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C Mignon, D J Tobin, M Zeitouny, N E Uzunbajakava
Finding a path towards a more accurate prediction of light propagation in human skin remains an aspiration of biomedical scientists working on cutaneous applications both for diagnostic and therapeutic reasons. The objective of this study was to investigate variability of the optical properties of human skin compartments reported in literature, to explore the underlying rational of this variability and to propose a dataset of values, to better represent an in vivo case and recommend a solution towards a more accurate prediction of light propagation through cutaneous compartments...
February 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Albert J Czaja
Autoimmune hepatitis lacks a quantifiable biomarker that is close to its pathogenic mechanisms and that accurately reflects inflammatory activity, correlates with treatment response, and ensures inactive disease before treatment withdrawal. Areas covered: Micro-ribonucleic acids, programmed death-1 protein and its ligands, macrophage migration inhibitory factor, soluble CD163, B cell activating factor, and metabolite patterns in blood were considered the leading candidates as therapeutic biomarkers after search of PubMed from August 1981 to August 2017 using the search words "biomarkers of autoimmune hepatitis"...
March 14, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
S Liyanagedera, R P Williams
The International League Against Epilepsy Classification of the Epilepsies, first presented in 1981, has been widely adopted across the globe. In 2017 it was revised to allow for more robust, specific, flexible and logical classification of seizures. A number of new seizure types are recognised. Classification should be timely as it plays a vital role in the diagnosis and management of patients with epilepsy. Accurate classification also underpins epilepsy research from pathophysiology to public health. Here we review the basic and extended forms of the classification...
December 2017: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
J Parente, M G Pereira, M Amraoui, E M Fischer
Heat waves (HW) can have devastating social, economic and environmental impacts. Together with long-term drought, they are the main factors contributing to wildfires. Surprisingly, the quantitative and objective analysis leading to the identification and characterization of HW in current and future climate conditions as well as its influence on the occurrence of extreme wildfires (EW) has never been performed for Portugal and are the main objectives of this study. For this reason, we assess HW in recent past and future climate based on a consistent high resolution meteorological database and have compared their occurrence with long and reliable, precise and detailed information about Portuguese fire events...
March 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Xuepeng Zhao, Yangang Liu, Fangquan Yu, Andrew K Heidinger
Long-term (1981-2011) satellite climate data records of clouds and aerosols are used to investigate the aerosol-cloud interaction of marine water cloud from a climatology perspective. Our focus is on identifying the regimes and regions where the aerosol indirect effects (AIEs) are evident in long-term averages over the global oceans through analyzing the correlation features between aerosol loading and the key cloud variables including cloud droplet effective radius (CDER), cloud optical depth (COD), cloud water path (CWP), cloud top height (CTH), and cloud top temperature (CTT)...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres: JGR
Zainab Altai, Marco Viceconti, Amaka C Offiah, Xinshan Li
Fractures of bone account 25% of all paediatric injuries (Cooper et al. in J Bone Miner Res 19:1976-1981, 2004. ). These can be broadly categorised into accidental or inflicted injuries. The current clinical approach to distinguish between these two is based on the clinician's judgment, which can be subjective. Furthermore, there is a lack of studies on paediatric bone to provide evidence-based information on bone strength, mainly due to the difficulties of obtaining paediatric bone samples...
March 10, 2018: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
N N Sluchanko, Y B Slonimskiy, E G Maksimov
Photoprotective mechanisms of cyanobacteria are characterized by several features associated with the structure of their water-soluble antenna complexes - the phycobilisomes (PBs). During energy transfer from PBs to chlorophyll of photosystem reaction centers, the "energy funnel" principle is realized, which regulates energy flux due to the specialized interaction of the PBs core with a quenching molecule capable of effectively dissipating electron excitation energy into heat. The role of the quencher is performed by ketocarotenoid within the photoactive orange carotenoid protein (OCP), which is also a sensor for light flux...
December 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Dena Eltahlah, Christopher D Lynch, Barbara L Chadwick, Igor R Blum, Nairn H F Wilson
AIM: The aim of this study was to review patterns of restoration placement and replacement. A previous study had been carried out in the late 1990s and this study sought to update the literature in this important aspect of dental practice. METHOD: Studies based on the protocol of Mjör (1981) were selected. Such studies involved participating dentists completing a proforma each time a patient presented for a new or replacement restoration. RESULTS: Twenty-five papers were included in this study, of which 12 were included in the original review...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Dentistry
Kyoung Su Sung, Ju Hyung Moon, Eui Hyun Kim, Seok-Gu Kang, Se Hoon Kim, Chang-Ok Suh, Sun Ho Kim, Kyu-Sung Lee, Won Seok Chang, Jong Hee Chang
OBJECTIVE Solitary fibrous tumor/hemangiopericytoma (SFT/HPC) is a new combined entity for which a soft-tissue-type grading system, ranging from grades I to III, has been introduced in the 2016 WHO classification of tumors of the CNS. The results of the treatment of this new disease entity require evaluation. METHODS The authors retrospectively reevaluated the pathological findings and medical records of patients with SFT/HPC. This study included 60 patients (27 men and 33 women, median age 42.5 years, range 13-69 years) treated at Severance Hospital between February 1981 and February 2016...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
K W Oleson, G B Anderson, B Jones, S A McGinnis, B Sanderson
Previous studies examining future changes in heat/cold waves using climate model ensembles have been limited to grid cell-average quantities. Here, we make use of an urban parameterization in the Community Earth System Model (CESM) that represents the urban heat island effect, which can exacerbate extreme heat but may ameliorate extreme cold in urban relative to rural areas. Heat/cold wave characteristics are derived for U.S. regions from a bias-corrected CESM 30-member ensemble for climate outcomes driven by the RCP8...
February 2018: Climatic Change
Minggui Pan, Maqdooda Merchant
Synovial sarcoma is a high-grade soft tissue sarcoma that inflicts mostly children and young adults with high mortality rate; however, the risk factors that impact the outcomes remain incompletely understood. We have identified the synovial sarcoma cases from the Kaiser Permanente Northern California cancer registry between 1981 and 2014. Kaplan-Meier plots were used to display disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS); log-rank tests and Cox proportional hazard models were used to determine the impact of clinical factors on DFS, OS, and disease-specific survival...
March 6, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Dragoş Predescu, Silviu Constantinoiu
Background: A few decades ago, esophageal substitution was mainly dedicated particularly in postcaustic esophageal stenosis; currently, the reconstruction has expanded its palette of indications to other areas of benign esophageal pathology (severe motor disorders, esophageal achalasia with multiple relapses, peptic stenosis, etc.) but has also become a quasi-obligatory final time in the esophagectomy for cancer whenever it is possible. The techniques of esophageal reconstruction using the stomach, regardless of the indication and the chosen technical option, remain a valuable and effective method...
January 2018: Chirurgia
Etty Paola Cortes Ramirez, Christian Ernst Keller, Jean Paul Vonsattel
The New York Brain Bank processes brains and organs of clinically well-characterized patients with age-related neurodegenerative diseases, and for comparison, from individuals without neurologic or psychiatric impairments. The donors, either patients or individuals, were evaluated at healthcare facilities of the Columbia University of New York. Each source brain yields four categories of samples: fresh frozen blocks and crushed parenchyma, and formalin-fixed wet blocks and histology sections. A source brain is thoroughly evaluated to determine qualitatively and quantitatively any changes it might harbor using conventional neuropathologic techniques...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Andrew J Amaya, Barbara E Wyslouzil
We have measured the ice nucleation rates, Jice , in supercooled nano-droplets with radii ranging from 6.6 nm to 10 nm and droplet temperatures, Td , ranging from 225 K to 204 K. The initial temperature of the 10 nm water droplets is ∼250 K, i.e., well above the homogeneous nucleation temperature for micron sized water droplets, TH ∼235 K. The nucleation rates increase systematically from ∼1021 cm-3 s-1 to ∼1022 cm-3 s-1 in this temperature range, overlap with the nucleation rates of Manka et al. [Phys...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Yan Xu, Shijie Wang, Xiaoyong Bai, Dongcai Shu, Yichao Tian
This study aims to reveal the runoff variation characteristics of long time series in a karst region, analyse comprehensively its different driving factors, and estimate quantitatively the contribution rates of climate change and human activities to net runoff variation. Liudong river basin, a typical karst watershed in southwest China, is the study site. Statistical methods, such as linear fitting, the Morlet wavelet analysis, normalized curve and double mass curve, are applied to analyse the runoff of the watershed...
2018: PloS One
Jeavana Sritharan, Jill MacLeod, Shelley Harris, Donald C Cole, Anne Harris, Michael Tjepkema, Paul A Peters, Paul A Demers
As there are no well-established modifiable risk factors for prostate cancer, further evidence is needed on possible factors such as occupation. Our study uses one of the largest Canadian worker cohorts to examine occupation, industry, and prostate cancer and to assess patterns of prostate cancer rates. The Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort (CanCHEC) was established by linking the 1991 Canadian Census Cohort to the Canadian Cancer Database (1969-2010), Canadian Mortality Database (1991-2011), and Tax Summary Files (1981-2011)...
March 1, 2018: Cancer Medicine
Kun Hwang, Jeongho Choi
The aim of this study is to search for the origin of the term "ligament' in the face, present its status, and suggest a principle to rectify the use of unclear terminology.The structure that connects the zygoma to the skin was first presented by McGregor (1959). Kaye (1981), in describing his "extended facelift," wrote that the adherent area of the cheek over the malar eminence (McGregor's patch) usually requires sharp dissection. Bosse (1987) reported that the zygomatic ligament is quite solidly bound to the malar eminence and usually requires sharp dissection to release it...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Vincenzo Savica, Guido Bellinghieri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
Simon Peplow
When violence erupted on the streets of England in 1981, it undoubtedly shocked the country in its scope and severity. However, such disorder had been foreshadowed when the St Pauls area of Bristol saw anti-police disturbances on 2 April 1980. This article focusses on the responses to this, from the local community and organizations as well as local and national government, which in the historiography has often been relegated to passing mentions prior to detailed discussion of the 1981 events. Utilizing recently released and understudied local records, it argues that appeals for a public inquiry from sections of the local community demonstrates the value awarded to them by this politically marginalized group, and the failings of other democratic forms of registering complaints...
March 1, 2018: 20 Century British History
Priscila Ramos-Ibeas, Jennifer Nichols, Ramiro Alberio
Mouse embryonic stem cells (ESC), derived from preimplantation embryos in 1981, defined mammalian pluripotency for many decades. However, after the derivation of human ESC in 1998, comparative studies showed that different types of pluripotency exist in early embryos and that these can be captured in vitro under various culture conditions. Over the past decade much has been learned about the key signaling pathways, growth factor requirements, and transcription factor profiles of pluripotent cells in embryos, allowing improvement of derivation and culture conditions for novel pluripotent stem cell types...
2018: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
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