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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319161/intranasal-ketamine-for-procedural-sedation-and-analgesia-in-children-a-systematic-review
#1
Naveen Poonai, Kyle Canton, Samina Ali, Shawn Hendrikx, Amit Shah, Michael Miller, Gary Joubert, Michael Rieder, Lisa Hartling
BACKGROUND: Ketamine is commonly used for procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA) in children. Evidence suggests it can be administered intranasally (IN). We sought to review the evidence for IN ketamine for PSA in children. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of randomized trials of IN ketamine in PSA that reported any sedation-related outcome in children 0 to 19 years. Trials were identified through electronic searches of MEDLINE (1946-2016), EMBASE (1947-2016), Google Scholar (2016), CINAHL (1981-2016), The Cochrane Library (2016), Web of Science (2016), Scopus (2016), clinical trial registries, and conference proceedings (2000-2016) without language restrictions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317280/tobacco-use-and-outcome-in-radical-prostatectomy-patients
#2
Alexandra Curtis, Rochelle Payne Ondracek, Christine Murekeyisoni, Eric Kauffman, James Mohler, James Marshall
Cigarette smoking has been consistently associated with increased risk of overall mortality, but the importance of smoking for patients with prostate cancer (CaP) who are candidates for curative radical prostatectomy (RP) has received less attention. This retrospectively designed cohort study investigated the association of smoking history at RP with subsequent CaP treatment outcomes and overall mortality. A total of 1981 patients who underwent RP at Roswell Park Cancer Institute (RPCI) between 1993 and 2014 were studied...
March 20, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306214/the-prognostic-value-of-early-radiographic-response-in-children-and-adolescents-with-embryonal-rhabdomyosarcoma-stage-iv-metastases-confined-to-the-lungs-a-report-from-the-cooperative-weichteilsarkom-studiengruppe-cws
#3
Monika Sparber-Sauer, Thekla von Kalle, Guido Seitz, Tobias Dantonello, Monika Scheer, Marc Münter, Joerg Fuchs, Ruth Ladenstein, Stefan S Bielack, Thomas Klingebiel, Ewa Koscielniak
BACKGROUND: Patients with metastatic rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) have a poor prognosis apart from children with embryonal RMS whose metastases are confined to the lungs (PRME). The prognostic significance of response in patients with metastatic disease is still unknown and optimal treatment remains to be defined. METHODS: Patient-, tumor- and treatment-related factors of patients with PRME treated on multiple prospective trials of the Cooperative Weichteilsarkom Studiengruppe (CWS) (1981-2013) were analyzed with a focus on response to induction chemotherapy...
March 17, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304084/surgical-versus-non-surgical-management-for-pleural-empyema
#4
REVIEW
Mark D Redden, Tze Yang Chin, Mieke L van Driel
BACKGROUND: Empyema refers to pus in the pleural space, commonly due to adjacent pneumonia, chest wall injury, or a complication of thoracic surgery. A range of therapeutic options are available for its management, ranging from percutaneous aspiration and intercostal drainage to video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) or thoracotomy drainage. Intrapleural fibrinolytics may also be administered following intercostal drain insertion to facilitate pleural drainage. There is currently a lack of consensus regarding optimal treatment...
March 17, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294189/droughts-in-india-from-1981-to-2013-and-implications-to-wheat-production
#5
Xiang Zhang, Renee Obringer, Chehan Wei, Nengcheng Chen, Dev Niyogi
Understanding drought from multiple perspectives is critical due to its complex interactions with crop production, especially in India. However, most studies only provide singular view of drought and lack the integration with specific crop phenology. In this study, four time series of monthly meteorological, hydrological, soil moisture, and vegetation droughts from 1981 to 2013 were reconstructed for the first time. The wheat growth season (from October to April) was particularly analyzed. In this study, not only the most severe and widespread droughts were identified, but their spatial-temporal distributions were also analyzed alone and concurrently...
March 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290163/morphological-and-clinical-findings-of-explanted-carpentier-edwards-perimount-pericardial-valve-in-the-aortic-position
#6
Jessica Forcillo, Pierre-Olivier Dionne, Philippe Demers, Louis P Perrault, Raymond Cartier, Denis Bouchard, Michel Carrier, Michel Pellerin
BACKGROUND: Freedom from structural valve deterioration (SVD) at 15 years with the Carpentier-Edwards (CE) Perimount pericardial valve in the aortic position was 60% in patients aged <60 years compared to 90% and 99% in patients aged 60-70 years and >70 years, respectively. The study aim was to focus on the causes of SVD requiring valve explant according to three different age groups: <60 years, 60-70 years, and >70 years. The short- and longterm clinical results of the patient cohort, followed for 25 years, are presented...
November 2016: Journal of Heart Valve Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289234/classic-spotlight-1980-and-1981-articles-of-significant-interest-selected-from-the-journal-of-virology-archives-by-the-editors
#7
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287844/intersectional-epistemologies-of-ignorance-how-behavioral-and-social-science-research-shapes-what-we-know-think-we-know-and-don-t-know-about-u-s-black-men-s-sexualities
#8
Lisa Bowleg, Ana María Del Río-González, Sidney L Holt, Carolin Pérez, Jenné S Massie, Jessica E Mandell, Cheriko A Boone
Epistemologies of ignorance describe how ignorance influences the production of knowledge. Advancing an intersectional epistemologies of ignorance approach that examines how conscious (or unconscious) ignorance about racism, heterosexism, and classism shapes empirical knowledge about Black men's sexualities, we conducted a critical review of the behavioral and social science research on U.S. Black men, ages 18 and older, for two time frames: pre-1981 and the most recent decade, 2006-2016. Our search yielded 668 articles, which we classified into five categories: sexual violence, sexual experiences and expressions, sexual identities, cultural and social-structural influences, and sexual health and sexual risk...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Sex Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282377/before-the-bombing-high-burden-of-traumatic-injuries-in-kunduz-trauma-center-kunduz-afghanistan
#9
Hamayoun Hemat, Safieh Shah, Petros Isaakidis, Mrinalini Das, Nang Thu Thu Kyaw, Sattar Zaheer, Abdul Qayeum Qasemy, Mutallib Zakir, Gbane Mahama, Catherine Van Overloop, Lynette Dominguez
BACKGROUND: Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) has been providing healthcare in Afghanistan since 1981 including specialized health services for trauma patients in Kunduz Trauma Center (KTC) from 2011. On October 3rd, 2015, a US airstrike hit the KTC, killing 42 people including 14 MSF staff. This study aims to demonstrate the impact on healthcare provision, after hospital destruction, by assessing the extent of care provided for trauma and injuries by the MSF KTC and to report on treatment outcomes from January 2014 to June 2015, three months prior to the bombing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280561/temporally-and-spatially-partitioned-behaviours-of-spinner-dolphins-implications-for-resilience-to-human-disturbance
#10
Julian A Tyne, David W Johnston, Fredrik Christiansen, Lars Bejder
Selective forces shape the evolution of wildlife behavioural strategies and influence the spatial and temporal partitioning of behavioural activities to maximize individual fitness. Globally, wildlife is increasingly exposed to human activities which may affect their behavioural activities. The ability of wildlife to compensate for the effects of human activities may have implications for their resilience to disturbance. Resilience theory suggests that behavioural systems which are constrained in their repertoires are less resilient to disturbance than flexible systems...
January 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278227/do-children-born-to-teenage-parents-have-lower-adult-intelligence-a-prospective-birth-cohort-study
#11
Mohsina Khatun, Abdullah Al Mamun, James Scott, Gail M William, Alexandra Clavarino, Jake M Najman
Teenage motherhood has been associated with a wide variety of negative offspring outcomes including poorer cognitive development. In the context of limitations of previous research, this paper assesses the contemporary relevance of this finding. In this study we investigate the long-term cognitive status (IQ) among 21 year adult offspring born to teenage parents using the Mater University Study of Pregnancy- a prospective birth cohort study, which recruited all pregnant mothers attending a large obstetrical hospital in Brisbane, Australia, from 1981 to 1983...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278162/the-origin-and-biogeographic-diversification-of-fishes-in-the-family-poeciliidae
#12
David N Reznick, Andrew I Furness, Robert W Meredith, Mark S Springer
The fish subfamily Poeciliinae (sensu Parenti, 1981) is widely distributed across the Western Hemisphere and a dominant component of the fish communities of Central America. Poeciliids have figured prominently in previous studies on the roles of dispersal and vicariance in shaping current geographic distributions. Most recently, Hrbek et al. combined a DNA-based phylogeny of the family with geological models to provide a biogeographic perspective that emphasized the role of both vicariance and dispersal. Here we expand on that effort with a database enlarged in the quantity of sequence represented per species, in the number of species included, and in an enlarged and more balanced representation of the order Cyprinodontiformes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276069/two-regimes-of-hiv-aids-the-mmwr-and-the-socio-political-construction-of-hiv-aids-as-a-black-disease
#13
Kevin M Moseby
Over the course of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, black Americans have become a central target of US public health prevention efforts. And today, HIV/AIDS is understood to disproportionally affect black Americans. This markedly contrasts with knowledge about the disease and efforts to prevent it in the first decade of the epidemic in the US, when expert and lay understandings and responses centred on white gay males. This article demonstrates that explaining these historical reversals as purely reflective of epidemiological data - or best knowledge available - is insufficient...
March 9, 2017: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276060/operational-classification-of-seizure-types-by-the-international-league-against-epilepsy-position-paper-of-the-ilae-commission-for-classification-and-terminology
#14
Robert S Fisher, J Helen Cross, Jacqueline A French, Norimichi Higurashi, Edouard Hirsch, Floor E Jansen, Lieven Lagae, Solomon L Moshé, Jukka Peltola, Eliane Roulet Perez, Ingrid E Scheffer, Sameer M Zuberi
The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) presents a revised operational classification of seizure types. The purpose of such a revision is to recognize that some seizure types can have either a focal or generalized onset, to allow classification when the onset is unobserved, to include some missing seizure types, and to adopt more transparent names. Because current knowledge is insufficient to form a scientifically based classification, the 2017 Classification is operational (practical) and based on the 1981 Classification, extended in 2010...
March 8, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275447/from-the-millennium-development-goals-to-sustainable-development-goals-the-response-to-the-hiv-epidemic-in-indonesia-challenges-and-opportunities
#15
EDITORIAL
Fetty Wijayanti, Siti Nadia Tarmizi, Viny Tobing, Tiara Nisa, Muhammad Akhtar, Indang Trihandini, Ratna Djuwita
Since the first case was reported in 1981, the Indonesian government and civil society have implemented many initiatives to respond to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. From an historical perspective, the country now has the means to rapidly diagnose cases of HIV infection and provide antiretroviral therapy. The concern expressed by international health agencies about a potential major HIV epidemic in the country has not been confirmed, as evidenced by a slowing down of the number cases. The threat from non-sterile needle sharing has been relatively well controlled through harm-reduction programmes; however, drug trafficking remains a challenge...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275359/the-dopamine-prediction-error-contributions-to-associative-models-of-reward-learning
#16
REVIEW
Helen M Nasser, Donna J Calu, Geoffrey Schoenbaum, Melissa J Sharpe
Phasic activity of midbrain dopamine neurons is currently thought to encapsulate the prediction-error signal described in Sutton and Barto's (1981) model-free reinforcement learning algorithm. This phasic signal is thought to contain information about the quantitative value of reward, which transfers to the reward-predictive cue after learning. This is argued to endow the reward-predictive cue with the value inherent in the reward, motivating behavior toward cues signaling the presence of reward. Yet theoretical and empirical research has implicated prediction-error signaling in learning that extends far beyond a transfer of quantitative value to a reward-predictive cue...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275168/clinical-trial-characteristics-and-barriers-to-participant-accrual-the-md-anderson-cancer-center-experience-over-30-years-a-historical-foundation-for-trial-improvement
#17
Chad Tang, Steven I Sherman, Mellanie Price, Jun Weng, Suzanne E Davis, David S Hong, James C Yao, Aman Buzdar, George Wilding, J Jack Lee
Purpose: Slow-accruing clinical trials delay the translation of basic biomedical research, contribute to increasing health care costs, and may prohibit trials from reaching their original goals.Experimental Design: We analyzed a prospectively maintained institutional database that tracks all clinical studies at the MD Anderson Cancer Center (Houston, TX). Inclusion criteria were activated phase I-III trials, maximum projected accrual ≥10 participants, and activation prior to March 25, 2011. The primary outcome was slow accrual, defined as <2 participants per year...
March 15, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274293/genome-wide-population-structure-and-evolutionary-history-of-the-frizarta-dairy-sheep
#18
A Kominakis, A L Hager-Theodorides, A Saridaki, G Antonakos, G Tsiamis
In the present study, we used genomic data, generated with a medium density single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) array, to acquire more information on the population structure and evolutionary history of the synthetic Frizarta dairy sheep. First, two typical measures of linkage disequilibrium (LD) were estimated at various physical distances that were then used to make inferences on the effective population size at key past time points. Population structure was also assessed by both multidimensional scaling analysis and k-means clustering on the distance matrix obtained from the animals' genomic relationships...
March 9, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272952/health-equity-and-the-fallacy-of-treating-causes-of-population-health-as-if-they-sum-to-100
#19
Nancy Krieger
Numerous examples exist in population health of work that erroneously forces the causes of health to sum to 100%. This is surprising. Clear refutations of this error extend back 80 years. Because public health analysis, action, and allocation of resources are ill served by faulty methods, I consider why this error persists. I first review several high-profile examples, including Doll and Peto's 1981 opus on the causes of cancer and its current interpretations; a 2015 high-publicity article in Science claiming that two thirds of cancer is attributable to chance; and the influential Web site "County Health Rankings & Roadmaps: Building a Culture of Health, County by County," whose model sums causes of health to equal 100%: physical environment (10%), social and economic factors (40%), clinical care (20%), and health behaviors (30%)...
April 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271521/transformation-of-hepatitis-c-antiviral-treatment-in-a-national-healthcare-system-following-the-introduction-of-direct-antiviral-agents
#20
A M Moon, P K Green, K Berry, G N Ioannou
BACKGROUND: Highly effective direct antiviral agents (DAAs) for hepatitis C virus (HCV) were introduced recently. Their utilisation has been limited by high cost and low access to care. AIM: To describe the effect of DAAs on HCV treatment and cure rates in the United States Veterans Affairs (VA) national healthcare system. METHODS: We identified all HCV antiviral treatment regimens initiated from 1 January 1999 to 31 December 2015 (n = 105 369) in the VA national healthcare system, and determined if they resulted in sustained virological response (SVR)...
March 8, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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