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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063488/analyses-of-calcium-independent-phospholipase-a2beta-ipla2%C3%AE-in-biological-systems
#1
S E Barbour, S Ramanadham
The Ca(2+)-independent phospholipases A2 (iPLA2s) are part of a diverse family of PLA2s, manifest activity in the absence of Ca(2+), are ubiquitous, and participate in a variety of biological processes. Among the iPLA2s, the cytosolic iPLA2β has received considerable attention and ongoing studies from various laboratories suggest that dysregulation of iPLA2β can have a profound impact on the onset and/or progression of many diseases (e.g., cardiovascular, neurological, metabolic, autoimmune). Therefore, appropriate approaches are warranted to gain a better understanding of the role of iPLA2β in vivo and its contribution to pathophysiology...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062838/enzymes-as-modular-catalysts-for-redox-half-reactions-in-h2-powered-chemical-synthesis-from-biology-to-technology
#2
REVIEW
Holly A Reeve, Philip A Ash, HyunSeo Park, Ailun Huang, Michalis Posidias, Chloe Tomlinson, Oliver Lenz, Kylie A Vincent
The present study considers the ways in which redox enzyme modules are coupled in living cells for linking reductive and oxidative half-reactions, and then reviews examples in which this concept can be exploited technologically in applications of coupled enzyme pairs. We discuss many examples in which enzymes are interfaced with electronically conductive particles to build up heterogeneous catalytic systems in an approach which could be termed synthetic biochemistry We focus on reactions involving the H(+)/H2 redox couple catalysed by NiFe hydrogenase moieties in conjunction with other biocatalysed reactions to assemble systems directed towards synthesis of specialised chemicals, chemical building blocks or bio-derived fuel molecules...
January 15, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052921/the-circadian-oscillator-of-the-cerebral-cortex-molecular-biochemical-and-behavioral-effects-of-deleting-the-arntl-clock-gene-in-cortical-neurons
#3
Tenna Bering, Mikkel Bloss Carstensen, Gitta Wörtwein, Pia Weikop, Martin Fredensborg Rath
A molecular circadian oscillator resides in neurons of the cerebral cortex, but its role is unknown. Using the Cre-LoxP method, we have here abolished the core clock gene Arntl in those neurons. This mouse represents the first model carrying a deletion of a circadian clock component specifically in an extrahypothalamic cell type of the brain. Molecular analyses of clock gene expression in the cerebral cortex of the Arntl conditional knockout mouse revealed disrupted circadian expression profiles, whereas clock gene expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus was still rhythmic, thus showing that Arntl is required for normal function of the cortical circadian oscillator...
January 3, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043965/cell-scientist-to-watch-madeline-lancaster
#4
(no author information available yet)
Madeline Lancaster received her first degree in biochemistry from the Occidental College in Los Angeles, California, and continued to follow her interests by pursuing a PhD in biomedical sciences in the laboratory of Joseph Gleeson at University of California, San Diego. She then left the USA to train as a postdoctoral fellow with Jürgen Knoblich at the Institute of Molecular Biotechnology of the Austrian Academy of Sciences in Vienna. Madeline was a recipient of the EMBO, Helen Hay Whitney and Marie Curie Incoming Fellowships, and in 2014 her work was recognised when she was awarded the Eppendorf Award for Young Investigators...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043964/interview-with-the-guest-editor-andrew-ewald
#5
(no author information available yet)
Andrew Ewald is an Associate Professor of Cell Biology, Oncology and Biomedical Engineering at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. He joined the Johns Hopkins faculty in 2008, after postdoctoral work with Zena Werb in mammary biology and cancer at the University of California, San Francisco. Andrew earned his PhD in 2003 in biochemistry and molecular biophysics from the California Institute of Technology, studying with Scott Fraser. Andrew studies how organs form and how breast cancer progresses to metastasis...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040509/integration-of-proteomics-and-metabolomics-to-elucidate-metabolic-adaptation-in-leishmania
#6
Snezhana Akpunarlieva, Stefan Weidt, Dhilia Lamasudin, Christina Naula, David Henderson, Michael Barrett, Karl Burgess, Richard Burchmore
: Leishmania parasites multiply and develop in the gut of a sand fly vector in order to be transmitted to a vertebrate host. During this process they encounter and exploit various nutrients, including sugars, and amino and fatty acids. We have previously generated a mutant Leishmania line that is deficient in glucose transport and which displays some biologically important phenotypic changes such as reduced growth in axenic culture, reduced biosynthesis of hexose-containing virulence factors, increased sensitivity to oxidative stress, and dramatically reduced parasite burden in both insect vector and macrophage host cells...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032413/variation-in-external-representations-as-part-of-the-classroom-lecture-an-investigation-of-virtual-cell-animations-in-introductory-photosynthesis-instruction
#7
Eric E Goff, Katie M Reindl, Christina Johnson, Phillip McClean, Erika G Offerdahl, Noah L Schroeder, Alan R White
The use of external representations (ERs) to introduce concepts in undergraduate biology has become increasingly common. Two of the most prevalent are static images and dynamic animations. While previous studies comparing static images and dynamic animations have resulted in somewhat conflicting findings in regards to learning outcomes, the benefits of each have been shown individually. Using ERs developed by the Virtual Cell Animation project, we aim to further investigate student learning using different ERs as part of an introductory biology lecture...
December 28, 2016: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027953/neurophysiological-assessment-of-neural-network-plasticity-and-connectivity-progress-towards-early-functional-biomarkers-for-disease-interception-therapies-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
REVIEW
C Walsh, W H I M Drinkenburg, A Ahnaou
Despite a great deal of research into Alzheimer's disease (AD) over the last 20 years, an effective treatment to halt or slow its progression has yet to be developed. With many aspects of the disease progression still to be elucidated, focus has shifted from reducing levels of amyloid β (Aβ) in the brains of AD patients towards tau, another pathology, which initiates much earlier in deeper brainstem networks and is thought to propagate via cell-to-cell processes prior to the onset of amyloid pathology and cognitive impairments...
December 24, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009974/dissonance-strikes-a-chord-in-stilbene-synthesizers
#9
Cynthia K Holland, Barbara Cascella, Joseph M Jez
In this issue of Cell Chemical Biology, Mori et al. (2016) combine X-ray crystallography and biochemistry to discover a new mechanism for stilbene synthesis in bacteria. The dialkyl-condensing enzyme StlD catalyzes formation of cyclohexanediones using a non-canonical β-ketosynthase active site. Aromatization by StlC completes production of the stilbene product.
December 22, 2016: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007610/structure-biochemistry-and-biology-of-pak-kinases
#10
REVIEW
Rakesh Kumar, Rahul Sanawar, Xiaodong Li, Feng Li
PAKs, p21-activated kinases, play central roles and act as converging junctions for discrete signals elicited on the cell surface and for a number of intracellular signaling cascades. PAKs phosphorylate a vast number of substrates and act by remodeling cytoskeleton, employing scaffolding, and relocating to distinct subcellular compartments. PAKs affect wide range of processes that are crucial to the cell from regulation of cell motility, survival, redox, metabolism, cell cycle, proliferation, transformation, stress, inflammation, to gene expression...
March 20, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005420/exposure-memory-and-lung-regeneration
#11
Young-Mi Go, Dean P Jones
Many acute and chronic lung diseases could benefit from improved regeneration therapy. In development and throughout life, genetically encoded exposure memory systems allow environmental exposures, diet, and infectious agents to direct subsequent phenotypic adaptation and responses. The impact of such memory systems on lung regeneration is currently unknown. This article provides a brief overview of advances in redox biology and medicine as a framework for elucidating exposure memory and delineating spatiotemporal responses in lung regeneration...
December 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004582/weighted-protein-interaction-network-analysis-of-frontotemporal-dementia
#12
Raffaele Ferrari, Ruth C Lovering, John Hardy, Patrick A Lewis, Claudia Manzoni
The genetic analysis of complex disorders has undoubtedly led to the identification of a wealth of associations between genes and specific traits. However, moving from genetics to biochemistry one gene at a time has, to date, rather proved inefficient and under-powered to comprehensively explain the molecular basis of phenotypes. Here we present a novel approach - weighted protein-protein interaction network analysis (W-PPI-NA) - to highlight key functional players within relevant biological processes associated with a given trait...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000509/chip-does-it-work-correctly-the-optimization-steps-of-chromatin-immunoprecipitation
#13
Małgorzata Kus-Liśkiewicz
The proteins interaction with DNA is one of the key regulatory elements of many biological processes; including gene transcription, epigenetic modification or cell differentiation. Immunoprecipitation of chromatin; ChIP; is a method used to assess the interaction of the protein with a DNA sequence, and determines the localization of specific locus in the genome. The main steps of this method are fixation, sonication, immunoprecipitation and analysis of DNA. Although the immunoprecipitation assay is a multipurpose tool applied in biochemistry and biotechnology, it requires optimization...
December 2016: Acta Biologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980055/cell-scientist-to-watch-megan-king
#14
(no author information available yet)
Megan king received her BA in biochemistry from Brandeis University and then pursued a PhD degree in Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics at the University of Pennsylvania working in the group of Mark Lemmon. For her postdoctoral training, Megan chose the laboratory of Günter Blobel at the Rockefeller University in New York. Since starting her own group at the Cell Biology Department at Yale School of Medicine in 2009, Megan was named a Searle Scholar and her work has been recognised with the NIH Director's New Innovator Award in 2011...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977168/spectral-and-hydrodynamic-analysis-of-west-nile-virus-rna-protein-interactions-by-multiwavelength-sedimentation-velocity-in-the-analytical-ultracentrifuge
#15
Jin Zhang, Joseph Z Pearson, Gary E Gorbet, Helmut Cölfen, Markus W Germann, Margo A Brinton, Borries Demeler
Interactions between nucleic acids and proteins are critical for many cellular processes, and their study is of utmost importance to many areas of biochemistry, cellular biology, and virology. Here, we introduce a new analytical method based on sedimentation velocity (SV) analytical ultracentrifugation, in combination with a novel multiwavelength detector to characterize such interactions. We identified the stoichiometry and molar mass of a complex formed during the interaction of a West Nile virus RNA stem loop structure with the human T cell-restricted intracellular antigen-1 related protein...
December 15, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976698/epithelial-ovarian-carcinoma-diagnosis-by-desorption-electrospray-ionization-mass-spectrometry-imaging
#16
Maria Luisa Dória, James S McKenzie, Anna Mroz, David L Phelps, Abigail Speller, Francesca Rosini, Nicole Strittmatter, Ottmar Golf, Kirill Veselkov, Robert Brown, Sadaf Ghaem-Maghami, Zoltan Takats
Ovarian cancer is highly prevalent among European women, and is the leading cause of gynaecological cancer death. Current histopathological diagnoses of tumour severity are based on interpretation of, for example, immunohistochemical staining. Desorption electrospray mass spectrometry imaging (DESI-MSI) generates spatially resolved metabolic profiles of tissues and supports an objective investigation of tumour biology. In this study, various ovarian tissue types were analysed by DESI-MSI and co-registered with their corresponding haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained images...
December 15, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960153/cftr-controls-the-activity-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-by-enhancing-the-degradation-of-tradd
#17
Hua Wang, Liudmila Cebotaru, Ha Won Lee, QingFeng Yang, Bette S Pollard, Harvey B Pollard, William B Guggino
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Chronic lung infection in cystic fibrosis leads to an inflammatory response that persists because of the chronic presence of bacteria and ultimately leads to a catastrophic failure of lung function. METHODS: We use a combination of biochemistry, cell and molecular biology to study the interaction of TRADD, a key adaptor molecule in TNFα signaling, with CFTR in the regulation of NFκB. RESULTS: We show that Wt CFTR binds to and colocalizes with TRADD...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934165/aspirin-based-carbon-dots-a-good-biocompatibility-of-material-applied-for-bioimaging-and-anti-inflammation
#18
Xiaowei Xu, Kai Zhang, Liang Zhao, Chen Li, Wenhuan Bu, Yuqin Shen, Zhongyi Gu, Bei Chang, Changyu Zheng, Chongtao Lin, Hongchen Sun, Bai Yang
The emerging photoluminescent carbon-based nanomaterials are promising in various fields besides cell imaging and carrier transport. Carbon nanomaterials with specific biological functions, however, are rarely investigated. Aspirin is a very common anti-inflammatory medication to relieve aches and pains. In this study, we have tried to create a carbon nanoparticle with aspirin, and we expect that this new carbon nanoparticle will have both anti-inflammatory and fluorescent biomarker functions. Fluorescent aspirin-based carbon dots (FACDs) were synthesized by condensing aspirin and hydrazine through a one-step microwave-assisted method...
December 7, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933725/cellular-engineering-for-therapeutic-protein-production-product-quality-host-modification-and-process-improvement
#19
REVIEW
Evan Wells, Anne Skaja Robinson
Recombinant proteins offer many therapeutic advantages unavailable in traditional small molecule drugs, but the need for cellular versus chemical synthesis complicates production. Avenues for producing therapeutic biologics are continuously expanding, and developments in biochemistry, cell biology, and bioengineering fuel new discoveries that promise safer, more efficient, and cheaper drugs for consumers. Numerous approaches to express recombinant proteins exist, but Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and mammalian systems (e...
December 9, 2016: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924069/retrograde-trafficking-of-vmat2-and-its-role-in-protein-stability-in-non-neuronal-cells
#20
Qiuzi Wu, Hongfei Xu, Wei Wang, Fei Chang, Yu Jiang, Yongjian Liu
Increasing evidence suggests that the impaired neuroprotection of vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) contributes to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. That has been linked to aberrant subcellular retrograde trafficking as strongly indicated by recent genomic studies on familial Parkinson's diseases. However, whether VMAT2 function is regulated by retrograde trafficking is unknown. By using biochemistry and cell biology approaches, we have shown that VMAT2 was stringently localized to the trans-Golgi network and underwent retrograde trafficking in non-neuronal cells...
November 2016: Journal of Biomedical Research
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