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P K Binsi, Natasha Nayak, P C Sarkar, A Jeyakumari, P Muhamed Ashraf, George Ninan, C N Ravishankar
The synergistic efficacy of gum arabic and sage polyphenols in stabilising capsule wall and protecting fish oil encapsulates from heat induced disruption and oxidative deterioration during spray drying was assessed. The emulsions prepared with sodium caseinate as wall polymer, gum arabic as wall co-polymer and sage extract as wall stabiliser was spray dried using a single fluid nozzle. Fish oil encapsulates stabilised with gum arabic and sage extract (SOE) exhibited significantly higher encapsulation efficiency compared to encapsulates containing gum arabic alone (FOE)...
March 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Oumar Bashir, Jerome P Claverie, Pierre Lemoyne, Charles Vincent
Bacillus thuringiensis (B. t.) based formulations have been widely used to control lepidopteran pests in agriculture and forestry. One of their weaknesses is their short residual activity when sprayed in the field. Using Pickering emulsions, mixtures of spores and crystals from three B. t. serovars were successfully encapsulated in colloïdosomal microparticles (50 μm) using innocuous chemicals (acrylic particles, sunflower oil, iron oxide nanoparticles, ethanol and water). A pH trigger mechanism was incorporated within the particles so that B...
2016: PeerJ
Yanan Wang, Juan He, Hao Chen, Jiangshan Chen, Ruidong Zhu, Pin Ma, Andrew Towers, Yuan Lin, Andre J Gesquiere, Shin-Tson Wu, Yajie Dong
A simple yet general swelling-deswelling microencapsulation strategy has been developed to achieve well dispersed and intimately passivated crystalline organic-inorganic perovskites nanoparticles within polymer matrixes and results in a series of highly luminescent CH3 NH3 PbBr3 (MAPbBr3 )-polymer composite films with unprecedented water and thermal stabilities and superior color purity.
October 17, 2016: Advanced Materials
Jacob Barlow, Kevin Gozzi, Chase P Kelley, Benjamin M Geilich, Thomas J Webster, Yunrong Chai, Srinivas Sridhar, Anne L van de Ven
Encapsulating bacteria within constrained microenvironments can promote the manifestation of specialized behaviors. Using double-emulsion droplet-generating microfluidic synthesis, live Bacillus subtilis bacteria were encapsulated in a semi-permeable membrane composed of poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(D,L-lactic acid) (mPEG-PDLLA). This polymer membrane was sufficiently permeable to permit exponential bacterial growth, metabolite-induced gene expression, and rapid biofilm growth. The biodegradable microparticles retained structural integrity for several days and could be successfully degraded with time or sustained bacterial activity...
October 15, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Patricio Cabané Toledo, Ricardo L Rossi, Pablo Caviedes
Cell encapsulation is an alternative to avoid rejection of grafted tissue, thus bringing an interesting alternative in cell therapy. It is particularly relevant in ailments where only the implant of small quantities of tissues is warranted. In such circumstances, the use of immunosuppressive therapy in patients implanted with tissues from donors is debatable, yet unavoidable at present in order to prevent rejection and/or sensitization of the host to the tissue, in turn jeopardizing the success of successive implants...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Masayuki Shimoda, Shinichi Matsumoto
Allogeneic islet transplantation has become a viable option for the treatment of unstable type 1 diabetes; however, donor shortage and the necessity for immunosuppressive drugs are two major drawbacks of this treatment. Microencapsulated porcine islets can solve both of these drawbacks, and clinical trials have been conducted. Previous clinical trials demonstrated the safety and marginal efficacy of this treatment; therefore, it is necessary to improve its efficacy. The production of microencapsulated porcine islets consists of pancreas procurement, islet isolation, and microencapsulation...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Masayuki Shimoda, Shinichi Matsumoto
Allogeneic islet transplantation has become a viable treatment for patients with unstable type 1 diabetes; however, donor shortage and the necessity for immunosuppressive drugs are the major drawbacks of this approach. Microencapsulated porcine islet xenotransplantation could solve these drawbacks. Clinical porcine islet xenotransplantation as well as microencapsulated islet transplantation has been conducted without significant side effects. However, these transplantations are not as efficacious as allogeneic naked islet transplantation...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Riccardo Calafiore, Giuseppe Basta, Pia Montanucci
Microencapsulation technology, based on use of alginic acid biopolymers, has been devised many years ago. However, when intended for enveloping human islets for transplantation purposes, the method needs to be up-scaled and implemented with care being taken to comply with simple but important measures. It is almost indispensable to rely on an ultrapurified alginic polymers: in fact, any, even minimal, alginate contamination with endotoxins, pyrogens, and proteins could provoke the host's inflammatory reaction upon graft, with heavy adverse consequences on the capsules immunoprotective properties, hence on graft survival per se...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Surajit Mandal, Subrota Hati
Probiotics are dietary concepts to improve the dynamics of intestinal microbial balance favorably. Careful screening of probiotic strains for their technological suitability can also allow selection of strains with the best manufacturing and food technology characteristics. However, even the most robust probiotic bacteria are currently in the range of food applications to which they can be applied. Additionally, bacteria with exceptional functional heath properties are ruled out due to technological limitations...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
L Saenz Del Burgo, J Ciriza, R M Hernández, G Orive, J L Pedraz
The microencapsulation of different types of cells that are able to produce therapeutic factors is being investigated for the treatment of several human diseases. Most efforts are focused on chronic and degenerative diseases as this strategy could become an alternative to some commonly used parenteral treatments that need to be repeatedly administered. But, this approach has also been investigated in the field of oncology with the aim of providing immunomodulatory antibodies that are able to enhance the patient's inherent immune response against the tumor...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Shirae K Leslie, Ramsey C Kinney, Zvi Schwartz, Barbara D Boyan
An increasing demand to regenerate tissues from patient-derived sources has led to the development of cell-based therapies using autologous stem cells, thereby decreasing immune rejection of scaffolds coupled with allogeneic stem cells or allografts. Adult stem cells are multipotent and are readily available in tissues such as fat and bone marrow. They possess the ability to repair and regenerate tissue through the production of therapeutic factors, particularly vasculogenic proteins. A major challenge in cell-based therapies is localizing the delivered stem cells to the target site...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Sivanandane Sittadjody, Justin M Saul, Emmanuel C Opara
Two-dimensional (2D) culture systems do not represent the native microenvironment of the cells which is known to be three dimensional (3D), and surrounded by other cells from all directions. There exist interactions with other cell types in the same vicinity and this also cannot be replicated in a 2D culture. To study the cell-cell interactions between two or more cell types and their biological functions, a few 3D models have been used by different investigators. We have designed a 3D model to investigate the cell-cell interactions between various types of ovarian cells...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
J Ciriza, L Saenz Del Burgo, R M Hernández, G Orive, J L Pedraz
Alginate cell microencapsulation implies the immobilization of cells within a polymeric membrane that allows the bidirectional diffusion of nutrients and oxygen inside the microcapsules and the release of waste and therapeutic molecules outside them. This technology has been applied to several cell types and it has been extensively described with pancreatic islets. However, other cells such as myoblasts are being currently studied and showing high interest. Moreover, different systems and approaches have been developed for cell encapsulation such as electrostatic extrusion and Flow focusing technology...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Lanjuan Li, Yanhong Zhang, Xiaoping Pan
This method is used to prepare microencapsulation of hepatocytes. The key steps in the protocol are (a) isolation of porcine hepatocytes, followed by (b) production of hepatocytes encapsulation, and (c) evaluation of encapsulations and hepatocytes. This method of collecting porcine hepatocytes was first used in 2003 (Maruyama et al. Cell Transplant 12:593-598, 2003). Cell encapsulation technology was first introduced by Chang (Science 146:524-525, 1964) and later by Lim and Sun in 1980 (Science 210:908-910, 1980)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Kevin Enck, John Patrick McQuilling, Giuseppe Orlando, Riccardo Tamburrini, Sittadjody Sivanandane, Emmanuel C Opara
Islet transplantation (IT) has recently been shown to be a promising alternative to pancreas transplantation for reversing diabetes. IT requires the isolation of the islets from the pancreas, and these islets can be used to fabricate a bio-artificial pancreas. Enzymatic digestion is the current gold standard procedure for islet isolation but has lingering concerns. One such concern is that it has been shown to damage the islets due to nonselective tissue digestion. This chapter provides a detailed description of a nonenzymatic method that we are exploring in our lab as an alternative to current enzymatic digestion procedures for islet isolation from human and nonhuman pancreatic tissues...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
William F Kendall, Emmanuel C Opara
Since the discovery of insulin by Banting and Best in 1921, the prognosis and treatment options for individuals with diabetes have improved. The development of various insulin types, various oral agents, and insulin pumps have improved the available medical options for individuals afflicted with diabetes. The current need for frequent blood glucose monitoring imposed by multiple daily insulin injections, result in significant life-style challenges for in individuals afflicted with Type 1 diabetes (T1D). In contrast the use of surgical interventions, such as whole organ pancreas transplantation (PT) requires less-intensive glucose monitoring while the organ is viable...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
John Patrick McQuilling, Sivanandane Sittadjody, Rajesh Pareta, Samuel Pendergraft, Clancy J Clark, Alan C Farney, Emmanuel C Opara
Microencapsulation of islets is a procedure used to immunoisolate islets in order to obviate the need for immunosuppression of islet transplant recipients. Although microencapsulated islets have routinely been transplanted in the peritoneal cavity, the ideal site for their engraftment remains to be determined. The omentum, a highly vascularized tissue, has been proposed as an alternative site for microencapsulated islet transplantation. An added benefit to the omentum is that implanted microcapsules can be easily retrieved for post-transplant evaluation...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Genaro A Paredes-Juarez, Brad P Barnett, Jeff W M Bulte
This chapter presents a description of standardized techniques used routinely in our laboratory to encapsulate different cell types using the alginate-PLL-alginate immunoisolation system. Given the importance of noninvasive tracking of encapsulated cell transplants, we present a detailed guidance to achieve maximum efficiency and functionality of the capsule preparations for optimal tracking posttransplantation. The provided protocols cover tracking of encapsulated cells using magnetic resonance (MR), X-ray, computed tomography (CT), and ultrasound (US) imaging...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
John Patrick McQuilling, Emmanuel C Opara
A major obstacle to long-term performance of tissue construct implants in regenerative medicine is the inherent hypoxia to which cells in the engineered construct are exposed prior to vascularization of the implant. Various approaches are currently being designed to address this problem. An emerging area of interest on this issue is the use of peroxide-based materials to generate oxygen during the critical period of extended hypoxia that occurs from the time cells are in culture waiting to be used in tissue engineering devices through the immediate post-implant period...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Marcus D Darabbie, Emmanuel C Opara
The promise of pancreatic islet transplantation is hindered by organ shortage, and the need for immunosuppression of transplant recipient in order to prevent rejection. Alginate microencapsulation can overcome these hurdles; however further optimization of this technique is required. Among the critical factors to be optimized is the durability of alginate microcapsules, which can be determined by their mechanical strength tests. Here we describe several simple and reliable methods to assist in assessing the mechanical strength of alginate beads...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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