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biochemistry and cell biology

Philip D Stahl, Graça Raposo
Over the course of the past several decades, the concept that extracellular vesicles, exosomes and microvesicles, operate as cellular "housekeepers" and as agents for communication between and among cells and tissues, has emerged into one of the most promising yet vexing problems facing the biomedical community. Already, extracellular vesicles from biological fluids are being used for diagnostic purposes and hopes abound for their use as therapeutic agents. However, the most basic mechanistic questions surrounding their biogenesis and function in cellular and tissue homeostasis remain largely unexplored...
May 15, 2018: Essays in Biochemistry
Simon L Goodman
Commercial research antibodies are crucial tools in modern cell biology and biochemistry. In the USA some $2 billion a year are spent on them, but many are apparently not fit-for-purpose, and this may contribute to the 'reproducibility crisis' in biological sciences. Inadequate antibody validation and characterization, lack of user awareness, and occasional incompetence amongst suppliers have had immense scientific and personal costs. In this Opinion, I suggest some paths to make the use of these vital tools more successful...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
Anna F Edlund, Katrina Olsen, Christian Mendoza, Jing Wang, Trudyann Buckley, Mai Nguyen, Brooke Callahan, Heather A Owen
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Despite attempts to degrade the sporopollenin in pollen walls, this material has withstood a hundred years of experimental treatments and thousands of years of environmental attack in insects and soil. We present evidence that sporopollenin, nonetheless, locally degrades only minutes after pollination in Arabidopsis thaliana flowers, and describe here a two-part pollen germination mechanism in A. thaliana involving both chemical weakening of the exine wall and swelling of the underlying intine...
August 2017: American Journal of Botany
Jon M Fukuto, Louis J Ignarro, Peter Nagy, David A Wink, Christopher G Kevil, Martin Feelisch, Miriam M Cortese-Krott, Christopher L Bianco, Yoshito Kumagai, Adrian J Hobbs, Joseph Lin, Tomoaki Ida, Takaaki Akaike
The chemical biology of thiols (RSH, e.g., cysteine and cysteine containing proteins/peptides) has been a topic of extreme interest for many decades due to their reported roles in protein structure/folding, redox signaling, metal ligation, cellular protection and enzymology. While many of the studies on thiol/sulfur biochemistry have focused on thiols, relatively ignored have been hydropersulfides (RSSH) and higher order polysulfur species (RSSn H, RSSn R, n > 1). Recent and provocative work has alluded to the prevalence and likely physiological importance of RSSH and related RSSn H...
May 12, 2018: FEBS Letters
Christopher M Jakobson, Daniel F Jarosz
Prion-like proteins have the capacity to adopt multiple stable conformations, at least one of which can recruit proteins from the native conformation into the alternative fold. Although classically associated with disease, prion-like assembly has recently been proposed to organize a range of normal biochemical processes in space and time. Organisms from bacteria to mammals use prion-like mechanisms to (re)organize their proteome in response to intracellular and extracellular stimuli. Prion-like behavior is an economical means to control biochemistry and gene regulation at the systems level, and prions can act as protein-based genes to facilitate quasi-Lamarckian inheritance of induced traits...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Systems Biology
Shih-Yu Chen, Yi-Lun Tsai, Suen-Chuain Lin, Yeong-Huey Wu, Ming-Huei Liao, Ching-Dong Chang, Tsung-Hsien Li, Hsiao-Kuang Ho
Hematology and serum biochemistry reference values are essential for health evaluation and disease diagnosis in penguins. However, there are currently no published physiological values for captive Adélie (Pygoscelis adeliae) and Chinstrap penguins (P. antarcticus), nor for wild or captive Macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus). The present study is the first investigation regarding hematology and serum biochemistry reference values for captive Adélie, Gentoo (P. papua), Chinstrap, and Macaroni penguins in Asia...
May 3, 2018: Zoo Biology
K R Konrad, T Maierhofer, R Hedrich
Changes in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]cyt) serve to transmit information in eukaryotic cells. The involvement of this second messenger in plant cell growth as well as osmotic- and water relations is well established. After almost 40 years of intense research on the coding and decoding of plant Ca2+ signals, numerous proteins involved in Ca2+ action have been identified. However, we are still far from understanding the complexity of Ca2+ networks. New in vivo Ca2+ imaging techniques combined with molecular genetics allow visualisation of spatio-temporal aspects of Ca2+ signalling...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Antonio Santisteban-Espejo, Fernando Campos, Laura Martin-Piedra, Daniel Durand-Herrera, Jose A Moral-Munoz, Antonio Campos, Miguel Angel Martin-Piedra
Tissue engineering is defined as a multidisciplinary scientific discipline with the main objective to develop artificial bioengineered living tissues in order to regenerate damaged or lost tissues. Since its appearance in 1988, tissue engineering has globally spreaded in order to improve current therapeutical approaches, entailing a revolution in clinical practice. The aim of this study is to analyze global research trends on tissue engineering publications in order to realize the scenario of tissue engineering research from 1991 to 2016 by using document retrieval from Web of Science database and bibliometric analysis...
April 24, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Gregory Reeves, Pallavi Singh, Timo A Rossberg, Deedi Sogbohossou, M Eric Schranz, Julian M Hibberd
Engineering C4 photosynthesis into C3 crops could substantially increase their yield by alleviating photorespiratory losses. This objective is challenging because the C4 pathway involves complex modifications to the biochemistry, cell biology and anatomy of leaves. Forward genetics has provided limited insight into the mechanistic basis of these properties, and there have been no reports of significant quantitative intra-specific variation of C4 attributes that would allow trait mapping. Here, we show that accessions of the C4 species Gynandropsis gynandra collected from locations across Africa and Asia exhibit natural variation in key characteristics of C4 photosynthesis...
April 20, 2018: Plant Physiology
E D Sverdlov
The review is devoted to unsolvable problems of biology. 1) Problems unsolvable due to stochastic mutations occurring during DNA replication that make it impossible to create two identical organisms or even two identical complex cells (Sverdlov, E. D. (2009) Biochemistry (Moscow), 74, 939-944) and to "defeat" cancer. 2) Problems unsolvable due to multiple interactions in complex systems leading to the appearance of unpredictable emergent properties that prevent establishment of unambiguous relationships between the genetic architecture and phenotypic manifestation of the genome and make impossible to predict with certainty responses of the organism, its parts, or pathological processes to external factors...
April 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Hiroyuki Oshikane, Masahiko Watabe, Toshio Nakaki
Recombinant techniques for target protein production have been rapidly established and widely utilised in today's biological research. Nevertheless, methods for membrane protein production have yet to be developed, since membrane proteins generally tend to be expressed at low levels, easily aggregated, and/or even toxic to their host cells. Here we report that a GFP-tagging technique can be applied for the stable production of membrane proteins that are toxic to their host cells when overexpressed, paving the way for future advances in membrane protein biochemistry and drug development...
March 27, 2018: Protein Expression and Purification
K Becker, S Schwaiger, B Waltenberger, D Fuchs, C K Pezzei, H Schennach, H Stuppner, J M Gostner
Several phytochemicals were shown to interfere with redox biology in the human system. Moreover, redox biochemistry is crucially involved in the orchestration of immunological cascades. When screening for immunomodulatory compounds, the two interferon gamma- (IFN- γ -) dependent immunometabolic pathways of tryptophan breakdown via indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO-1) and neopterin formation by GTP-cyclohydrolase 1 (GTP-CH-I) represent prominent targets, as IFN- γ -related signaling is strongly sensitive to oxidative triggers...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Faming Wang, Yan Zhang, Zhi Du, Jinsong Ren, Xiaogang Qu
As a powerful tool for chemical biology, bioorthogonal chemistry broadens the ways to explore the mystery of life. In this field, transition metal catalysts (TMCs) have received much attention because TMCs can rapidly catalyze chemical transformations that cannot be accomplished by bio-enzymes. However, fine controlling chemical reactions in living systems like bio-enzymes is still a great challenge. Herein, we construct a versatile light-controlled bioorthogonal catalyst by modifying macroporous silica-Pd0 with supramolecular complex of azobenzene (Azo) and β-cyclodextrin (CD)...
March 23, 2018: Nature Communications
José Wojnacki, Thierry Galli
Autophagy breaks down nonessential cellular components to replenish macromolecular building blocks during starvation. Nevertheless, the downstream events regulating vesicle trafficking during this essential cellular process are not yet fully defined. Xu et al. combined approaches of crystallography, biochemistry, and cell biology to show that the guanine nucleotide exchange factor DENND3 contains an actin-binding site they call "PHenn domain" in a region previously thought to be unstructured. PHenn domain binding to microfilaments is necessary for DENND3's participation in autophagy, providing a new link between autophagic stimulation and actin microfilaments...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Anthony N Milin, Ashok A Deniz
Compartmentalization of biochemical components, interactions, and reactions is critical for the function of cells. While intracellular partitioning of molecules via membranes has been extensively studied, there has been an expanding focus in recent years on the critical cellular roles and biophysical mechanisms of action of membraneless organelles (MLOs) such as the nucleolus. In this context, a substantial body of recent work has demonstrated that liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) plays a key role in MLO formation...
March 23, 2018: Biochemistry
Xinhua Chen, Ruiqing Zhang, Hao Wen
The impact of ultrashort nanopulse on cellular membrane is of biological significance and thus has been studied intensively. Different from cell study, this ex vivo study aims to investigate the biological effects of nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) on an independent multimembrane parasite, human hydatid cyst, to observe the unique influence of nanopulse on macromembrane structure, permeabilization, and biochemistry. The 300 ns nsPEF was delivered on an experimental model of single human hydatid cyst ex vivo with eight different parameters...
2018: BioMed Research International
Mingjun Gu
Aim: Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common type of thyroid cancer. Infiltrative growth and metastasis are the two most intractable characteristics of PTC. Interleukin-13 receptor α2 (IL13Rα2) with high affinity for Th2-derived cytokine IL-13 has been reported to be overexpressed in several tumors. In this study, an analysis of IL13Rα2 expression in PTC and matched paracancerous tissues was undertaken, and its biologic functions in PTC were assessed. Methods: IL13Rα2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression were detected by using real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry analyses...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Asra Parveen, Vijaykumar B Malashetty, Bhagavanraju Mantripragada, Manjunath S Yalagatti, Venkataraman Abbaraju, Raghunandan Deshpande
Gold nanoparticles offer a great promise in clinical research. Despite various applications of the metal nanoparticles it is challenging to implement in vivo in clinical applications . This aspect is deprived of understanding the biological mechanisms that occurs in the cells. In this report we have evaluated application of AuNP on the safety profile at different doses (100, 200, and 500 μg/kg Bwt/day) on intravenous administration in rats regularly for 28 days. The study was performed based on the OECD test guideline 407...
December 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Yuval Elani, Tatiana Trantidou, Douglas Wylie, Linda Dekker, Karen Polizzi, Robert V Law, Oscar Ces
There is increasing interest in constructing artificial cells by functionalising lipid vesicles with biological and synthetic machinery. Due to their reduced complexity and lack of evolved biochemical pathways, the capabilities of artificial cells are limited in comparison to their biological counterparts. We show that encapsulating living cells in vesicles provides a means for artificial cells to leverage cellular biochemistry, with the encapsulated cells serving organelle-like functions as living modules inside a larger synthetic cell assembly...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Alan K Itakura, Raymond A Futia, Daniel F Jarosz
To survive, organisms must orchestrate competing biochemical and regulatory processes in time and space. Recent work has suggested that the underlying chemical properties of some biomolecules allow them to self-organize and that life may have exploited this property to organize biochemistry in space and time. Such phase separation is ubiquitous, particularly among the many regulatory proteins that harbor prion-like intrinsically disordered domains. And yet, despite evident regulation by post-translational modification and myriad other stimuli, the biological significance of many phase-separated compartments remains uncertain...
May 1, 2018: Biochemistry
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