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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636007/analysis-of-association-of-gene-variants-with-obesity-traits-in-new-zealand-european-children-at-6-years-of-age
#1
Mohanraj Krishnan, John M D Thompson, Edwin A Mitchell, Rinki Murphy, Lesley M E McCowan, Andrew N Shelling, G On Behalf Of The Children Of Scope Study Group
Childhood obesity is a public health problem, which is associated with a long-term increased risk of cardiovascular disease and premature mortality. Several gene variants have previously been identified that have provided novel insights into biological factors that contribute to the development of obesity. As obesity tracks through childhood into adulthood, identification of the genetic factors for obesity in early life is important. The objective of this study was to identify putative associations between genetic variants and obesity traits in children at 6 years of age...
June 21, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627196/comparison-of-gene-expression-profile-between-blood-cells-and-white-adipose-tissue-of-patients-with-obesity
#2
Marcela Augusta de Souza Pinhel, Natália Yumi Noronha, Carolina Ferreira Nicoletti, Driele Cristina Gomes Quinhoneiro, Bruno Affonso Parenti Oliveira, Cristiana Cortes-Oliveira, Wilson Salgado-Junior, Wilson Araújo da Silva-Junior, Júlio Sergio Marchini, Dorotéia Rossi Silva Souza, Carla Barbosa Nonino
INTRODUCTION: Gene expression analyses from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and white adipose tissue are conflicting. It seems that results from single tissue are not enough to explain how changes affect humans as a complex biological system. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare, from obesity subjects, PBMC and white adipose tissue gene expression that regulates adipogenesis (perilipin 1 [PLIN1], adrenoreceptor beta 3 [ADRB3] and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor [PPARG2]) and the energy metabolism (uncoupling protein UCP1, UCP2 and UCP3) process...
June 5, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615046/the-association-of-insertions-deletions-indels-and-variable-number-tandem-repeats-vntrs-with-obesity-and-its-related-traits-and-complications
#3
REVIEW
Yee-How Say
BACKGROUND: Despite the fact that insertions/deletions (INDELs) are the second most common type of genetic variations and variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs) represent a large portion of the human genome, they have received far less attention than single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and larger forms of structural variation like copy number variations (CNVs), especially in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of complex diseases like polygenic obesity. This is exemplified by the vast amount of review papers on the role of SNPs and CNVs in obesity, its related traits (like anthropometric measurements, biochemical variables, and eating behavior), and its related complications (like hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, and insulin resistance-collectively known as metabolic syndrome)...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582851/fenofibrate-protects-against-acute-myocardial-i-r-injury-in-rat-by-suppressing-mitochondrial-apoptosis-as-decreasing-cleaved-caspase-9-activation
#4
Qing Zhao, Zheng Cui, Yan Zheng, Qun Li, Changyuan Xu, Xueqi Sheng, Mei Tao, HuiXin Xu
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) activation has been reported to reduce myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury by inhibiting cell apoptosis. However, the antiapoptotic mechanism of PPAR-α is still unknown. Fenofibrate is a PPAR-α agonist In the present study, we investigate the effects and relevant mechanism of fenofibrate on experimental myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats were pretreated with fenofibrate (80 mg/kg) daily for a period of 7 days...
May 12, 2017: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574619/ucp2-upregulation-promotes-plc%C3%AE-1-signaling-during-skin-cell-transformation
#5
Annapoorna Sreedhar, Julia Lefort, Petra Petruska, Xin Gu, Runhua Shi, Sumitra Miriyala, Manikandan Panchatcharam, Yunfeng Zhao
Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), whose physiological role is to decrease mitochondrial membrane potential and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, is often overexpressed in human cancers. UCP2 upregulation has recently been proposed as a novel survival mechanism for cancer cells. However, until now, how exactly UCP2 promotes tumorigenesis remains inconclusive. Based on a widely used skin cell transformation model, our data demonstrated that UCP2 differentially regulated ROS. UCP2 upregulation decreased superoxide whereas it increased hydrogen peroxide production with concomitant increase in the expression and activity of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), the primary mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme...
June 2, 2017: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572767/glia-maturation-factor-and-mitochondrial-uncoupling-proteins-2-and-4-expression-in-the-temporal-cortex-of-alzheimer-s-disease-brain
#6
Ramasamy Thangavel, Duraisamy Kempuraj, Smita Zaheer, Sudhanshu Raikwar, Mohammad E Ahmed, Govindhasamy Pushpavathi Selvakumar, Shankar S Iyer, Asgar Zaheer
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the presence of neuropathological lesions containing amyloid plaques (APs) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). AD is associated with mitochondrial dysfunctions, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in the brain. We have previously demonstrated enhanced expression of the proinflammatory protein glia maturation factor (GMF) in glial cells near APs and NFTs in the AD brains. Parahippocampal gyrus consisting of entorhinal and perirhinal subdivisions of temporal cortex is the first brain region affected during AD pathogenesis...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570676/shaofu-zhuyu-decoction-ameliorates-obesity-mediated-hepatic-steatosis-and-systemic-inflammation-by-regulating-metabolic-pathways
#7
Moonju Hong, Jeeyoun Jung, Hee-Sook Park, So Min Lee, Nam-Joo Jeong, Soon-Hee Kim, Kyoung-Won Lee, Ju-A Lee, Myung-Sunny Kim
Shaofu Zhuyu decoction (SFZYD, also known as Sobokchugeo-tang), a classical prescription drug in traditional East Asian medicine, has been used to treat blood stasis syndrome (BSS). Hepatic steatosis is the result of excess caloric intake, and its pathogenesis involves internal retention of phlegm and dampness, blood stasis, and liver Qi stagnation. To evaluate the effects of treatment with SFZYD on obesity-induced inflammation and hepatic steatosis, we fed male C57BL/6N mice a high fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks and then treated them with SFZYD by oral gavage for an additional 4 weeks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551798/mitochondrial-proton-leak-plays-a-critical-role-in-pathogenesis-of-cardiovascular-diseases
#8
Jiali Cheng, Gayani Nanayakkara, Ying Shao, Ramon Cueto, Luqiao Wang, William Y Yang, Ye Tian, Hong Wang, Xiaofeng Yang
Mitochondrial proton leak is the principal mechanism that incompletely couples substrate oxygen to ATP generation. This chapter briefly addresses the recent progress made in understanding the role of proton leak in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Majority of the proton conductance is mediated by uncoupling proteins (UCPs) located in the mitochondrial inner membrane. It is evident that the proton leak and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated from electron transport chain (ETC) in mitochondria are linked to each other...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546450/fatty-acid-binding-protein-4-ap2-dependent-blt1r-expression-and-signaling
#9
Ann V Hertzel, Hongliang Xu, Michael Downey, Nicholas Kvalheim, David A Bernlohr
Previous studies have shown that reduced levels of the adipocyte fatty acid binding protein 4, FABP4 (AFABP/aP2), result in metabolic improvement including potentiated insulin sensitivity and attenuated atherosclerosis. Mechanistically, pharmacologic or genetic inhibition of FABP4 in macrophages upregulates UCP2, attenuates ROS production, polarizes cells towards the anti-inflammatory M2 state and reduces leukotriene secretion. At the protein level, FABP4 stabilizes LTA4 towards chemical hydrolysis thereby potentiating inflammatory LTC4 synthesis...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533128/polyphenol-inhibition-of-benzo-a-pyrene-induced-oxidative-stress-and-neoplastic-transformation-in-an-in%C3%A2-vitro-model-of-carcinogenesis
#10
Kosar Omidian, Hossein Rafiei, Brian Bandy
While dietary polyphenols are widely recognized for cancer-preventing characteristics, the relative effectiveness and mechanisms of action of different polyphenols is not clear. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of six different polyphenols against benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P)-induced oxidative stress and neoplastic transformation in the Bhas 42 cell carcinogenesis assay. All of the polyphenols completely prevented the increased intracellular ROS generation by B[a]P at 12 h, and most inhibited after 3 days...
May 19, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487946/ghrelin-suppresses-inflammation-in-huvecs-by-inhibiting-ubiquitin-mediated-uncoupling-protein%C3%A2-2-degradation
#11
Ruolan Zhang
Atherosclerosis is considered the major cause of heart attack, stroke and gangrene of the extremities, which is responsible for 50% of all mortality in Western countries. The pathogenesis and causes of atherosclerosis remain elusive. Recent studies highlight inflammation as a contributing factor for atherosclerosis in all stages of the disease process. In this study, we demonstrate that the treatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with ghrelin inhibits the oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-induced inflammatory response, In addition, treatment with ghrelin led to the accumulation of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) in the cells, thus decreasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation...
June 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483672/acetoacetate-is-a-more-efficient-energy-yielding-substrate-for-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-than-glucose-and-generates-fewer-reactive-oxygen-species
#12
Mary Board, Colleen Lopez, Christian van den Bos, Richard Callaghan, Kieran Clarke, Carolyn Carr
Stem cells have been assumed to demonstrate a reliance on anaerobic energy generation, suited to their hypoxic in vivo environment. However, we found that human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) have an active oxidative metabolism with a range of substrates. More ATP was consistently produced from substrate oxidation than glycolysis by cultured hMSCs. Strong substrate preferences were shown with the ketone body, acetoacetate, being oxidised at up to 35 times the rate of glucose. ROS-generation was 45-fold lower during acetoacetate oxidation compared with glucose and substrate preference may be an adaptation to reduce oxidative stress...
May 5, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473603/increased-hepatic-mitochondrial-fa-oxidation-leads-to-lower-tg-levels-in-rat-liver-and-plasma-and-is-associated-with-upregulation-of-uncoupling-proteins-and-downregulation-of-apolipoprotein-c-iii
#13
Carine Lindquist, Bodil Bjørndal, Christine Renate Rossmann, Deusdedit Tusubira, Asbjørn Svardal, Gro Vatne Røsland, Karl Johan Tronstad, Seth Hallström, Rolf Kristian Berge
Hepatic mitochondrial function, APOC-III and LPL are potential targets for TG lowering drugs. After three weeks of dietary treatment with the compound 2-(tridec-12 -yn-1-ylthio) acetic acid (1-triple TTA), the hepatic mitochondrial FA oxidation increased more than 5-fold in male Wistar rats. Gene expression analysis in liver showed significant downregulation of APOC-III, and upregulation of LPL and the VLDL receptor. This led to lower hepatic (53 %) and plasma (73 %) TG levels. Concomitantly liver-specific biomarkers related to mitochondrial biogenesis and function (mitochondrial DNA, citrate synthase activity and cytochrome c and Tfam gene expression) were elevated...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452072/pgc-1%C3%AE-in-melanoma-a-key-factor-for-antioxidant-response-and-mitochondrial-function
#14
Margalida Torrens-Mas, Daniel González-Hedström, Marta Abrisqueta, Pilar Roca, Jordi Oliver, Jorge Sastre-Serra
Melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) and BRAF are common mutations in melanoma. Through different pathways, they each regulate the expression of PGC-1α, which is a key factor in the regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and the antioxidant response. Our aim was to study the importance of the different regulatory characteristics of MC1R and BRAF on the pathways they regulate in melanoma. For this purpose, ROS production, levels of gene expression and enzymatic activities were analyzed in HBL and MeWo, with wild-type MC1R and BRAF, and A375 cells with mutant MC1R and BRAF...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449155/mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-diabetic-cardiomyopathy-effect-of-mesenchymal-stem-cell-with-ppar-%C3%AE-agonist-or-exendin-4
#15
Mohamed Abd Elaziz Wassef, Ola M Tork, Laila A Rashed, Walaa Ibrahim, Heba Morsi, Dina Mohamed Mekawy Rabie
Therapy targeting mitochondria may provide novel ways to treat diabetes and its complications. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) agonists and exendin-4; an analog of glucagon-like peptide-1 have shown cardioprotective properties in many cardiac injury models. So, we evaluated their effects in diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) in relation to mitochondrial dysfunction. This work included seven groups of adult male albino rats: the control group, the non-treated diabetic group, and the treated diabetic groups: one group was treated with MSCs only, the second with pioglitazone only, the third with MSCs and pioglitazone, the forth with exendin-4 only and the fifth with MSCs and exendin-4...
April 27, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428961/glucose-insulin-potassium-alleviates-intestinal-mucosal-barrier-injuries-involving-decreased-expression-of-uncoupling-protein-2-and-nlr-family-pyrin-domain-containing-3-inflammasome-in-polymicrobial-sepsis
#16
Jun-Liang Zhang, Yi-Ting Chen, Guang-Dao Chen, Tao Wang, Ju-Xin Zhang, Qi-Yi Zeng
Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) may be critical for intestinal barrier function which may play a key role in the development of sepsis, and insulin has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effects. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into five groups: control group, cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) group, sham surgery group, CLP plus glucose-insulin-potassium (GIK) group, and CLP plus glucose and potassium (GK) group. Ileum tissues were collected at 24 h after surgery. Histological and cytokine analyses, intestinal permeability tests, and western blots of intestinal epithelial tight junction component proteins and UCP2 were performed...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424210/ucp2-attenuates-apoptosis-of-tubular-epithelial-cells-in-renal-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#17
Yang Zhou, Ting Cai, Jing Xu, Lei Jiang, Jining Wu, Qi Sun, Ke Zen, Junwei Yang
Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) plays critical roles in energy metabolism and cell survival. Previous investigations showed that UCP2 regulated the production of extracellular matrix and renal fibrosis. However, little is known about UCP2 in acute kidney injury. Here, we used UCP2 knockout mice to investigate the role of UCP2 in AKI model generated by renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. The UCP2 global knockout mice were born and growth normal without kidney histological abnormality or renal dysfunctions. As compared with littermates, deletion of UCP2 exacerbated I/R-induced AKI while increase of UCP2 by conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) attenuated I/R injury...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423551/metabolic-reprogramming-of-the-premalignant-colonic-mucosa-is-an-early-event-in-carcinogenesis
#18
Mart Dela Cruz, Sarah Ledbetter, Sanjib Chowdhury, Ashish K Tiwari, Navneet Momi, Ramesh K Wali, Charles Bliss, Christopher Huang, David Lichtenstein, Swati Bhattacharya, Anisha Varma-Wilson, Vadim Backman, Hemant K Roy
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the United States. There is an increasing need for the identification of biomarkers of pre-malignant and early stage CRC to improve risk-stratification and screening recommendations. In this study, we investigated the possibility of metabolic and mitochondrial reprogramming early in the pre-malignant colorectal field. METHODS: Rectal biopsies were taken from 81 patients undergoing screening colonoscopy, and gene expression of metabolic and mitochondrial markers were assessed using real time quantitative PCR...
March 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399045/a-differential-expression-of-uncoupling-protein-2-associates-with-renal-damage-in-stroke-resistant-spontaneously-hypertensive-rat-stroke-prone-spontaneously-hypertensive-rat-derived-stroke-congenic-lines
#19
Speranza Rubattu, Maria Cotugno, Franca Bianchi, Luigi Sironi, Paolo Gelosa, Rosita Stanzione, Maurizio Forte, Claudia De Sanctis, Michele Madonna, Simona Marchitti, Alice Pignieri, Sebastiano Sciarretta, Massimo Volpe
OBJECTIVES: Uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2), a mitochondrial anion transporter involved in mitochondrial uncoupling, limiting reactive oxygen species formation, is significantly downregulated in kidneys of high-salt-fed stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHRSP), where it associates with increased renal damage occurrence. METHODS: We aimed at establishing whether UCP2 differential expression associates with renal damage in two stroke-resistant spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHRSR)/SHRSP-derived stroke congenic lines...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370799/through-modulation-of-cardiac-ca-2-handling-ucp2-affects-cardiac-electrophysiology-and-influences-the-susceptibility-for-ca-2-mediated-arrhythmias
#20
Robert Larbig, Sara Reda, Vera Paar, Andrea Trost, Johannes Leitner, Stephanie Weichselbaumer, Karolina A Motloch, Bernhard Wernly, Andreas Arrer, Benjamin Strauss, Michael Lichtenauer, Herbert A Reitsamer, Lars Eckardt, Guiscard Seebohm, Uta C Hoppe, Lukas J Motloch
Introduction UCP2 belongs to a superfamily of mitochondrial ion transporters. Due to its beneficial influence on production of reactive oxygen species it is suggested to reduce cardiac ischemic reperfusion injury. Recent studies uncovered its ability to regulate mitochondrial Ca(2+) -uptake and therefore to influence cardiac cytosolic Ca(2+) -handling, indicating compensatory pathways to avoid toxic Ca(2+) -overload in UCP2 knock-out mice (UCP2(-/-) ). However, the specific mechanisms and their impact on cardiac electrophysiology remain speculative...
March 31, 2017: Experimental Physiology
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