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Cerebrovascular Malformations

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307022/fluorescein-videoangiography-during-extracranial-to-intracranial-bypass-surgery-preliminary-results
#1
Alessandro Narducci, Julia Onken, Marcus Czabanka, Nils Hecht, Peter Vajkoczy
BACKGROUND: Over the last years, intraoperative use of fluorescein is gaining ground in the field of neurosurgery, due to development of a microscope-integrated YELLOW 560 module, with reported experiences in brain malignancies, aneurysms, and arteriovenous malformation surgery. The aim of this study is to determine the feasibility and value of fluorescein videoangiography during bypass procedures. METHODS: The authors enrolled 11 patients who underwent extracranial-to-intracranial bypass for moyamoya disease, atherosclerotic steno-occlusive cerebrovascular disease, and flow replacement during a giant middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysm treatment...
January 6, 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295866/connexin-43-gap-junctions-contribute-to-brain-endothelial-barrier-hyperpermeability-in-familial-cerebral-cavernous-malformations-type-iii-by-modulating-tight-junction-structure
#2
Allison M Johnson, James P Roach, Anna Hu, Svetlana M Stamatovic, Michal R Zochowski, Richard F Keep, Anuska V Andjelkovic
Familial cerebral cavernous malformations type III (fCCM3) is a disease of the cerebrovascular system caused by loss-of-function mutations in ccm3 that result in dilated capillary beds that are susceptible to hemorrhage. Before hemorrhage, fCCM3 lesions are characterized by a hyperpermeable blood-brain barrier (BBB), the key pathologic feature of fCCM3. We demonstrate that connexin 43 (Cx43), a gap junction (GJ) protein that is incorporated into the BBB junction complex, is up-regulated in lesions of a murine model of fCCM3...
January 2, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235984/deaths-leading-causes-for-2015
#3
Melonie Heron
Objectives-This report presents final 2015 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements "Deaths: Final Data for 2015," the National Center for Health Statistics' annual report of final mortality statistics. Methods-Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2015. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes...
November 2017: National Vital Statistics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232026/noncontrast-enhanced-time-resolved-4d-dynamic-intracranial-mr-angiography-at-7t-a-feasibility-study
#4
Fei Cong, Yan Zhuo, Songlin Yu, Xianchang Zhang, Xinyuan Miao, Jing An, Shuo Wang, Yong Cao, Yan Zhang, Hee Kwon Song, Danny Jj Wang, Lirong Yan
BACKGROUND: Arterial spin labeling (ASL) based-noncontrast-enhanced 4D MR angiography (NCE 4D MRA) shows potential in characterizing cerebrovascular hemodynamics in cerebrovascular disorders. Ultrahigh-field theoretically benefits ASL signal with increased inherent signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and prolonged blood T1 , which may provide improved delineation of vasculature in 4D MRA. PURPOSE: To investigate the feasibility of NCE 4D MRA using 3D Cartesian trajectory and stack-of-stars (SOS) golden angle radial trajectory at 7T...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205641/clinical-and-arterial-spin-labeling-brain-mri-features-of-transitional-venous-anomalies
#5
Michael Zhang, Nicholas A Telischak, Nancy J Fischbein, Gary K Steinberg, Michael Marks, Greg Zaharchuk, Jeremy J Heit, Michael Iv
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Transitional venous anomalies (TVAs) are rare cerebrovascular lesions that resemble developmental venous anomalies (DVAs), but demonstrate early arteriovenous shunting on digital subtraction angiography (DSA) without the parenchymal nidus of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). We investigate whether arterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can distinguish brain TVAs from DVAs and guide their clinical management. METHODS: We conducted a single-center retrospective review of patients with brain parenchymal DVA-like lesions with increased ASL signal on MRI...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191115/focal-neurons-another-source-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-in-brain-arteriovenous-malformation-tissues
#6
Pengchen Li, Longbo Zhang, Deshun Chen, Ming Zeng, Fenghua Chen
Background Brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVMs) are devastating, hemorrhage-prone, cerebrovascular entities characterized by well-defined feeding arteries, draining veins, and the absence of a capillary bed. The endothelial cells that comprise bAVMs exhibit a loss of arterial and venous specification. The role of abnormal angiogenesis in the formation and progression of bAVMs is still unclear. This study aimed to investigate the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in neurons and glial cells in bAVMs to try to uncover the multiple cell origin of VEGF...
November 30, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190776/large-scale-identification-of-human-cerebrovascular-proteins-inter-tissue-and-intracerebral-vascular-protein-diversity
#7
Soo Jung Lee, Soonhyung Kwon, John R Gatti, Ejona Korcari, Ty E Gresser, Princess C Felix, Simon G Keep, Kevin C Pasquale, Tongxu Bai, Sabrina A Blanchett-Anderson, Nancy W Wu, Charissa Obeng-Nyarko, Kossi M Senagbe, Kathy C Young, Snehaa Maripudi, Bharath C Yalavarthi, Dajana Korcari, Andre Y Liu, Benjamin C Schaffler, Richard F Keep, Michael M Wang
The human cerebrovascular system is responsible for regulating demand-dependent perfusion and maintaining the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In addition, defects in the human cerebrovasculature lead to stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, vascular malformations, and vascular cognitive impairment. The objective of this study was to discover new proteins of the human cerebrovascular system using expression data from the Human Protein Atlas, a large-scale project which allows public access to immunohistochemical analysis of human tissues...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170092/krit1-loss-of-function-induces-a-chronic-nrf2-mediated-adaptive-homeostasis-that-sensitizes-cells-to-oxidative-stress-implication-for-cerebral-cavernous-malformation-disease
#8
Cinzia Antognelli, Eliana Trapani, Simona Delle Monache, Martina Daga, Stefania Pizzimenti, Giuseppina Barrera, Paola Cassoni, Adriano Angelucci, Lorenza Trabalzini, Vincenzo Nicola Talesa, Luca Goitre, Saverio Francesco Retta
KRIT1 (CCM1) is a disease gene responsible for Cerebral Cavernous Malformations (CCM), a major cerebrovascular disease of proven genetic origin affecting 0.3-0.5% of the population. Previously, we demonstrated that KRIT1 loss-of-function is associated with altered redox homeostasis and abnormal activation of the redox-sensitive transcription factor c-Jun, which collectively result in pro-oxidative, pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic effects, suggesting a novel pathogenic mechanism for CCM disease and raising the possibility that KRIT1 loss-of-function exerts pleiotropic effects on multiple redox-sensitive mechanisms...
November 20, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169202/accessory-mitral-valve-mimicking-aortic-valve-endocarditis-as-a-cause-of-cerebrovascular-accident
#9
Benjamin C Degner, Mario Gaudino, Erin Iannacone, Christopher Lau, Leonard N Girardi
Accessory mitral valve (AMV) is a rare congenital cardiac malformation associated with left ventricular outflow tract obstruction and endocarditis. We report a patient with an AMV who presented with a cerebellar infarct and discuss the management of this anomaly.
November 23, 2017: Journal of Cardiac Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098173/the-roles-of-endoglin-gene-in-cerebrovascular-diseases
#10
Wan Zhu, Li Ma, Rui Zhang, Hua Su
Endoglin (ENG, also known as CD105) is a transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) associated receptor and is required for both vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. Angiogenesis is important in the development of cerebral vasculature and in the pathogenesis of cerebral vascular diseases. ENG is an essential component of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase activation complex. Animal studies showed that ENG deficiency impairs stroke recovery. ENG deficiency also impairs the regulation of vascular tone, which contributes to the pathogenesis of brain arteriovenous malformation (bAVM) and vasospasm...
2017: Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098131/percutaneous-vertebral-artery-access-for-embolization-of-cerebrovascular-disease-illustrative-case-and-operative-technique
#11
Ali S Haider, Tijani Osumah, Richa Thakur, Steven Vayalumkal, Mrigank S Shail, Umair Khan, Hasan Sumdani, Joseph Hise, Kennith F Layton
Intracranial arteriovenous malformations can be further complicated by the development of aneurysms, which themselves carry the risk of rupture and hemorrhage. New endovascular techniques allow for more treatment options for these lesions in the setting of arteriovenous malformations. Here we present the case of a patient who developed an aneurysm in the setting of an arteriovenous malformation and subsequently underwent successful endovascular treatment via percutaneous access of the vertebral artery along with reviewing the literature on further treatment options and developments...
August 28, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033646/cerebrovascular-events-secondary-to-pulmonary-arteriovenous-malformation-based-on-genetic-heterogeneity
#12
Güner Çelik, Hüseyin Yurdakul, Erkan Yildirim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027857/is-there-added-value-in-obtaining-cervical-spine-mri-in-the-assessment-of-nontraumatic-angiographically-negative-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-a-retrospective-study-and-meta-analysis-of-the-literature
#13
Gelareh Sadigh, Chad A Holder, Jeffrey M Switchenko, Seena Dehkharghani, Jason W Allen
OBJECTIVE Diagnostic algorithms for nontraumatic angiographically negative subarachnoid hemorrhage (AN-SAH) vary, and the optimal method remains subject to debate. This study assessed the added value of cervical spine MRI in identifying a cause for nontraumatic AN-SAH. METHODS Consecutive patients 18 years of age or older who presented with nontraumatic SAH between February 1, 2009, and October 31, 2014, with negative cerebrovascular catheter angiography and subsequent cervical MRI were studied. Patients with intraparenchymal, subdural, or epidural hemorrhage; recent trauma; or known vascular malformations were excluded...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987197/neuropathology-of-cerebrovascular-diseases
#14
Isidro Ferrer, Noemi Vidal
The chapter describes the epidemiology of cerebrovascular diseases, anatomy of the cerebral blood vessels, pathophysiology of ischemia, hypoxia, hypoxemia, anemic hypoxia, histotoxic hypoxia, carbon monoxide damage, hyperoxid brain damage and decompression sickness, and selective cell and regional vulnerability; diseases of the blood vessels including atherosclerosis, hypertensive angiopathy, small vessel disease, inflammatory vascular diseases, cerebral amyloid angiopathies, CADASIL, CARASIL and other diseases that can lead to cerebrovascular occlusion; intracranial and intraspinal aneurysms and vascular malformations; hematologic disorders that can cause cerebral infarct or hemorrhage; brain ischemic damage; and spontaneous intracranial bleeding...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973579/cerebrovascular-imaging-which-test-is-best
#15
Amy Lin, Sapna Rawal, Ronit Agid, Daniel M Mandell
Optimal diagnosis and characterization of cerebrovascular disease requires selection of the appropriate imaging exam for each clinical situation. In this review, we focus on intracranial arterial disease and discuss the techniques in current clinical use for imaging the blood vessel lumen and blood vessel wall, and for mapping cerebral hemodynamic impairment at the tissue level. We then discuss specific strategies for imaging intracranial aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, dural arterial venous fistulas, and arterial steno-occlusive disease...
June 23, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904828/usefulness-of-dural-surface-tracing-of-the-cortical-vessels-with-indocyanine-green-videoangiography-just-prior-to-dural-opening-for-various-cerebrovascular-diseases
#16
Naoki Otani, Kojiro Wada, Terushige Toyooka, Satoru Takeuchi, Arata Tomiyama, Kentaro Mori
BACKGROUND: Indocyanine green (ICG) videoangiography can be used to delineate the locations of the cortical vessels just prior to dural opening, allowing safe and optimal dural opening. The present clinical series demonstrates the adjunct use of ICG videoangiography to optimize dural opening for the treatment of various cerebrovascular diseases. METHODS: A total of 45 patients underwent surgery for superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery bypass (40), arteriovenous malformation (2), and dural arteriovenous fistula (3) between January 2012 and December 2016...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892037/induction-and-micro-ct-imaging-of-cerebral-cavernous-malformations-in-mouse-model
#17
Jaesung P Choi, Xi Yang, Matthew Foley, Xian Wang, Xiangjian Zheng
Mutations in the CCM1 (aka KRIT1), CCM2, or CCM3 (aka PDCD10) gene cause cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) in humans. Mouse models of CCM disease have been established by tamoxifen induced deletion of Ccm genes in postnatal animals. These mouse models provide invaluable tools to investigate molecular mechanism and therapeutic approaches for CCM disease. An accurate and quantitative method to assess lesion burden and progression is essential to harness the full value of these animal models. Here, we demonstrate the induction of CCM disease in a mouse model and the use of the contrast enhanced X-ray micro computed tomography (micro-CT) method to measure CCM lesion burden in mouse brains...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887276/moyamoya-vasculopathy-in-phace-syndrome-six-new-cases-and-review-of-the-literature
#18
REVIEW
Domenico Tortora, Mariasavina Severino, Andrea Accogli, Carola Martinetti, Nadia Vercellino, Valeria Capra, Andrea Rossi, Marco Pavanello
PHACE syndrome is a neurocutaneous disorder including posterior fossa malformations, hemangiomas, arterial lesions, cardiac defects, and eye abnormalities. PHACE arteriopathies may be progressive and have been recently categorized based on the risk of acute ischemic stroke, raising attention to the potentially devastating consequences of cerebrovascular complications in this syndrome. On the other hand, the natural history of arteriopathy in PHACE syndrome remains poorly understood. At the moment, there are no established surgical guidelines for high risk vasculopathies, including quasi-moyamoya, in this syndrome...
September 5, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881037/comparison-of-vessel-enhancement-algorithms-applied-to-time-of-flight-mra-images-for-cerebrovascular-segmentation
#19
Renzo Phellan, Nils D Forkert
PURPOSE: Vessel enhancement algorithms are often used as a preprocessing step for vessel segmentation in medical images to improve the overall segmentation accuracy. Each algorithm uses different characteristics to enhance vessels, such that the most suitable algorithm may vary for different applications. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the accuracy gains in vessel segmentation generated by the use of nine vessel enhancement algorithms: Multiscale vesselness using the formulas described by Erdt (MSE), Frangi (MSF), and Sato (MSS), optimally oriented flux (OOF), ranking orientations responses path operator (RORPO), the regularized Perona-Malik approach (RPM), vessel enhanced diffusion (VED), hybrid diffusion with continuous switch (HDCS), and the white top hat algorithm (WTH)...
September 7, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810087/multiple-pulmonary-arteriovenous-malformations-an-unusual-cause-of-shortness-of-breath-and-recurrent-strokes
#20
Kalyan C Potu, Shenjing Li, Shawn C Kelly, Julia A Prescott-Focht, Scott Pham
OBJECTIVE: To discuss an uncommon case of a patient with multiple pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) presenting with dyspnea on exertion and recurrent strokes. BACKGROUND: A 79-year-old woman with recent onset recurrent cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs) was referred to cardiology for evaluation of dyspnea on exertion. Clinical examination was unrevealing. METHODS: A transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) with agitated saline was suggestive of an extra-cardiac shunt...
February 2017: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
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