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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150032/thoracic-surgery-in-patients-with-aids
#1
REVIEW
Doraid Jarrar, Grace Y Song
The picture of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients has changed dramatically since the original description in 1981. The introduction of antiretroviral drugs in 1987 and combination antiretroviral therapy has decreased mortality by as much as 80%. We now see patients in their 60s and 70s, having lived decades with HIV and living a normal live. As outlined in the article, despite good viral control, patients with HIV may present with solid organ cancers earlier than noninfected patients and are also prone to other complications of their disease that may require the attention of a thoracic surgeon...
February 2018: Thoracic Surgery Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148357/cuts-and-the-cutting-edge-british-science-funding-and-the-making-of-animal-biotechnology-in-1980s-edinburgh
#2
Dmitriy Myelnikov
The Animal Breeding Research Organisation in Edinburgh (ABRO, founded in 1945) was a direct ancestor of the Roslin Institute, celebrated for the cloning of Dolly the sheep. After a period of sustained growth as an institute of the Agricultural Research Council (ARC), ABRO was to lose most of its funding in 1981. This decision has been absorbed into the narrative of the Thatcherite attack on science, but in this article I show that the choice to restructure ABRO pre-dated major government cuts to agricultural research, and stemmed from the ARC's wish to prioritize biotechnology in its portfolio...
December 2017: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142125/emergence-of-double-and-triple-gene-reassortant-g1p-8-rotaviruses-possessing-a-ds-1-like-backbone-post-rotavirus-vaccine-introduction-in-malawi
#3
Khuzwayo C Jere, Chrispin Chaguza, Naor Bar-Zeev, Jenna Lowe, Chikondi Peno, Benjamin Kumwenda, Osamu Nakagomi, Jacqueline E Tate, Umesh D Parashar, Robert S Heyderman, Neil French, Nigel A Cunliffe, Iturriza-Gomara Miren
To combat the high burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis, multiple African countries have introduced rotavirus vaccines into their childhood immunisation programmes. Malawi incorporated a G1P[8] rotavirus vaccine (Rotarix™) into its immunisation schedule in 2012. Utilising a surveillance platform of hospitalised rotavirus gastroenteritis cases, we examined the phylodynamics of G1P[8] rotavirus strains that circulated in Malawi before (1998 - 2012) and after (2013 - 2014) vaccine introduction. Analysis of whole genomes obtained through next generation sequencing revealed that all randomly-selected pre-vaccine G1P[8] strains sequenced (n=32) possessed a Wa-like genetic constellation, whereas post-vaccine G1P[8] strains (n=18) had a DS-1-like constellation...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141490/study-on-enhanced-lymphatic-tracing-of-isosulfan-blue-injection-by-influence-of-osmotic-pressure-on-lymphatic-exposure
#4
Tiantian Ye, Rui He, Yue Wu, Lei Shang, Shujun Wang
Isosulfan blue (IB) is being used as a lymphatic tracer has been approved by the FDA in 1981. This study aimed at improving lymphatic exposure of IB injection by osmotic pressure regulation to achieve step-by step lymphatic tracing. First, IB injection with appropriate osmotic pressure, stability and suitable pH was prepared. Next, the lymphatic tracing ability of different osmotic pressure was studied to determine the blue-stained state of IB in three-level lymph nodes after subcutaneous administration. Furthermore, pharmacokinetics of lymphatic drainage, lymph node uptake and plasma concentration was investigate to explore the improving law of the lymphatic tracing by osmotic pressure, and combined with tissue irritation to determine the optimal osmotic pressure...
November 15, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140557/withdrawn-pharmacological-cardioversion-for-atrial-fibrillation-and-flutter
#5
REVIEW
John Cordina, Gillian E Mead
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation is the commonest cardiac dysrhythmia. It is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. There are two approaches to the management of atrial fibrillation: controlling the ventricular rate or converting to sinus rhythm in the expectation that this would abolish its adverse effects. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of pharmacological cardioversion of atrial fibrillation in adults on the annual risk of stroke, peripheral embolism, and mortality...
November 15, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138468/increasing-frequency-and-spatial-extent-of-concurrent-meteorological-droughts-and-heatwaves-in-india
#6
Shailza Sharma, Pradeep Mujumdar
The impacts of concurrent droughts and heatwaves could be more serious compared to their individual occurrence. Meteorological drought condition is generally characterized by low rainfall, but impact of such an event is amplified with simultaneous occurrence of heatwaves. Positive feedback between these two extremes can worsen the rainfall deficit situation to serious soil moisture depletion due to enhanced evapotranspiration. In this study, the concurrence of meteorological droughts and heatwaves is investigated in India using Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) high resolution gridded data over a period of 60 years...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133388/assessing-the-present-and-future-probability-of-hurricane-harvey-s-rainfall
#7
Kerry Emanuel
We estimate, for current and future climates, the annual probability of areally averaged hurricane rain of Hurricane Harvey's magnitude by downscaling large numbers of tropical cyclones from three climate reanalyses and six climate models. For the state of Texas, we estimate that the annual probability of 500 mm of area-integrated rainfall was about 1% in the period 1981-2000 and will increase to 18% over the period 2081-2100 under Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) AR5 representative concentration pathway 8...
November 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121156/labeling-the-lines-a-test-of-a-six-mechanism-model-of-chromatic-detection
#8
Timothy G Shepard, Safiya I Lahlaf, Rhea T Eskew
Six linear chromatic mechanisms are sufficient to account for the pattern of threshold elevations produced by chromatic noise masking in the (L,M) plane of cone space (Shepard, Swanson, McCarthy, & Eskew, 2016). Here, we report results of asymmetric color matching of the threshold-level tests from that detection study and use those matches to test the detection model. We assume the mechanisms are univariant labeled lines (Rushton, 1972; Watson & Robson, 1981), implying that the chromaticities of physically different stimuli that are detected by a single mechanism should all be the same-they are postreceptoral metamers-but the chromaticities of two stimuli detected by different mechanisms should be different...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118592/a-review-of-the-genus-lordiphosa-basden-in-india-with-descriptions-of-four-new-species-from-the-himalayan-region-diptera-drosophilidae
#9
Rajendra S Fartyal, Pradeep C Sati, Sushmika Pradhan, Mukul C Kandpal, Masanori J Toda, Rabindra N Chatterjee, Birendra K Singh, Asha Bhardwai
All Indian species of the genus Lordiphosa Basden are reviewed, with descriptions of four new species, L. curva Fartyal & Toda, sp. n. of the denticeps species group and L. ayarpathaensis Kandpal & Singh, sp. n., L. makaibarensis Pradhan & Chatterjee, sp. n. and L. srinagarensis Sati & Fartyal, sp. n. of the nigricolor species group. Two of the new species, L. ayarpathaensis and L. makaibarensis, were found visiting flowers of Hedychium spicatum and Datura suaveolens, respectively. This is the first record of flower visitation in Lordiphosa flies...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115758/neurofibromatosis-and-the-role-of-the-specialist-adviser
#10
Carolyn Redman
Neurofibromatosis (NF) is a genetic condition that mainly involves the nervous system. There are two types: NF1 affects about one in 2,500 of the population worldwide and NF2 affects one in 35,000. Both types result in complex health problems for patients and can pose significant challenges for all those involved in their management. Established in 1981, The Neuro Foundation is a patient-focused charity that funds a network of specialist advisers who work in partnership with the NHS to offer support and advice for families affected by NF and the professionals who care for them...
September 11, 2017: Nursing Children and Young People
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112137/subacute-sclerosing-panencephalitis-of-the-brainstem-as-a-clinical-entity
#11
REVIEW
Pavan S Upadhyayula, Jason Yang, John K Yue, Joseph D Ciacci
Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare progressive neurological disorder of early adolescence caused by persistent infection of the measles virus, which remains prevalent worldwide despite an effective vaccine. SSPE is a devastating disease with a characteristic clinical course in subcortical white matter; however, atypical presentations of brainstem involvement may be seen in rare cases. This review summarizes reports to date on brainstem involvement in SSPE, including the clinical course of disease, neuroimaging presentations, and guidelines for treatment...
November 7, 2017: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110713/temporal-and-spatial-distribution-of-lumpy-skin-disease-outbreaks-in-ethiopia-in-the-period-2000-to-2015
#12
W Molla, M C M de Jong, K Frankena
BACKGROUND: Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is an infectious viral disease of cattle caused by a virus of the genus Capripoxvirus. LSD was reported for the first time in Ethiopia in 1981 and subsequently became endemic. This time series study was undertaken with the aims of identifying the spatial and temporal distribution of LSD outbreaks and to forecast the future pattern of LSD outbreaks in Ethiopia. RESULTS: A total of 3811 LSD outbreaks were reported in Ethiopia between 2000 and 2015...
November 6, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108606/positive-airway-pressure-device-technology-past-and-present-what-s-in-the-black-box
#13
REVIEW
Lee K Brown, Shahrokh Javaheri
Since the introduction of continuous positive airway pressure (PAP) for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in 1981, PAP technology has diversified exponentially. Compact and quiet fixed continuous PAP flow generators, autotitrating PAP devices, and bilevel PAP devices that can treat multiple sleep-disordered breathing phenotypes including OSA, central sleep apnea (CSA), combinations of OSA and CSA, and hypoventilation are available. Adaptive servo-ventilators can suppress Hunter-Cheyne-Stokes breathing and CSA and treat coexisting obstructive events...
December 2017: Sleep Medicine Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103739/long-term-treatment-outcomes-and-prognosis-of-mucosal-melanoma-of-the-head-and-neck-161-cases-from-a-single-institution
#14
Shiran Sun, Xiaodong Huang, Li Gao, Ye Zhang, Jingwei Luo, Shiping Zhang, Kai Wang, Yuan Qu, Runye Wu, Qingfeng Liu, Jianping Xiao, Guozhen Xu, Junlin Yi
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the clinical features, treatment outcomes and prognostic factors of mucosal melanoma of the head and neck (MMHN) in patients who were treated at our institution. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between Jan. 1981 and Oct. 2015, 161 patients with non-metastatic MMHN were treated at our institution. The patients' clinical characteristics, treatment modalities, outcomes, prognostic factors, and failure patterns were retrospectively analysed...
November 2017: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103641/temporal-changes-in-morality-attributed-to-heat-extremes-for-57-cities-in-northeast-asia
#15
Whanhee Lee, Hayon Michelle Choi, Dahye Kim, Yasushi Honda, Yue-Liang Leon Guo, Ho Kim
Recent studies have reported that heat-related mortality decreased by adaptation during decades. However, since the frequency of extreme heat events is increasing, it is difficult to conclude with certainty that the heat mortality burden is decreasing. To examine temporal changes in mortality attributed to heat extremes in Northeast Asia, we collected temperature and mortality data covering the years 1972-2012 from 57 cities of 3 countries (Taiwan, Korea, and Japan) in Northeast Asia. Poisson regression curves were fitted to the data from each city...
November 3, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099842/assessing-the-combined-effects-of-climatic-factors-on-spring-wheat-phenophase-and-grain-yield-in-inner-mongolia-china
#16
Junfang Zhao, Feiyu Pu, Yunpeng Li, Jingwen Xu, Ning Li, Yi Zhang, Jianping Guo, Zhihua Pan
Understanding the regional relationships between climate change and crop production will benefit strategic decisions for future agricultural adaptation in China. In this study, the combined effects of climatic factors on spring wheat phenophase and grain yield over the past three decades in Inner Mongolia, China, were explored based on the daily climate variables from 1981-2014 and detailed observed data of spring wheat from 1981-2014. Inner Mongolia was divided into three different climate type regions, the eastern, central and western regions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098695/research-recruitment-a-marketing-framework-to-improve-sample-representativeness-in-health-research
#17
Sarah J Howcutt, Anna L Barnett, Sofia Barbosa-Boucas, Lesley A Smith
AIMS: This discussion paper proposes a five-part theoretical framework to inform recruitment strategies. The framework is based on a marketing model of consumer decision-making. BACKGROUND: Respondents in surveys are typically healthier than non-respondents, which has an impact on the availability of information about those most in need. Previous research has identified response patterns, provided theories about why people participate in research and evaluated different recruitment strategies...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092393/longitudinal-trends-of-blood-lead-levels-before-and-after-leaded-gasoline-regulation-in-korea
#18
Kyoung-Mu Lee, Se-Eun Oh, Gi Bog Kim, Sung Ho Hwang, Mina Ha
The objective of this study was to verify a change in the longitudinal trend of blood lead levels for the Korean population, before and after the regulation of leaded gasoline-which occurred between 1987 and 1993 in Korea. A total of 77 general Korean population blood lead level reports from between 1981 and 2014 were selected, and the results were summarized to have the variables of year, number of subjects,the subjects' range in age, sex and blood lead concentrations (arithmetic mean). The annual average lead levels for four major cities, i...
October 30, 2017: Environmental Health and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081030/percutaneous-treatment-of-hallux-valgus-what-s-the-evidence-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
S Caravelli, M Mosca, S Massimi, G G Costa, M Lo Presti, M Fuiano, A Grassi, S Zaffagnini
Hallux and first MTP joint have a fundamental role in the transfer of the weight-bearing load during the normal ambulation. The aim of this paper is to review and analyze the available literature about the percutaneous surgical management of the hallux valgus to highlight its strengths and weakness, also comparing with other minimal invasive techniques. A systematic search of PubMed and Google Scholar databases has been performed, covering the period between 1981 and 2016. Various combinations of the keyword terms "PDO," "hallux valgus," "bunion," "percutaneous," "surgery," "non-invasive," "minimal invasive," "burr," "osteotomy," "distal," "linear," "saw" have been used...
October 28, 2017: Musculoskeletal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080366/an-epidemic-of-meningococcal-disease-in-children-in-north-norway-in-the-1970s-and-1980s-was-dominated-by-a-hypervirulent-group-b-strain
#20
Kine Nordheim, Ingunn Holmefoss Hovland, Bjørn Erik Kristiansen, Per Ivar Kaaresen, Trond Flaegstad
AIM: We examined children hospitalised for invasive meningococcal disease, a leading cause of paediatric sepsis, in Troms county, North Norway, from 1973-2016, including the epidemic in the 1970s and 1980s. METHODS: This study was a retrospective review of children under the age of 15 years who were hospitalised for meningococcal disease at the University Hospital of North Norway and Harstad Hospital. We studied hospital and bacteriological records to determine the incidence rates and phenotypes involved...
October 28, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
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