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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228063/what-matters-in-chronic-burkholderia-cenocepacia-infection-in-cystic-fibrosis-insights-from-comparative-genomics
#1
Jaroslav Nunvar, Vaclav Capek, Karel Fiser, Libor Fila, Pavel Drevinek
Burkholderia cenocepacia causes severe pulmonary infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Since the bacterium is virtually untreatable by antibiotics, chronic infections persist for years and might develop into fatal septic pneumonia (cepacia syndrome, CS). To devise new strategies to combat chronic B. cenocepacia infections, it is essential to obtain comprehensive knowledge about their pathogenesis. We conducted a comparative genomic analysis of 32 Czech isolates of epidemic clone B. cenocepacia ST32 isolated from various stages of chronic infection in 8 CF patients...
December 11, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225172/role-of-allograft-inflammatory-factor-1-in-bleomycin-induced-lung-fibrosis
#2
Hidetake Nagahara, Takahiro Seno, Aihiro Yamamoto, Hiroshi Obayashi, Takuya Inoue, Takashi Kida, Amane Nakabayashi, Yuji Kukida, Kazuki Fujioka, Wataru Fujii, Ken Murakami, Masataka Kohno, Yutaka Kawahito
Allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1) is a protein expressed by macrophages infiltrating the area around the coronary arteries in a rat ectopic cardiac allograft model. We previously reported that AIF-1 is associated with the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and skin fibrosis in sclerodermatous graft-versus-host disease mice. Here, we used an animal model of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis to analyze the expression of AIF-1 and examine its function in lung fibrosis. The results showed that AIF-1 was expressed on lung tissues, specifically macrophages, from mice with bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis...
December 7, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222479/gdf15-deficiency-exacerbates-chronic-alcohol-and-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-liver-injury
#3
Hyo Kyun Chung, Jung Tae Kim, Hyeon-Woo Kim, Minjoo Kwon, So Yeon Kim, Minho Shong, Koon Soon Kim, Hyon-Seung Yi
Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) has recently been shown to have an important role in the regulation of mitochondrial function and in the pathogenesis of complex human diseases. Nevertheless, the role of GDF15 in alcohol-induced or fibrotic liver diseases has yet to be determined. In this study, we demonstrate that alcohol- or carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-mediated hepatic GDF15 production ameliorates liver inflammation and fibrosis. Alcohol directly enhanced GDF15 expression in primary hepatocytes, which led to increased oxygen consumption...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222421/the-transcriptomic-signature-of-disease-development-and-progression-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#4
Sophie Cazanave, Alexei Podtelezhnikov, Kristian Jensen, Mulugeta Seneshaw, Divya P Kumar, Hae-Ki Min, Prasanna K Santhekadur, Bubu Banini, Adolfo Gabriele Mauro, Abdul M Oseini, Robert Vincent, Keith Q Tanis, Andrea L Webber, Liangsu Wang, Pierre Bedossa, Faridoddin Mirshahi, Arun J Sanyal
A longitudinal molecular model of the development and progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) over time is lacking. We have recently validated a high fat/sugar water-induced animal (an isogenic strain of C57BL/6 J:129S1/SvImJ mice) model of NAFLD that closely mimics most aspects of human disease. The hepatic transcriptome of such mice with fatty liver (8 weeks), steatohepatitis with early fibrosis (16-24 weeks) and advanced fibrosis (52 weeks) after initiation of the diet was evaluated and compared to mice on chow diet...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220597/dietary-nacl-affects-bleomycin-induced-lung-fibrosis-in-mice
#5
Wensheng Chen, Darrell Pilling, Richard H Gomer
PURPOSE: High levels of NaCl in the diet are associated with both cardiac and renal fibrosis, but whether salt intake affects pulmonary fibrosis has not been examined. AIM OF THE STUDY: To test the hypothesis that salt intake might affect pulmonary fibrosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mice were fed low, normal, or high salt diets for 2 weeks, and then treated with oropharyngeal bleomycin to induce pulmonary fibrosis, or oropharyngeal saline as a control...
December 8, 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217140/inhibition-of-canonical-wnt-signaling-pathway-by-%C3%AE-catenin-cbp-inhibitor-icg-001-ameliorates-liver-fibrosis-in-vivo-through-suppression-of-stromal-cxcl12
#6
Büsra Öztürk Akcora, Gert Storm, Ruchi Bansal
Quiescent hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), in response to liver injury, undergo characteristic morphological transformation into proliferative, contractile and ECM-producing myofibroblasts. In this study, we investigated the implication of canonical Wnt signaling pathway in HSCs and liver fibrogenesis. Canonical Wnt signaling pathway activation and inhibition using β-catenin/CBP inhibitor ICG001 was examined in-vitro in TGFβ-activated 3T3, LX2, primary human HSCs, and in-vivo in CCl4-induced acute liver injury mouse model...
December 4, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214887/enhanced-efficacy-of-curcumin-with-phosphatidylserine-decorated-nanoparticles-in-the-treatment-of-hepatic-fibrosis
#7
Ji Wang, Wen Pan, Ying Wang, Wan Lei, Bin Feng, Caigan Du, Xiao-Juan Wang
Hepatic macrophages have been considered as a therapeutic target for liver fibrosis treatment, and phosphatidylserine (PS)-containing nanoparticles are commonly used to mimic apoptotic cells that can specifically regulate macrophage functions, resulting in anti-inflammatory effects. This study was designed to test the efficacy of PS-modified nanostructured lipid carriers (mNLCs) containing curcumin (Cur) (Cur-mNLCs) in the treatment of liver fibrosis in a rat model. Carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in rats was used as an experimental model, and the severity of the disease was examined by both biochemical and histological methods...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212801/roles-of-high-mobility-group-box-1-and-thrombin-in-murine-pulmonary-fibrosis-and-the-therapeutic-potential-of-thrombomodulin
#8
Takashi Kida, Takahiro Seno, Hidetake Nagahara, Takuya Inoue, Amane Nakabayashi, Yuji Kukida, Kazuki Fujioka, Wataru Fujii, Makoto Wada, Masataka Kohno, Yutaka Kawahito
Cross-talk between inflammation and coagulation plays important roles in acute or subacute progressive pulmonary fibrosis characterized by diffuse alveolar damage. Thrombomodulin is a physiological inhibitor of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and thrombin, and may be effective for this condition. This study investigated the roles of HMGB1 and thrombin in the pathophysiology of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis and the efficacy of recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin (rhTM). Pulmonary fibrosis was induced in wild-type C57BL/6 mice by intratracheal instillation of bleomycin...
December 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204268/role-of-metastasis-induced-protein-s100a4-in-human-non-tumor-pathophysiologies
#9
REVIEW
Fei Fei, Jie Qu, Chunyuan Li, Xinlu Wang, Yuwei Li, Shiwu Zhang
S100A4, an important member of the S100 family of proteins, is best known for its significant role in promoting cancer progression and metastasis. In addition to its expression in tumors, upregulation of S100A4 expression has been associated with various non-tumor pathophysiology processes. However, the mechanisms underlying the role of S100A4 remain unclear. Activated "host" cells (fibroblasts, immunocytes, vascular cells, among others) secrete S100A4 into the extracellular space in various non-tumor human disorders, where it executes its biological functions by interacting with intracellular target proteins...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203799/essential-involvement-of-the-cx3cl1-cx3cr1-axis-in-bleomycin-induced-pulmonary-fibrosis-via-regulation-of-fibrocyte-and-m2-macrophage-migration
#10
Yuko Ishida, Akihiko Kimura, Mizuho Nosaka, Yumi Kuninaka, Hiroaki Hemmi, Izumi Sasaki, Tsuneyasu Kaisho, Naofumi Mukaida, Toshikazu Kondo
The potential role of macrophages in pulmonary fibrosis (PF) prompted us to evaluate the roles of CX3CR1, a chemokine receptor abundantly expressed in macrophages during bleomycin (BLM)-induced PF. Intratracheal BLM injection induced infiltration of leukocytes such as macrophages into the lungs, which eventually resulted in fibrosis. CX3CR1 expression was mainly detected in the majority of macrophages and in a small portion of α-smooth muscle actin-positive cells in the lungs, while CX3CL1 was expressed in macrophages...
December 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202448/cd11c-resident-macrophages-drive-hepatocyte-death-triggered-liver-fibrosis-in-a-murine-model-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#11
Michiko Itoh, Takayoshi Suganami, Hideaki Kato, Sayaka Kanai, Ibuki Shirakawa, Takeru Sakai, Toshihiro Goto, Masahiro Asakawa, Isao Hidaka, Hiroshi Sakugawa, Koji Ohnishi, Yoshihiro Komohara, Kenichi Asano, Isao Sakaida, Masato Tanaka, Yoshihiro Ogawa
Although recent evidence has pointed to the role of organ- and pathogenesis-specific macrophage subsets, it is still unclear which subsets are critically involved in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Using melanocortin-4 receptor-deficient (MC4R-KO) mice fed Western diet (WD), which exhibit liver phenotypes similar to those of human NASH, we found a histological structure, termed hepatic crown-like structure (hCLS), in which CD11c+ macrophages surround dead/dying hepatocytes, a prominent feature of NASH...
November 16, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201433/heart-regeneration-in-the-salamander-relies-on-macrophage-mediated-control-of-fibroblast-activation-and-the-extracellular-landscape
#12
J W Godwin, R Debuque, E Salimova, N A Rosenthal
In dramatic contrast to the poor repair outcomes for humans and rodent models such as mice, salamanders and some fish species are able to completely regenerate heart tissue following tissue injury, at any life stage. This capacity for complete cardiac repair provides a template for understanding the process of regeneration and for developing strategies to improve human cardiac repair outcomes. Using a cardiac cryo-injury model we show that heart regeneration is dependent on the innate immune system, as macrophage depletion during early time points post-injury results in regeneration failure...
2017: NPJ Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198784/pathogenesis-of-tuberculosis-and-other-mycobacteriosis
#13
Pere-Joan Cardona
The evolution between Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and active tuberculosis is multifactorial and involves different biological scales. The synthesis of ESAT-6 or the induction of alveolar macrophage necrosis are key, but to understand it, it is necessary to consider the dynamics of endogenous and exogenous reinfection, drainage of lung parenchyma and respiratory mechanics, local fibrosis processes and blood supply. Paradoxically, the immune response generated by the infection is highly protective (90%) against active tuberculosis, although as it is essentially based on the proliferation of Th1 lymphocytes, it cannot prevent reinfection...
November 30, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198531/laparoscopic-sleeve-gastrectomy-improves-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-related-liver-damage-in-adolescents-by-reshaping-cellular-interactions-and-hepatic-adipocytokine-production
#14
Valerio Nobili, Guido Carpino, Francesco De Peppo, Romina Caccamo, Antonella Mosca, Ilaria Romito, Diletta Overi, Antonio Franchitto, Paolo Onori, Anna Alisi, Eugenio Gaudio
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether the modulation of local cellular cross-talks and the modification of hepatic adipocytokine expression could mechanistically explain the improvement of liver histopathology after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) in adolescents with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). STUDY DESIGN: Twenty obese (body mass index of ≥35 kg/m2) adolescents who underwent LSG and with biopsy-proven NAFLD were included. At baseline (T0) and 1 year after treatment, patients underwent clinical evaluation, blood tests, and liver biopsy...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196207/inflammation-and-fibrosis
#15
REVIEW
Matthias Mack
Tissue damage and inflammation are important triggers for regeneration and fibrosis. Tissue damage not only induces inflammation in general, it also determines the type and polarization of inflammation by recruiting and activating a variety of different cells types of the innate and adaptive immune system. This review focuses on the pathways leading from tissue damage to inflammation, from inflammation to fibrosis and from fibrosis to function. It covers the pro- and antifibrotic properties of immunological mediators released from T cells, monocytes/macrophages, innate lymphoid cells, basophils and eosinophils and takes into account that extracellular matrix proteins are not only produced by mesenchymal fibroblasts but also by infiltrating hematopoietic cells...
November 28, 2017: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194342/tim-3-regulates-tregs-ability-to-resolve-the-inflammation-and-proliferation-of-acute-lung-injury-by-modulating-macrophages-polarization
#16
Xiandong Liu, Sen Jiang, Qian Zhang, Shumin Xu, Xiaowei Bao, Wei Cao, Jianwen Bai, Lunxian Tang
We recently reported that CD4CD25 regulatory T cells (Tregs) contributed to the recovery of patients with acute lung injury (ALI) by upregulating T cell immunoglobulin and mucin-domain containing-3 (Tim-3). However, the molecular mechanism by which Tim-3 regulates Tregs' function in the resolution and fibroproliferation after ALI remains unknown. In this study, we adoptively transferred Tim-3Tregs or Tim-3Tregs into LPS-induced ALI mice model. Data demonstrated that Tim-3Tregs not only decreased indices of lung inflammation and injury but also mitigated lung fibrosis after ALI...
November 30, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192208/endogenous-annexin-a1-regulates-haematopoietic-stem-cell-mobilisation-and-inflammatory-response-post-myocardial-infarction-in-mice-in-vivo
#17
Cheng Xue Qin, Siobhan B Finlayson, Annas Ai-Sharea, Mitchel Tate, Miles J De Blasio, Minh Deo, Sarah Rosli, Darnel Prakoso, Colleen J Thomas, Helen Kiriazis, Eleanor Gould, Yuan H Yang, Eric F Morand, Mauro Perretti, Andrew J Murphy, Xiao-Jun Du, Xiao-Ming Gao, Rebecca H Ritchie
Endogenous anti-inflammatory annexin-A1 (ANX-A1) plays an important role in preserving left ventricular (LV) viability and function after ischaemic insults in vitro, but its long-term cardioprotective actions in vivo are largely unknown. We tested the hypothesis that ANX-A1-deficiency exaggerates inflammation, haematopoietic stem progenitor cell (HSPC) activity and LV remodelling in response to myocardial ischaemia in vivo. Adult ANX - A1 -/- mice subjected to coronary artery occlusion exhibited increased infarct size and LV macrophage content after 24-48 h reperfusion compared with wildtype (WT) counterparts...
November 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191696/modulating-effect-of-low-intensity-pulsed-ultrasound-on-the-phenotype-of-inflammatory-cells
#18
Evaldo Moreira da Silva Junior, Raquel Agnelli Mesquita-Ferrari, Cristiane Miranda França, Lucas Andreo, Sandra Kalil Bussadori, Kristianne Porta Santos Fernandes
AIMS: The purpose of this study was toclarify the effect of low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) on the phenotype of the inflammatory infiltrate in muscle tissue following acute injury. MAIN METHODS: Forty Wistar rats were submitted to cryoinjury of the tibialis anterior muscle and only half were treated with LIPUS. After 1, 2, 3 and 7 days macrophages and neutrophils were quantified. KEY FINDINGS: With one day, LIPUS led to reductions in the number of neutrophils and M1 macrophages...
November 27, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191510/transplantation-of-human-amnion-prevents-recurring-adhesions-and-ameliorates-fibrosis-in-a-rat-model-of-sciatic-nerve-scarring
#19
Angela Lemke, James Ferguson, Kelly Gross, Carina Penzenstadler, Monika Bradl, Rupert Laurenz Mayer, Christopher Gerner, Heinz Redl, Susanne Wolbank
Peripheral nerve fibrosis and painful adhesions are common, recurring pathological sequelae following injury. In this study, vital human amnion (hAM), an increasingly interesting biomaterial for regenerative medicine, was investigated as a novel therapy. hAM was first analyzed in vitro regarding its anti-adhesive characteristics. Then, the reflected region of hAM which was identified as more suitable, was transplanted into female Sprague Dawley rats with recurring sciatic nerve scarring (n = 24) and compared with untreated controls (n = 30) at one, four and twelve weeks...
November 27, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187674/nitrative-dna-damage-in-cultured-macrophages-exposed-to-indium-oxide
#20
Tahmina Afroz, Yusuke Hiraku, Ning Ma, Sharif Ahmed, Shinji Oikawa, Shosuke Kawanishi, Mariko Murata
OBJECTIVES: Indium compounds are used in manufacturing displays of mobile phones and televisions. However, these materials cause interstitial pneumonia in exposed workers. Animal experiments demonstrated that indium compounds caused lung cancer. Chronic inflammation is considered to play a role in lung carcinogenesis and fibrosis induced by particulate matters. 8-Nitroguanine (8-nitroG) is a mutagenic DNA lesion formed during inflammation and may participate in carcinogenesis. To clarify the mechanism of carcinogenesis, we examined 8-nitroG formation in indium-exposed cultured cells...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Occupational Health
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