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inner city

Shawn Walker, Laura Batinelli, Lucia Rocca-Ihenacho, Christine McCourt
OBJECTIVES: to gain understanding about how participants perceived the value and effectiveness of 'Keeping Birth Normal' training, barriers to implementing it in an along-side midwifery unit, and how the training might be enhanced in future iterations. DESIGN: exploratory interpretive. SETTING: inner-city maternity service. PARTICIPANTS: 31 midwives attending a one-day training package on one of three occasions. METHODS: data were collected using semi-structured observation of the training, a short feedback form (23/31 participants), and focus groups (28/31 participants)...
February 2, 2018: Midwifery
Vikas Pathak, Kriti Suwal
INTRODUCTION: The impact of pulmonary artery hypertension on post-operative outcome in elective, non-cardiac surgery is incompletely understood. This study was designed to evaluate the post-operative outcome of patients undergoing elective, non-cardiac surgery with and without pulmonary hypertension. METHODS: The study was conducted in an inner-city hospital in Bronx, New York. A retrospective chart review was conducted on all patients who underwent elective, non- cardiac surgery from January 2000 to December 2010 and had echocardiogram within 30 days of surgery...
October 2017: JNMA; Journal of the Nepal Medical Association
Teresa Arias, Kirstie Coxon
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: the limited availability of high quality evidence related to second stage management of the perineum (SSMP) combined with a perceived shift in UK practice towards a 'hands off' the perineum/fetal head approach are likely to have impacted significantly on student midwives' understanding of SSMP. This paper presents a classroom based educational session using low fidelity simulation, which was designed in response to student feedback and aimed to improve confidence in this skill...
February 13, 2018: Midwifery
G Michael Allan, Jamil Ramji, Danielle Perry, Joey Ton, Nathan P Beahm, Nicole Crisp, Beverly Dockrill, Ruth E Dubin, Ted Findlay, Jessica Kirkwood, Michael Fleming, Ken Makus, Xiaofu Zhu, Christina Korownyk, Michael R Kolber, James McCormack, Sharon Nickel, Guillermina Noël, Adrienne J Lindblad
OBJECTIVE: To develop a clinical practice guideline for a simplified approach to medical cannabinoid use in primary care; the focus was on primary care application, with a strong emphasis on best available evidence and a promotion of shared, informed decision making. METHODS: The Evidence Review Group performed a detailed systematic review of 4 clinical areas with the best evidence around cannabinoids: pain, nausea and vomiting, spasticity, and adverse events. Nine health professionals (2 generalist family physicians, 2 pain management-focused family physicians, 1 inner-city family physician, 1 neurologist, 1 oncologist, 1 nurse practitioner, and 1 pharmacist) and a patient representative comprised the Prescribing Guideline Committee (PGC), along with 2 nonvoting members (pharmacist project managers)...
February 2018: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
Mark A S Laidlaw, Dileepa H Alankarage, Suzie M Reichman, Mark Patrick Taylor, Andrew S Ball
Gardening and urban food production is an increasingly popular activity, which can improve physical and mental health and provide low cost nutritious food. However, the legacy of contamination from industrial and diffuse sources may have rendered surface soils in some urban gardens to have metals value in excess of recommended guidelines for agricultural production. The objective of this study was to establish the presence and spatial extent of soil metal contamination in Melbourne's residential and inner city community gardens...
February 8, 2018: Chemosphere
Stanislav Spivak, Bernadette A Cullen, William Eaton, Katie L Nugent, Katrina Rodriguez, Ramin Mojtabai
OBJECTIVE: The study explored the association of delays in seeking general medical care with elevated blood pressure and metabolic abnormalities among individuals with serious mental illness. METHODS: Association of delays in medical care with blood pressure, serum hemoglobin A1c (HbA1C), and lipids was assessed among patients at two inner-city community mental health centers. RESULTS: Of 271 participants, 62% reported delays in seeking general medical care due to attitudinal and financial barriers...
February 15, 2018: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Jessica Alicea-Planas, Kelly Sullivan, Hang Tran, Anna Cruz
More than one third of U.S adults are considered obese, and childhood obesity has more than doubled in the past 30 years. Food security can influence obesity, in particular, within inner cities where access to healthy food is often limited. The use of a mobile food truck program (with refrigeration) was implemented in two large inner cities in Connecticut as part of an initiative aimed at helping low-income families with young children gain access to healthy food and nutrition education. Collaborating with community child care centers was used...
February 1, 2018: Health Promotion Practice
Jungmin Kim, Juyong Park, Wonjae Lee
The quality of life for people in urban regions can be improved by predicting urban human mobility and adjusting urban planning accordingly. In this study, we compared several possible variables to verify whether a gravity model (a human mobility prediction model borrowed from Newtonian mechanics) worked as well in inner-city regions as it did in intra-city regions. We reviewed the resident population, the number of employees, and the number of SNS posts as variables for generating mass values for an urban traffic gravity model...
2018: PloS One
Shilpi Chandra, Gerhard Wingender, Jason A Greenbaum, Archana Khurana, Amin M Gholami, Anusha-Preethi Ganesan, Michael Rosenbach, Katy Jaffee, James E Gern, Robert Wood, George O'Connor, Megan Sandel, Meyer Kattan, Leonard Bacharier, Alkis Togias, Anthony A Horner, Mitchell Kronenberg
Humans have populations of innate-like T lymphocytes with an invariant TCR α-chain that recognize nonpeptide Ags, including invariant NKT (iNKT) cells and mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells. iNKT cell involvement in human asthma is controversial, whereas there has been little analysis of MAIT cells. Using peripheral blood cells from 110 participants from the Urban Environment and Childhood Asthma (URECA) birth cohort study, these cells were analyzed for number and function. We determined whether iNKT cell or MAIT cell frequency at 1 y is correlated with the cytokine polarization of mainstream CD4+ T cells and/or the development of asthma by age 7 y...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Monique Phipps, Luke Molloy, Denis Visentin
This study examined the rates and types of trauma reported by consumers utilising an inner city mental health service in Sydney, Australia. The study also explored whether consumers felt that it had been helpful to be asked about their experience of trauma, whether they thought that these questions should be asked routinely and if they wanted to talk about these experiences. Ninety-one consumers from an inner city mental health service were assessed. Eighty-eight percent of the consumers assessed reported that they had experienced at least one traumatic event, while 79% reported having experienced two or more events...
February 9, 2018: Community Mental Health Journal
Chunjuan Bi, Xueping Wang, Jinpu Jia, Zhenlou Chen
The concentrations and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urbanized river networks are strongly influenced by intensive land use, industrial activities and population density. The spatial variations and their influencing factors of 16 priority PAHs were investigated in surface water, suspended particulate matter (SPM) and sediments among areas under different intensive land uses (industrial areas, agricultural areas, inner city, suburban towns and island areas) in the Shanghai river network, East China...
February 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Petra Sumasgutner, Marius Adrion, Anita Gamauf
As the world experiences rapid urban expansion, natural landscapes are being transformed into cities at an alarming rate. Consequently, urbanization is identified as one of the biggest environmental challenges of our time, yet we lack a clear understanding of how urbanization affects free-living organisms. Urbanization leads to habitat fragmentation and increased impervious surfaces affecting for example availability and quality of food. Urbanization is also associated with increased pollution levels that can affect organisms directly, via ecophysiological constraints and indirectly by disrupting trophic interactions in multi-species networks...
2018: PloS One
Cullen M Dutmer, Haejin Kim, Daniel A Searing, Edward M Zoratti, Andrew H Liu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Children living in US inner cities experience disparate burdens of asthma, especially in severity, impairment, exacerbations, and morbidity. Investigations seeking to better understand the factors and mechanisms underlying asthma prevalence, severity, and exacerbation in children living in these communities can lead to interventions that can narrow asthma disparities and potentially benefit all children with asthma. This update will focus on recent (i.e. late 2016-2017) advances in the understanding of asthma in US inner city children...
February 5, 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Luis R Hoyos, Gustavo Vilchez, Jenifer E Allsworth, Mokerrum Malik, Javier Rodriguez-Kovacs, Henry Adekola, Awoniyi O Awonuga
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate pregnancy outcomes in patients with a history of wedge resection for interstitial ectopic pregnancy (WRIEP). METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of pregnancies with a history of WRIEP from 2000-2013 at two inner city hospitals in Detroit, MI. Pregnant matched controls (1:3) were selected and included patients with history of surgically treated tubal ectopic pregnancy and delivered patients without history of ectopic pregnancy. Pregnancy outcomes, including a composite, were compared among the groups...
February 4, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
John Asger Petersen
Clinical deterioration of patients hospitalized on general wards is often preceded by worsening vital signs. If identified early and acted upon quickly, it is conjectured that further deterioration can be prevented. To this means the early warning score (EWS) was implemented in all hospitals in the Capital Region of Denmark in 2013. EWS consists of an aggregated weighted track-and-trigger system (TTS), to identify at-risk patients early, and a treatment protocol to escalate care appropriately and determine the level of competency of the provider...
February 2018: Danish Medical Journal
Smita Pakhale, Tina Kaur, Catherine Charron, Kelly Florence, Tiffany Rose, Sadia Jama, Robert Boyd, Joanne Haddad, Gonzalo Alvarez, Mark Tyndall
OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility of a Community-Based Participatory Tobacco Dependence Strategy (PROMPT) in the inner city population of Ottawa (Canada). DESIGN: A feasibility mixed methods prospective cohort study following principles of community-based participatory action research. INTERVENTION: Recruited 80 people whouse drugs, followed them for 6 months while providing access to counselling, nicotine replacement therapy and peer-support in a community setting...
January 25, 2018: BMJ Open
Meliné Sarkissian, Natalie L Trent, Karen Huchting, Sat Bir Singh Khalsa
OBJECTIVE: The Your Own Greatness Affirmed (YOGA) for Youth program delivers yoga to urban inner-city schools with the goal of providing practical benefits that support underserved children at high risk of behavioral and emotional problems. A 10-week YOGA for Youth program delivered 1 to 2 times per week was implemented in 3 schools in urban neighborhoods to examine the effect of the program on student stress, affect, and resilience. METHODS: Thirty children were administered the Perceived Stress Scale, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, and the Resilience Scale before and after the yoga program...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
Grit Müller, Roland Harhoff, Corinna Rahe, Klaus Berger
OBJECTIVE: The accessibility of green space is an important aspect of the urban residential environment and has been found to be beneficial for health and well-being. This study investigates the association between different indicators of green space and the outcomes body mass index (BMI) and prevalent type 2 diabetes in an urban population. DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional study. SETTING: Dortmund, a city located in the industrial Ruhr area in Western Germany...
January 21, 2018: BMJ Open
Rebecca Wilk, Naomi Ali, Samantha J England, Katharine E Lewis
Zebrafish are widely used as a model organism for research. Zebrafish embryos are also a useful resource for teaching students about vertebrate development. Here we describe a collaboration between two high school teachers and two university professors that used zebrafish to bring hands-on laboratory experiences to inner-city students, with the aim of increasing tangibility, and improving student understanding and retention, of several fundamental scientific concepts, such as the scientific method, cell division, mitosis, and Mendelian genetics...
January 22, 2018: Zebrafish
Hong Su, Jianqin Cao, Yuqiu Zhou, Lina Wang, Lei Xing
BACKGROUND: Mental health is a growing concern among older people all over the world. China has a rapidly aging population, and the number of elderly empty-nesters, who have no children or whose children have already left home, is on the rise. These older adults live alone or with a spouse. Therefore, we should be concerned about these empty-nester, especially their mental health, due to its vital role. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed from March to December 2015...
January 3, 2018: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
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