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inner city

Christina M Pollard, Bruce Mackintosh, Cathy Campbell, Deborah Kerr, Andrea Begley, Jonine Jancey, Martin Caraher, Joel Berg, Sue Booth
Australian efforts to address food insecurity are delivered by a charitable food system (CFS) which fails to meet demand. The scope and nature of the CFS is unknown. This study audits the organisational capacity of the CFS within the 10.9 square kilometres of inner-city Perth, Western Australia. A desktop analysis of services and 12 face-to-face interviews with representatives from CFS organisations was conducted. All CFS organisations were not-for⁻profit and guided by humanitarian or faith-based values. The CFS comprised three indirect services (IS) sourcing, banking and/or distributing food to 15 direct services (DS) providing food to recipients...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Bo Wang, Dunsheng Xia, Ye Yu, Hong Chen, Jia Jia
We studied the magnetic properties and trace element concentrations (Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Ti, V, Zn) of urban topsoils from 111 urban sites in a large REE-Nb-Fe mining and smelting city, Baotou, Inner Mongolia, China. The results show that pseudo-single domain and multi-domain magnetite dominates the magnetic properties of the soil samples, and the magnetic concentration parameters show a large positive anomaly near the Baotou iron and steel works. The average contents of all trace metals exceeded their background level in soils in Inner Mongolia, except for Pb...
June 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Stanislav Spivak, Bernadette Cullen, William Eaton, Katie Nugent, Amethyst Spivak, Ashley Fenton, Katrina Rodriguez, Ramin Mojtabai
Prevalence and correlates of prescription opioid use were explored in individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) by examining a sample of adults from two inner city community psychiatry clinics. Of 271 participants, 12.9% (n = 35) were on a prescribed opioid. Being on an opioid was significantly associated with history of heroin use and active prescription sedative-hypnotic use, including benzodiazepine use. Concurrent use of opioids with sedative-hypnotics was significantly associated with suicidal ideation...
May 31, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Xiaoyan Li, Limin Yang, Yongxing Ren, Huiying Li, Zongming Wang
The Changchun⁻Jilin Economic Zone (CJEZ) is one of the most rapidly developing areas in Northeast China, as well as one of the famous golden maize belts in the world. This is a case study to assess the impacts of urban sprawl on soil resources using remote sensing imagery and geographic spatial analysis methods. The common urbanization intensity index (CUII), soil quality index, and soil landscape metrics were calculated to reflect urbanization and the response of soil resource. Results showed that the area of soil sealing changed from 112,460 ha in 2000 to 139,233 ha in 2015, and in the rural region, the area occupied by urbanization nearly kept balance with the area of rural residential expansion...
June 6, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Felicity Mayer, Debra Bick, Cath Taylor
BACKGROUND: Cardiac disease is associated with adverse outcomes in pregnancy and is the leading cause of indirect maternal death in the United Kingdom (UK) and internationally. National and international guidelines recommend women should receive care from multidisciplinary teams; however evidence is lacking to inform how they should be operationalised. OBJECTIVES: To describe the composition and processes of multidisciplinary care between maternity and cardiac services before, during and after pregnancy for women with cardiac disease, and explore clinicians' (cardiologists, obstetricians, nurses, midwives) and women's experiences of delivering/receiving care within these models...
May 22, 2018: International Journal of Nursing Studies
Wiebke Bartels, Simon Adamson, Lisa Leung, Don D Sin, Stephan F van Eeden
Rationale: Readmissions are common following acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) and are partially responsible for increased morbidity and mortality in COPD. Numerous factors have been shown to predict readmission of patients previously admitted to hospital for AECOPD; however, factors related to readmission in patients who are triaged in emergency departments (EDs) and sent directly home are poorly understood. We postulate that patients seen in the ED for AECOPD and directly sent home have a high readmission rate, and we suspect that inadequate management and follow-up contribute to this high readmission rate...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Jessica Rieder, Agnieszka Cain, Erica Carson, Andrea Benya, Paul Meissner, Carmen R Isasi, Judith Wylie-Rosett, Neal Hoffman, Colleen Kelly, Ellen J Silver, Laurie J Bauman
Effective obesity prevention and treatment interventions are lacking in the United States, especially for impoverished minority youths at risk for health disparities, and especially in accessible community-based settings. We describe the launch and pilot implementation evaluation of the first year of the B'N Fit POWER initiative as a middle school-based comprehensive wellness program that integrates weight management programming into existing onsite preventive and clinical services. Consistent with the existing implementation science literature, we focused on both the organizational structures that facilitate communication and the development of trust among stakeholders, students, and families and the development of realistic and timely goals to implement and integrate all aspects of the program...
2018: Journal of Obesity
M Tish Knobf, Diane Erdos, Sangchoon Jeon
There is strong evidence for the need to educate and empower women of color breast cancer survivors (WCBCS) to adopt healthy lifestyle behaviors. The purpose of this study was to explore feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a culturally grounded lifestyle intervention on functional ability, quality of life, and health behaviors. A community-based sample of WCBCS was recruited from two inner cities, with encouragement to invite a partner. There were 30 WCBCS and 10 partners who participated in the 6-week interactive intervention...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Psychosocial Oncology
Bao Gang Shi, Hai Wei Yin, Fan Hua Kong
Green facade is an important strategy to improve the urban eco-environment and reduce the negative effects of human activities in central districts of cities which are land-scarce and lack green spaces. We first summarized the limiting factors for the construction of green facades locally and internationally. Then, we used the Xinjiekou District of Nanjing City in China as a case study area, and selected the wind environment, solar environment, and physical build environment that might impact the potential development of green facades as key factors to quantitatively analyze singlely by geographic information systems (GIS) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD)...
May 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Nazish Imran, Atif Rahman, Nakhshab Chaudhry, Aftab Asif
BACKGROUND: The teacher's role in school mental health initiatives cannot be overemphasized. Despite global evidence of educational interventions in improving teachers' knowledge and attitudes regarding mental health, this area remains under researched in Pakistan. This paper presents a study protocol of a pilot randomized controlled trial to examine the effectiveness of a teacher training intervention for improving mental health literacy and self-efficacy among school teachers in urban Lahore, Pakistan...
May 24, 2018: Trials
I Guardiola-Avila, V Martínez-Vázquez, R Requena-Castro, K Juárez-Rendón, M G Aguilera-Arreola, G Rivera, V Bocanegra-García
The Rio Bravo (Rio Grande) adjoins various states in the Mexican region and has a great importance in water distribution in the northeast Tamaulipas (Mexico). In this work 161 strains were isolated, identified and characterized from the water samples taken from the flow of the Rio Bravo and the two inner canals that cover Reynosa city. The strains were identified as V. cholerae (74.5%), Vibrio spp. (1.2%) and V. mimicus (0.6%). Furthermore, the detected virulence genes in the V. cholerae strains, were the hlyA, ompU, tcpA, toxR genes in 78...
May 23, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
George Hadjipavlou, Colleen Varcoe, David Tu, Jennifer Dehoney, Roberta Price, Annette J Browne
BACKGROUND: Mental health services in urban settings generally have not been adapted to serve the needs of Indigenous patients. We explored how patients' encounters with Indigenous Elders affected their overall mental health and well-being to identify therapeutic mechanisms underlying improvement. METHODS: We conducted qualitative interviews of participants enrolled in a 6-month prospective mixed-methods evaluation of a program for mental health and well-being that featured the inclusion of Elders in the direct care of Indigenous patients in an inner city primary care clinic...
May 22, 2018: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
Anka A Vujanovic, Margaret C Wardle, Jafar Bakhshaie, Lia J Smith, Charles E Green, Scott D Lane, Joy M Schmitz
Cue reactivity has great potential to advance our understanding of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), substance use disorder (SUD), and PTSD/SUD comorbidity. The present investigation examined distress tolerance (DT) with regard to trauma and substance cue reactivity. Participants included 58 low-income, inner-city adults (49.1% women; Mage = 45.73, SD = 10.00) with substance dependence and at least 4 symptoms of PTSD. A script-driven cue reactivity paradigm was utilized. Four DT measures were administered, including the Distress Tolerance Scale (DTS), Mirror-Tracing Persistence Task (MTPT), Breath-Holding Task (BH), and Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT)...
May 2018: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
Anant Dinesh, Thais Polanco, Khurram Khan, Alexius Ramcharan, Ryan Engdahl
Pediatric burns in the urban environment present special problems. Inner-city communities may be unique with hardships due to various socioeconomic factors. There is lack of literature analyzing pediatric burns in the inner-city, and there has been no report to date reviewing Harlem New York City, one of the most challenged areas in the nation. The aim of this study is to understand the pre-hospital circumstances, socioeconomic factors and management of pediatric burns admitted to our hospital. A retrospective review was performed including all patients aged 0-18 years admitted to the burn care unit from January 2006-May 2017...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
Marc L Martel, Brian H Imdieke, Kayla M Holm, Sara Poplau, William G Heegaard, Jon L Pryor, Mark Linzer
BACKGROUND: Medical scribes are frequently incorporated into the patient care model to improve provider efficiency and enable providers to refocus their attention to the patient rather than the electronic health record (EHR). The medical scribe program was based on four pillars (objectives): (1) provider satisfaction, (2) standardized documentation, (3) documentation components for risk adjustment, and (4) revenue enhancement. METHODS: The medical scribe program was deployed in nine non-resident-supported clinics (internal medicine, ophthalmology, orthopedics, hematology/oncology, urology), with the medical scribes (who have no clinical duties) supporting both physicians and advanced practice providers (nurse practitioners and physician assistants)...
May 2018: Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety
Cristal Oxley, Omer S Moghraby, Rani Samuel, Dan W Joyce
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by a persistent, pervasive pattern of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. Stimulant medication such as methylphenidate has an established evidence base in the treatment of children and adolescents with ADHD. However, it is also associated with a risk of side effects which may include decreased appetite, increased blood pressure and possible reduced growth. Monitoring physical health in children and adolescents prescribed medication for ADHD is a key clinical responsibility and includes a number of parameters as outlined in the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence Guidelines...
2018: BMJ Open Quality
Ricardo da Silva Antunes, John Pham, Curtis McMurtrey, William H Hildebrand, Elizabeth Phillips, Simon Mallal, John Sidney, Paula Busse, Bjoern Peters, Véronique Schulten, Alessandro Sette
Mouse allergy in both laboratory workers and in inner-city children is associated with allergic rhinitis and asthma, posing a serious public health concern. Urine is a major source of mouse allergens, as mice spray urine onto their surroundings, where the proteins dry up and become airborne on dust particles. Here, we tested whether oligopeptides that are abundant in mouse urine may contribute to mouse allergic T cell response. Over 1,300 distinct oligopeptides were detected by mass spectrometry analysis of the low molecular weight filtrate fraction of mouse urine (LoMo)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Willem Daniel Francois Venter, Matthew F Chersich, Mohammed Majam, Godspower Akpomiemie, Natasha Arulappan, Michelle Moorhouse, Nonkululeko Mashabane, Deborah K Glencross
Although eligibility for antiretroviral treatment is no longer based on CD4 thresholds, CD4 testing remains important. Variation in CD4 cell count complicates initiation of antibiotic prophylaxis, differential diagnoses and assessments of immunological recovery. Five hundred and fifty-three HIV-positive antiretroviral-naïve adults, recruited from inner-city clinics, had three serial CD4 cell count tests. Test 1 was mostly done in a laboratory network supporting primary care clinics, while Tests 2 and 3 were performed in a tertiary-level laboratory...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
R Fernández-Soto, E M Navarrete-Rodríguez, B E Del-Rio-Navarro, J J Luis Sienra-Monge, N A Meneses-Sánchez, O J Saucedo-Ramírez
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Although the prevalence of sensitization to fungi is not precisely known, it can reach 50% in inner cities and has been identified as a risk factor in the development of asthma. Whereas the prevalence of allergic diseases is increasing, it is unclear whether the same occurs with sensitization to fungi. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was performed at the "Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez". From skin tests taken between 2004 and 2015, information was gathered about Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, Cladosporium herbarum, Mucor mucedo and Penicillium notatum...
May 5, 2018: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
Teresa A Lillis, John Burns, Frances Aranda, Yanina A Purim-Shem-Tov, Stephen Bruehl, Jean C Beckham, Stevan E Hobfoll
BACKGROUND: Given high levels of traumatic stress for low-income, inner-city women, investigating the link between PTSD and pain is especially important. PURPOSE: Using the Conservation of Resources (COR) Theory, we investigated direct and indirect relationships of PTSD symptoms, vulnerability factors (i.e., resource loss, depressive symptoms and social undermining), and resilience factors (i.e., optimism, engagement, and social support) to acute pain reports in a sample of low-income, inner-city women...
May 4, 2018: Clinical Journal of Pain
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