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Choline Acetyl Transferase

Naghmeh Bahrami, Mohammad Bayat, Abdolreza Mohamadnia, Mehrdad Khakbiz, Meysam Yazdankhah, Jafar Ai, Somayeh Ebrahimi-Barough
There is variety of stem cell sources but problems in ethical issues, contamination, and normal karyotype cause many limitations in obtaining and using these cells. The cells in Wharton's jelly region of umbilical cord are abundant and available stem cells with low immunological incompatibility, which could be considered for cell replacement therapy. Small molecules have been presented as less expensive biologically active compounds that can regulate different developmental process. Purmorphamine (PMA) is a small molecule that, according to some studies, possesses certain differentiation effects...
September 14, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Shanmukha Shruthi, R Sumitha, Anu Mary Varghese, S Ashok, B K Chandrasekhar Sagar, T N Sathyaprabha, A Nalini, Boris W Kramer, Trichur R Raju, K Vijayalakshmi, Phalguni Anand Alladi
BACKGROUND: The survival of motor neurons is dependent upon neurotrophic factors both during childhood and adolescence and during adult life. In disease conditions, such as in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), the mRNA levels of trophic factors like brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), and vascular endothelial growth factor are downregulated. This was replicated in our in vivo experimental system following the injection of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) of sporadic ALS (ALS-CSF) patients...
September 13, 2016: Neuro-degenerative Diseases
David Sedmera, Jan Neckar, Jiri Benes, Jana Pospisilova, Jiri Petrak, Kamil Sedlacek, Vojtech Melenovsky
Volume overload leads to development of eccentric cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. In our previous report, we have shown myocyte hypertrophy with no fibrosis and decrease in gap junctional coupling via connexin43 in a rat model of aorto-caval fistula at 21 weeks. Here we set to analyze the electrophysiological and protein expression changes in the left ventricle and correlate them with phenotypic severity based upon ventricles to body weight ratio. ECG analysis showed increased amplitude and duration of the P wave, prolongation of PR and QRS interval, ST segment elevation and decreased T wave amplitude in the fistula group...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Ping Jiang, Du-fang Ma, Yue-hua Jiang, Jin-long Yang, Xiang-dong Xu, Xue Wang, Hai-qing Lin, Xiao Li
OBJECTIVE: To observe the preventive effect of different compatibilities of Ramulus Cinnamomi (RC) and Radix Paeomiae alba (RPA) in Guizhi Decoction (GZD) on neurotransmitters and their rate-limiting enzymes, and neurotrophic factors of cardiac sympathetic denervation model rats induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). METHODS: Totally 54 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups, i.e., the blank control group, the model group, the methycobal group, the 2:1 (RC/RPA) Guishao group, the 1:2 Guishao group, and the 1:1 Guishao group, 9 in each group...
May 2016: Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine
Wei Li, Bo Li, Jiaqi Lv, Li Dong, Lili Zhang, Tian Wang
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary choline supplementation on hepatic lipid metabolism and gene expression in finishing pigs with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). Using a 2 × 2 factorial design, eight normal birth weight (NBW) and eight IUGR weaned pigs were fed either a basal diet (NBW pigs fed a basal diet, NC; IUGR pigs fed a basal diet, IC) or a diet supplemented with two times more choline than the basal diet (NBW pigs fed a high-choline diet, NH; IUGR pigs fed a high-choline diet, IH) until 200 d of age...
May 22, 2016: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Irene Chaves-Coira, Natali Barros-Zulaica, Margarita Rodrigo-Angulo, Ángel Núñez
Neocortical cholinergic activity plays a fundamental role in sensory processing and cognitive functions. Previous results have suggested a refined anatomical and functional topographical organization of basal forebrain (BF) projections that may control cortical sensory processing in a specific manner. We have used retrograde anatomical procedures to demonstrate the existence of specific neuronal groups in the BF involved in the control of specific sensory cortices. Fluoro-Gold (FlGo) and Fast Blue (FB) fluorescent retrograde tracers were deposited into the primary somatosensory (S1) and primary auditory (A1) cortices in mice...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Bei Zhang, Ximin Wang, Zhan Li, Weizong Wang, Yong Zhang, J U Liu, Yinglong Hou
BACKGROUND: The study aimed to observe the effects of pacing on the atrial effective refractory period (AERP), inducibility of atrial fibrillation (AF), and changes of atrial autonomic neural remodeling (ANR) by rosuvastatin intervention on the acute model of rapid-pacing-induced AF. METHODS: Thirty rabbits were randomly divided into a control group (C, n = 10), rapid-pacing group (P, n = 10), and rosuvastatin-intervention group (R, n = 10). AERP and inducibility of AF were measured for all groups...
June 2016: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
Parim Brahma Naidu, V V Sathibabu Uddandrao, Ramavat Ravindar Naik, Pothani Suresh, Balaji Meriga, Mustapha Shabana Begum, Rajesh Pandiyan, Ganapathy Saravanan
Obesity, generally linked to hyperlipidemia, has been occurring of late with distressing alarm and has now become a global phenomenon casting a huge economic burden on the health care system of countries around the world. The present study investigated the effects of gingerol over 30 days on the changes in HFD-induced obese rats in marker enzymes of lipid metabolism such as fatty-acid synthase (FAS), Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (ACC), Carnitine Palmitoyl Transferase-1(CPT-1), HMG co-A Reductase (HMGR), Lecithin Choline Acyl Transferase (LCAT) and Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL) and inflammatory markers (TNF-α and IL-6)...
January 5, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Sabine Meinel, Jan Blohberger, Dieter Berg, Ulrike Berg, Gregory A Dissen, Sergio R Ojeda, Artur Mayerhofer
BACKGROUND: Pro-nerve growth factor must be cleaved to generate mature NGF, which was suggested to be a factor involved in ovarian physiology and pathology. Extracellular proNGF can induce cell death in many tissues. Whether extracellular proNGF exists in the ovary and may play a role in the death of follicular cells or atresia was unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemistry of human and rhesus monkey ovarian sections was performed. IVF-derived follicular fluid and human granulosa cells were studied by RT-PCR, qPCR, Western blotting, ATP- and caspase-assays...
November 2015: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
İlhami Gülçin, Andrea Scozzafava, Claudiu T Supuran, Hulya Akıncıoğlu, Zeynep Koksal, Fikret Turkan, Saleh Alwasel
Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is an active component of honeybee propolis extracts. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC are widespread and intensively studied metalloenzymes present in higher vertebrates including humans as many diverse isoforms. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is responsible for acetyl choline (ACh) hydrolysis and plays a fundamental role in nerve impulse transmission by terminating the action of the ACh neurotransmitter at cholinergic synapses and neuromuscular junctions. Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is another enzyme abundantly present in the liver and released into blood in a soluble form...
December 2016: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
Fausto Pierdoná Guzen, Dayane Pessoa de Araújo, Eudes Euler de Souza Lucena, Hécio Henrique Araújo de Morais, José Rodolfo Lopes de Paiva Cavalcanti, Expedito Silva do Nascimento, Miriam Stela Maris de Oliveira Costa, Jeferson Sousa Cavalcante
Neurotrophic factors and peripheral nerves are known to be good substrates for bridging CNS trauma. The involvement of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) activation in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) was examined following spinal cord injury in the rat. We evaluated whether FGF-2 increases the ability of a sciatic nerve graft to enhance neuronal plasticity, in a gap promoted by complete transection of the spinal cord. The rats were subjected to a 4mm-long gap at low thoracic level and were repaired with saline (Saline or control group, n=10), or fragment of the sciatic nerve (Nerve group, n=10), or fragment of the sciatic nerve to which FGF-2 (Nerve+FGF-2 group, n=10) had been added immediately after lesion...
March 11, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Juan Sun, Yanmei Lu, Yan Huang, Najina Wugeti
BACKGROUND: Chronic heart failure (HF) is the main complication of various organic heart diseases. An imbalance of the autonomic nervous system has close associations with arrhythmia, ventricular remodeling, and sudden death upon HF. This study investigated whether unilateral vagus nerve stimulation could increase vagal activity, improve autonomic nerve distribution, and cardiac function in a HF model. METHODS: Eighteen dogs were randomly divided into 3 groups: sham operation, HF, and HF + vagal stimulation, with 6 dogs per group...
2015: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
Tian-Xia Yu, Peng Zhang, Yan Guan, Min Wang, Ming-Qing Zhen
Luteolin can be found in many traditional Chinese medicines, it's a falconoid compound derived from Lonicera japonica Thunb. This study aims to investigate the neuroprotective effects of luteolin against cognitive impairment induced by amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide and the underlying mechanisms in rats. The animal behavioral tests showed that luteolin could ameliorate Aβ-induced learning and memory impairment. In hippocampal tissue, the activity of choline acetyl transferase (ChAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) increased after treated by luteolin...
2015: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology
Marta Słoniecka, Sandrine Le Roux, Peter Boman, Berit Byström, Qingjun Zhou, Patrik Danielson
Keratocytes, the quiescent cells of the corneal stroma, play a crucial role in corneal wound healing. Neuropeptides and neurotransmitters are usually associated with neuronal signaling, but have recently been shown to be produced also by non-neuronal cells and to be involved in many cellular processes. The aim of this study was to assess the endogenous intracellular and secreted levels of the neuropeptides substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA), and of the neurotransmitters acetylcholine (ACh), catecholamines (adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine), and glutamate, as well as the expression profiles of their receptors, in human primary keratocytes in vitro and in keratocytes of human corneal tissue sections in situ...
2015: PloS One
Zohreh Bagher, Somayeh Ebrahimi-Barough, Mahmoud Azami, Hamid Mirzadeh, Mansooreh Soleimani, Jafar Ai, Mohammad Reza Nourani, Mohammad Taghi Joghataei
The most important property of stem cells from different sources is the capacity to differentiate into various cells and tissue types. However, problems including contamination, normal karyotype, and ethical issues cause many limitations in obtaining and using these cells from different sources. The cells in Wharton's jelly region of umbilical cord represent a pool source of primitive cells with properties of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The aim of this study was to determine the potential of human Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells (WJMSCs) for differentiation to motor neuron cells...
October 2015: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
J Li, X Ding, R Zhang, W Jiang, X Sun, Z Xia, X Wang, E Wu, Y Zhang, Y Hu
So far, no effective disease-modifying therapies for Alzheimer's disease (AD) aiming at protecting or reversing neurodegeneration of the disease have been established yet. The present work aims to elucidate the effect of Harpagoside (abbreviated HAR), an iridoid glycosides purified from the Chinese medicinal herb Scrophularia ningpoensis, on neurodegeneration induced by β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) and the underlying molecular mechanism. Here we show that HAR exerts neuroprotective effects against Aβ neurotoxicity...
September 10, 2015: Neuroscience
Yanmei Lu, Juan Sun, Ling Zhang, Qingquan Sun, Xianhui Zhou, Jinxin Li, Yu Zhang, Baopeng Tang
BACKGROUND: The cardiac autonomic nervous system (CANS) plays a role in the occurrence and persistence of atrial fibrillation (AF). Low-level vagosympathetic nerve stimulation (LL-VNS) has been shown to inhibit the occurrence of AF. OBJECTIVE: The novel objective of this study was to compare the effects of intermittent low- level vagosympathetic nerve stimulation (I-VNS) and continuous low-level vagosympathetic nerve stimulation (C-VNS). METHODS: 19 beagles were randomly divided into 3 groups: Group A, rapid left atrial appendage pacing for 6 hours; Group B, rapid atrial pacing (RAP) for 6 hours and C-VNS (20 Hz, interval 0...
2015: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
Bo Li, Wei Li, Hussain Ahmad, Lili Zhang, Chao Wang, Tian Wang
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of choline supplementation on intramuscular fat (IMF) and lipid oxidation in IUGR pigs. Twelve normal body weight (NBW) and twelve intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) newborn piglets were collected and distributed into 4 treatments (Normal: N, Normal+Choline: N+C, IUGR: I, and IUGR+Choline: I+C) with 6 piglets in each treatment. At 23 d of age, NBW and IUGR pigs were fed basal or choline supplemented diets. The results showed that the IUGR pigs had significantly lower (P<0...
2015: PloS One
Jittima Gotts, Lucy Atkinson, Ian J Edwards, Yuchio Yanagawa, Susan A Deuchars, Jim Deuchars
GABAergic and cholinergic systems play an important part in autonomic pathways. To determine the distribution of the enzymes responsible for the production of GABA and acetylcholine in areas involved in autonomic control in the mouse brainstem, we used a transgenic mouse expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) in glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) neurones, combined with choline acetyl transferase (ChAT) immunohistochemistry. ChAT-immunoreactive (IR) and GAD67-GFP containing neurones were observed throughout the brainstem...
December 2015: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Lixiong Gao, Xi Chen, Yongping Tang, Jinghui Zhao, Qiyou Li, Xiaotang Fan, Haiwei Xu, Zheng Qin Yin
Besides the cognitive impairment and degeneration in the brain, vision dysfunction and retina damage are always prevalent in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The uncompetitive antagonist of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor, memantine (MEM), has been proven to improve the cognition of patients with AD. However, limited information exists regarding the mechanism of neurodegeneration and the possible neuroprotective mechanisms of MEM on the retinas of patients with AD. In the present study, by using APPswe/PS1ΔE9 double transgenic (dtg) mice, we found that MEM rescued the loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), as well as improved visual impairments, including improving the P50 component in pattern electroretinograms and the latency delay of the P2 component in flash visual evoked potentials of APPswe/PS1ΔE9 dtg mice...
June 2015: Experimental Eye Research
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