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Jewish DNA

Min Yuen Teo, Eileen M O'Reilly
Pancreatic cancer is a highly lethal malignancy which tends to present with late stage disease. To date, identification of oncogenic drivers and aberrations has not led to effective targeted therapy. Approximately 5-15% of pancreatic cancer has an inheritable component. In fact, pancreatic adenocarcinoma is now recognized as a BRCA1/2-related cancer. Germline BRCA1/2 mutations can be found in up to 3.6-7% of unselected pancreatic cancer patients although the rates are significantly higher amongst patients with Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry...
October 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
Roshni Rao, Aeisha Rivers, Asal Rahimi, Rachel Wooldridge, Madhu Rao, Marilyn Leitch, David Euhus, Barbara B Haley
BACKGROUND: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) lacks estrogen, progesterone, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)/neu receptors, and is aggressive and therapeutically challenging. Genetic ancestry testing is an emerging medical field. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which is distinct from nuclear DNA, is maternally inherited and allows for origin determination. Patients with TNBC tend to be younger and are more likely to be African American, making this an ideal disease for mtDNA exploration...
September 1, 2016: Cancer
Justin M Zook, David Catoe, Jennifer McDaniel, Lindsay Vang, Noah Spies, Arend Sidow, Ziming Weng, Yuling Liu, Christopher E Mason, Noah Alexander, Elizabeth Henaff, Alexa B R McIntyre, Dhruva Chandramohan, Feng Chen, Erich Jaeger, Ali Moshrefi, Khoa Pham, William Stedman, Tiffany Liang, Michael Saghbini, Zeljko Dzakula, Alex Hastie, Han Cao, Gintaras Deikus, Eric Schadt, Robert Sebra, Ali Bashir, Rebecca M Truty, Christopher C Chang, Natali Gulbahce, Keyan Zhao, Srinka Ghosh, Fiona Hyland, Yutao Fu, Mark Chaisson, Chunlin Xiao, Jonathan Trow, Stephen T Sherry, Alexander W Zaranek, Madeleine Ball, Jason Bobe, Preston Estep, George M Church, Patrick Marks, Sofia Kyriazopoulou-Panagiotopoulou, Grace X Y Zheng, Michael Schnall-Levin, Heather S Ordonez, Patrice A Mudivarti, Kristina Giorda, Ying Sheng, Karoline Bjarnesdatter Rypdal, Marc Salit
The Genome in a Bottle Consortium, hosted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is creating reference materials and data for human genome sequencing, as well as methods for genome comparison and benchmarking. Here, we describe a large, diverse set of sequencing data for seven human genomes; five are current or candidate NIST Reference Materials. The pilot genome, NA12878, has been released as NIST RM 8398. We also describe data from two Personal Genome Project trios, one of Ashkenazim Jewish ancestry and one of Chinese ancestry...
2016: Scientific Data
Shahzad Bhatti, M Aslamkhan, Sana Abbas, Marcella Attimonelli, Hikmet Hakan Aydin, Erica Martinha Silva de Souza
Due to its geo strategic position at the crossroad of Asia, Pakistan has gained crucial importance of playing its pivotal role in subsequent human migratory events, both prehistoric and historic. This human movement became possible through an ancient overland network of trails called "The Silk Route" linking Asia Minor, Middle East China, Central Asia and Southeast Asia. This study was conducted to analyze complete mitochondrial control region samples of 100 individuals of four major Pashtun tribes namely, Bangash, Khattak, Mahsuds and Orakzai in the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan...
April 27, 2016: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
Kunal Thaker, Marilyn Chwa, Shari R Atilano, Pinar Coskun, Javier Cáceres-Del-Carpio, Nitin Udar, David S Boyer, S Michal Jazwinski, Michael V Miceli, Anthony B Nesburn, Baruch D Kuppermann, M Cristina Kenney
Mitochondrial (mt) DNA haplogroups, defined by specific single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) patterns, represent populations of diverse geographic origins and have been associated with increased risk or protection of many diseases. The H haplogroup is the most common European haplogroup while the K haplogroup is highly associated with the Ashkenazi Jewish population. Transmitochondrial cybrids (cell lines with identical nuclei, but mtDNA from either H (n=8) or K (n=8) subjects) were analyzed by the Seahorse flux analyzer, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC)...
September 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
G Moya, P Dorado, V Ferreiro, M E G Naranjo, E M Peñas-Lledó, A LLerena
A twofold higher frequency of CYP2D6 ultrarapid metabolizers (estimated from genotype: gUMs) was reported among Ashkenazi Jews (AJ) living in New York (USA) than in other North American Caucasians, which might be important to guide the prescription for CYP2D6 substrates in AJ communities around the world. This study was aimed to determine whether the high frequency of CYP2D6 gUMs described in AJ from USA was replicated in AJ from Argentina when compared with other multiethnic admixture Argentines (GA). The frequency of the most common allelic variants and of CYP2D6 gUMs (>2 active genes) and poor metabolizers (0 active genes, gPMs) was also compared among the studied Argentine populations...
April 12, 2016: Pharmacogenomics Journal
Livnat Brill, Micha Mandel, Dimitrios Karussis, Panayiota Petrou, Keren Miller, Tamir Ben-Hur, Arnon Karni, Ora Paltiel, Shoshana Israel, Adi Vaknin-Dembinsky
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have revealed different human leukocyte antigen (HLA) associations in multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO), further discriminating these two demyelinating pathological conditions. In worldwide analyses, NMO and opticospinal MS are represented at higher proportions among demyelinating conditions in African, East-Asian and Latin American populations. There are currently no data regarding the prevalence of NMO in Middle East Muslims. The population in Israel is diverse in many ways, and includes subpopulations, based on religion and ethnicity; some exhibit genetic homogeneity...
April 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Nadine Tung, Nancy U Lin, John Kidd, Brian A Allen, Nanda Singh, Richard J Wenstrup, Anne-Renee Hartman, Eric P Winer, Judy E Garber
PURPOSE: Testing for germline mutations in BRCA1/2 is standard for select patients with breast cancer to guide clinical management. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) allows testing for mutations in additional breast cancer predisposition genes. The frequency of germline mutations detected by using NGS has been reported in patients with breast cancer who were referred for BRCA1/2 testing or with triple-negative breast cancer. We assessed the frequency and predictors of mutations in 25 cancer predisposition genes, including BRCA1/2, in a sequential series of patients with breast cancer at an academic institution to examine the utility of genetic testing in this population...
May 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Annabeth Høgh Petersen, Mads Malik Aagaard, Henriette Roed Nielsen, Karina Dahl Steffensen, Marianne Waldstrøm, Anders Bojesen
Accurate estimation of cancer risk in HBOC families often requires BRCA1/2 testing, but this may be impossible in deceased family members. Previous, testing archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue for germline BRCA1/2 variants was unsuccessful, except for the Jewish founder mutations. A high-throughput method to systematically test for variants in all coding regions of BRCA1/2 in archival FFPE samples of non-tumor tissue is described, using HaloPlex target enrichment and next-generation sequencing...
August 2016: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
Michael Dean, Joseph Boland, Meredith Yeager, Kate M Im, Lisa Garland, Maria Rodriguez-Herrera, Mylen Perez, Jason Mitchell, David Roberson, Kristine Jones, Hyo Jung Lee, Rebecca Eggebeen, Julie Sawitzke, Sara Bass, Xijun Zhang, Vivian Robles, Celia Hollis, Claudia Barajas, Edna Rath, Candy Arentz, Jose A Figueroa, Diane D Nguyen, Zeina Nahleh
BACKGROUND: Germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes account for 20-25 % of inherited breast cancers and about 10 % of all breast cancer cases. Detection of BRCA mutation carriers can lead to therapeutic interventions such as mastectomy, oophorectomy, hormonal prevention therapy, improved screening, and targeted therapies such as PARP-inhibition. We estimate that African Americans and Hispanics are 4-5 times less likely to receive BRCA screening, despite having similar mutation frequencies as non-Jewish Caucasians, who have higher breast cancer mortality...
2015: GigaScience
David A Zeevi, Gheona Altarescu, Ariella Weinberg-Shukron, Fouad Zahdeh, Tama Dinur, Gaya Chicco, Yair Herskovitz, Paul Renbaum, Deborah Elstein, Ephrat Levy-Lahad, Arndt Rolfs, Ari Zimran
BACKGROUND: Noninvasive prenatal testing can be used to accurately detect chromosomal aneuploidies in circulating fetal DNA; however, the necessity of parental haplotype construction is a primary drawback to noninvasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD) of monogenic disease. Family-specific haplotype assembly is essential for accurate diagnosis of minuscule amounts of circulating cell-free fetal DNA; however, current haplotyping techniques are too time-consuming and laborious to be carried out within the limited time constraints of prenatal testing, hampering practical application of NIPD in the clinic...
October 1, 2015: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Cynthia Perreault-Micale, Jocelyn Davie, Benjamin Breton, Stephanie Hallam, Valerie Greger
Carrier screening for certain diseases is recommended by major medical and Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) societies. Most carrier screening panels test only for common, ethnic-specific variants. However, with formerly isolated ethnic groups becoming increasingly intermixed, this approach is becoming inadequate. Our objective was to develop a rigorous process to curate all variants, for relevant genes, into a database and then apply stringent clinical validity classification criteria to each in order to retain only those with clear evidence for pathogenicity...
July 2015: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
Eran Pras, Dana Kristal, Nadav Shoshany, Dina Volodarsky, Inna Vulih, Gershon Celniker, Ofer Isakov, Noam Shomron, Elon Pras
PURPOSE: To explore the molecular basis of familial, early onset, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) with diverse phenotypes, using whole exome sequencing (WES). METHODS: We performed WES on four patients (two sibs from two families) manifesting early-onset AMD and searched for disease-causing genetic variants in previously identified macular degeneration related genes. Validation studies of the variants included bioinformatics tools, segregation analysis of mutations within the families and mutation screening in an AMD cohort of patients...
July 2015: Journal of Medical Genetics
Alireza Haghighi, Shahriar Nafissi, Abrar Qurashi, Zheng Tan, Hosein Shamshiri, Yalda Nilipour, Amirreza Haghighi, Robert J Desnick, Ruth Kornreich
GNE myopathy is an autosomal recessive adult-onset disorder characterized by progressive muscle atrophy and weakness, initially involving the distal muscles, while often sparing the quadriceps. It is caused by variants in the GNE gene that encodes a key bifunctional enzyme in the sialic acid biosynthetic pathway. We investigated the clinical and molecular characteristics of 18 non-Jewish Persian patients from 11 unrelated GNE myopathy families. In addition, we reviewed the previously reported cases and suggest genotype-phenotype correlations for the identified variants...
February 2016: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
Spring Holter, Ayelet Borgida, Anna Dodd, Robert Grant, Kara Semotiuk, David Hedley, Neesha Dhani, Steven Narod, Mohammad Akbari, Malcolm Moore, Steven Gallinger
PURPOSE: The main purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of pathogenic BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in a consecutively ascertained clinic-based cohort of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and describe the clinical and family history characteristics. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Unselected, consecutive, incident patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma were recruited at a single cancer center over a 2-year period. Participants provided blood for DNA analysis and cancer family history, and cancer treatment records were reviewed...
October 1, 2015: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Raelia M Lew, Leslie Burnett, Anné L Proos, Martin B Delatycki
Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) is a fatal, recessively inherited neurodegenerative condition of infancy and early childhood. Although rare in most other populations, the carrier frequency is one in 25 in Ashkenazi Jews. Australian high-school-based TSD preconception genetic screening programs aim to screen, educate, and optimize reproductive choice for participants. These programs have demonstrated high uptake, low psychological morbidity, and have been shown to result in fewer than expected Jewish TSD-affected births over 18 years of operation...
2015: Application of Clinical Genetics
Felice L Bedford, Doron Yacobi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2015: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
Cynthia Perreault-Micale, Alexander Frieden, Caleb J Kennedy, Dana Neitzel, Jessica Sullivan, Nicole Faulkner, Stephanie Hallam, Valerie Greger
Loss of function variants in the PCDH15 gene can cause Usher syndrome type 1F, an autosomal recessive disease associated with profound congenital hearing loss, vestibular dysfunction, and retinitis pigmentosa. The Ashkenazi Jewish population has an increased incidence of Usher syndrome type 1F (founder variant p.Arg245X accounts for 75% of alleles), yet the variant spectrum in a panethnic population remains undetermined. We sequenced the coding region and intron-exon borders of PCDH15 using next-generation DNA sequencing technology in approximately 14,000 patients from fertility clinics...
November 2014: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics: JMD
Ojas Vyas, Keith Leung, Leslie Ledbetter, Kristin Kaley, Teresa Rodriguez, Marie C Garcon, Muhammad W Saif
Patients with BRCA-1 and BRCA-2 germ line mutations are at an increased risk of developing pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAC). In particular, the BRCA-2 mutation has been associated with a relative risk of developing PAC of 3.51. The BRCA-2 protein is involved in repair of double-stranded DNA breaks. Recent reports have suggested that in the setting of impaired DNA repair, chemotherapeutic agents that induce DNA damage, such as platinum-based antineoplastic drugs (platins) and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors (PARP inhibitors), have improved efficacy...
February 2015: Anti-cancer Drugs
Susan Martha Kahn
This commentary contrasts two recent scholarly works on the possibility of a biological basis for "Jewishness." Harry Ostrer's Legacy: A Genetic History of the Jewish People claims a strong shared genetic component of Jewish ancestry tracing to the Levant, extending so far as to suggest a biological basis for Jewishness. Nadia Abu El-Haj's The Genealogical Science: The Search for Jewish Origins and the Politics of Epistemology adopts a skeptical perspective on contemporary genetics and claims that genetic studies of the Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA cannot be viewed as supporting a common Jewish ancestry...
December 2013: Human Biology
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