia, Mehrdad Khakbiz, Meysam Yazdankhah, Jafar Ai, Somayeh Ebrahimi-Barough
There is variety of stem cell sources but problems in ethical issues, contamination, and normal karyotype cause many limitations in obtaining and using these cells. The cells in Wharton's jelly region of umbilical cord are abundant and available stem cells with low immunological incompatibility, which could be considered for cell replacement therapy. Small molecules have been presented as less expensive biologically active compounds that can regulate different developmental process. Purmorphamine (PMA) is a small molecule that, according to some studies, possesses certain differentiation effects...
September 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
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