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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730213/magnetic-separation-its-application-in-mining-waste-purification-medicine-biochemistry-and-chemistry
#1
REVIEW
M Iranmanesh, J Hulliger
The use of strong magnetic field gradients and high magnetic fields generated by permanent magnets or superconducting coils has found applications in many fields such as mining, solid state chemistry, biochemistry and medical research. Lab scale or industrial implementations involve separation of macro- and nanoparticles, cells, proteins, and macromolecules down to small molecules and ions. Most promising are those attempts where the object to be separated is attached to a strong magnetic nanoparticle. Here, all kinds of specific affinity interactions are used to attach magnetic carrier particles to mainly objects of biological interest...
July 21, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711872/cell-scientist-to-watch-kevin-corbett
#2
(no author information available yet)
Kevin Corbett graduated in biology and biochemistry from the University of Virginia. He then went to the University of California, Berkeley, to work on the structure and function of DNA topoisomerases in bacteria and archaea for his PhD with James Berger. In 2005, he moved to the laboratory of Stephen Harrison at Harvard Medical School for his postdoctoral work on kinetochore structure and function, particularly the yeast monopolin complex, which promotes proper chromosome segregation in the first meiotic division...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698906/comparative-ultrastructure-of-fruit-plastids-in-three-genetically-diverse-genotypes-of-apple-malus%C3%A2-%C3%A3-%C3%A2-domestica-borkh-during-development
#3
Scott M Schaeffer, Ryan Christian, Nohely Castro-Velasquez, Brennan Hyden, Valerie Lynch-Holm, Amit Dhingra
Comparative ultrastructural developmental time-course analysis has identified discrete stages at which the fruit plastids undergo structural and consequently functional transitions to facilitate subsequent development-guided understanding of the complex plastid biology. Plastids are the defining organelle for a plant cell and are critical for myriad metabolic functions. The role of leaf plastid, chloroplast, is extensively documented; however, fruit plastids-chromoplasts-are poorly understood, especially in the context of the diverse metabolic processes operating in these diverse plant organs...
July 11, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693388/sending-and-receiving-hedgehog-signals
#4
Kostadin Petrov, Bradley M Wierbowski, Adrian Salic
Communication between cells pervades the development and physiology of metazoans. In animals, this process is carried out by a relatively small number of signaling pathways, each consisting of a chain of biochemical events through which extracellular stimuli control the behavior of target cells. One such signaling system is the Hedgehog pathway, which is crucial in embryogenesis and is implicated in many birth defects and cancers. Although Hedgehog pathway components were identified by genetic analysis more than a decade ago, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of signaling is far from complete...
July 10, 2017: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683932/marine-mammal-cell-cultures-to-obtain-to-apply-and-to-preserve
#5
REVIEW
A V Boroda
The world's oceans today have become a place for the disposal of toxic waste, which leads to the degradation of marine mammal habitats and populations. Marine mammal cell cultures have proven to be a multifunctional tool for studying the peculiarities of the cell physiology and biochemistry of these animals as well as the destructive effects of anthropogenic and natural toxicants. This review describes the sources of marine mammal live tissues and the methods required for establishing cell cultures, their use, and long-term storage...
June 29, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683923/computational-biochemistry-enzyme-mechanisms-explored
#6
Martin Culka, Florian J Gisdon, G Matthias Ullmann
Understanding enzyme mechanisms is a major task to achieve in order to comprehend how living cells work. Recent advances in biomolecular research provide huge amount of data on enzyme kinetics and structure. The analysis of diverse experimental results and their combination into an overall picture is, however, often challenging. Microscopic details of the enzymatic processes are often anticipated based on several hints from macroscopic experimental data. Computational biochemistry aims at creation of a computational model of an enzyme in order to explain microscopic details of the catalytic process and reproduce or predict macroscopic experimental findings...
2017: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670831/varying-iron-release-from-transferrin-and-lactoferrin-proteins-a-laboratory-experiment
#7
Fernando Carmona, Ana González, Manu Sánchez, Natividad Gálvez, Rafael Cuesta, Mercè Capdevila, Jose M Dominguez-Vera
Iron metabolism is an important subject of study for undergraduate students of chemistry and biochemistry. Relevant laboratory exercises are scarce in the literature but would be very helpful in assisting students grasp key concepts. The experiment described here deals with different iron release mechanisms of two protagonists in iron metabolism: serum transferrin (Tf) and lactoferrin (Lf). Despite having very similar structures and iron-binding sites, Tf releases practically all its iron at pH 5.5 while Lf requires a significantly lower pH of 3...
July 3, 2017: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668129/what-combined-measurements-from-structures-and-imaging-tell-us-about-dna-damage-responses
#8
Chris A Brosey, Zamal Ahmed, Susan P Lees-Miller, John A Tainer
DNA damage outcomes depend upon the efficiency and fidelity of DNA damage responses (DDRs) for different cells and damage. As such, DDRs represent tightly regulated prototypical systems for linking nanoscale biomolecular structure and assembly to the biology of genomic regulation and cell signaling. However, the dynamic and multifunctional nature of DDR assemblies can render elusive the correlation between the structures of DDR factors and specific biological disruptions to the DDR when these structures are altered...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654031/treatment-of-ligament-constructs-with-exercise-conditioned-serum-a-translational-tissue-engineering-model
#9
Ann Lee-Barthel, Keith Baar, Daniel W D West
In vitro experiments are essential to understand biological mechanisms; however, the gap between monolayer tissue culture and human physiology is large, and translation of findings is often poor. Thus, there is ample opportunity for alternative experimental approaches. Here we present an approach in which human cells are isolated from human anterior cruciate ligament tissue remnants, expanded in culture, and used to form engineered ligaments. Exercise alters the biochemical milieu in the blood such that the function of many tissues, organs and bodily processes are improved...
June 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641482/insights-into-eukaryotic-evolution-from-transmembrane-domain-lengths
#10
Aditya Mittal, Snigdha Singh
Biological membranes, comprised of proteins anchored by their trans-membrane domains (TMDs) creating a semi-permeable phase with lipid constituents, serve as "checkposts" for not only intracellular trafficking in eukaryotic cells but also for material transactions of all living cells with external environments. Hydropathy (or hydrophobicity) plots of "bitopic" proteins (i.e. having single alpha-helical TMDs) are routinely utilized in biochemistry texts for predicting their TMDs. The number of amino acids (i...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640580/a-bioinspired-alginate-gum-arabic-hydrogel-with-micro-nanoscale-structures-for-controlled-drug-release-in-chronic-wound-healing
#11
Mi Li, Haichang Li, Xiangguang Li, Hua Zhu, Zihui Xu, Lianqing Liu, Jianjie Ma, Mingjun Zhang
Biopolymeric hydrogels have drawn increasing research interest in biomaterials due to their tunable physical and chemical properties for both creating bioactive cellular microenvironment and serving as sustainable therapeutic reagents. Inspired by a naturally occurring hydrogel secreted from the carnivorous Sundew plant for trapping insects, here we have developed a bioinspired hydrogel to deliver mitsugumin 53 (MG53), an important protein in cell membrane repair, for chronic wound healing. Both chemical compositions and micro-/nanomorphological properties inherent from the natural Sundew hydrogel were mimicked using sodium alginate and gum arabic with calcium ion-mediated cross-linking...
July 12, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636874/next-generation-matrix-metalloproteinase-inhibitors-novel-strategies-bring-new-prospects
#12
REVIEW
Maxim Levin, Yael Udi, Inna Solomonov, Irit Sagi
Enzymatic proteolysis of cell surface proteins and extracellular matrix (ECM) is critical for tissue homeostasis and cell signaling. These proteolytic activities are mediated predominantly by a family of proteases termed matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). The growing evidence in recent years that ECM and non-ECM bioactive molecules (e.g., growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, on top of matrikines and matricryptins) have versatile functions redefines our view on the roles matrix remodeling enzymes play in many physiological and pathological processes, and underscores the notion that ECM proteolytic reaction mechanisms represent master switches in the regulation of critical biological processes and govern cell behavior...
June 18, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635300/pyridine-dinucleotides-from-molecules-to-man
#13
Joshua P Fessel, William M Oldham
SIGNIFICANCE: Pyridine dinucleotides, NAD and NADP, were discovered over 100 years ago as necessary cofactors for fermentation in yeast extracts. Since that time, these molecules have been recognized as fundamental players in a variety of cellular processes, including energy metabolism, redox homeostasis, cellular signaling, and gene transcription, among many others. Given their critical role as mediators of cellular responses to metabolic perturbations, it is unsurprising that dysregulation of NAD and NADP metabolism has been associated with the pathobiology of many chronic human diseases...
June 21, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630007/rna-localization-making-its-way-to-the-center-stage
#14
REVIEW
Ashley Chin, Eric Lécuyer
Cells are highly organized entities that rely on intricate addressing mechanisms to sort their constituent molecules to precise subcellular locations. These processes are crucial for cells to maintain their proper organization and carry out specialized functions in the body, consequently genetic perturbations that clog up these addressing systems can contribute to disease aetiology. The trafficking of RNA molecules represents an important layer in the control of cellular organization, a process that is both highly prevalent and for which features of the regulatory machineries have been deeply conserved evolutionarily...
June 16, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627759/vibrational-biospectroscopy-characterises-biochemical-differences-between-cell-types-used-for-toxicological-investigations-and-identifies-alterations-induced-by-environmental-contaminants
#15
Kelly A Heys, Richard F Shore, M Glória Pereira, Francis L Martin
The use of cell-based assays is essential in reducing the number of vertebrates used in the investigation of chemical toxicities and in regulatory toxicology assessment. An important factor in obtaining meaningful results which can be accurately extrapolated is the use of biologically appropriate cell lines. In this preliminary study, ATR-FTIR spectroscopy with multivariate analysis was used to assess the fundamental biomolecular differences between a commonly used cell line, MCF-7 cells, and an environmentally relevant cell line derived from Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) dermal fibroblasts...
June 19, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627731/cell-migration-analysis-a-low-cost-laboratory-experiment-for-cell-and-developmental-biology-courses-using-keratocytes-from-fish-scales
#16
Daniel Prieto, Gonzalo Aparicio, Jose R Sotelo-Silveira
Cell and developmental processes are complex, and profoundly dependent on spatial relationships that change over time. Innovative educational or teaching strategies are always needed to foster deep comprehension of these processes and their dynamic features. However, laboratory exercises in cell and developmental biology at the undergraduate level do not often take into account the time dimension. In this article, we provide a laboratory exercise focused in cell migration, aiming to stimulate thinking in time and space dimensions through a simplification of more complex processes occurring in cell or developmental biology...
June 19, 2017: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620095/responses-to-cytokines-and-interferons-that-depend-upon-jaks-and-stats
#17
George R Stark, HyeonJoo Cheon, Yuxin Wang
Many cytokines and all interferons activate members of a small family of kinases (the Janus kinases [JAKs]) and a slightly larger family of transcription factors (the signal transducers and activators of transcription [STATs]), which are essential components of pathways that induce the expression of specific sets of genes in susceptible cells. JAK-STAT pathways are required for many innate and acquired immune responses, and the activities of these pathways must be finely regulated to avoid major immune dysfunctions...
June 15, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612300/effects-of-photobiomodulation-therapy-on-bothrops-moojeni-snake-envenomed-gastrocnemius-of-mice-using-enzymatic-biomarkers
#18
Doroty Mesquita Dourado, Rosemary Matias, Marcos Barbosa-Ferreira, Baldomero Antonio Kato da Silva, Jéssica de Araujo Isaias Muller, Willians Fernando Vieira, Maria Alice da Cruz-Höfling
Bothropic venom contains a range of biologically active substances capable of causing severe local and systemic envenoming symptomatology within its victims. The snake anti-venom is effective against systemic effects but has no neutralizing effect against the fast developing local effects. Herein, mice gastrocnemius injected with Bothrops moojeni venom (40 μg/kg) or saline solution were irradiated with HeNe (632.8 nm) and GaAs (904 nm) lasers (daily energy density of 4 J/cm(2); 0.03/0.21 power density; 0...
June 13, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601063/molecular-mechanisms-of-ovarian-carcinoma-metastasis-key-genes-and-regulatory-micrornas
#19
REVIEW
E A Braga, M V Fridman, N E Kushlinskii
Metastasis of primary tumors progresses stepwise - from change in biochemistry, morphology, and migratory patterns of tumor cells to the emergence of receptors on their surface that facilitate directional migration to target organs followed by the formation of a specific microenvironment in a target organ that helps attachment and survival of metastatic cells. A set of specific genes and signaling pathways mediate this process under control of microRNA. The molecular mechanisms underlying biological processes associated with tumor metastasis are reviewed in this publication using ovarian cancer, which exhibits high metastatic potential, as an example...
May 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585084/glycomic-and-glycoproteomic-analysis-of-glycoproteins-a-tutorial
#20
Asif Shajahan, Christian Heiss, Mayumi Ishihara, Parastoo Azadi
The structural analysis of glycoproteins is a challenging endeavor and is under steadily increasing demand, but only a very limited number of labs have the expertise required to accomplish this task. This tutorial is aimed at researchers from the fields of molecular biology and biochemistry that have discovered that glycoproteins are important in their biological research and are looking for the tools to elucidate their structure. It provides brief descriptions of the major and most common analytical techniques used in glycomics and glycoproteomics analysis, including explanations of the rationales for individual steps and references to published literature containing the experimental details necessary to carry out the analyses...
July 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
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