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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898041/ribosome-inactivating-proteins-from-plants-a-historical-overview
#1
REVIEW
Andrea Bolognesi, Massimo Bortolotti, Stefania Maiello, Maria Giulia Battelli, Letizia Polito
This review provides a historical overview of the research on plant ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs), starting from the first studies at the end of eighteenth century involving the purification of abrin and ricin, as well as the immunological experiments of Paul Erlich. Interest in these plant toxins was revived in 1970 by the observation of their anticancer activity, which has given rise to a large amount of research contributing to the development of various scientific fields. Biochemistry analyses succeeded in identifying the enzymatic activity of RIPs and allowed for a better understanding of the ribosomal machinery...
November 26, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890639/oxidized-c5-methyl-cytosine-bases-in-dna-5-hydroxymethylcytosine-5-formylcytosine-and-5-carboxycytosine
#2
Arne Klungland, Adam B Robertson
Recent reports suggest that the Tet enzyme family catalytically oxidize 5-methylcytosine in mammalian cells. The oxidation of 5-methylcytosine can result in three chemically distinct species - 5-hydroxymethylcytsine, 5-formylcytosine, and 5-carboxycytosine. While the base excision repair machinery processes 5-formylcytosine and 5-carboxycytosine rapidly, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine is stable under physiological conditions. As a stable modification 5-hydroxymethylcytosine has a broad range of functions, from stem cell pluriopotency to tumorigenesis...
November 24, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889603/two-symbiotic-bacteria-of-the-entomopathogenic-nematode-heterorhabditis-spp-against-galleria-mellonella
#3
Chunli Liao, Along Gao, Bingbing Li, Mengjun Wang, Linna Shan
The entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis spp. is considered a promising agent in the biocontrol of injurious insects of agriculture. However, different symbiotic bacteria associated with the nematode usually have different specificity and virulence toward their own host. In this study, two symbiotic bacteria, LY2W and NK, were isolated from the intestinal canals of two entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis megidis 90 (PDSj1 and PDSj2) from Galleria mellonela, separately. To determine their species classification, we carried out some investigations on morphology, culture, biochemistry, especially 16S rDNA sequence analyses...
November 23, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888721/discovery-of-resveratrol-derivatives-as-novel-lsd1-inhibitors-design-synthesis-and-their-biological-evaluation
#4
Ying-Chao Duan, Yuan-Yuan Guan, Xiao-Yu Zhai, Li-Na Ding, Wen-Ping Qin, Dan-Dan Shen, Xue-Qi Liu, Xu-Dong Sun, Yi-Chao Zheng, Hong-Min Liu
Inhibition of lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) has recently emerged as an attractive therapeutic target for treating cancer and other diseases. As a continuity of our ongoing effort to identify novel small-molecule LSD1-inhibitors, we designed and synthesized a series of resveratrol derivatives, which were shown to be potent inhibitors of LSD1. Among them, compounds 4e and 4m displayed the most potent LSD1-inhibitory activities in enzyme assays, with IC50 values of 121 nM and 123 nM, respectively. Biochemistry study and docking analysis indicated that compounds 4e and 4m were reversible LSD1 inhibitors...
November 16, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882040/a-new-model-of-master-of-philosophy-in-physiological-sciences
#5
H R Ahmad, F M Arain, N A Khan
The objectives of Master of Philosophy (MPhil) in Physiological Sciences are: 1) to describe the new ways in which anatomy, biochemistry and physiology on one hand, and microbiology, pathology and pharmacology on other hand meet their functional requirements through multidisciplinary integrated concepts; 2) to elucidate relationships between cell biology, molecular biology and molecular genetics by connecting dots of how cell functions are driven by molecules and being controlled by genes. This forms the basis of cell, molecular and genetics [CMG] module upon which 7 multidisciplinary modules of Physiological Sciences follow; 3) these 24 credit hours provide the physiological basis for PhD studies as well as faculty development to enhance learning abilities of medical student; 4) the modules constitute Cardio- Respiratory Physiological Sciences, GI and Renal Physiological Sciences, Neurosciences, Endo-Reproductive Physiological Sciences...
September 2016: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873457/using-yeast-to-determine-the-functional-consequences-of-mutations-in-the-human-p53-tumor-suppressor-gene-an-introductory-course-based-undergraduate-research-experience-in-molecular-and-cell-biology
#6
Daria S Hekmat-Scafe, Sara E Brownell, Patricia Chandler Seawell, Shyamala Malladi, Jamie F Conklin Imam, Veena Singla, Nicole Bradon, Martha S Cyert, Tim Stearns
The opportunity to engage in scientific research is an important, but often neglected, component of undergraduate training in biology. We describe the curriculum for an innovative, course-based undergraduate research experience (CURE) appropriate for a large, introductory cell and molecular biology laboratory class that leverages students' high level of interest in cancer. The course is highly collaborative and emphasizes the analysis and interpretation of original scientific data. During the course, students work in teams to characterize a collection of mutations in the human p53 tumor suppressor gene via expression and analysis in yeast...
November 22, 2016: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871847/fatty-acids-composition-in-erythrocyte-membranes-of-athletes-after-one-and-after-a-series-of-whole-body-cryostimulation-sessions
#7
Magdalena Kepinska, Joanna Gdula-Argasinska, Zbigniew Dabrowski, Marta Szarek, Wanda Pilch, Agnieszka Kreska-Korus, Zbigniew Szygula
Whole body cryotherapy (WBC) is a treatment often used by athletes as part of biological renewal. Despite the large interest in this form therapy there is still a lack of information on the effects of WBC on the concentration of fatty acids in erythrocyte membranes. Our study aimed at comparing the fatty acids (FA) composition of erythrocyte membranes of athletes after one session and after a series of sessions of whole body cryostimulation. In our study small changes in the level of total cholesterol (decrease) were observed 24 h after a single session...
November 18, 2016: Cryobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865781/imaging-transcriptional-regulation-of-eukaryotic-mrna-genes-advances-and-outlook
#8
REVIEW
Jie Yao
Regulation of eukaryotic transcription in vivo occurs at distinct stages. Previous research has identified many active or repressive transcription factors and core transcription components, and studied their functions in vitro and in vivo. Nonetheless, how individual transcription factors act in concert to regulate mRNA gene expression in a single cell remains poorly understood. Direct observation of transcription factor assembly, disassembly and various biochemical reactions during transcription of a single-copy gene in vivo is the ideal approach to study this problem...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863069/a-straightforward-method-to-produce-decellularized-dermis-based-matrices-for-tumor-cell-cultures
#9
Virginia Brancato, Maurizio Ventre, Giorgia Imparato, Francesco Urciuolo, Concetta Meo, Paolo A Netti
Decellularized matrices are steadily gaining popularity to study the biology of cells and tissues, since they represent a biomimetic environment in which cells can recapitulate certain behaviors that share similarities with those observed in vivo. Basically, biochemistry, microstructure and mechanics of the decellularized matrices are the most valuable properties that differentiate these culturing systems from conventional bidimensional models. Several procedures to decellularize tissues have been proposed so far, with the common aim to preserve the tissue chemical/physical properties of the original tissue...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856508/how-cells-respond-to-environmental-cues-insights-from-bio-functionalized-substrates
#10
REVIEW
Verena Ruprecht, Pascale Monzo, Andrea Ravasio, Zhang Yue, Ekta Makhija, Pierre Olivier Strale, Nils Gauthier, G V Shivashankar, Vincent Studer, Corinne Albiges-Rizo, Virgile Viasnoff
Biomimetic materials have long been the (he)art of bioengineering. They usually aim at mimicking in vivo conditions to allow in vitro culture, differentiation and expansion of cells. The past decade has witnessed a considerable amount of progress in soft lithography, bio-inspired micro-fabrication and biochemistry, allowing the design of sophisticated and physiologically relevant micro- and nano-environments. These systems now provide an exquisite toolbox with which we can control a large set of physicochemical environmental parameters that determine cell behavior...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846706/a-framework-for-discrete-stochastic-simulation-on-3d-moving-boundary-domains
#11
Brian Drawert, Stefan Hellander, Michael Trogdon, Tau-Mu Yi, Linda Petzold
We have developed a method for modeling spatial stochastic biochemical reactions in complex, three-dimensional, and time-dependent domains using the reaction-diffusion master equation formalism. In particular, we look to address the fully coupled problems that arise in systems biology where the shape and mechanical properties of a cell are determined by the state of the biochemistry and vice versa. To validate our method and characterize the error involved, we compare our results for a carefully constructed test problem to those of a microscale implementation...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834739/systematic-approaches-to-identify-e3-ligase-substrates
#12
REVIEW
Mary Iconomou, Darren N Saunders
Protein ubiquitylation is a widespread post-translational modification, regulating cellular signalling with many outcomes, such as protein degradation, endocytosis, cell cycle progression, DNA repair and transcription. E3 ligases are a critical component of the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS), determining the substrate specificity of the cascade by the covalent attachment of ubiquitin to substrate proteins. Currently, there are over 600 putative E3 ligases, but many are poorly characterized, particularly with respect to individual protein substrates...
November 15, 2016: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826853/methods-of-synchronization-of-yeast-cells-for-the-analysis-of-cell-cycle-progression
#13
M Angeles Juanes
Cell division is a fascinating and fundamental process that sustains life. By this process, unicellular organisms reproduce and multicellular organisms sustain development, growth, and tissue repair. Division of a mother cell gives rise to two daughter cells according to an ordered set of events within four successive phases called G1 (gap1), S (DNA Synthesis), G2 (gap2), and M (Mitosis) phase. How these different phases are orchestrated to ensure the physical separation of the two daughter cells is a tightly regulated process...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807934/semester-long-inquiry-based-molecular-biology-laboratory-transcriptional-regulation-in-yeast
#14
Peter M Oelkers
A single semester molecular biology laboratory has been developed in which students design and execute a project examining transcriptional regulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Three weeks of planning are allocated to developing a hypothesis through literature searches and use of bioinformatics. Common experimental plans address a cell process and how three genes that encode for proteins involved in that process are transcriptionally regulated in response to changing environmental conditions. Planning includes designing oligonucleotides to amplify the putative promoters of the three genes of interest...
November 3, 2016: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797139/tuberous-sclerosis-complex-from-molecular-biology-to-novel-therapeutic-approaches
#15
REVIEW
Katarzyna Switon, Katarzyna Kotulska, Aleksandra Janusz-Kaminska, Justyna Zmorzynska, Jacek Jaworski
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a rare multi-system disorder, primary manifestations of which are benign tumors and lesions in various organs of the body, including the brain. TSC patients often suffer from epilepsy, mental retardation, and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Therefore, TSC serves as a model of epilepsy, ASD, and tumorigenesis. TSC is caused by the lack of functional Tsc1-Tsc2 complex, which serves as a major cellular inhibitor of mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1). mTORC1 is a kinase controlling most of anabolic processes in eukaryotic cells...
October 31, 2016: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796947/prenatal-mammary-gland-development-in-the-mouse-research-models-and-techniques-for-its-study-from-past-to-present
#16
Jacqueline M Veltmaat
Mammary gland development starts during prenatal life, when at designated positions along the ventrolateral boundary of the embryonic or fetal trunk, surface ectodermal cells coalesce to form primordia for mammary glands, instead of differentiating into epidermis. With the wealth of genetically engineered mice available as research models, our understanding of the prenatal phase of mammary development has recently greatly advanced. This understanding includes the recognition of molecular and mechanistic parallels between prenatal and postnatal mammary morphogenesis and even tumorigenesis, much of which can moreover be extrapolated to human...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789699/proteome-pi-proteome-isoelectric-point-database
#17
Lukasz P Kozlowski
Proteome-pI is an online database containing information about predicted isoelectric points for 5029 proteomes calculated using 18 methods. The isoelectric point, the pH at which a particular molecule carries no net electrical charge, is an important parameter for many analytical biochemistry and proteomics techniques, especially for 2D gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE), capillary isoelectric focusing, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and X-ray protein crystallography. The database, available at http://isoelectricpointdb...
October 26, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784333/genomic-resources-for-a-unique-low-virulence-babesia-taxon-from-china
#18
Guiquan Guan, Pasi K Korhonen, Neil D Young, Anson V Koehler, Tao Wang, Youquan Li, Zhijie Liu, Jianxun Luo, Hong Yin, Robin B Gasser
BACKGROUND: Babesiosis is a socioeconomically important tick-borne disease of animals (including humans) caused by haemoprotozoan parasites. The severity of babesiosis relates to host and parasite factors, particularly virulence/pathogenicity. Although Babesia bovis is a particularly pathogenic species of cattle, there are species of Babesia of ruminants that have limited pathogenicity. For instance, the operational taxonomic unit Babesia sp. Xinjiang (abbreviated here as Bx) of sheep from China is substantially less virulent/pathogenic than B...
October 27, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778286/biochemical-and-mass-spectrometry-based-approaches-to-profile-sumoylation-in-human-cells
#19
Benedikt M Kessler, Sara Bursomanno, Joanna F McGouran, Ian D Hickson, Ying Liu
Posttranslational modification of proteins with the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) regulates protein function in the context of cell cycle and DNA repair. The occurrence of SUMOylation is less frequent as compared to protein modification with ubiquitin, and appears to be controlled by a smaller pool of conjugating and deconjugating enzymes. Mass spectrometry has been instrumental in defining specific as well as proteome-wide views of SUMO-dependent biological processes, and several methodological approaches have been developed in the recent past...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776404/curcumin-inhibits-pkc%C3%AE-activity-by-binding-to-its-c1-domain
#20
Satyabrata Pany, Youngki You, Joydip Das
Curcumin is a polyphenolic nutraceutical that acts on multiple biological targets, including protein kinase C (PKC). PKC is a family of serine-threonine kinases central to intracellular signal transduction. We have recently shown that curcumin selectively inhibits PKCα, but not PKCε in CHO-K1 cells (Pany, S. (2016) Biochemistry 55, 2135-43). To understand which domain(s) of PKCα is/are responsible for curcumin binding and inhibitory activity, we made several domain-swapped mutants in which the C1 (combination of C1A and C1B) and C2 domains are swapped between PKCα and PKCε...
October 24, 2016: Biochemistry
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