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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673373/chorioamnionitis-neuroinflammation-and-injury-timing-is-key-in-the-preterm-ovine-fetus
#1
Ruth Gussenhoven, Rob J J Westerlaken, Daan R M G Ophelders, Alan H Jobe, Matthew W Kemp, Suhas G Kallapur, Luc J Zimmermann, Per T Sangild, Stanislava Pankratova, Pierre Gressens, Boris W Kramer, Bobbi Fleiss, Tim G A M Wolfs
BACKGROUND: Antenatal infection (i.e., chorioamnionitis) is an important risk factor for adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes after preterm birth. Destructive and developmental disturbances of the white matter are hallmarks of preterm brain injury. Understanding the temporal effects of antenatal infection in relation to the onset of neurological injury is crucial for the development of neurotherapeutics for preterm infants. However, these dynamics remain unstudied. METHODS: Time-mated ewes were intra-amniotically injected with lipopolysaccharide at 5, 12, or 24 h or 2, 4, 8, or 15 days before preterm delivery at 125 days gestational age (term ~ 150 days)...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661800/chorionic-somatomammotropin-impacts-early-fetal-growth-and-placental-gene-expression
#2
Kimberly M Jeckel, Alexander C Boyarko, Gerrit Bouma, Quinton Winger, Russ V Anthony
Several developmental windows, including placentation, must be negotiated to establish and maintain pregnancy. Impaired placental function can lead to pre-eclampsia and/or intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), resulting in increased infant mortality and morbidity. It has been hypothesized that chorionic somatomammotropin (CSH), plays a significant role in fetal development, potentially by modifying maternal and fetal metabolism. Recently, using lentiviral-mediated in vivo RNA interference in sheep, we demonstrated significant reductions in near-term (135 days of gestation; dGA) fetal and placental size, and altered fetal liver gene expression, resulting from CSH deficiency...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622414/-impact-of-screening-and-treatment-of-low-systemic-blood-flow-in-the-prevention-of-severe-intraventricular-haemorrhage-and-or-death-in-pre-term-infants
#3
Ignacio Oulego Erroz, Paula Alonso Quintela, Aquilina Jiménez Gonzalez, Sandra Terroba Seara, Silvia Rodríguez Blanco, María Rosón Varas, Leticia Castañón López
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of a protocolised intervention for low systemic blood flow (SBF) in the occurrence of severe intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) or death in pre-term infants. METHODS: A study with a quasi-experimental design with retrospective controls was conducted on pre-term infants of less than 30weeks of gestational age, born between January 2016 and July 2017, who were consecutively included in the intervention period. The control cohort included pre-term infants (born between January 2013 and December 2015) matched by gestational age, birth weight, and gender (two controls for each case)...
April 2, 2018: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621563/should-the-iadpsg-criteria-be-applied-when-diagnosing-early-onset-gestational-diabetes
#4
Yuko Hagiwara, Junko Kasai, Sayuri Nakanishi, Yusuke Saigusa, Etsuko Miyagi, Shigeru Aoki
AIMS: To investigate whether the broad interpretation of the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria with application to the early pregnancy, which is adopted as the standard in Japan, is appropriate. METHODS: We conducted this investigation by comparing diabetes-related adverse pregnancy outcomes among women treated for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) following an early-pregnancy diagnosis (early-onset GDM, n=528) and those treated for GDM following a mid-pregnancy diagnosis, which is the international standard (Mid-term-onset GDM, n=147) RESULTS: Gestational weight gain was significantly lower in the early-onset GDM group (7...
April 2, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620723/perinatal-risk-factors-associated-with-gastroenteritis-hospitalizations-in-aboriginal-and-non-aboriginal-children-in-western-australia-2000-2012-a-record-linkage-cohort-study
#5
Parveen Fathima, Thomas Laurence Snelling, Nicholas de Klerk, Deborah Lehmann, Christopher Charles Blyth, Claire Shelley Waddington, Hannah Catherine Moore
BACKGROUND: Gastroenteritis is a leading cause of childhood morbidity worldwide. We aimed to assess the maternal and infant characteristics and population attributable fractions (PAFs) associated with childhood gastroenteritis-related hospitalizations. METHODS: We conducted a whole-of-population retrospective birth cohort study of 367,476 children live-born in Western Australia (WA) 2000-2012. We identified hospital admissions up to age <15 years pertaining to these children, with a principal diagnosis code for infectious gastroenteritis...
March 31, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562949/the-developing-gut-microbiota-and-its-consequences-for-health
#6
M-J Butel, A-J Waligora-Dupriet, S Wydau-Dematteis
The developmental origin of health and disease highlights the importance of the period of the first 1000 days (from the conception to the 2 years of life). The process of the gut microbiota establishment is included in this time window. Various perinatal determinants, such as cesarean section delivery, type of feeding, antibiotics treatment, gestational age or environment, can affect the pattern of bacterial colonization and result in dysbiosis. The alteration of the early bacterial gut pattern can persist over several months and may have long-lasting functional effects with an impact on disease risk later in life...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543593/effect-of-pre-pregnancy-body-mass-index-on-respiratory-related-neonatal-outcomes-in-women-undergoing-elective-cesarean-prior-to-39-weeks
#7
Sophie Vincent, Nicholas Czuzoj-Shulman, Andrea R Spence, Haim A Abenhaim
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and neonatal respiratory-related outcomes among women who underwent an elective cesarean section (CS). METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)'s 2009-2013 period linked birth/infant death dataset. Women who had elective CSs at term were categorized by their pre-pregnancy BMI as normal, overweight, obese or morbidly obese...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540420/protocol-for-the-economic-evaluation-of-a-complex-intervention-to-improve-the-mental-health-of-maltreated-infants-and-children-in-foster-care-in-the-uk-the-best-services-trial
#8
Manuela Deidda, Kathleen Anne Boyd, Helen Minnis, Julia Donaldson, Kevin Brown, Nicole R S Boyer, Emma McIntosh
INTRODUCTION: Children who have experienced abuse and neglect are at increased risk of mental and physical health problems throughout life. This places an enormous burden on individuals, families and society in terms of health services, education, social care and judiciary sectors. Evidence suggests that early intervention can mitigate the negative consequences of child maltreatment, exerting long-term positive effects on the health of maltreated children entering foster care. However, evidence on cost-effectiveness of such complex interventions is limited...
March 14, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29537316/routine-second-trimester-cervical-length-screening-in-low-risk-women-identified-women-at-risk-of-a-very-preterm-birth-but-did-not-reduce-the-preterm-birth-rate-a-randomised-study-from-india
#9
Siddhidatri Mishra, Rashmi Bagga, Jasvinder Kalra, Vanita Jain, Sourabh Dutta
Women (n = 300) at 'low risk' for a preterm birth (PTB), a singleton pregnancy and for a 16-24 week period of gestation (POG) were randomised to undergo cervical length (CL) measurement by transvaginal sonography (TVS) or not. The aim was to see if routine CL measurement and treatment of a short CL reduced the PTB rate. 'Low risk' was defined by an absence of a prior abortion or PTB of a singleton infant (>16 to <37 weeks) due to a spontaneous preterm labour (PTL) or a preterm pre-labour rupture of membranes (pPROM)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533486/exposure-to-chorioamnionitis-alters-the-monocyte-transcriptional-response-to-the-neonatal-pathogen-staphylococcus-epidermidis
#10
Emma de Jong, David G Hancock, Christine Wells, Peter Richmond, Karen Simmer, David Burgner, Tobias Strunk, Andrew J Currie
Preterm infants are uniquely susceptible to late-onset sepsis that is frequently caused by the skin commensal Staphylococcus epidermidis. Innate immune responses, particularly from monocytes, are a key protective mechanism. Impaired cytokine production by preterm infant monocytes is well described, but few studies have comprehensively assessed the corresponding monocyte transcriptional response. Innate immune responses in preterm infants may be modulated by inflammation such as prenatal exposure to histologic chorioamnionitis which complicates 40-70% of preterm pregnancies...
March 13, 2018: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533463/parturition-and-the-perinatal-period-can-mode-of-delivery-impact-on-the-future-health-of-the-neonate
#11
R M Tribe, P D Taylor, N M Kelly, D Rees, J Sandall, H P Kennedy
Caesarean section and instrumental delivery rates are increasing in many parts of the world for a range of cultural and medical reasons, with limited consideration as to how 'mode of delivery' may impact on childhood and long-term health. However, babies born particularly by pre-labour caesarean section appear to have a subtly different physiology from those born by normal vaginal delivery, with both acute and chronic complications such as respiratory and cardio-metabolic morbidities being apparent. It has been hypothesized that inherent mechanisms within the process of labour and vaginal delivery, far from being a passive mechanical process by which the fetus and placenta are expelled from the birth canal, may trigger certain protective developmental processes permissive for normal immunological and physiological development of the fetus postnatally...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522888/the-dynamics-of-cortical-folding-waves-and-prematurity-related-deviations-revealed-by-spatial-and-spectral-analysis-of-gyrification
#12
REVIEW
Jessica Dubois, Julien Lefèvre, Hugo Angleys, François Leroy, Clara Fischer, Jessica Lebenberg, Ghislaine Dehaene-Lambertz, Cristina Borradori-Tolsa, François Lazeyras, Lucie Hertz-Pannier, Jean-François Mangin, Petra Hüppi, David Germanaud
In the human brain, the appearance of cortical sulci is a complex process that takes place mostly during the second half of pregnancy, with a relatively stable temporal sequence across individuals. Since deviant gyrification patterns have been observed in many neurodevelopmental disorders, mapping cortical development in vivo from the early stages on is an essential step to uncover new markers for diagnosis or prognosis. Recently this has been made possible by MRI combined with post-processing tools, but the reported results are still fragmented...
March 6, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513205/validation-of-the-brief-developmental-assessment-in-pre-school-children-with-heart-disease
#13
Katherine L Brown, Deborah A Ridout, Christina Pagel, Monica Lakhanpaul, Suzan Kakat, Victoria Banks, Rodney Franklin, Thomas Witter, Rhian Lakhani, Shane Tibby, David Anderson, Victor Tsang, Aparna U Hoskote, Jo Wray
Introduction The objective of this study was to prospectively validate the "Brief Developmental Assessment", which is a new early recognition tool for neurodevelopmental abnormalities in children with heart disease that was developed for use by cardiac teams. METHODS: This was a prospective validation study among a representative sample of 960 pre-school children with heart disease from three United Kingdom tertiary cardiac centres who were analysed grouped into five separate age bands...
April 2018: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497505/an-emergency-cash-transfer-program-promotes-weight-gain-and-reduces-acute-malnutrition-risk-among-children-6-24-months-old-during-a-food-crisis-in-niger
#14
Jessica Bliss, Kate Golden, Leila Bourahla, Rebecca Stoltzfus, David Pelletier
Background: Assessment of the impact of emergency cash transfer programs on child nutritional status has been difficult to achieve due to the considerable logistic and ethical constraints that characterize humanitarian settings. Methods: We present the findings from a quasi-experimental longitudinal study of a conditional emergency cash transfer program implemented by Concern Worldwide in 2012 during a food crisis in Tahoua, Niger, in which the use of a concurrent control group permits estimation of the program's impact on child weight gain...
June 2018: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495088/ambiguous-loss-and-post-traumatic-growth-experiences-of-mothers-whose-school-aged-children-were-born-extremely-prematurely
#15
Caroline Wilson, Catherine Cook
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To develop insight into the experiences of mothers whose school-aged children were born extremely prematurely. BACKGROUND: Extreme prematurity, where infants are born at 28 weeks or earlier, has significant initial maternal impact in terms of distress, uncertainty and disruption to maternal identity. However, little is known about the experiences of these mothers beyond their child's infancy. DESIGN: A qualitative study was undertaken using thematic analysis, drawing on a cluster of social constructionist theories that have been applied to studies investigating mothers' early pre-term or childhood disability experiences...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494750/pulse-oximetry-screening-for-critical-congenital-heart-defects
#16
REVIEW
Maria N Plana, Javier Zamora, Gautham Suresh, Luis Fernandez-Pineda, Shakila Thangaratinam, Andrew K Ewer
BACKGROUND: Health outcomes are improved when newborn babies with critical congenital heart defects (CCHDs) are detected before acute cardiovascular collapse. The main screening tests used to identify these babies include prenatal ultrasonography and postnatal clinical examination; however, even though both of these methods are available, a significant proportion of babies are still missed. Routine pulse oximetry has been reported as an additional screening test that can potentially improve detection of CCHD...
March 1, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492382/current-state-of-pediatric-cardiac-transplantation
#17
REVIEW
Anne I Dipchand
Pediatric heart transplantation is standard of care for children with end-stage heart failure. The diverse age range, diagnoses, and practice variations continue to challenge the development of evidence-based practices and new technologies. Outcomes in the most recent era are excellent, especially with the more widespread use of ventricular assist devices (VADs). Waitlist mortality remains high and knowledge of risk factors for death while waiting and following transplantation contributes to decision-making around transplant candidacy and timing of listing...
January 2018: Annals of Cardiothoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491745/lessons-learnt-in-recruiting-disadvantaged-families-to-a-birth-cohort-study
#18
Amit Arora, Narendar Manohar, Dina Bedros, Anh Phong David Hua, Steven Yu Hsiang You, Victoria Blight, Shilpi Ajwani, John Eastwood, Sameer Bhole
Background: Dental decay in early childhood can be prevented by a model based on shared care utilising members of primary care team such as Child and Family Health Nurses (CFHNs) in health promotion and early intervention. The aims of this study were to identify the facilitators and barriers faced by CFHNs in recruiting research participants from disadvantaged backgrounds to a birth cohort study in South Western Sydney, Australia. Methods: Child and Family Health Nurses recruited mothers-infants dyads ( n  = 1036) at the first post-natal home visit as part of Healthy Smiles Healthy Kids Study, an ongoing birth cohort study in South Western Sydney...
2018: BMC Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483799/the-effect-of-phototherapy-on-sister-chromatid-exchange-with-different-light-density-in-newborn-hyperbilirubinemia
#19
Hayriye Gözde Kanmaz, Nilüfer Okur, Dilek Dilli, Ahmet Yeşilyurt, Şerife Suna Oğuz
Aim: Concerns of possible genotoxic effects of hyperbilirubinemia and phototherapy were raised from experimental and observational studies in neonates. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of hyperbilirubinemia and phototherapy with three different methods on DNA damage by investigating sister chromatid exchange frequency. Material and Methods: Patients whose gestational ages were >37 weeks and bilirubin levels above phototherapy limits were enrolled into three groups and each group was planned to receive 25 babies...
December 2017: Türk Pediatri Arşivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473101/cardiac-function-assessments-in-left-bochdalek-s-hernia-clinical-relevance
#20
Arvind Sehgal, Kenneth Tan, Peter Ferguson
The objectives of this study were to characterize peri-operative echocardiographic (ECHO) assessments of right ventricular (RV) function and pulmonary hypertension (PH) and ascertain correlation with clinical outcomes in infants with left Bochdalek's hernia (LBH). This retrospective study in a quaternary neonatal intensive care unit involved electronic database search for infants with LBH during January 2009 to July 2017. Demographics, outcomes, and ECHO parameters were accessed from archived databases. Thirty-one infants with mean gestational age and birthweight (BW) 38...
February 23, 2018: Pediatric Cardiology
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