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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761801/electrocatalytic-and-photocatalytic-hydrogen-evolution-integrated-with-organic-oxidation
#1
Bo You, Guanqun Han, Yujie Sun
Renewable energy-driven hydrogen production from electrocatalytic and photocatalytic water splitting has been widely recognized as a promising approach to utilize green energy resources and hence reduces our dependence on legacy fossil fuels as well as alleviates net carbon dioxide emissions. The realization of large-scale water splitting, however, is mainly impeded by its slow kinetics, particularly because of its sluggish anodic half reaction, the oxygen evolution reaction (OER), whose product O2 is ironically not of high value...
May 15, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750402/design-of-a-mesoscale-continuous-flow-route-towards-lithiated-methoxyallene
#2
Sofie Seghers, Thomas S A Heugebaert, Matthias Moens, Jolien Sonck, Joris Thybaut, Chris Victor Stevens
The unique nucleophilic properties of lithiated methoxyallene allow for C-C bond formation with a wide variety of electrophiles, thus introducing an allenic group for further functionalization. This approach has yielded a tremendously broad range of (hetero)cyclic scaffolds, including API precursors. To date, however, its valorization at scale is hampered by the batch synthesis protocol which suffers from serious safety issues. Hence, the attractive heat and mass transfer properties of flow technology were exploited to establish a mesoscale continuous flow route towards lithiated methoxyallene...
May 11, 2018: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729930/emerging-technologies-for-the-pretreatment-of-lignocellulosic-biomass
#3
REVIEW
Shady S Hassan, Gwilym A Williams, Amit K Jaiswal
Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass to overcome its intrinsic recalcitrant nature prior to the production of valuable chemicals has been studied for nearly 200 years. Research has targeted eco-friendly, economical and time-effective solutions, together with a simplified large-scale operational approach. Commonly used pretreatment methods, such as chemical, physico-chemical and biological techniques are still insufficient to meet optimal industrial production requirements in a sustainable way. Recently, advances in applied chemistry approaches conducted under extreme and non-classical conditions has led to possible commercial solutions in the marketplace (e...
April 25, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470915/magnetically-modified-agricultural-and-food-waste-preparation-and-application
#4
REVIEW
Ivo Safarik, Eva Baldikova, Jitka Prochazkova, Mirka Safarikova, Kristyna Pospiskova
The annual food and agricultural waste production reaches enormous numbers. Therefore, an increasing need to valorize produced wastes arises. Waste materials originating from the food and agricultural industry can be considered as functional materials with interesting properties and broad application potential. Moreover, using an appropriate magnetic modification, smart materials exhibiting a rapid response to an external magnetic field can be obtained. Such materials can be easily and selectively separated from desired environments...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443107/visualizing-lignification-dynamics-in-plants-with-click-chemistry-dual-labeling-is-bliss
#5
Clémence Simon, Corentin Spriet, Simon Hawkins, Cedric Lion
Lignin is one of the most prevalent biopolymers on the planet and a major component of lignocellulosic biomass. This phenolic polymer plays a vital structural and protective role in the development and life of higher plants. Although the intricate mechanisms regulating lignification processes in vivo strongly impact the industrial valorization of many plant-derived products, the scientific community still has a long way to go to decipher them. In a simple three-step workflow, the dual labeling protocol presented herein enables bioimaging studies of actively lignifying zones of plant tissues...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422949/combinatorial-pretreatment-and-fermentation-optimization-enabled-a-record-yield-on-lignin-bioconversion
#6
Zhi-Hua Liu, Shangxian Xie, Furong Lin, Mingjie Jin, Joshua S Yuan
Background: Lignin valorization has recently been considered to be an essential process for sustainable and cost-effective biorefineries. Lignin represents a potential new feedstock for value-added products. Oleaginous bacteria such as Rhodococcus opacus can produce intracellular lipids from biodegradation of aromatic substrates. These lipids can be used for biofuel production, which can potentially replace petroleum-derived chemicals. However, the low reactivity of lignin produced from pretreatment and the underdeveloped fermentation technology hindered lignin bioconversion to lipids...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362491/on-the-thermodynamic-origin-of-metabolic-scaling
#7
Fernando J Ballesteros, Vicent J Martinez, Bartolo Luque, Lucas Lacasa, Enric Valor, Andrés Moya
The origin and shape of metabolic scaling has been controversial since Kleiber found that basal metabolic rate of animals seemed to vary as a power law of their body mass with exponent 3/4, instead of 2/3, as a surface-to-volume argument predicts. The universality of exponent 3/4 -claimed in terms of the fractal properties of the nutrient network- has recently been challenged according to empirical evidence that observed a wealth of robust exponents deviating from 3/4. Here we present a conceptually simple thermodynamic framework, where the dependence of metabolic rate with body mass emerges from a trade-off between the energy dissipated as heat and the energy efficiently used by the organism to maintain its metabolism...
January 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339599/full-scale-performance-of-selected-starch-based-biodegradable-polymers-in-sludge-dewatering-and-recommendation-for-applications
#8
Kuangxin Zhou, Johan Stüber, Rabea-Luisa Schubert, Christian Kabbe, Matthias Barjenbruch
Agricultural reuse of dewatered sludge is a valid route for sludge valorization for small and mid-size wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) due to the direct utilization of nutrients. A more stringent of German fertilizer ordinance requires the degradation of 20% of the synthetic additives like polymeric substance within two years, which came into force on 1 January 2017. This study assessed the use of starch-based polymers for full-scale dewatering of municipal sewage sludge. The laboratory-scale and pilot-scale trials paved the way for full-scale trials at three WWTPs in Germany...
January 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329485/photo-initiated-reduction-of-co-2-by-h-2-on-silica-surface
#9
Chao Liu, Justin M Notestein, Eric Weitz, Kimberly A Gray
The reduction of CO2 is a promising route to produce valuable chemicals or fuels and create C-neutral resource cycles. Many different approaches to CO2 reduction have been investigated, but the ability of vacuum UV (VUV) irradiation to cleave C-O bonds has remained largely unexplored for use in processes that convert CO2 into useful products. Compared with other photo-driven CO2 conversion processes, VUV-initiated CO2 reduction can achieve much greater conversion under common photochemical reaction conditions when H2 and non-reducible oxides are present...
April 9, 2018: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326289/prevalence-of-hippocampal-enlarged-perivascular-spaces-in-a-sample-of-patients-with-hypertension-and-their-relation-with-vascular-risk-factors-and-cognitive-function
#10
Joan Jiménez-Balado, Iolanda Riba-Llena, Edurne Garde, Marta Valor, Belen Gutiérrez, Francesc Pujadas, Pilar Delgado
OBJECTIVES: The clinical importance of hippocampal enlarged perivascular spaces (H-EPVS) remains uncertain. We aimed to study their association with vascular risk factors, cognitive function and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). METHODS: Data were obtained from the ISSYS (Investigating Silent Strokes in hYpertensives, a magnetic resonance imaging Study) cohort, which is a prospective study of patients with hypertension aged 50-70 with no prior stroke or dementia...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214521/photo-and-electrochemical-valorization-of-carbon-dioxide-using-earth-abundant-molecular-catalysts
#11
REVIEW
Alonso Rosas-Hernández, Christoph Steinlechner, Henrik Junge, Matthias Beller
The dramatic increase in anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions in recent decades has forced us to look for alternative carbon-neutral processes for the production of energy vectors and commodity chemicals. Photo- and electrochemical reduction of CO2 are appealing strategies for the storage of sustainable and intermittent energies in the form of chemical bonds of synthetic fuels and value-added molecules. In these approaches, carbon dioxide is converted to products such as CO, HCOOH and MeOH through proton-coupled electron transfer reactions...
December 6, 2017: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169860/maize-cob-waste-pre-treatments-to-enhance-biogas-production-through-co-anaerobic-digestion-with-ofmsw
#12
Elena Surra, Maria Bernardo, Nuno Lapa, Isabel Esteves, Isabel Fonseca, José Paulo Mota
In the present work, the enhancement of biogas and methane yields through anaerobic co-digestion of the pre-hydrolised Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Wastes (hOFMSW) and Maize Cob Wastes (MCW) in a lab-scale thermophilic anaerobic reactor was tested. In order to increase its biodegradability, MCW were submitted to an initial pre-treatment screening phase as follows: (i) microwave (MW) irradiation catalysed by NaOH, (ii) MW catalysed by glycerol in water and alkaline water solutions, (iii) MW catalysed by H2 O2 with pH of 9...
February 2018: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151888/enhancing-biogas-plant-production-using-pig-manure-and-corn-silage-by-adding-wheat-straw-processed-with-liquid-hot-water-and-steam-explosion
#13
Michał Gaworski, Sławomir Jabłoński, Izabela Pawlaczyk-Graja, Rafał Ziewiecki, Piotr Rutkowski, Anna Wieczyńska, Roman Gancarz, Marcin Łukaszewicz
Background: Pig manure utilization and valorization is an important topic with tightening regulations focused on ecological and safety issues. By itself pig manure is a poor substrate for biogas production because of its excessive nitrogen content relative to available organic carbon. Such substrate is alkaline, and methanogenesis can be suppressed, and so additional substrates with high organic carbon must be added. The most promising is straw, which is available from adjacent biogas plant cultures...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132753/multi-product-microalgae-biorefineries-from-concept-towards-reality
#14
REVIEW
G P 't Lam, M H Vermuë, M H M Eppink, R H Wijffels, C van den Berg
Although microalgae are a promising biobased feedstock, industrial scale production is still far off. To enhance the economic viability of large-scale microalgae processes, all biomass components need to be valorized, requiring a multi-product biorefinery. However, this concept is still too expensive. Typically, downstream processing of industrial biotechnological bulk products accounts for 20-40% of the total production costs, while for a microalgae multi-product biorefinery the costs are substantially higher (50-60%)...
February 2018: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125663/biocatalytic-oxidative-cascade-for-the-conversion-of-fatty-acids-into-%C3%AE-ketoacids-via-internal-h-2-o-2-recycling
#15
Somayyeh Gandomkar, Alexander Dennig, Andela Dordic, Lucas Hammerer, Mathias Pickl, Thomas Haas, Mélanie Hall, Kurt Faber
The functionalization of bio-based chemicals is essential to allow valorization of natural carbon sources. An atom-efficient biocatalytic oxidative cascade was developed for the conversion of saturated fatty acids to α-ketoacids. Employment of P450 monooxygenase in the peroxygenase mode for regioselective α-hydroxylation of fatty acids combined with enantioselective oxidation by α-hydroxyacid oxidase(s) resulted in internal recycling of the oxidant H2 O2 , thus minimizing degradation of ketoacid product and maximizing biocatalyst lifetime...
January 8, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121935/bioconversion-of-distillers-grains-hydrolysates-to-advanced-biofuels-by-an-escherichia-coli-co-culture
#16
Fang Liu, Weihua Wu, Mary B Tran-Gyamfi, James D Jaryenneh, Xun Zhuang, Ryan W Davis
BACKGROUND: First generation bioethanol production utilizes the starch fraction of maize, which accounts for approximately 60% of the ash-free dry weight of the grain. Scale-up of this technology for fuels applications has resulted in a massive supply of distillers' grains with solubles (DGS) coproduct, which is rich in cellulosic polysaccharides and protein. It was surmised that DGS would be rapidly adopted for animal feed applications, however, this has not been observed based on inconsistency of the product stream and other logistics-related risks, especially toxigenic contaminants...
November 9, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869788/biocatalytic-valorization-of-furans-opportunities-for-inherently-unstable-substrates
#17
Pablo Dominguez de Maria, Nadia V Guajardo
Biogenic furans (Furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural) are expected to become relevant building blocks based on their high functionalization and versatility. However, the inherent instability of furans poses considerable challenges for their synthetic modifications. Valorization routes of furans typically generate by-products, impurities, wastes, and a cumbersome downstream processing, compromising their ecological footprint. Biocatalysis may become an alternative, given the high selectivity of enzymes, together with the mild reaction conditions applied...
September 4, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832708/resilience-of-the-health-team-in-caring-for-people-with-mental-disorders-in-a-psychiatric-hospital
#18
Débora Felippe Brolese, Greice Lessa, José Luís Guedes Dos Santos, Jucimara da Silva Mendes, Kamylla Santos da Cunha, Jeferson Rodrigues
OBJECTIVE: Evaluating and understanding the resilience process of the health team in caring for people with mental disorders in a psychiatric hospital. METHOD: A mixed-method study with concomitant triangulation of data from a cross-sectional study, with health professionals, and Grounded Theory in the data. Quantitative data were collected using the Resilience Scale and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Qualitative data were obtained from interviews and analyzed using initial and focused coding...
August 17, 2017: Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da U S P
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793127/development-and-validation-of-the-hospitality-axiological-scale-for-humanization-of-nursing-care
#19
José María Galán González-Serna, Soledad Ferreras-Mencia, Juan Manuel Arribas-Marín
Objective: to develop and validate a scale to evaluate nursing attitudes in relation to hospitality for the humanization of nursing care. Participants: the sample consisted of 499 nursing professionals and undergraduate students of the final two years of the Bachelor of Science in Nursing program. Method: the instrument has been developed and validated to evaluate the ethical values related to hospitality using a methodological approach. Subsequently, a model was developed to measure the dimensions forming the construct hospitality...
August 3, 2017: Revista Latino-americana de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793107/association-between-filial-responsibility-when-caring-for-parents-and-the-caregivers-overload
#20
Marinês Aires, Duane Mocellin, Fernanda Laís Fengler, Idiane Rosset, Naiana Oliveira Dos Santos, Diani de Oliveira Machado, Carolina Baltar Day, Lisiane Manganelli Girardi Paskulin
Objective: To analyze the association between filial responsibility and the overload of the children when caring for their older parents. Method: Cross-sectional study with 100 caregiver children of older adults. Filial liability was assessed by the attitudes of the responsible child (scale of expectation and filial duty) and by care behaviors (assistance in activities of daily living, emotional and financial support, and keeping company). The overload was assessed by the Caregiver Burden Inventory...
July 2017: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
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