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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804788/pro-dopamine-regulator-kb220-to-balance-brain-reward-circuitry-in-reward-deficiency-syndrome-rds
#1
Kenneth Blum, Marcelo Febo, Lyle Fried, David Baron, Eric R Braverman, Kristina Dushaj, Mona Li, Zsolt Demetrovics, Rajendra D Badgaiyan
We are faced with a worldwide opiate/opioid epidemic that is devastating. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), at least 127 people, young and old, are dying every day in America due to narcotic overdose. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Medication-Assisted Treatments (MATs) for opiate/opioids as well as alcohol and nicotine. The mechanism of action of most MATS favors either blocking of dopaminergic function or a form of Opiate Substitution Therapy (OST). These treatment options are adequate for short-term treatment of the symptoms of addiction and harm reduction but fail long-term to deal with the cause or lead to recovery...
2017: Journal of Reward Deficiency Syndrome and Addiction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782335/elimination-of-hcv-as-a-public-health-concern-among-people-who-inject-drugs-by-2030-what-will-it-take-to-get-there
#2
REVIEW
Jason Grebely, Gregory J Dore, Sébastien Morin, Jürgen K Rockstroh, Marina B Klein
INTRODUCTION: Globally, there is a considerable burden of HCV and HIV infections among people who inject drugs (PWID) and transmission of both infections continues. Needle and syringe programme (NSP) and opioid substitution therapy (OST) coverage remains low, despite evidence demonstrating their prevention benefit. Direct-acting antiviral therapies (DAA) with HCV cure >95% among PWID provide an opportunity to reverse rising trends in HCV-related morbidity and mortality and reduce incidence...
July 28, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745916/experiences-and-perceived-social-support-among-iranian-men-on-methadone-maintenance-therapy-a-qualitative-study
#3
Nader Aghakhani, Violeta Lopez, Michelle Cleary
The use of drugs predominantly among Iranian men leads to health and social problems. Iran has established methadone maintenance therapy centres but there is limited research exploring the experiences of men who make use of this therapy. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences of men on methadone maintenance therapy in Urmia, Iran. Sixteen opioid-dependent males on methadone syrup substitution therapy were interviewed. Transcribed data were subjected to thematic analysis. Three themes emerged from the data: (1) the role of family in drug addiction; (2) the role of environment in drug addiction; and (3) the support needed to overcome drug addiction...
July 26, 2017: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735774/trends-in-hepatitis-c-antibody-prevalence-among-aboriginal-and-torres-strait-islander-people-attending-australian-needle-and-syringe-programs-1996-2015
#4
Simon Graham, Lisa Maher, Handan Wand, Michael Doyle, Jenny Iversen
BACKGROUND: Research indicates that hepatitis C antibody (anti-HCV) prevalence is higher among Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Aboriginal) than non-Aboriginal people who inject drugs (PWID). We examined trends in demographic and drug use characteristics and anti-HCV prevalence among Australian Needle and Syringe Program Survey (ANSPS) respondents by Aboriginal status from 1996 to 2015. METHODS: The ANSPS survey involved collecting demographic, behavioural data and a dried blood spot for anti-HCV testing...
July 20, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719060/drug-use-and-phylogenetic-clustering-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-among-people-who-use-drugs-in-vancouver-canada-a-latent-class-analysis-approach
#5
Brendan Jacka, Bethany Bray, Tanya L Applegate, Brandon Dl Marshall, Viviane Dias Lima, Kanna Hayashi, Kora DeBeck, Jayna Raghwani, P Richard Harrigan, Mel Krajden, Julio Montaner, Jason Grebely
BACKGROUND: This study estimated latent classes (i.e., unobserved subgroups in a population) of people who use drugs in Vancouver, Canada and examined how these classes relate to phylogenetic clustering of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. METHODS: HCV antibody positive people who use drugs from two cohorts in Vancouver, Canada (1996-2012) with a Core-E2 sequence were included. Time-stamped phylogenetic trees were inferred and phylogenetic clustering was determined by time to most common recent ancestor...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701461/opioid-use-disorder-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-effect-of-participation-in-buprenorphine-naloxone-substitution-programs-on-glycemic-control
#6
Devon Tilbrook, Jeffrey Jacob, Pierre Parsons, Craig Edwards, Kassandra Loewen, Len Kelly
OBJECTIVE: To measure the effect of buprenorphine-naloxone as opioid substitution therapy on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and opioid use disorder. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study and secondary data analysis. SETTING: Northwestern Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with diabetes receiving opioid substitution therapy, as well as patients with diabetes only, who live in 6 remote First Nations communities...
July 2017: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673437/-i-didn-t-want-to-let-it-go-too-far-the-decisions-and-experiences-of-people-who-inject-drugs-who-received-a-liver-disease-assessment-as-part-of-a-liver-health-promotion-campaign-the-liverlife-study
#7
Alison D Marshall, Jason Grebely, Gregory J Dore, Carla Treloar
BACKGROUND: An open cohort study (LiveRLife) evaluating an intervention integrating non-invasive liver disease assessment via transient elastography (TE) among people who inject drugs (PWID) was conducted in New South Wales, Australia. Participant follow-up occurred 2-16 weeks post-enrolment. It is imperative that PWID understand liver assessment results in order to make informed decisions about their health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the decisions and experiences of participants who received a liver disease assessment, including interpretation of TE score and subsequent health behaviours, using a health literacy framework...
June 30, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666635/initial-outcomes-of-integrated-community-based-hepatitis-c-treatment-for-people-who-inject-drugs-findings-from-the-queensland-injectors-health-network
#8
Leith Morris, Andrew Smirnov, Amanda Kvassay, Ellen Leslie, Rebecca Kavanagh, Nik Alexander, Geoff Davey, Owain Williams, Charles Gilks, Jake Najman
BACKGROUND: Integrated treatment and harm reduction services provide a unique opportunity to facilitate direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected people who inject drugs (PWID). We examine outcomes of community-based delivery of DAA therapy for PWID. METHODS: The Queensland Injectors' Health Network (QuIHN) is a community-based agency providing harm reduction and treatment services. Data (including current injecting, involvement in opioid substitution therapy and other treatment, level of case management support) for participants initiating DAA therapy were collected...
June 27, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647161/dot-c-a-cluster-randomised-feasibility-trial-evaluating-directly-observed-anti-hcv-therapy-in-a-population-receiving-opioid-substitute-therapy-from-community-pharmacy
#9
Andrew Radley, Jan Tait, John F Dillon
BACKGROUND: Direct-acting antiviral therapy (DAAs) for hepatitis C infection (HCV) have a much smaller burden of treatment than interferon-based regimes, require less monitoring and are very effective. New pathways are required to increase access to treatment amongst people prescribed opioid substitution therapy (OST). METHODS: An exploratory cluster randomised controlled trial with mixed methods evaluation was undertaken to compare the uptake of dried blood spot testing (DBST) and treatment of people with genotype 1 HCV infection in a conventional service pathway versus a pharmacist-led pathway in a population receiving OST...
June 21, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628897/diverted-medications-and-new-psychoactive-substances-a-chemical-network-analysis-of-discarded-injecting-paraphernalia-in-hungary
#10
Valéria Anna Gyarmathy, Anna Péterfi, Tamás Figeczki, József Kiss, Katalin Medgyesi-Frank, János Posta, József Csorba
BACKGROUND: Until about 2010, people who inject drugs (PWIDs) injected almost exclusively heroin and amphetamines in Hungary. After 2010, self-reported studies have indicated a dominance of new psychoactive substances on the drug market for injectable drugs. METHODS: Between March 2015 and February 2016, we collected used and discarded injecting paraphernalia. We utilized chemical analysis to assess and UCINet to visualize the connections between the most prevalent main substances and their respective co-occurring additional components at 7 locations in Hungary...
June 16, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624134/efficacy-of-response-guided-directly-observed-pegylated-interferon-and-self-administered-ribavirin-for-people-who-inject-drugs-with-hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-2-3-infection-the-activate-study
#11
Jason Grebely, Olav Dalgard, Evan B Cunningham, Behzad Hajarizadeh, Graham R Foster, Philip Bruggmann, Brian Conway, Markus Backmund, Geert Robaeys, Tracy Swan, Janaki Amin, Philippa S Marks, Sophie Quiene, Tanya L Applegate, Martin Weltman, David Shaw, Adrian Dunlop, Margaret Hellard, Julie Bruneau, Håvard Midgard, Stefan Bourgeois, Cornelia Staehelin, Gregory J Dore
BACKGROUND: There are few data on treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among people with ongoing injecting drug use. This study evaluated the efficacy of response-guided therapy for chronic HCV genotypes 2/3 infection among people with ongoing injecting drug use or receiving opioid substitution therapy (OST). A secondary aim was to identify predictors of HCV treatment response. METHODS: ACTIVATE was a multicentre clinical trial recruited between 2012 and 2014...
June 14, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618002/novel-psychoactive-substance-use-among-treatment-seeking-opiate-users-the-role-of-life-events-and-psychiatric-symptoms
#12
Máté Kapitány-Fövény, Judit Farkas, Patrícia Andrea Pataki, Anna Kiss, Janka Horváth, Róbert Urbán, Zsolt Demetrovics
OBJECTIVE: Over the past 5 years, a shift to the use of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) has been observed among opioid users. The aim of this study was to assess the potential reasons for NPS use among treatment-seeking patients receiving opiate substitution therapy. METHOD: A structured questionnaire was filled out by a sample of 198 opiate dependent patients of Hungary's National Institute of Psychiatry and Addiction. This questionnaire assessed demographics, treatment characteristics, lifetime substance use, potential reasons for NPS use, negative life events (Life Events Scale), and psychiatric symptoms (Brief Symptom Inventory)...
May 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615077/service-utilization-and-cost-of-implementing-a-comprehensive-hiv-prevention-and-care-program-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-delhi-india
#13
Mary Philip Sebastian, Aparajita Dasgupta, Lopamudra Ray Saraswati, Asha Singh, Vartika Sharma, Ira Madan, Waimar Tun, Julie Pulerwitz, Ibou Thior, Avina Sarna
BACKGROUND: WHO, UNODC, and UNAIDS recommend a comprehensive package for prevention, treatment, and care of HIV among people who inject drugs (PWID). We describe the uptake of services and the cost of implementing a comprehensive package for HIV prevention, treatment, and care services in Delhi, India. METHODS: A cohort of 3774 PWID were enrolled for a prospective HIV incidence study and provided the comprehensive package: HIV and hepatitis testing and counseling, hepatitis B (HB) vaccination, syndromic management of sexually transmitted infections, clean needles-syringes, condoms, abscess care, and education...
June 14, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610605/adherence-to-response-guided-pegylated-interferon-and-ribavirin-for-people-who-inject-drugs-with-hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-2-3-infection-the-activate-study
#14
Evan B Cunningham, Behzad Hajarizadeh, Olav Dalgard, Janaki Amin, Margaret Hellard, Graham R Foster, Philip Bruggmann, Brian Conway, Markus Backmund, Geert Robaeys, Tracy Swan, Philippa S Marks, Sophie Quiene, Tanya L Applegate, Martin Weltman, David Shaw, Adrian Dunlop, Julie Bruneau, Håvard Midgard, Stefan Bourgeois, Maria Christine Thurnheer, Gregory J Dore, Jason Grebely
BACKGROUND: The aims of this analysis were to investigate treatment completion and adherence among people with ongoing injecting drug use or receiving opioid substitution therapy (OST) in a study of response-guided therapy for chronic HCV genotypes 2/3 infection. METHODS: ACTIVATE was a multicenter clinical trial recruited between 2012 and 2014. Participants with genotypes 2/3 were treated with directly observed peg-interferon alfa-2b (PEG-IFN) and self-administered ribavirin for 12 (undetectable HCV RNA at week 4) or 24 weeks (detectable HCV RNA at week 4)...
June 13, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587943/delivering-direct-acting-antiviral-therapy-for-hepatitis-c-to-highly-marginalised-and-current-drug-injecting-populations-in-a-targeted-primary-health-care-setting
#15
Phillip Read, Rebecca Lothian, Karen Chronister, Rosie Gilliver, John Kearley, Gregory J Dore, Ingrid van Beek
BACKGROUND: The Kirketon Road Centre (KRC) is a community-based public health facility in Sydney, Australia, that provides healthcare to people who inject drugs (PWID) care, including hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment. From March 2016, the Australian Government has provided access to direct-acting antivirals (DAA) for adults with chronic HCV, without liver disease stage or drug and alcohol use restrictions. The aim of this study was to report DAA treatment outcomes among highly marginalised PWID treated at KRC...
June 3, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529359/the-journey-of-opioid-substitution-therapy-in-india-achievements-and-challenges
#16
Ravindra Rao
Opioids are one of the most problematic illegal substances globally. Opioid abuse is associated with complications in various spheres of the user's life, his/her family, and the society. Injecting drug use (IDU) is also linked to public health problems such as HIV infection and viral hepatitis. Medications form an important cornerstone in the treatment of opioid dependence. Treatment strategies such as "detoxification" alone or long-term treatment with opioid antagonist have limited acceptability and retention rates...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499731/discovery-of-n-substituted-endo-3-8-aza-bicyclo-3-2-1-oct-3-yl-phenol-and-phenyl-carboxamide-series-of-%C3%AE-opioid-receptor-antagonists
#17
Lan Jiang, David T Beattie, John R Jacobsen, Samuel Kintz, Glenmar P Obedencio, Daisuke Saito, Ioanna Stergiades, Ross G Vickery, Daniel D Long
Gastrointestinal dysfunction as a consequence of the use of opioid analgesics is of significant clinical concern. First generation drugs to treat these opioid-induced side-effects were limited by their negative impact on opioid receptor agonist-induced analgesia. Second generation therapies target a localized, peripherally-restricted, non-CNS penetrant drug distribution of opioid receptor antagonists. Herein we describe the discovery of the N-substituted-endo-3-(8-aza-bicyclo[3.2.1]oct-3-yl)-phenol and -phenyl carboxamide series of μ-opioid receptor antagonists...
July 1, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489467/use-of-opioid-substitution-therapies-in-the-treatment-of-opioid-use-disorder-results-of-a-uk-cost-effectiveness-modelling-study
#18
James Kenworthy, Yunni Yi, Antony Wright, Jim Brown, Ana Maria Madrigal, William C N Dunlop
AIMS: This study investigated the cost-effectiveness of buprenorphine maintenance treatment (BMT) and methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) vs no opioid substitution therapy (OST) for the treatment of opioid use disorder, from the UK National Health Service (NHS)/personal social services (PSS) and societal perspectives over 1 year. METHODS: Cost-effectiveness of OST vs no OST was evaluated by first replicating and then expanding an existing UK health technology assessment model...
July 2017: Journal of Medical Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477061/chronic-hepatitis-c-treatment-in-patients-with-drug-injection-history-findings-of-the-integrate-prospective-observational-study
#19
Geert Robaeys, Stefan Christensen, Damien Lucidarme, Amber Arain, Philip Bruggmann, Jan Kunkel, Sofia Keim, Martin Jäkel, Ralph DeMasi, Chris Liu, Isabelle Lonjon-Domanec, Graham R Foster
INTRODUCTION: People who inject drugs represent an under-treated chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patient population. METHODS: INTEGRATE was a prospective, observational study investigating the effectiveness, safety, and adherence in routine clinical practice to telaprevir in combination with peg-interferon and ribavirin (Peg-IFN/RBV) in patients with history of injecting drug use chronically infected with genotype 1 HCV. RESULTS: A total of 46 patients were enrolled and included in the intent-to-treat (ITT) population...
June 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463684/longitudinal-analysis-of-change-in-individual-level-needle-and-syringe-coverage-amongst-a-cohort-of-people-who-inject-drugs-in-melbourne-australia
#20
Daniel O'Keefe, Nick Scott, Campbell Aitken, Paul Dietze
BACKGROUND: Needle and syringe program (NSP) coverage is often calculated at the individual level. This method relates sterile needle and syringe acquisition to injecting frequency, resulting in a percentage of injecting episodes that utilise a sterile syringe. Most previous research using this method was restricted by their cross-sectional design, calling for longitudinal exploration of coverage. METHODS: We used the data of 518 participants from an ongoing cohort of people who inject drugs in Melbourne, Australia...
April 13, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
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