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macrophage fibrosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449623/targeted-disruption-of-the-inos-gene-improves-adipose-tissue-inflammation-and-fibrosis-in-leptin-deficient-ob-ob-mice-role-of-tenascin-c
#1
S Becerril, A Rodríguez, V Catalán, L Méndez-Giménez, B Ramírez, N Sáinz, M Llorente, X Unamuno, J Gómez-Ambrosi, G Frühbeck
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Obesity is related to a dynamic extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, which involves the synthesis and degradation of different proteins, such as tenascin C (TNC) in the adipose tissue (AT). Given the functional relationship between leptin and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), our aim was to analyze the impact of the absence of the iNOS gene in AT inflammation and ECM remodeling in ob/ob mice. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The expression of genes involved in inflammation and ECM remodeling was evaluated in 10-week-old male double knockout (DBKO) mice simultaneously lacking the ob and iNOS genes as well as in ob/ob mice classified into three groups [control, leptin-treated (1 mg kg -1 day -1 ) and pair-fed]...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448843/cenicriviroc-for-the-treatment-of-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-and-liver-fibrosis
#2
Frank Tacke
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has an increasing prevalence worldwide. At present, no specific pharmacotherapy is approved for NAFLD. Simple steatosis and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) can progress to liver fibrosis that is associated with mortality in NAFLD. The recruitment of inflammatory monocytes and macrophages via chemokine receptor CCR2 as well as of lymphocytes and hepatic stellate cells via CCR5 promote the progression of NASH to fibrosis. Areas covered: I summarize preclinical and clinical data on the efficacy and safety of the dual CCR2/CCR5 inhibitor cenicriviroc (CVC, also TBR-652 or TAK-652) for the treatment of NASH and fibrosis...
February 16, 2018: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444417/a-study-on-the-regenerative-effect-of-platelets-rich-plasma-on-experimentally-induced-hepatic-damage-in-albino-rats
#3
Heba Mamdoh Shoeib, Walaa Arafa Keshk, Abdallah Mahmoud Foda, Saad El-Deen Abd Elfatah Abo El Noeman
Hepatic fibrosis is a worldwide health problem with significant morbidity and mortality. Currently, there is no effective therapy for hepatic fibrosis. So that the present study was aimed to evaluate the possible regenerative effect of Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) against thioacetamide (TAA) induced hepatic damage. Eighty albino rats were included; 40 were used for PRP preparation and 40 were randomly divided into four groups. Group I (control group); group II (PRP control); group III (TAA- intoxicated in a dose of 200 mg ∕ kg body weight/twice weekly for 7 weeks, intra-peritoneal and group IV (TAA-intoxicated+ PRP treated)...
February 14, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434606/macrophage-recognition-of-crystals-and-nanoparticles
#4
REVIEW
Masafumi Nakayama
Inhalation of exogenous crystals such as silica, asbestos, and carbon nanotubes can cause lung fibrosis and cancer. Endogenous crystals such as monosodium urate, cholesterol, and hydroxyapatite are associated with pathogenesis of gout, atherosclerosis, and osteoarthritis, respectively. These crystal-associated-inflammatory diseases are triggered by the macrophage NLRP3 inflammasome activation and cell death. Therefore, it is important to understand how macrophages recognize crystals. However, it is unlikely that macrophages have evolutionally acquired receptors specific for crystals or recently emerged nanoparticles...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434214/mesenchymal-stromal-cells-inhibit-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-in-a-model-of-coxsackievirus-b3-induced-inflammatory-cardiomyopathy
#5
Kapka Miteva, Kathleen Pappritz, Marzena Sosnowski, Muhammad El-Shafeey, Irene Müller, Fengquan Dong, Konstantinos Savvatis, Jochen Ringe, Carsten Tschöpe, Sophie Van Linthout
Inflammation in myocarditis induces cardiac injury and triggers disease progression to heart failure. NLRP3 inflammasome activation is a newly identified amplifying step in the pathogenesis of myocarditis. We previously have demonstrated that mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are cardioprotective in Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)-induced myocarditis. In this study, MSC markedly inhibited left ventricular (LV) NOD2, NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, IL-1β, and IL-18 mRNA expression in CVB3-infected mice. ASC protein expression, essential for NLRP3 inflammasome assembly, increased upon CVB3 infection and was abrogated in MSC-treated mice...
February 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433874/acellular-derivatives-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-prevent-peritoneal-adhesions-in-an-animal-model
#6
Daniel Rojo, Paulette Conget
BACKGROUND: Peritoneal adhesions are nonanatomical connections that bind organs to the abdominal wall or among them. They arise after peritoneal injury, which triggers an inflammatory response followed by a healing process that leads to fibrotic tissue formation. Mesenchymal stem cells and their secretion products, also referred to as acellular derivatives (ACDs), have anti-inflammatory, fibrinolytic, and antifibrogenic properties. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of intraoperative administration of ACD on the appearance, severity, and progression of peritoneal adhesions, in an animal model...
March 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428523/the-janus-like-face-of-il-4r%C3%AE-in-macrophages-during-liver-fibrosis
#7
Thomas Ritz, Frank Tacke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 5, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427413/tgf-%C3%AE-1-suppresses-the-type-i-ifn-response-and-induces-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-alveolar-macrophages
#8
Jocelyn R Grunwell, Samantha M Yeligar, Susan Stephenson, Xiao Du Ping, Theresa W Gauthier, Anne M Fitzpatrick, Lou Ann S Brown
TGF-β1 is a pleiotropic cytokine with an established role in fibrosis; however, the immunosuppressive effects of TGF-β1 are less characterized. Elevated levels of TGF-β1 are found in patients with acute and chronic lung diseases, and the underlying disease processes are exacerbated by respiratory viral infections. The alveolar macrophage is the first line of cellular defense against respiratory viral infections, and its response to infections is dependent on environmental cues. Using the mouse alveolar macrophage line, MH-S, and human CD14+ monocyte-derived macrophages, we examined the effects of TGF-β1 on the type I IFN antiviral response, macrophage polarization, and mitochondrial bioenergetics following a challenge with human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427412/galectin-3-interacts-with-the-chi3l1-axis-and-contributes-to-hermansky-pudlak-syndrome-lung-disease
#9
Yang Zhou, Chuan Hua He, Daniel S Yang, Tung Nguyen, Yueming Cao, Suchitra Kamle, Chang-Min Lee, Bernadette R Gochuico, William A Gahl, Barry S Shea, Chun Geun Lee, Jack A Elias
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) comprises a group of inherited disorders caused by mutations that alter the function of lysosome-related organelles. Pulmonary fibrosis is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in HPS-1 and HPS-4 patients. However, the mechanisms that underlie the exaggerated injury and fibroproliferative repair responses in HPS have not been adequately defined. In particular, although Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is dysregulated in HPS, its roles in the pathogenesis of HPS have not been adequately defined...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424488/lipopolysaccharide-enhances-tgf-%C3%AE-1-signalling-pathway-and-rat-pancreatic-fibrosis
#10
Li Sun, Ming Xiu, Shuhua Wang, David R Brigstock, Hongyan Li, Limei Qu, Runping Gao
Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) play a critical role in fibrogenesis during alcoholic chronic pancreatitis (ACP). Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1) is a key regulator of extracellular matrix production and PSC activation. Endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been recognized as a trigger factor in the pathogenesis of ACP. This study aimed to investigate the mechanisms by which LPS modulates TGF-β1 signalling and pancreatic fibrosis. Sprague-Dawley rats fed with a Lieber-DeCarli alcohol (ALC) liquid diet for 10 weeks with or without LPS challenge during the last 3 weeks...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420643/immunophenotypic-characterization-of-human-t-cells-after-in-vitro-exposure-to-different-silicone-breast-implant-surfaces
#11
Giuseppe Cappellano, Christian Ploner, Susanne Lobenwein, Sieghart Sopper, Paul Hoertnagl, Christina Mayerl, Nikolaus Wick, Gerhard Pierer, Georg Wick, Dolores Wolfram
The most common complication of silicone breast implants is capsular contracture (massive scar formation around the implant). We postulate that capsular contracture is always a sequel to inflammatory processes, with both innate and adaptive immune mechanisms participating. In general, fibroblasts and macrophages have been used as cell types to evaluate in vitro the biocompatibility of breast implant surfaces. Moreover, also T cells have been found at the implant site at the initial stage of fibrous capsule formation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415911/inflammatory-mechanisms-of-cardiovascular-remodeling
#12
Toshihisa Anzai
Inflammation and fibrosis play an important role in the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is caused by rupture of inflamed atherosclerotic plaque and subsequent atherothrombosis. Recent studies have shown that inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP) can predict ACS development and have demonstrated the effectiveness of new therapeutic approaches targeting inflammation. Studies have also shown that an enhanced inflammatory response after myocardial infarction (MI) is associated with cardiac rupture, ventricular aneurysm formation, and exacerbation of left ventricular (LV) remodeling...
February 7, 2018: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415889/irhom2-mediated-proinflammatory-signalling-regulates-heart-repair-following-myocardial-infarction
#13
Damien N Barnette, Thomas J Cahill, Mala Gunadasa-Rohling, Carolyn A Carr, Matthew Freeman, Paul R Riley
The role of proinflammation, and specifically TNF-α, on downstream fibrosis and healing after cardiac injury remains unknown. Using iRhom2-deficient mice, which lack myeloid-specific shedding of TNF-α, we reveal increased macrophages (MΦs) that were skewed towards a more proinflammatory (M1) state at day 4, followed by more reparative, antiinflammatory (M2) state at day 7 after myocardial infarction (MI). However, associated functional cytokine expression was significantly reduced in iRhom2-mutant M1 and M2 MΦs, respectively...
February 8, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410258/comprehensive-analysis-of-immune-extracellular-matrices-and-pathogens-profile-in-lung-granulomatosis-of-unexplained-etiology
#14
Paola da Costa Souza, Patrícia Suemi Dondo, Gabriela Souza, Deborah Lopes, Marcel Moscardi, Vinicius de Miranda Martinho, Rodolfo Daniel de Mattos Lourenço, Tabatha Prieto, Marcelo Luiz Balancin, Aline Kawassaki Assato, Walcy Rosolia Teodoro, Silvia Rodrigues, Mariana Lima, Maria Vera Castellano, Ester Coletta, Edwin Roger Parra, Vera Luiza Capelozzi
This study analyzed the Type 1 and Type 2T helper (Th-1/Th-2) cytokines (including interleukins), immune cellular, matrix profile and pathogens in granulomas with unexplained etiology and compared to infectious and non-infectious etiology. Surgical lung biopsies from 108 patients were retrospectively reviewed. Histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, morphometry and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were employed, respectively, to evaluate total collagen and elastin fibers, collagen I and III, immune cells, cytokines, metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), myofibroblasts and multiple usual and unusual pathogens...
February 2, 2018: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408013/the-big-five-in-fibrosis-macrophages-myofibroblasts-matrix-mechanics-and-miscommunication
#15
REVIEW
Pardis Pakshir, Boris Hinz
Scarring is part of the normal healing response to tissue injury in all organs and required to rapidly repair acute damages, mostly with extracellular matrix. A variety of different cells are activated into myofibroblasts to produce and remodel the scar matrix. Temporal and spatial coordination of myofibroblast activities with inflammatory macrophages is crucial for the controlled healing process. Miscommunication can result in either insufficient (chronic) or exacerbated (fibrotic) repair. In addition to soluble biochemical signals and intercellular contacts, cell-to-cell communication is mediated by biophysical and chemical signals transmitted through the extracellular matrix...
January 30, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406998/prophylactic-use-of-colchicine-in-preventing-radiation-induced-coronary-artery-disease
#16
T O'Herron, J Lafferty
Radiation therapy is one of the primary treatments in fighting breast cancer, one of the most common cancers in the US. One of the dose limiting factors of this therapy is radiation induced heart damage that results from mediastinal radiation. Recently statins, a medication typically used to lower cholesterol levels, have been suggested as a prophylactic treatment to potentially mitigate this process. Similarly, we hypothesized whether colchicine, an anti-inflammatory medication that is presently used in the treatment of gout and pericarditis, might be used to prevent coronary artery disease induced by radiation therapy...
February 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404462/intermittent-hypoxia-is-a-proinflammatory-stimulus-resulting-in-il-6-expression-and-m1-macrophage-polarization
#17
Esperance Schaefer, Winona Wu, Christina Mark, Andrew Yang, Erik DiGiacomo, Charles Carlton-Smith, Shadi Salloum, Cynthia Brisac, Wenyu Lin, Kathleen E Corey, Raymond T Chung
The biological factors that promote inflammation or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in the setting of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease remain incompletely understood. Clinical studies have demonstrated an association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and both inflammation and fibrosis in NASH, but the mechanism has not been identified. In this study, we use in vitro modeling to examine the impact of intermittent hypoxia on the liver. Hepatocyte, stellate cell, and macrophage cell lines were exposed to intermittent or sustained hypoxia...
June 2017: Hepatology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401612/silica-induced-initiation-of-circular-zc3h4-rna-zc3h4-pathway-promotes-the-pulmonary-macrophage-activation
#18
Xiyue Yang, Jing Wang, Zewei Zhou, Rong Jiang, Jie Huang, Lulu Chen, Zhouli Cao, Han Chu, Bing Han, Yusi Cheng, Jie Chao
Phagocytosis of silicon dioxide (SiO2) into lung cells causes an inflammatory cascade that results in fibroblast proliferation and migration, followed by fibrosis. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a subclass of noncoding RNAs that are present within mammalian cells; however, researchers have not determined whether circRNAs are involved in the pathophysiologic process of silicosis. To elucidate the role of these RNAs in SiO2-induced inflammation in pulmonary macrophages, we investigated the upstream molecular mechanisms and functional effects of circRNAs on cell apoptosis, proliferation, and migration...
January 22, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399273/role-of-inflammatory-response-in-liver-diseases-therapeutic-strategies
#19
REVIEW
José A Del Campo, Paloma Gallego, Lourdes Grande
Inflammation and tumorigenesis are tightly linked pathways impacting cancer development. Inflammasomes are key signalling platforms that detect pathogenic microorganisms, including hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, and sterile stressors (oxidative stress, insulin resistance, lipotoxicity) able to activate pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β and IL-18. Most of the inflammasome complexes that have been described to date contain a NOD-like receptor sensor molecule. Redox state and autophagy can regulate inflammasome complex and, depending on the conditions, can be either pro- or anti-apoptotic...
January 27, 2018: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397689/dual-roles-of-graphene-oxide-to-attenuate-inflammation-and-elicit-timely-polarization-of-macrophage-phenotypes-for-cardiac-repair
#20
Jin Han, Yong Sook Kim, Min-Young Lim, Han Young Kim, Saerom Kong, Mikyung Kang, Yeon Woong Choo, Ju Hee Jun, Seungmi Ryu, Hye-Yun Jeong, Jooyeon Park, Gun-Jae Jeong, Jong-Chan Lee, Gwang Hyeon Eom, Youngkeun Ahn, Byung-Soo Kim
Development of localized inflammatory environments by M1 macrophages in the cardiac infarction region exacerbates heart failure after myocardial infarction (MI). Therefore, the regulation of inflammation by M1 macrophages and their timely polarization toward regenerative M2 macrophages suggest an immunotherapy. Particularly, controlling cellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which cause M1 differentiation, and developing M2 macrophage phenotypes in macrophages propose a therapeutic approach. Previously, stem or dendritic cells were used in MI for their anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective potentials and showed inflammation modulation and M2 macrophage progression for cardiac repair...
February 7, 2018: ACS Nano
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