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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129227/t-and-b-cell-activation-profiles-from-cows-with-and-without-johne-s-disease-in-response-to-in-vitro-stimulation-with-mycobacterium-avium-subspecies-paratuberculosis
#1
Meredith C Frie, Kelly R B Sporer, Brian W Kirkpatrick, Paul M Coussens
Johne's disease (JD) is a chronic wasting disease of ruminants caused by infection with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). JD is particularly problematic on US dairy farms: estimates show that over 50% of farms are MAP-contaminated and as many as 91% of dairy herds could be infected. Although estimates vary widely, JD may cost the dairy industry between $200 million and $1.5 billion every year. One major obstacle to JD management is that JD is difficult to detect in many animals, in part due to the variable immunity against MAP demonstrated by JD+ cattle...
December 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107027/in-vitro-immunomodulation-of-splenocytes-from-do11-10-mice-by-the-food-colouring-agent-amaranth
#2
David E Lefebvre, Nikia Ross, Andrea L Kocmarek, Simon Cowell, Shelley Dai, Cunye Qiao, Ivan Curran, Terry Koerner, Genevieve S Bondy, Jason H Fine
The chemical amaranth (AM) is permitted as a colouring agent in a variety of foods. Safety was established based on chronic rodent studies. AM and its metabolite naphthionic acid (NA) can be absorbed through the intestine, exposing circulating immune cells including splenocytes. An AM feeding study in rats demonstrated an increase in blood lymphocytes. Yet, in contrast, AM inhibited the delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction to antigen. DO11.10 mice express a T Cell Receptor specific for ovalbumin323-339 peptide (OVAp) presented by I-A(d) MHCII...
November 3, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027839/ephb-receptors-mainly-ephb3-contribute-to-the-proper-development-of-cortical-thymic-epithelial-cells
#3
Sara Montero-Herradón, Javier García-Ceca, Agustín G Zapata
EphB and their ligands ephrin-B are an important family of protein tyrosine kinase receptors involved in thymocyte-thymic epithelial cell interactions known to be key for the maturation of both thymic cell components. In the present study, we have analyzed the maturation of cortical thymic epithelium in EphB-deficient thymuses evaluating the relative relevance of EphB2 and EphB3 in the process. Results support a relationship between the epithelial hypocellularity of mutant thymuses and altered development of thymocytes, lower proportions of cycling thymic epithelial cells and increased epithelial cell apoptosis...
October 2, 2017: Organogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023237/corneal-tissue-from-dry-eye-donors-leads-to-enhanced-graft-rejection
#4
Takenori Inomata, Jing Hua, Takeshi Nakao, Tina Shiang, Homer Chiang, Afsaneh Amouzegar, Reza Dana
PURPOSE: To assess the effect of dry eye disease (DED) in graft donors on dendritic cell (DC) maturation, host T-cell sensitization, and corneal allograft rejection. METHODS: Corneas of control (healthy donor) and DED mice (C57BL/6) were transplanted onto fully allogeneic naive BALB/c recipients (n = 10 mice/group). Long-term allograft survival was evaluated for 8 weeks. Corneas and draining lymph nodes (dLNs) were harvested at posttransplantation day 14 (n = 5 mice/group)...
October 10, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020495/effect-of-adalimumab-on-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-in-non-infectious-uveitis
#5
Karoline Walscheid, Toni Weinhage, Dirk Foell, Carsten Heinz, Maren Kasper, Arnd Heiligenhaus
PURPOSE: This study analyzed the effect of adalimumab on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in uveitis. METHODS: PBMCs and serum S100A12 levels from 14 uveitis patients and 28 healthy controls were analyzed. Patient samples were taken before (w0), and 6 (w6) and 12 (w12) weeks after initiation of adalimumab therapy. RESULTS: Monocytes expressing CD124, CD86, CD39, CD115, and MHCII were decreased in patients. Adalimumab induced CD86+ and CD39+ monocytes, and further decreased the frequency of MHCII- and CD124-positive cells...
October 11, 2017: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993517/revisiting-the-road-map-of-medullary-thymic-epithelial-cell-differentiation
#6
Chloé Michel, Corey N Miller, Rita Küchler, Benedikt Brors, Mark S Anderson, Bruno Kyewski, Sheena Pinto
The basic two-step terminal differentiation model of the medullary thymic epithelial cell (mTEC) lineage from immature MHC class II (MHCII)(lo) to mature MHCII(hi) mTECs has recently been extended to include a third stage, namely the post-Aire MHCII(lo) subset as identified by lineage-tracing models. However, a suitable surface marker distinguishing the phenotypically overlapping pre- from the post-Aire MHCII(lo) stage has been lacking. In this study, we introduce the lectin Tetragonolobus purpureas agglutinin (TPA) as a novel cell surface marker that allows for such delineation...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989090/different-igm-b-cell-subpopulations-residing-within-the-peritoneal-cavity-of-vaccinated-rainbow-trout-are-differently-regulated-by-baff
#7
Aitor G Granja, Carolina Tafalla
In teleost fish, IgM(+) B cells are one of the main responders against inflammatory stimuli in the peritoneal cavity, as IgM(+) B cells dominate the peritoneum after intraperitoneal stimulation, also increasing the levels of secreted IgM. BAFF, a cytokine known to play a major role in B cell biology, has been shown to be up-regulated along with its receptors in the peritoneum of rainbow trout upon antigenic exposure, however, the regulatory mechanisms underneath this response remain unclear. In this study, we have identified two different IgM(+) B cell types residing in the peritoneal cavity of previously vaccinated rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): IgD(+)IgM(hi)MHCII(hi) cells, resembling naïve B cells, and IgD(-)IgM(lo)MHCII(lo) cells, resembling antibody-secreting cells...
October 5, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982143/ifn-%C3%AE-alters-the-expression-of-diverse-immunity-related-genes-in-a-cell-culture-model-designed-to-represent-maturing-neutrophils
#8
Michael A Ellison, Christy M Gearheart, Christopher C Porter, Daniel R Ambruso
The cytokine interferon-γ (IFN-γ) is approved as a drug to treat chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) and osteopetrosis and is also used in hyperimmunoglobulin E syndromes. Patients with CGD have defects in proteins of the NOX2 NADPH oxidase system. This leads to reduced production of microbicidal ROS by PMNs and recurrent life threatening infections. The goal of this study was to better understand how IFN-γ might support phagocyte function in these diseases, and to obtain information that might expand potential uses for IFN-γ...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974367/multiplex-peptide-mhc-tetramer-staining-using-mass-cytometry-for-deep-analysis-of-the-influenza-specific-t-cell-response-in-mice
#9
M Fehlings, S Chakarov, Y Simoni, B Shivshankar, F Ginhoux, E W Newell
Antigen-specific T cells play a crucial role for the host protective immunity against viruses and other diseases. The combination of mass cytometry together with a combinatorial multiplex tetramer staining has successfully been applied for probing and characterization of multiple antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells in human blood samples. The present study shows that this approach can also be used to rapidly identify the magnitude of influenza-specific CD8(+) T cell peptide dominance across lymph nodes and lungs in a murine model of a highly pathological influenza infection...
September 30, 2017: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963882/oxidation-sensitive-polymersomes-as-vaccine-nanocarriers-enhance-humoral-responses-against-lassa-virus-envelope-glycoprotein
#10
Clara Galan-Navarro, Marcela Rincon-Restrepo, Gert Zimmer, Erica Ollmann Saphire, Jeffrey A Hubbell, Sachiko Hirosue, Melody A Swartz, Stefan Kunz
Lassa virus (LASV) causes severe hemorrhagic fever with high mortality, yet no vaccine currently exists. Antibodies targeting viral attachment proteins are crucial for protection against many viral infections. However, the envelope glycoprotein (GP)-1 of LASV elicits weak antibody responses due to extensive glycan shielding. Here, we explored a novel vaccine strategy to enhance humoral immunity against LASV GP1. Using structural information, we designed a recombinant GP1 immunogen, and then encapsulated it into oxidation-sensitive polymersomes (PS) as nanocarriers that promote intracellular MHCII loading...
December 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948650/vegf-as-a-modulator-of-the-innate-immune-response-in-glioblastoma
#11
Kati Turkowski, Susan Brandenburg, Annett Mueller, Irina Kremenetskaia, Alexander D Bungert, Anne Blank, Matthäus Felsenstein, Peter Vajkoczy
VEGF is an important factor in tumor vascularization and used as target for anti-angiogenic treatment strategies in glioma. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that VEGF is a modulator of the innate immune response with suppressive effects on the immunologic and pro-angiogenic function of microglia/macrophages in a glioblastoma rodent model. High level of VEGF led to threefold enlarged tumor volumes and a pronounced remodeling of the vascular structure along with a reduced infiltration of microglia/macrophages by approximately 50%...
September 26, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946038/abca1-and-hdl3-are-required-to-modulate-smooth-muscle-cells-phenotypic-switch-after-cholesterol-loading
#12
Silvia Castiglioni, Matteo Monti, Lorenzo Arnaboldi, Monica Canavesi, Giuditta Ainis Buscherini, Laura Calabresi, Alberto Corsini, Stefano Bellosta
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cholesterol-loaded smooth muscle cells (SMCs) modify their phenotypic behavior becoming foam cells. To characterize the role of ABCA1 and HDL3 in this process, we evaluated HDL3 effects on cholesterol-induced phenotypic changes in SMCs expressing or not ABCA1. METHODS: SMCs, isolated from the aortae of wild-type (WT) and Abca1 knock-out (KO) mice, were cholesterol-loaded using a "water-soluble cholesterol''. RESULTS: Cholesterol loading downregulates the expression of Acta2 and calponin (SMC markers), and increases the expression of Mac-2, CD11b and MHCII (inflammation-related genes and surface antigens) and Abca1, Abcg1...
November 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926198/serum-free-human-msc-medium-supports-consistency-in-human-but-not-in-equine-adipose-derived-multipotent-mesenchymal-stromal-cell-culture
#13
Susanna Schubert, Walter Brehm, Aline Hillmann, Janina Burk
For clinical applications of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), serum-free culture is preferable to standardize cell products and prevent contamination with pathogens. In contrast to human MSCs, knowledge on serum-free culture of large animal MSCs is limited, despite its relevance for preclinical studies and development of veterinary cellular therapeutics. This study aimed to evaluate the suitability of a commercially available serum-free human MSC medium for culturing equine adipose-derived MSCs in comparison with human adipose MSCs...
September 19, 2017: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915878/the-immune-mechanism-of-mycoplasma-hyopneumoniae-168-vaccine-strain-through-dendritic-cells
#14
Yumeng Shen, Weiwei Hu, Yanna Wei, Zhixin Feng, Qian Yang
BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp) causes porcine enzootic pneumonia, a disease that cause major economic losses in the pig industry. Dendritic cells (DCs), the most effective antigen-presenting cells, are widely distributed beneath respiratory epithelium, DCs uptake and present antigens to T cells, to initiate protective immune responses in different infections. In this study, we investigated the role of porcine DCs in vaccine Mhp-168 exposure. RESULTS: The antigen presenting ability of DCs were improved by vaccine Mhp-168 exposure...
September 15, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905935/age-related-differences-in-interferon-regulatory-factor-4-and-5-signaling-in-ischemic-brains-of-mice
#15
Shou-Cai Zhao, Chun Wang, Heng Xu, Wen-Qian Wu, Zhao-Hu Chu, Ling-Song Ma, Ying-Dong Zhang, Fudong Liu
Stroke is a disease that mainly affects the elderly. Since the age-related differences in stroke have not been well studied, modeling stroke in aged animals is clinically more relevant. The inflammatory responses to stroke are a fundamental pathological procedure, in which microglial activation plays an important role. Interferon regulatory factor-5 (IRF5) and IRF4 regulate M1 and M2 activation of macrophages, respectively, in peripheral inflammation; but it is unknown whether IRF5/IRF4 are also involved in cerebral inflammatory responses to stroke and whether age-related differences of the IRF5/IRF4 signaling exist in ischemic brain...
November 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898280/ilc2s-activated-by-il-25-promote-antigen-specific-th2-and-th9-functions-that-contribute-to-the-control-of-trichinella-spiralis-infection
#16
Pornpimon Angkasekwinai, Wichuda Sodthawon, Siranart Jeerawattanawart, Adithap Hansakon, Kovit Pattanapanyasat, Yui-Hsi Wang
IL-25, an IL-17 family cytokine, derived from epithelial cells was shown to regulate Th2- and Th9-type immune responses. We previously reported that IL-25 was important in promoting efficient protective immunity against T. spiralis infection; however, the cellular targets of IL-25 to elicit type-2 immunity during infection have not yet been addressed. Here, we investigated IL-25-responding cells and their involvement in mediating type-2 immune response during T. spiralis infection. ILC2 and CD4+ Th2 cells residing in the gastrointestinal tract of T...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895866/specific-immunotypes-of-canine-t-cell-lymphoma-are-associated-with-different-outcomes
#17
Nariman Deravi, Olaf Berke, J Paul Woods, Dorothee Bienzle
Canine lymphoma is a heterogeneous disease with many different subtypes. Lymphoma of T cell type in particular is variable in outcome, and includes subtypes with non-progressive, slowly- and rapidly-progressive disease course. Association of immunotype with disease course is incompletely defined. Here, results of flow cytometric immunotyping of 127 canine T cell lymphomas were analyzed in relation to survival and progression free interval. Samples originated from 101 multicentric, 8 mediastinal, 6 cutaneous, 5 hepatosplenic, 5 gastrointestinal and 2 other anatomic subtypes of T cell lymphoma...
September 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884332/subchondral-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-osteoarthritic-knees-display-high-osteogenic-differentiation-capacity-through-microrna-29a-regulation-of-hdac4
#18
Wei-Shiung Lian, Ren-Wen Wu, Mel S Lee, Yu-Shan Chen, Yi-Chih Sun, Shing-Long Wu, Huei-Jing Ke, Jih-Yang Ko, Feng-Sheng Wang
Subchondral bone deterioration and osteophyte formation attributable to excessive mineralization are prominent features of end-stage knee osteoarthritis (OA). The cellular events underlying subchondral integrity diminishment remained elusive. This study was undertaken to characterize subchondral mesenchymal stem cells (SMSCs) isolated from patients with end-stage knee OA who required total knee arthroplasty. The SMSCs expressed surface antigens CD29, CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105, and CD166 and lacked CD31, CD45, and MHCII expression...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878289/persistence-within-dendritic-cells-marks-an-antifungal-evasion-and-dissemination-strategy-of-aspergillus-terreus
#19
Shih-Hung Hsieh, Oliver Kurzai, Matthias Brock
Aspergillus terreus is an airborne human fungal pathogen causing life-threatening invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. In contrast to Aspergillus fumigatus, A. terreus infections are associated with high dissemination rates and poor response to antifungal treatment. Here, we compared the interaction of conidia from both fungal species with MUTZ-3-derived dendritic cells (DCs). After phagocytosis, A. fumigatus conidia rapidly escaped from DCs, whereas A. terreus conidia remained persisting with long-term survival...
September 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876059/pentalinonsterol-a-constituent-of-pentalinon-andrieuxii-possesses-potent-immunomodulatory-activity-and-primes-t-cell-immune-responses
#20
Steve Oghumu, Sanjay Varikuti, Noushin Saljoughian, Cesar Terrazas, Andrew C Huntsman, Narasimham L Parinandi, James R Fuchs, A Douglas Kinghorn, Abhay R Satoskar
The use of natural products as adjuvants has emerged as a promising approach for the development of effective vaccine formulations. Pentalinonsterol (PEN) is a recently isolated compound from the roots of Pentalinon andrieuxii and has been shown to possess antileishmanial activity against Leishmania spp. The objective of this study was to examine the immunomodulatory properties of PEN and evaluate its potential as an adjuvant. Macrophages and bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) were stimulated with PEN and tested for gene expression, cytokine production, and their ability to activate T cells in vitro...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
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