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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742880/same-day-hiv-testing-with-initiation-of-antiretroviral-therapy-versus-standard-care-for-persons-living-with-hiv-a-randomized-unblinded-trial
#1
Serena P Koenig, Nancy Dorvil, Jessy G Dévieux, Bethany L Hedt-Gauthier, Cynthia Riviere, Mikerlyne Faustin, Kerlyne Lavoile, Christian Perodin, Alexandra Apollon, Limathe Duverger, Margaret L McNairy, Kelly A Hennessey, Ariadne Souroutzidis, Pierre-Yves Cremieux, Patrice Severe, Jean W Pape
BACKGROUND: Attrition during the period from HIV testing to antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation is high worldwide. We assessed whether same-day HIV testing and ART initiation improves retention and virologic suppression. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted an unblinded, randomized trial of standard ART initiation versus same-day HIV testing and ART initiation among eligible adults ≥18 years old with World Health Organization Stage 1 or 2 disease and CD4 count ≤500 cells/mm3...
July 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742870/factors-contributing-to-food-insecurity-among-women-living-with-hiv-in-the-dominican-republic-a-qualitative-study
#2
Kathryn P Derose, Denise D Payán, María Altagracia Fulcar, Sergio Terrero, Ramón Acevedo, Hugo Farías, Kartika Palar
BACKGROUND: Food insecurity contributes to poor health outcomes among people living with HIV. In Latin America and the Caribbean, structural factors such as poverty, stigma, and inequality disproportionately affect women and may fuel both the HIV epidemic and food insecurity. METHODS: We examined factors contributing to food insecurity among women living with HIV (WLHIV) in the Dominican Republic (DR). Data collection included in-depth, semi-structured interviews in 2013 with 30 WLHIV with indications of food insecurity who resided in urban or peri-urban areas and were recruited from local HIV clinics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742676/committee-opinion-no-711-opioid-use-and-opioid-use-disorder-in-pregnancy
#3
(no author information available yet)
Opioid use in pregnancy has escalated dramatically in recent years, paralleling the epidemic observed in the general population. To combat the opioid epidemic, all health care providers need to take an active role. Pregnancy provides an important opportunity to identify and treat women with substance use disorders. Substance use disorders affect women across all racial and ethnic groups and all socioeconomic groups, and affect women in rural, urban, and suburban populations. Therefore, it is essential that screening be universal...
August 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742670/committee-opinion-no-711-summary-opioid-use-and-opioid-use-disorder-in-pregnancy
#4
(no author information available yet)
Opioid use in pregnancy has escalated dramatically in recent years, paralleling the epidemic observed in the general population. To combat the opioid epidemic, all health care providers need to take an active role. Pregnancy provides an important opportunity to identify and treat women with substance use disorders. Substance use disorders affect women across all racial and ethnic groups and all socioeconomic groups, and affect women in rural, urban, and suburban populations. Therefore, it is essential that screening be universal...
August 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742101/urban-rural-differences-in-disability-free-life-expectancy-in-bangladesh-using-the-2010-hies-data
#5
Md Shariful Islam, Md Ismail Tareque, Md Nazrul Islam Mondal, Ahbab Mohammad Fazle Rabbi, Hafiz T A Khan, Sharifa Begum
BACKGROUND: Research on health expectancy has been carried out in Bangladesh but none of it has examined the differences in Disability-Free Life Expectancy (DFLE) between urban and rural setting in context of rapid urbanization of Bangladesh in past decades. OBJECTIVES: The present study aims to estimate DFLE for people of all ages living in urban and rural areas in Bangladesh, and to examine the differences in DFLE between these two areas. METHODS: Data from the Sample Vital Registration System 2010 and the Bangladesh Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES) 2010 were used in this study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741616/rural-and-urban-residence-during-early-life-is-associated-with-a-lower-risk-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-population-based-inception-and-birth-cohort-study
#6
Eric I Benchimol, Gilaad G Kaplan, Anthony R Otley, Geoffrey C Nguyen, Fox E Underwood, Astrid Guttmann, Jennifer L Jones, Beth K Potter, Christina A Catley, Zoann J Nugent, Yunsong Cui, Divine Tanyingoh, Nassim Mojaverian, Alain Bitton, Matthew W Carroll, Jennifer deBruyn, Trevor J B Dummer, Wael El-Matary, Anne M Griffiths, Kevan Jacobson, M Ellen Kuenzig, Desmond Leddin, Lisa M Lix, David R Mack, Sanjay K Murthy, Juan Nicolás Peña Sánchez, Harminder Singh, Laura E Targownik, Maria Vutcovici, Charles N Bernstein
OBJECTIVES: To determine the association between inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and rural/urban household at the time of diagnosis, or within the first 5 years (y) of life. METHODS: Population-based cohorts of residents of four Canadian provinces were created using health administrative data. Rural/urban status was derived from postal codes based on population density and distance to metropolitan areas. Validated algorithms identified all incident IBD cases from administrative data (Alberta: 1999-2008, Manitoba and Ontario: 1999-2010, and Nova Scotia: 2000-2008)...
July 25, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741283/caring-for-young-children-with-asthma-perspectives-from-urban-community-health-centers
#7
Ellen Childs, Margaret A Laws, Mari-Lynn Drainoni, Anjali Nath, Margaret J Reid, Megan Sandel, Robyn T Cohen
Asthma disproportionately affects low-income, minority youth, with notable disparities among children <5 years of age. Understanding the perceptions of urban community health centers (CHCs) regarding treating young children with asthma could improve care for these patients. This study uses data from semi-structured focus groups with staff from eight urban CHCs. Themes emerged in three domains. Within the parent/family domain, providers noted low rates of follow-up visits, low health literacy, and-for young children specifically-misunderstanding about the diagnosis...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741282/reproductive-health-concerns-among-substance-using-women-in-community-corrections-in-new-york-city-understanding-the-role-of-environmental-influences
#8
Anindita Dasgupta, Alissa Davis, Louisa Gilbert, Dawn Goddard-Eckrich, Nabila El-Bassel
Women living in urban settings who are engaged in the criminal justice system are disproportionately affected by HIV and also contend with poor sexual and reproductive health (SRH). While studies have examined environmental influences of HIV, few have examined how these influences relate to poor SRH among this population. We used baseline data from an HIV-risk reduction study among substance-using women with a pregnancy history in community corrections in New York City (N = 299). We examined risk environment factors typically associated with HIV, and SRH outcomes of abortion, and miscarriage...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740851/burden-of-misconception-in-sexual-health-care-setting-a-cross-sectional-investigation-among-the-patients-attending-a-psychiatric-sex-clinic-of-bangladesh
#9
S M Yasir Arafat, Srijony Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Bangladesh is a country in South Asia with about 160 million people and achieved health related Millennium Development Goals (MDG) significantly. But sexual health is still an untapped issue with predominant myths and misconception. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to look into the proportions of patients attending sexual health care services due to misconceptions. METHODS: The descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted among 110 patients attending Psychiatric Sex Clinic (PSC) of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University...
2017: Psychiatry Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740850/the-role-of-dog-population-management-in-rabies-elimination-a-review-of-current-approaches-and-future-opportunities
#10
REVIEW
Louise H Taylor, Ryan M Wallace, Deepashree Balaram, Joann M Lindenmayer, Douglas C Eckery, Beryl Mutonono-Watkiss, Ellie Parravani, Louis H Nel
Free-roaming dogs and rabies transmission are integrally linked across many low-income countries, and large unmanaged dog populations can be daunting to rabies control program planners. Dog population management (DPM) is a multifaceted concept that aims to improve the health and well-being of free-roaming dogs, reduce problems they may cause, and may also aim to reduce dog population size. In theory, DPM can facilitate more effective rabies control. Community engagement focused on promoting responsible dog ownership and better veterinary care could improve the health of individual animals and dog vaccination coverage, thus reducing rabies transmission...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739490/are-single-children-more-likely-to-be-overweight-or-obese-than-those-with-siblings-the-influence-of-china-s-one-child-policy-on-childhood-obesity
#11
Jungwon Min, Hong Xue, Vivian H C Wang, Miao Li, Youfa Wang
China's one-child policy (1979-2015) has affected Chinese parenting practices and children's health behaviors and also may have contributed to increased childhood obesity. However, very limited research has investigated the association between one-child policy and childhood obesity. We examined characteristics of single-child families and the influence of one-child policy (indicated by single-child status) on children's weight status and related health behaviors. Data from children aged 6-18years old in the 2011 (n=1580) and 2000 (n=2317) China Health and Nutrition Survey were cross-sectionally analyzed with multilevel models...
July 21, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738805/spatial-variability-of-excess-mortality-during-prolonged-dust-events-in-a-high-density-city-a-time-stratified-spatial-regression-approach
#12
Man Sing Wong, Hung Chak Ho, Lin Yang, Wenzhong Shi, Jinxin Yang, Ta-Chien Chan
BACKGROUND: Dust events have long been recognized to be associated with a higher mortality risk. However, no study has investigated how prolonged dust events affect the spatial variability of mortality across districts in a downwind city. METHODS: In this study, we applied a spatial regression approach to estimate the district-level mortality during two extreme dust events in Hong Kong. We compared spatial and non-spatial models to evaluate the ability of each regression to estimate mortality...
July 24, 2017: International Journal of Health Geographics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738782/space-and-space-time-distributions-of-dengue-in-a-hyper-endemic-urban-space-the-case-of-girardot-colombia
#13
Mauricio Fuentes-Vallejo
BACKGROUND: Dengue is a widely spread vector-borne disease. Dengue cases in the Americas have increased over the last few decades, affecting various urban spaces throughout these continents, including the tourism-oriented city of Girardot, Colombia. Interactions among mosquitoes, pathogens and humans have recently been examined using different temporal and spatial scales in attempts to determine the roles that social and ecological systems play in dengue transmission. The current work characterizes the spatial and temporal behaviours of dengue in Girardot and discusses the potential territorial dynamics related to the distribution of this disease...
July 24, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738509/ambient-sediment-quality-conditions-in-minnesota-lakes-usa-effects-of-watershed-parameters-and-aquatic-health-implications
#14
Judy L Crane
Surficial sediments were collected from 50 randomly selected Minnesota lakes, plus four a priori reference lakes, in 2007. The lakes encompassed broad geographic coverage of the state and included a variety of major land uses in the surrounding watersheds. Sediment samples were analyzed for a suite of metals, metalloids, persistent organic pollutants, total organic carbon, and particle size fractions. In addition, a small fish survey was conducted to assess PBDEs in both whole fish and fish tissues. Sediment quality in this set of lakes ranged from good (43%) to moderate (57%) based on an integrative measure of multiple contaminants...
July 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738457/-survey-of-economic-burden-of-hepatitis-b-related-diseases-in-12-areas-in-china
#15
Q S Ma, S Liang, H W Xiao, S X Zhang, G H Zhuang, Y H Zou, H Z Tan, J C Liu, Y H Zhang, A Q Xu, L Zhang, X X Feng, D S Hu, F Z Wang, F Q Cui, X F Liang
Objective: Less surveys on the economic burden of hepatitis B (HB)-related diseases have been conducted in China, so the socioeconomic harm caused by the diseases is not clear and the key parameters for economic evaluation of hepatitis B prevention and treatment are lacking. This study aimed to analyze the direct, indirect and intangible expenditures of hospitalized patients with HB-related diseases during hospitalization and during a year in different areas of China. Methods: The hospitals for infectious diseases and the large general hospitals in 12 areas in China were selected in the study...
July 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738173/simulating-the-meteorology-and-pm10-concentrations-in-arizona-dust-storms-with-the-weather-research-and-forecasting-model-with-chemistry-wrf-chem
#16
Peter Hyde, Alex Mahalov, Jialun Li
Nine dust storms in south-central Arizona, USA were simulated with the Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry model (WRF-Chem) at 2-km resolution. The windblown dust emission algorithm was the Air Force Weather Agency model. In comparison with ground-based PM10 observations, the model unevenly reproduces the dust storm events. The model adequately estimates the location and timing of the events, but it is unable to precisely replicate the magnitude and timing of the elevated hourly concentrations of particles 10 microns and smaller ([PM10])...
July 24, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737718/experimental-study-on-the-health-benefits-of-garden-landscape
#17
Juyoung Lee
To mitigate the negative effects of modern cities on health, scientists are focusing on the diverse benefits of natural environments; a conceptual approach to use gardens for promoting human health is being attempted. In this study, the effects of the visual landscape of a traditional garden on psychological and physiological activities were investigated. Eighteen male and female adults participated in this indoor experiment (mean age, 26.7 years). Twelve different landscape images for city and garden were presented continuously for 90 s...
July 24, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737319/-sexual-violence-in-urban-environments-example-in-the-city-of-lubumbashi-democratic-republic-of-the-congo
#18
Simon Ilunga Kandolo, Bienfait Mwarabu Much Apa, Charles Matungulu Matungulu, Jean-Baptiste Kakoma Sakatolo Zambeze
: Gender-based sexual violence, which constitutes a denial of human rights and health remains a real public health problem in the DRC in general and especially in Lubumbashi.<np pagenum="126"/> </ce:para>.
March 6, 2017: Santé Publique: Revue Multidisciplinaire Pour la Recherche et L'action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737066/%C3%AE-blockade-in-heart-failure-with-reduced-ejection-fraction-does-heart-rate-control-influence-readmissions
#19
Ryan E Owens, Jennifer D Twilla, Timothy H Self, Abdulrahman I Alshaya, Carlvin J Metra, Carolyn Cummings, Carrie S Oliphant
BACKGROUND: Raised resting heart rate (HR), >70 beats per minute (bpm), has been shown to be a risk factor for adverse cardiovascular outcomes and hospital readmissions, specifically in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HF rEF). Given their mortality benefit, β-blockers are recommended in HF rEF, with a goal to titrate to a maximum tolerated dose rather than a specific HR target. OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of optimal HR control achievement prior to hospital discharge on hospital readmissions in patients with HF rEF receiving β-blockade...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736897/taking-culture-seriously-can-we-improve-the-developmental-health-and-well-being-of-australian-aboriginal-children-in-out-of-home-care
#20
S Raman, S Ruston, S Irwin, P Tran, P Hotton, S Thorne
BACKGROUND: Children in out-of-home care have well-documented health and developmental needs. Research suggests that Aboriginal children in care have unmet health and intervention needs. In metropolitan Sydney, Kari Aboriginal Resources Inc. (KARI), an Aboriginal organization, provides support to indigenous children in care, including clinical assessment and intervention. We wanted to determine the health and developmental needs of a subset of children in out-of-home care with KARI, who had been in stable care for at least a year...
July 23, 2017: Child: Care, Health and Development
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