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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108117/a-single-intervention-for-cockroach-control-reduces-cockroach-exposure-and-asthma-morbidity-in-children
#1
Felicia A Rabito, John C Carlson, Hua He, Derek Werthmann, Coby Schal
BACKGROUND: Exposure to cockroaches is an important asthma trigger, particularly for children with asthma living in inner cities. Integrated pest management is the recommended approach to cockroach abatement; however, it is costly and difficult to implement. The impact of reducing cockroach exposure on asthma outcomes is not known. OBJECTIVE: We sought to test the use of a single intervention, insecticidal bait, to reduce cockroach exposure in the home of children with asthma in New Orleans and to examine the impact of cockroach reduction on asthma outcomes...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107265/long-term-function-after-pediatric-critical-illness-results-from-the-survivor-outcomes-study
#2
Neethi P Pinto, Elizabeth W Rhinesmith, Tae Yeon Kim, Peter H Ladner, Murray M Pollack
OBJECTIVE: Knowledge of the long-term outcomes of survivors of pediatric critical illness is sparse but important. The aim of this study was to evaluate morbidity and mortality 6 months and 3 years after hospital discharge. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Urban, inner city, academic PICU. PATIENTS: Consecutive patients admitted to the PICU from June 2012 to August 2012. INTERVENTIONS: None...
January 19, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095805/vascular-access-placement-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-stages-4-and-5-attending-an-inner-city-nephrology-clinic-a-cohort-study-and-survey-of-providers
#3
Narender Goel, Caroline Kwon, Teena P Zachariah, Michael Broker, Vaughn W Folkert, Carolyn Bauer, Michal L Melamed
BACKGROUND: The majority of incident hemodialysis (HD) patients initiate dialysis via catheters. We sought to identify factors associated with initiating hemodialysis with a functioning arterio-venous (AV) access. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of all adult patients, age >18 years seeing a nephrologist with a diagnosis of CKD stage 4 or 5 during the study period between 06/01/2011 and 08/31/2013 to evaluate the placement of an AV access, initiation of dialysis and we conducted a survey of providers about the process...
January 17, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086944/prenatal-treatment-for-opioid-dependency-observations-from-a-large-inner-city-clinic
#4
Kelley Saia, Sarah M Bagley, Elisha M Wachman, Payal P Patel, Marisa D Nadas, Susan B Brogly
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to review changes in the prevalence of opioid use disorder in pregnancy, and to describe the prenatal care and neonatal outcomes following the implementation of buprenorphine treatment at a large US obstetrical clinic during the on-going opioid epidemic. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 310 women (332 pregnancies) with opioid use disorders and their neonates delivered between June 2006 and December 2010 at an obstetrical clinic in the US...
January 13, 2017: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076856/mri-differences-associated-with-intrauterine-growth-restriction-in-preterm-infants
#5
Christie J Bruno, Shreyans Bengani, William A Gomes, Mariana Brewer, Melissa Vega, Xianhong Xie, Mimi Kim, Mamta Fuloria
BACKGROUND: Preterm infants are at risk for neurodevelopmental impairment. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) further increases this risk. Brain imaging studies are often utilized at or near term-equivalent age to determine later prognosis. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between intrauterine growth and regional brain volume on MRI scans performed in preterm infants at or near term-equivalent age. METHODS: This is a retrospective case-control study of 24 infants born at gestational age ≤30 weeks and cared for in a large, inner-city, academic neonatal intensive-care unit from 2012 to 2013...
January 11, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073530/variation-in-the-abundance-of-pseudo-nitzschia-and-domoic-acid-with-surf-zone-type
#6
Alan L Shanks, Steven G Morgan, Jamie MacMahan, Ad J H M Reniers, Raphael Kudela, Marley Jarvis, Jenna Brown, Atsushi Fujimura, Lisa Ziccarelli, Chris Griesemer
Most harmful algal blooms (HAB) originate away from the shore and, for them to endanger human health, they must be first transported to shore after which they must enter the surf zone where they can be feed upon by filter feeders. The last step in this sequence, entrance into the surf zone, depends on surf zone hydrodynamics. During two 30-day periods, we sampled Pseudo-nitzschia and particulate domoic acid (pDA) in and offshore of a more dissipative surf zone at Sand City, California (2010) and sampled Pseudo-nitzschia in and out of reflective surf zones at a beach and rocky shores at Carmel River State Beach, California (2011)...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068388/the-association-between-foveal-morphology-and-macular-pigment-spatial-distribution-an-ethnicity-study
#7
Irene Ctori, Byki Huntjens
PURPOSE: Macular pigment (MP) spatial distribution varies considerably among individuals. We investigated ethnic variations in MP spatial distribution in relation to foveal architecture. METHODS: We measured MP optical density (MPOD) using heterochromatic flicker photometry (MAP test, City, University of London) in 76 white, 80 South Asian and 70 black volunteers (18 to 39 years). MPOD spatial profiles were classified objectively as exponential, ring-like or central dip, based on deviations away from an exponential fit...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068347/microbiologically-confirmed-tuberculosis-factors-associated-with-pre-treatment-loss-to-follow-up-and-time-to-treatment-initiation
#8
Judith Mwansa-Kambafwile, Boitumelo Maitshotlo, Andrew Black
BACKGROUND: The impact of new diagnostics on pre-treatment loss to follow up (Pre-treatment LTFU) has not been widely investigated. The reported rate of pre-treatment LTFU is however lower in studies where Xpert MTB/Rif (Xpert) has been used onsite as opposed to centrally. The use of the Xpert at point of care (POC) could have a role in reducing the pre-treatment LTFU rate among TB patients. We aimed to determine the pre-treatment LTFU rate and the time to treatment initiation as well as to describe associated factors in patients diagnosed with TB using POC Xpert or smear microscopy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063655/analysis-of-home-dust-for-staphylococcus-aureus-and-staphylococcal-enterotoxin-genes-using-quantitative-pcr
#9
Shanna Ludwig, Isabel Jimenez-Bush, Emily Brigham, Sonali Bose, Gregory Diette, Meredith C McCormack, Elizabeth C Matsui, Meghan F Davis
BACKGROUND: The bacterium Staphylococcus aureus (SA) is known to induce allergic inflammatory responses, including through secreted staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) superantigens. To quantify indoor environmental exposures to these potential allergens, which may be associated with worse asthma, we developed a method for the assessment of S. aureus and SE in home dust and applied it to a study of homes of inner-city adults with asthma. METHODS: We conducted laboratory experiments to optimize sample processing and real-time PCR methods for detection and quantification of SA (femB) and SEA-D, based on published primers...
January 4, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056990/stigmatization-among-methadone-maintenance-treatment-patients-in-mountainous-areas-in-northern-vietnam
#10
Hung Van Nguyen, Huong Lan Thi Nguyen, Hue Thi Mai, Hai Quan Le, Bach Xuan Tran, Canh Dinh Hoang, Huong Thi Le, Cuong Tat Nguyen, Tho Dinh Tran, Carl A Latkin, Thuc Minh Thi Vu
BACKGROUND: Stigma and discrimination may adversely affect the benefits of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) for drug users, especially in disadvantaged settings. This study assessed stigma and discrimination against MMT patients in the mountainous and rural areas in Vietnam and explored their associated factors to inform implementation strategies. METHODS: We interviewed 241 MMT patients in two clinics: one in Tuyen Quang Province's inner city and the other in Son Duong District, to assess stigma and discrimination that patients perceived and experienced...
January 6, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056909/active-travel-to-non-school-destinations-but-not-to-school-is-associated-with-higher-physical-activity-levels-in-an-ethnically-diverse-sample-of-inner-city-schoolchildren
#11
Lee Smith, Daniel Aggio, Mark Hamer
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the association of travel mode to school and non-school destinations with objectively assessed health markers and physical activity in an ethnically diverse sample of inner-city UK schoolchildren. METHODS: We used data from the Camden Active Spaces project (n = 450 children aged 9.1 yrs) to examine associations of school travel mode and frequency of active travel to non-school destinations with daily and out-of-school physical activity, sedentary time and health markers; whilst controlling for appropriate covariates including objectively measured route length...
January 5, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040097/hospital-based-multidisciplinary-youth-mentoring-and-medical-exposure-program-positively-influences-and-reinforces-health-care-career-choice-the-reach-one-each-one-program-early-experience
#12
Omar K Danner, Carl Lokko, Felicia Mobley, Montreka Dansby, Michael Maze, Brene' Bradley, Elizabeth Williams, Leslie Ray Matthews, Emma Harrington, Lisa Mack, Clarence Clark, Ken Wilson, Derrick Beech, Sheryl Heron, Ed Childs
BACKGROUND: According to the National Center for Educational Statistics, underrepresented minorities (URMs) are more likely to leave science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields at higher rates than their peers during undergraduate studies. Many institutions of higher learning have implemented pipeline programs aimed at preparing and inspiring high school and college aged students in select careers in health sciences with varying levels of success. Research has shown that a health care workforce that mirrors the community they serve is more effective in reducing health disparities and increasing positive health outcomes...
December 14, 2016: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034556/who-falls-in-an-adult-emergency-department-and-why-a-retrospective-review
#13
Deanne R McErlean, James A Hughes
INTRODUCTION: Falls are a significant source of healthcare related morbidity and mortality of patients in hospitals and residential healthcare settings. Commonly falls are thought of as an affliction of the elderly and the frail. The emergency department (ED) is a unique healthcare setting that sees patients in the acute and hyper acute stages of physical and mental illness and intoxication. Falls occur in this setting, however there is little knowledge about the factors that influence falls in the emergency department...
December 26, 2016: Australasian Emergency Nursing Journal: AENJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032061/indoor-environmental-factors-and-occurrence-of-lung-function-decline-in-adult-residents-in-summer-in-southwest-china
#14
Yu Jie, Li Kebin, Tang Yin, Xu Jie
BACKGROUND: There is conflicting reports on the respiratory health effects of indoor risk factor exposure. The aim of this study was to assess the association of indoor environmental factors to pulmonary function in an adult population in Zunyi City of Southwest China. METHODS: Between July and Sep 2012, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of people aged ≥18 yr in 11 inner-city areas of Zunyi. Data on asthma and asthma-related symptoms and selected home environmental factors were assessed by questionnaire...
November 2016: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027776/vegesafe-a-community-science-program-measuring-soil-metal-contamination-evaluating-risk-and-providing-advice-for-safe-gardening
#15
Marek Rouillon, Paul J Harvey, Louise J Kristensen, Steven G George, Mark P Taylor
The extent of metal contamination in Sydney residential garden soils was evaluated using data collected during a three-year Macquarie University community science program called VegeSafe. Despite knowledge of industrial and urban contamination amongst scientists, the general public remains under-informed about the potential risks of exposure from legacy contaminants in their home garden environment. The community was offered free soil metal screening, allowing access to soil samples for research purposes. Participants followed specific soil sampling instructions and posted samples to the University for analysis with a field portable X-ray Fluorescence (pXRF) spectrometer...
December 24, 2016: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025705/prevalence-and-predictors-of-positive-screening-for-postpartum-depression-in-minority-parturients-in-the-south-bronx
#16
Samfee Doe, Stephen LoBue, Abraham Hamaoui, Shadi Rezai, Cassandra E Henderson, Ray Mercado
It is reported that the rates of perinatal depressive disorders are high in ethnic minority groups from non-English speaking countries. However, very few studies have compared the prevalence of positive screening for postpartum depression (PPD) in minority communities living in an inner city. The goal of this study is to determine the prevalence and the predictors of positive screening for postpartum depression in minority parturients in the South Bronx. The study is a chart review of 314 minority parturients, Black or Hispanic, screened for postpartum depression using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) tool...
December 26, 2016: Archives of Women's Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024098/helicobacter-pylori-serology-testing-is-a-useful-diagnostic-screening-tool-for-symptomatic-inner-city-children
#17
Priya Raj, John F Thompson, Debra H Pan
AIM: This study assessed the Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) serum antibody test as a diagnostic screening tool in symptomatic inner city children. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of patients aged 1-18 years who were referred to our paediatric gastroenterology department from 2009-2013. We included all patients who had H. pylori serum antibodies and, or, faecal antigens who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) for histology, with or without a gastric tissue rapid urease test...
December 26, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018932/staphylococcus-epidermidis-protection-against-staphylococcus-aureus-colonization-in-people-living-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-in-an-inner-city-outpatient-population-a-cross-sectional-study
#18
Sean B Sullivan, Suneel Kamath, Thomas H McConville, Brett T Gray, Franklin D Lowy, Peter G Gordon, Anne-Catrin Uhlemann
BACKGROUND: People living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWH) have been disproportionally affected by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization and infection, in particular by clones USA300 and USA500. However, the contribution of epidemiological, bacterial, and immunological risk factors to the excess of S aureus in PLWH remain incompletely understood. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we determined the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of S aureus colonization in 93 PLWH attending an urban human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) clinic...
October 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007688/email-between-patient-and-provider-assessing-the-attitudes-and-perspectives-of-624-primary-health-care-patients
#19
Puneet Seth, Mohamed Ismail Abu-Abed, Vikram Kapoor, Kathryn Nicholson, Gina Agarwal
BACKGROUND: Email between patients and their health care providers can serve as a continuous and collaborative forum to improve access to care, enhance convenience of communication, reduce administrative costs and missed appointments, and improve satisfaction with the patient-provider relationship. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to investigate the attitudes of patients aged 16 years and older toward receiving email communication for health-related purposes from an academic inner-city family health team in Southern Ontario...
December 22, 2016: JMIR Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989262/sun-exposure-uv-irradiance-and-serum-25-hydroxycholecalciferol-in-pregnant-women-in-rural-north-india
#20
Siddhnath Sudhanshu, Pramod Upadhyay, Monashish Sahu, Vinita Rawat, Vijayalakshmi Bhatia
OBJECTIVE: To document the effect of season and environmental pollution on UVB irradiance; and to estimate cutaneous vitamin D synthesis in village women in different seasons. DESIGN: Radiant UVB energy was measured by a spectroradiometer in different seasons and, in April and May, on successive days in open areas at the city outskirts, at a crowded inner-city area and the villages of our participants. Clothing, outdoor activity pattern and serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D) levels were documented...
December 19, 2016: Public Health Nutrition
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