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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133030/20-s-protopanaxadiol-ppd-alleviates-scopolamine-induced-memory-impairment-via-regulation-of-cholinergic-and-antioxidant-systems-and-expression-of-egr-1-c-fos-and-c-jun-in-mice
#1
Cong Lu, Liming Dong, Jingwei Lv, Yan Wang, Bei Fan, Fengzhong Wang, Xinmin Liu
20(S)-protopanaxadiol (PPD) possesses various biological properties, including anti-inflammatory, antitumor and anti-fatigue properties. Recent studies found that PPD functioned as a neurotrophic agent to ameliorate the sensory deficit caused by glutamate-induced excitotoxicity through its antioxidant effects and exhibited strong antidepressant-like effects in vivo. The objective of the present study was first to investigate the effect of PPD in scopolamine (SCOP)-induced memory deficit in mice and the potential mechanisms involved...
November 10, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130637/how-chromosomal-deletions-can-unmask-recessive-mutations-deletions-in-10q11-2-associated-with-chat-or-slc18a3-mutations-lead-to-congenital-myasthenic-syndrome
#2
Mathias Schwartz, Damien Sternberg, Sandra Whalen, Alexandra Afenjar, Arnaud Isapof, Brigitte Chabrol, Marie-France Portnoï, Solveig Heide, Boris Keren, Sandra Chantot-Bastaraud, Jean-Pierre Siffroi
A congenital myasthenia was suspected in two unrelated children with very similar phenotypes including several episodes of severe dyspnea. Both children had a 10q11.2 deletion revealed by Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms array or by Next Generation Sequencing analysis. The deletion was inherited from the healthy mother in the first case. These deletions unmasked a recessive mutation at the same locus in both cases, but in two different genes: CHAT and SLC18A3.
November 12, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127182/ten-minute-chat
#3
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 11, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122506/medical-journals-in-the-age-of-ubiquitous-social-media
#4
N Seth Trueger
Medical journals increasingly use social media to engage their audiences in a variety of ways, from simply broadcasting content via blogs, microblogs, and podcasts to more interactive methods such as Twitter chats and online journal clubs. Online discussion may increase readership and help improve peer review, for example, by providing postpublication peer review. Challenges remain, including the loss of nuance and context of shared work. Furthermore, uncertainty remains regarding how to assess the impact of journal social media outreach, abundant but unclear metrics, and the magnitude of benefit (if any), particularly given the substantial work required for substantive interactive engagement...
November 3, 2017: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119681/weight-loss-success-of-participants-residing-in-rural-and-urban-areas
#5
Elise Mench, Delia West, Rebecca Krukowski, Jean Harvey
PURPOSE: Rural residents are significantly more likely to be overweight and obese than are urban residents. However, few data have compared weight control program responses in these population groups. Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to evaluate the weight loss outcomes of participants in a multisite, online behavioral intervention by residential location (rural vs urban) and, second, assess any possible differences in adherence to treatment goals. METHODS: A total of 492 adult participants (mean BMI = 35...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Rural Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113945/changes-in-the-expression-and-localization-of-signaling-molecules-in-mouse-facial-motor-neurons-during-regeneration-of-facial-nerves
#6
Jeongtae Kim, Shiori Kobayashi, Chigusa Shimizu-Okabe, Akihito Okabe, Changjong Moon, Taekyun Shin, Chitoshi Takayama
After injury, peripheral axons usually re-extend toward their target, and neuronal functions recover. Previous studies have reported that expression of various molecules are transiently altered in motor neurons after nerve injury, but the time course of these changes and their relationship with functional recovery have not been clearly demonstrated. We used the mouse facial nerve transection and suturing model, and examined the changes in expression of five molecules, choline acetyl transferase (ChAT), galanin, calcitonin gene-related protein (CGRP), gephyrin, and potassium chloride co-transporter 2 (KCC2) in the facial motor neurons after surgery until recovery...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104681/association-between-beta-sympathomimetic-tocolysis-and-risk-of-autistic-spectrum-disorders-behavioural-and-developmental-outcome-in-toddlers
#7
Mengühan Araz Altay, Işık Görker, Rakhshanda Aslanova, Leyla Bozatlı, Nesrin Turan, Petek Balkanlı Kaplan
AIM: To investigate whether maternal intravenous beta-mimetic tocolytic therapy increases the risk of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and poorer behavioural and developmental outcomes. METHOD: Our study is a prospective case-control study among 90 children between 1.5 and three years old. Cases (n = 46) were toddlers with betamimetic tocolytic exposure; control group toddlers (n = 44) were tocolytic untreated. Treated and untreated groups were also divided into subgroups: term and preterm delivered...
October 15, 2017: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097449/genetic-and-functional-profiling-of-cd16-dependent-natural-killer-activation-identifies-patients-at-higher-risk-of-cardiac-allograft-vasculopathy
#8
Pascale Paul, Christophe Picard, Emmanuelle Sampol, Luc Lyonnet, Julie Di Cristofaro, Louise Paul-Delvaux, Guillaume Lano, Corinne Nicolino Brunet, Eleonore Ravis, Frederic Collart, Francoise Dignat George, Bertrand Dussol, Florence Sabatier, Annick Mouly Bandini
Background -Cardiac transplantation is an effective therapy for end-stage heart failure. As cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) is the major cause of late mortality after heart transplant (HT), there is a need to identify markers that reflect inflammatory or cytotoxic immune mechanisms contributing to its onset. Non-invasive and early stratification of patients at risk remains a challenge for adapting individualized therapy. The CD16 (Fc-gamma receptor 3A, FCGR3A) receptor was recently identified as a major determinant of antibody-mediated natural killer (NK) cell activation in HT biopsies; however, little is known about the role of CD16 in promoting allograft vasculopathy...
November 2, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095040/prevalence-and-risk-factors-among-minors-for-online-sexual-solicitations-and-interactions-with-adults
#9
Patricia de Santisteban, Manuel Gámez-Guadix
The research on online child sexual victimization has mainly focused on the sexual solicitation of minors (i.e., sexual requests by an adult), with scarce information available on sexual interactions (e.g., cybersex or meeting in person) in which a minor is exploited by an adult. In the present study, we analyzed the prevalence and risk factors associated with both sexual solicitations and interactions of minors with adults. The sample included 2,731 minors between 12 and 15 years old (50.6% female). The minors completed several self-report questionnaires about sexual solicitations and interactions with adults, including possible risk factors (e...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Sex Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092846/bdnf-overexpression-in-bladder-induces-neuronal-changes-to-mediate-bladder-overactivity
#10
Mahendra Kashyap, Subrata Pore, William C de Groat, Christopher Chermansky, Naoki Yoshimura, Pradeep Tyagi
Elevated levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in urine of overactive bladder (OAB) patients support the association of BDNF with OAB symptoms, but the causality is not known. Here, we investigated the functionality of BDNF overexpression in rat bladder following bladder wall transfection of either BDNF or luciferase transgenes (10µg). A week after transfection, BDNF overexpression in bladder tissue and elevation of urine BDNF levels was observed together with increased transcript of BDNF, its cognate receptors (TrkB & p75NTR) and downstream PLCγ isoforms in bladder...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081887/pharmacological-basis-for-use-of-armillaria-mellea-polysaccharides-in-alzheimer-s-disease-antiapoptosis-and-antioxidation
#11
Shengshu An, Wenqian Lu, Yongfeng Zhang, Qingxia Yuan, Di Wang
Armillaria mellea, an edible fungus, exhibits various pharmacological activities, including antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties. However, the effects of A. mellea on Alzheimer's disease (AD) have not been systemically reported. The present study aimed to explore the protective effects of mycelium polysaccharides (AMPS) obtained from A. mellea, especially AMPSc via 70% ethanol precipitation in a L-glutamic acid- (L-Glu-) induced HT22 cell apoptosis model and an AlCl3 plus D-galactose- (D-gal-) induced AD mouse model...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080617/wash-resistance-and-bio-efficacy-of-olyset-%C3%A2-plus-a-long-lasting-insecticide-treated-mosquito-net-with-synergist-against-malaria-vector-anopheles-stephensi
#12
Soraya Sheikhi, Hassan Vatandoost, Mohammad Reza Abai, Mansoreh Shayeghi, Ahmad Raeisi, Morteza Akbari, Fatemeh Nikpoor, Mohammad Sistanizade Aghdam, Akbar Bagheri
OBJECTIVE: To determine the wash resistance of Olyset(®) Plus using World Health Organization Pesticide Evaluation Scheme standard washing procedure and to assess the value of knock down and mortality rates of Anopheles stephensi at different regimens of long lasting insecticide treated nets washings. METHODS: The study was conducted at the Bioassay Laboratory of Culicidae Insectary, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran. The net was made of polyester impregnated with permethrin and piperonyl butoxide at a ratio of 2:1...
September 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080453/ameliorating-effect-of-alpinia-oxyphylla-schisandra-chinensis-herb-pair-on-cognitive-impairment-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Mengshi Wang, Wenchuan Bi, Kaiyue Fan, Tongde Li, Tingxu Yan, Feng Xiao, Bosai He, Kaishun Bi, Ying Jia
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. In our previous study, we found both Alpinia oxyphylla and Schisandra chinensis can improve the cognitive function of AD. To investigate whether the Alpinia oxyphylla - Schisandra chinensis herb pair (ASHP) has ameliorating effect on cognitive impairment, we used scopolamine to induce learning and memory impairments, as a mouse model of AD. Subsequently, we carried out Y-maze test and Morris water maze test to observe the behavior of mice. Finally, the level of Acetylcholine (Ach) and muscarinic receptor (M1) receptors, the activity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) were measured by commercial assay kits and ELISA kit...
October 25, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067693/newly-raised-anti-vacht-and-anti-chat-antibodies-detect-cholinergic-cells-in-chicken-embryos
#14
Tadayoshi Watanabe, Takahiro Kiyomoto, Ryosuke Tadokoro, Yuta Takase, Yoshiko Takahashi
The autonomic nervous system consists of sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves, which functionally antagonize each other to control physiology and homeostasis of organs. However, it is largely unexplored how the autonomic nervous system is established during development. In particular, early formation of parasympathetic network remains elusive because of its complex anatomical structure. To distinguish between parasympathetic (cholinergic) and sympathetic (adrenergic) ganglia, vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) and choline O-acetyltransferase (ChAT), proteins associated with acetylcholine synthesis, are known to be useful markers...
October 25, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067005/characterization-of-four-multidrug-resistance-plasmids-captured-from-the-sediments-of-an-urban-coastal-wetland
#15
Ryan T Botts, Brooke A Apffel, C J Walters, Kelly E Davidson, Ryan S Echols, Michael R Geiger, Victoria L Guzman, Victoria S Haase, Michal A Montana, Chip A La Chat, Jenna A Mielke, Kelly L Mullen, Cierra C Virtue, Celeste J Brown, Eva M Top, David E Cummings
Self-transmissible and mobilizable plasmids contribute to the emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria by enabling the horizontal transfer of acquired antibiotic resistance. The objective of this study was to capture and characterize self-transmissible and mobilizable resistance plasmids from a coastal wetland impacted by urban stormwater runoff and human wastewater during the rainy season. Four plasmids were captured, two self-transmissible and two mobilizable, using both mating and enrichment approaches...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064077/hsp27-immunization-reinforces-aii-amacrine-cell-and-synapse-damage-induced-by-s100-in-an-autoimmune-glaucoma-model
#16
Sabrina Reinehr, Sandra Kuehn, Christina Casola, Dennis Koch, Gesa Stute, Pia Grotegut, H Burkhard Dick, Stephanie C Joachim
Previous studies have revealed a loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and optic nerve fibers after immunization with the S100B protein. Addition of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) also leads to a decrease of RGCs. Our present aim has been to analyze various retinal cell types after immunization with S100B or S100B + HSP27 (S100 + HSP). After 28 days, retinas were processed for immunohistology and Western blot. RGCs, immunostained for NeuN, were significantly decreased in the S100 and the S100 + HSP groups...
October 24, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059716/morphological-characterization-of-the-myenteric-plexus-of-the-ileum-and-distal-colon-of-dogs-affected-by-muscular-dystrophy
#17
Bárbara Tavares Schäfer, Mariana Póvoa Silveira, Kelly Palombit, Cristina Eusébio Mendes, Ii Sei Watanabe, Maria Angélica Miglino, Patricia Castelucci
Duchenne-like muscular dystrophy (canine dystrophinopathy) is a hereditary degenerative disease characterized by muscle changes similar to those described for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and by alterations in the smooth muscles of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Some authors have suggested that these abnormalities may be associated with intestinal motility. This study analyzed the nitrergic and cholinergic neurons and P2X7 receptor expression in the myenteric plexus of the ileum and distal colon of dogs with muscular dystrophy...
October 23, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058403/traced-on-the-timeline-discovery-of-acetylcholine-and-the-components-of-the-human-cholinergic-system-in-a-primitive-unicellular-eukaryote-acanthamoeba-spp
#18
Abdul Mannan Baig, Zohaib Rana, Sumayya Tariq, Salima Lalani, H R Ahmad
Acetylcholine (ACh) is the neurotransmitter of cholinergic signal transduction that affects the target cells via muscarinic (mAChR) and nicotinic (nAChR) cholinergic receptors embedded in the cell membrane. Of the cholinergic receptors that bind to ACh, the mAChRs execute several cognitive and metabolic functions in the human central nervous system (CNS). Very little is known about the origins and autocrine/paracrine roles of the ACh in primitive life forms. With the recent report of the evidence of an ACh binding mAChR1 like receptor in Acanthamoeba spp...
November 13, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056810/connected-speech-in-transient-aphasias-after-left-hemisphere-resective-surgery
#19
Angelica McCarron, Ashley Chavez, Miranda Babiak, Mitchel S Berger, Edward F Chang, Stephen M Wilson
BACKGROUND: Transient aphasias are common in the first few days after resective surgery to the language-dominant hemisphere. The specific speech and language deficits that occur are related to the location of the surgical site, and may include impairments in fluency, lexical access, repetition, and comprehension. The impact of these transient aphasias on connected speech production has not previously been investigated. AIMS: The goals of this study were to characterize the nature of connected speech deficits in the immediate post-surgical period, and to determine which deficits resolve completely within 1 month...
2017: Aphasiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056431/effects-of-surgical-lesions-on-choline-acetyltransferase-activity-in-the-cat-cochlea
#20
Mark J Frilling, Gregory J Wiet, Donald A Godfrey, Judy A Parli, Jon D Dunn, C David Ross
Although it is well established that the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT, the enzyme for acetylcholine synthesis) in the mammalian cochlea is associated with its olivocochlear innervation, the distribution of this innervation in the cochlea varies somewhat among mammalian species. The quantitative distribution of ChAT activity in the cochlea has been reported for guinea pigs and rats. The present study reports the distribution of ChAT activity within the organ of Corti among the three turns of the cat cochlea and the effects of removing olivocochlear innervation either by a lateral cut aimed to totally transect the left olivocochlear bundle or a more medial cut additionally damaging the superior olivary complex on the same side...
October 10, 2017: Hearing Research
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