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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096705/situational-judgment-tests-reliably-measure-professional-attributes-important-for-clinical-practice
#1
EDITORIAL
Katie Petty-Saphon, Kim A Walker, Fiona Patterson, Vicki Ashworth, Helena Edwards
Over the course of more than 40 years, international research has consistently shown situational judgment tests (SJTs) to be a reliable and valid selection method for assessing a range of professional attributes. However, SJTs still represent a relatively new selection method within the medical profession, and as such it is to be expected that applicant reactions will vary. In this Expert Opinion piece, we respond to Najim et al's article "The situational judgement test: a student's worst nightmare" by highlighting three key clarifications...
2017: Advances in Medical Education and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095758/ethical-difficulties-in-healthcare
#2
Cinzia Leuter, Carmen La Cerra, Santina Calisse, Danila Dosa, Cristina Petrucci, Loreto Lancia
BACKGROUND: Advances in biomedical sciences, technologies and care practices have resulted in an increase in ethical problems and a resulting growth of difficulties encountered by health workers in their professional activity. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to analyse knowledge in the ethical field and experience with and the propensity for using ethics consultations by nurses and physicians. METHODS: Between March and June 2014, a cross-sectional observational study was conducted on a sample of 351 nurses and 128 physicians in four central Italian hospitals...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094786/two-replications-of-an-investigation-on-empathy-and-utilitarian-judgement-across-socioeconomic-status
#3
Sarah Babcock, Yixian Li, Vanessa M Sinclair, Clint Thomson, Lorne Campbell
Research by Côté, Piff, and Willer (2013) found that through the induction of empathy in an experimental condition, the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and utilitarian moral judgment was diminished. Participant self-reported income interacted with experimental condition such that high SES participants who empathized with a disadvantaged group member redistributed fewer experimental dollars during an online task at the losing member's expense. This suggests that lower levels of empathy could help explain utilitarian decision-making in high SES individuals...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093938/capacity-and-consent
#4
Scott Lamont, Cameron Stewart, Mary Chiarella
INTRODUCTION: Healthcare practitioners have a legal, ethical and professional obligation to obtain patient consent for all healthcare treatments. There is increasing evidence which suggests dissonance and variation in practice in assessment of decision-making capacity and consent processes. AIMS: This study explores healthcare practitioners' knowledge and practices of assessing decision-making capacity and obtaining patient consent to treatment in the acute generalist setting...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092217/development-construct-validity-and-test-retest-reliability-of-a-field-based-wheelchair-mobility-performance-test-for-wheelchair-basketball
#5
Annemarie M H de Witte, Marco J M Hoozemans, Monique A M Berger, Rienk M A van der Slikke, Lucas H V van der Woude, Dirkjan H E J Veeger
The aim of this study was to develop and describe a wheelchair mobility performance test in wheelchair basketball and to assess its construct validity and reliability. To mimic mobility performance of wheelchair basketball matches in a standardised manner, a test was designed based on observation of wheelchair basketball matches and expert judgement. Forty-six players performed the test to determine its validity and 23 players performed the test twice for reliability. Independent-samples t-tests were used to assess whether the times needed to complete the test were different for classifications, playing standards and sex...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092147/should-serum-calcitonin-be-routinely-measured-in-patients-presenting-with-thyroid-nodule
#6
William P Tormey, Brendan Byrne, Arnold D Hill, Mark Sherlock, Christopher J Thompson
BACKGROUND: The European Thyroid Association recommends serum calcitonin measurement in thyroid nodule cases. In contrast, the American Thyroid Association is ambivalent. In this institution, thyroid nodules cases are subject to a multidisciplinary evaluation of the clinical history and examination, ultrasound and scintigraphy, CT scan and sometimes MRI scan, biochemistry and histopathology of biopsies. We report on the current use of plasma calcitonin measurements in the context of changing practice which has not included screening of all thyroid nodules...
January 13, 2017: Minerva Endocrinologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066893/content-and-cultural-validity-in-the-development-of-the-indigenous-play-partner-scale
#7
Alma M Dender, Karen E Stagnitti
BACKGROUND/AIM: Culturally relevant assessments of Australian Indigenous children's social pretend play do not exist. This study investigated the content validity and cultural validity of the Indigenous Play Partner Scale (I-PPS). METHODS: Six pairs of children (i.e. 12 children) aged four-six years from a remote Australian town were videoed playing in pairs, and 14 community elders and mothers participated across three focus groups. The social interactions between the children were transcribed from the videos...
January 8, 2017: Australian Occupational Therapy Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062925/impact-of-vocational-interests-previous-academic-experience-gender-and-age-on-situational-judgement-test-performance
#8
Nienke R Schripsema, Anke M van Trigt, Jan C C Borleffs, Janke Cohen-Schotanus
Situational Judgement Tests (SJTs) are increasingly implemented in medical school admissions. In this paper, we investigate the effects of vocational interests, previous academic experience, gender and age on SJT performance. The SJT was part of the selection process for the Bachelor's degree programme in Medicine at University of Groningen, the Netherlands. All applicants for the academic year 2015-2016 were included and had to choose between learning communities Global Health (n = 126), Sustainable Care (n = 149), Intramural Care (n = 225), or Molecular Medicine (n = 116)...
January 6, 2017: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062766/judgement-postponed-in-disciplinary-case
#9
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 7, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062527/lessons-from-the-organisation-of-the-uk-medical-services-deployed-in-support-of-operation-telic-iraq-and-operation-herrick-afghanistan
#10
Martin C M Bricknell, M Nadin
This paper provides the definitive record of the UK Defence Medical Services (DMS) lessons from the organisation of medical services in support of Operation (Op) TELIC (Iraq) and Op HERRICK (Afghanistan). The analysis involved a detailed review of the published academic literature, internal post-operational tour reports and post-tour interviews. The list of lessons was reviewed through three Military Judgement Panel cycles producing the single synthesis 'the golden thread' and eight 'silver bullets' as themes to institutionalise the learning to deliver the golden thread...
January 6, 2017: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054488/for-the-day-when-i-can-return-the-future-is-one-step-away
#11
K Kanno
Iitate, a village in Fukushima Prefecture, suffered little damage from the Great East Japan Earthquake that struck on 11 March 2011. However, all village residents were belatedly ordered to evacuate 1 month after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. My family and I had to evacuate to the city of Fukushima, located 40 km from our home in Iitate. This came at a time when my husband and I were planning to start research on Natsuhaze (a type of blueberry grown in Japan) after his retirement...
January 1, 2017: Annals of the ICRP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053702/outcomes-of-an-inpatient-refeeding-protocol-in-youth-with-anorexia-nervosa-rady-children-s-hospital-san-diego-university-of-california-san-diego
#12
Tamara R Maginot, Maya M Kumar, Jacqueline Shiels, Walter Kaye, Kyung E Rhee
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines for nutritional rehabilitation in hospitalized restrictive eating disorder patients recommend a cautious approach to refeeding. Several studies suggest that higher calorie diets may be safe and effective, but have traditionally excluded severely malnourished patients. The goal of this study was to evaluate the safety of a higher calorie nutritional rehabilitation protocol (NRP) in a broad sample of inpatients with restrictive eating disorders, including those who were severely malnourished...
2017: Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046201/measuring-cognitive-judgement-bias-in-rats-using-the-ambiguous-cue-interpretation-test
#13
Justyna Papciak, Rafal Rygula
An active-choice, operant, ambiguous-cue interpretation (ACI) paradigm is described that can be used for measuring cognitive judgement bias in rats. In this behavioral test, animals in an operant conditioning chamber are trained to press a lever to receive a food reward when a specific tone is presented, and to press another lever in response to a different tone to avoid punishment by an electric foot-shock. The tones, which serve as discriminative stimuli, acquire a positive or negative valence, and the training continues until the rats demonstrate a stable, correct discrimination between these two stimuli...
January 3, 2017: Current Protocols in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044018/interindividual-variability-in-auditory-scene-analysis-revealed-by-confidence-judgements
#14
C Pelofi, V de Gardelle, P Egré, D Pressnitzer
Because musicians are trained to discern sounds within complex acoustic scenes, such as an orchestra playing, it has been hypothesized that musicianship improves general auditory scene analysis abilities. Here, we compared musicians and non-musicians in a behavioural paradigm using ambiguous stimuli, combining performance, reaction times and confidence measures. We used 'Shepard tones', for which listeners may report either an upward or a downward pitch shift for the same ambiguous tone pair. Musicians and non-musicians performed similarly on the pitch-shift direction task...
February 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042346/associations-among-dispositional-mindfulness-self-compassion-and-executive-function-proficiency-in-early-adolescents
#15
Hee-Sung Shin, David S Black, Eleanor Tate Shonkoff, Nathaniel R Riggs, Mary Ann Pentz
The study objective was to examine the effects of two conceptually related constructs, self-compassion and dispositional mindfulness, on executive function (EF) proficiency among early adolescents. Executive function refers to a set of psychological processes governing emotional regulation, organization, and planning. While the benefits of positive psychology appear evident for mental health and wellness, little is known about the etiological relationship between dispositional mindfulness and self-compassion in their associations with EF...
December 2016: Mindfulness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034307/interventions-and-assessment-tools-addressing-key-concepts-people-need-to-know-to-appraise-claims-about-treatment-effects-a-systematic-mapping-review
#16
Astrid Austvoll-Dahlgren, Allen Nsangi, Daniel Semakula
BACKGROUND: People's ability to appraise claims about treatment effects is crucial for informed decision-making. Our objective was to systematically map this area of research in order to (a) provide an overview of interventions targeting key concepts that people need to understand to assess treatment claims and (b) to identify assessment tools used to evaluate people's understanding of these concepts. The findings of this review provide a starting point for decisions about which key concepts to address when developing new interventions, and which assessment tools should be considered...
December 29, 2016: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029673/histopathologic-analysis-of-pancreaticoduodenectomy-specimen
#17
R Dhakhwa, N Kafle
INTRODUCTION: Whipple's Pancreaticoduodenectomy has increasingly been used as an appropriate resectional procedure for tumors of the periampullary region which are pancreatic, periampullary, ampullary and biliary tumors. Our aim was to study the distribution and histopathologic features of these tumors and to examine local trends of periampullary neoplasms resected with a PD. METHODS: A descriptive study was conducted in the department of Pathology, Kathmandu Medical College Teaching Hospital from July 2013 to June 2016...
October 2016: JNMA; Journal of the Nepal Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027920/examining-the-short-term-effects-of-emotion-under-an-adaptation-level-theory-model-of-tinnitus-perception
#18
Mithila Durai, Mary G O'Keeffe, Grant D Searchfield
OBJECTIVES: Existing evidence suggests a strong relationship between tinnitus and emotion. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of short-term emotional changes along valence and arousal dimensions on tinnitus outcomes. Emotional stimuli were presented in two different modalities: auditory and visual. The authors hypothesized that (1) negative valence (unpleasant) stimuli and/or high arousal stimuli will lead to greater tinnitus loudness and annoyance than positive valence and/or low arousal stimuli, and (2) auditory emotional stimuli, which are in the same modality as the tinnitus, will exhibit a greater effect on tinnitus outcome measures than visual stimuli...
December 24, 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026766/quantifying-perceptual-depth-quality-in-distorted-stereoscopic-images
#19
Jiheng Wang, Shiqi Wang, Kede Ma, Zhou Wang
Subjective and objective measurement of the perceptual quality of depth information in symmetrically and asymmetrically distorted stereoscopic images is a fundamentally important issue in stereoscopic 3D imaging that has not been deeply investigated. Here we first carry out a subjective test following the traditional absolute category rating protocol widely used in general image quality assessment research. We find this approach problematic because monocular cues and the spatial quality of images have strong impact on the depth quality scores given by subjects, making it difficult to single out the actual contributions of stereoscopic cues in depth perception...
December 21, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025842/a-review-of-safe-staffing-models-and-their-applicability-to-care-homes
#20
Gary Mitchell, Carol Cousins, Ruth Burrows, Gary Cousins
Presently, there are a range of evidence-based staffing tools that have been used to inform nursing, midwifery and health care capacity. These tools are designed to be used with professional judgement and include frameworks such as Rhys Hearn, the National Services Scotland Care Home Staffing Project, a variety of Royal College of Nursing Tool Kits including the Older People in Hospital's tool and the only National Institute of Clinical Excellence approved safe-staffing tool, Shelford's Safer Nursing Tool. These safe-staffing tools are used to score a patient's or resident's level of dependency across a number of domains, for example a patient/resident's ability to wash, dress, mobilise or fulfil their own elimination needs...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Nursing Management
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