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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341047/german-guideline-for-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-update-on-pharmacological-therapies-2017
#1
Jürgen Behr, Andreas Günther, Francesco Bonella, Klaus Geißler, Dirk Koschel, Michael Kreuter, Antje Prasse, Nicolas Schönfeld, Helmut Sitter, Joachim Müller-Quernheim, Ulrich Costabel
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a severe and often fatal disease with a median survival of 2 - 4 years after diagnosis. Since the publication of the German IPF guideline in 2013 new treatment trials have been published, necessitating an update of the pharmacological therapy of IPF. Different from the previous guideline, the GRADE system was discarded and replaced by the Oxford evidence classification system which allows a more differentiated judgement. The following pharmacological therapies were rated not suitable for the treatment of IPF patients (recommendation A; evidence 1-b): triple therapy with prednisolone, azathioprine and acetyl-cysteine; imatinib; ambrisentan; bosentan; macitentan...
January 16, 2018: Pneumologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340954/the-cultural-epigenesis-of-gender-based-violence-in-cambodia-local-and-buddhist-perspectives
#2
Maurice Eisenbruch
Almost one in four women in Cambodia is a victim of physical, emotional or sexual violence. The study aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the ways in which Cambodians see its causes and effects and to identify and analyse the cultural forces that underpin and shape its landscape. An ethnographic study was carried out with 102 perpetrators and survivors of emotional, physical and sexual violence against women and 228 key informants from the Buddhist and healing sectors. Their views and experiences of it were recorded-the popular idioms expressed and the symptoms of distress experienced by survivors and perpetrators...
January 16, 2018: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339310/distant-from-input-evidence-of-regions-within-the-default-mode-network-supporting-perceptually-decoupled-and-conceptually-guided-cognition
#3
Charlotte Murphy, Elizabeth Jefferies, Shirley-Ann Rueschemeyer, Mladen Sormaz, Hao-Ting Wang, Daniel S Margulies, Jonathan Smallwood
The default mode network supports a variety of mental operations such as semantic processing, episodic memory retrieval, mental time travel and mind-wandering, yet the commonalities between these functions remains unclear. One possibility is that this system supports cognition that is independent of the immediate environment; alternatively or additionally, it might support higher-order conceptual representations that draw together multiple features. We tested these accounts using a novel paradigm that separately manipulated the availability of perceptual information to guide decision-making and the representational complexity of this information...
January 12, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336032/my-mind-your-mind-and-god-s-mind-how-children-and-adults-conceive-of-different-agents-moral-beliefs
#4
Larisa Heiphetz, Jonathan D Lane, Adam Waytz, Liane L Young
Extending prior research on belief attributions, we investigated the extent to which 5- to 8-year-olds and adults distinguish their beliefs and other humans' beliefs from God's beliefs. In Study 1, children reported that all agents held the same beliefs, whereas adults drew greater distinctions among agents. For example, adults reported that God was less likely than humans to view behaviors as morally acceptable. Study 2 additionally investigated attributions of beliefs about controversial behaviours (e.g., telling prosocial lies) and belief stability...
January 16, 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329406/judgement-of-breath-alcohol-concentration-levels-among-pedestrians-in-the-night-time-economy-a-street-intercept-field-study
#5
M P Cameron, M J Roskruge, N Droste, P G Miller
Aims: To evaluate how well people in the night-time economy can assess their own breath alcohol concentration (BrAC), in the context of a change in breath alcohol limits for driving. Methods: We conducted a field study of 242 participants over 5 nights in the central business district of a university town in New Zealand. Participants completed a short survey, which included questions on their self-reported level of intoxication and the self-estimated BrAC. At the conclusion of the interview each participant was breath-tested...
January 10, 2018: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327616/nintedanib-for-the-treatment-of-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#6
Francesco Varone, Giacomo Sgalla, Bruno Iovene, Teresa Bruni, Luca Richeldi
Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) is an interstitial lung disease characterized by the progressive loss of pulmonary function, ultimately leading to respiratory failure and death. Two novel compounds, nintedanib and pirfenidone, have shown efficacy in reducing the rate of decline of lung function in IPF patients. The multiple tyrosine kinase inhibitor nintedanib has extensively being studied as a potential angiogenesis inhibitor in clinical against various neoplastic disorders. Afterwards, this compound was successfully tested in IPF...
January 12, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326414/-effect-of-debriefing-based-on-the-clinical-judgment-model-on-simulation-based-learning-outcomes-of-end-of-life-care-for-nursing-students-a-non-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Kyung In Jeong, Ja Yun Choi
PURPOSE: This study was conducted to identify effects of debriefing based on the clinical judgment model for nursing students on their knowledge, skill performance, clinical judgment, self-confidence and learner satisfaction during simulation based end-of-life care (ELC) education. METHODS: Simulation based ELC education was developed in six steps as follows: selection of learning subjects and objects, development of learning tools, a trial run of simulation-based education, students' skill training, and evaluators' training...
December 2017: Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326038/a-qualitative-meta-synthesis-of-emergency-department-staff-experiences-of-violence-and-aggression
#8
REVIEW
Rebecca Angharad Ashton, Lucy Morris, Ian Smith
INTRODUCTION: Patient and visitor violence or aggression against healthcare workers in the Emergency Department (ED) is a significant issue worldwide. This review synthesises existing qualitative studies exploring the first-hand experiences of staff working in the ED to provide insight into preventing this issue. METHOD: A meta-ethnographic approach was used to review papers. RESULTS: Four concepts were identified: 'The inevitability of violence and aggression'; 'Staff judgments about why they face violence and aggression'; 'Managing in isolation'; and 'Wounded heroes'...
January 8, 2018: International Emergency Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316064/a-questionnaire-based-study-evaluating-differences-between-dental-students-in-paris-f-and-malm%C3%A3-se-regarding-diagnosis-and-treatment-decisions-of-patients-with-different-severity-levels-of-periodontal-diseases
#9
A Milosavljevic, A Stavropoulos, V Descroix, B Götrick
AIM: To evaluate differences between last-year dental students in Paris (F) and Malmö (SE) Dental Schools, in regard to their judgement and decision-making within periodontology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-six last-year dental students from Paris and 45 from Malmö participated in a questionnaire study based on four patient cases: (i) Patient case with generalised alveolar bone loss but no signs of inflammation (Well-maintained), (ii) Patient case with generalised alveolar bone loss and signs of inflammation (Periodontitis), (iii) Patient case with no alveolar bone loss and no signs of inflammation (Healthy) and (iv) Patient case with no alveolar bone loss but with signs of inflammation (Gingivitis)...
January 8, 2018: European Journal of Dental Education: Official Journal of the Association for Dental Education in Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315043/how-should-medical-schools-prepare-medical-students-for-leading-the-nhs
#10
F Kazzazi, J Bartlett, E Finnerty
The NHS is an evolving landscape. While the level of clinical knowledge conferred to medical students remains constant, their competence in other skills, such as leadership, needs to be enhanced in order for them to successfully work within the health-care system. The importance of leadership is considered at the start and end of a medical degree - when applying to medical school with various examples of leading a team, and upon balancing scenarios of leadership when sitting the situational judgement test in final year...
January 2, 2018: British Journal of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314662/development-and-validation-of-a-written-credentialing-examination-for-overseas-educated-dietitians
#11
Neville G Chiavaroli, Eleanor J Beck, Catherine Itsiopoulos, Paul Wilkinson, Kay Gibbons, Claire Palermo
AIM: Health professionals seeking employment in foreign countries are commonly required to undertake competency assessment in order to practice. The present study aims to outline the development and validation of a written examination for Dietetic Skills Recognition (DSR), to assess the knowledge, skills, capabilities and professional judgement of overseas-educated dietitians against the competency standards applied to dietetic graduates in Australia. METHODS: The present study reviews the design, rationale, validation and outcomes of a multiple choice question (MCQ) written examination for overseas-educated dietitians based on 5 years of administration...
January 4, 2018: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314554/going-from-evidence-to-recommendations-can-grade-get-us-there
#12
Mathew Mercuri, Brian Baigrie, Ross E G Upshur
The evidence based medicine movement has championed the need for objective and transparent methods of clinical guideline development. The Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) framework was developed for that purpose. Central to this framework is criteria for assessing the quality of evidence from clinical studies and the impact that body of evidence should have on our confidence in the clinical effectiveness of a therapy under examination. Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation has been adopted by a number of professional medical societies and organizations as a means for orienting the development of clinical guidelines...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306883/clinical-decisions-presented-to-patients-in-hospital-encounters-a-cross-sectional-study-using-a-novel-taxonomy
#13
Eirik Hugaas Ofstad, Jan C Frich, Edvin Schei, Richard M Frankel, Jūratė Šaltytė Benth, Pål Gulbrandsen
OBJECTIVE: To identify and classify all clinical decisions that emerged in a sample of patient-physician encounters and compare different categories of decisions across clinical settings and personal characteristics. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive evaluation of hospital encounters videotaped in 2007-2008 using a novel taxonomy to identify and classify clinically relevant decisions (both actions and judgements). PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: 372 patients and 58 physicians from 17 clinical specialties in ward round (WR), emergency room (ER) and outpatient (OP) encounters in a Norwegian university hospital...
January 5, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306097/cue-acquisition-a-feature-of-malawian-midwives-decision-making-process-to-support-normality-during-the-first-stage-of-labour
#14
Elizabeth Chodzaza, Elaine Haycock-Stuart, Aisha Holloway, Rosemary Mander
OBJECTIVE: to explore Malawian midwives decision making when caring for women during the first stage of labour in the hospital setting. DESIGN AND METHODS: this focused ethnographic study examined the decision making process of 9 nurse-midwives with varying years of clinical experience in the real world setting of an urban and semi urban hospital from October 2013 to May 2014.This was done using 27 participant observations and 27 post-observation in-depth interviews over a period of six months...
December 6, 2017: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306068/the-speech-perception-skills-of-children-with-and-without-speech-sound-disorder
#15
Stephanie Hearnshaw, Elise Baker, Natalie Munro
PURPOSE: To investigate whether Australian-English speaking children with and without speech sound disorder (SSD) differ in their overall speech perception accuracy. Additionally, to investigate differences in the perception of specific phonemes and the association between speech perception and speech production skills. METHOD: Twenty-five Australian-English speaking children aged 48-60 months participated in this study. The SSD group included 12 children and the typically developing (TD) group included 13 children...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305951/structure-activity-relationship-sar-toxicological-assessments-the-role-of-expert-judgment
#16
Cathy Lester, Allison Reis, Michael Laufersweiler, Shengde Wu, Karen Blackburn
Structure activity relationships (SAR) and read-across are widely used animal alternative approaches for filling toxicological data gaps. A framework describing the use of expert judgment in evaluating analogs for SAR has been published and widely cited, however, reliance on expert judgment can introduce inconsistent results across experts and hinder transparency. Here we explore the use of a quantitative similarity score between an analog and a Structure of Interest (SOI) to see if these scores correlate with the expert judgement-based suitability rankings...
January 3, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305817/cognitive-load-predicts-point-of-care-ultrasound-simulator-performance
#17
Sara Aldekhyl, Rodrigo B Cavalcanti, Laura M Naismith
INTRODUCTION: The ability to maintain good performance with low cognitive load is an important marker of expertise. Incorporating cognitive load measurements in the context of simulation training may help to inform judgements of competence. This exploratory study investigated relationships between demographic markers of expertise, cognitive load measures, and simulator performance in the context of point-of-care ultrasonography. METHODS: Twenty-nine medical trainees and clinicians at the University of Toronto with a range of clinical ultrasound experience were recruited...
January 5, 2018: Perspectives on Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304390/the-cutting-edge-micro-ct-for-quantitative-toolmark-analysis-of-sharp-force-trauma-to-bone
#18
D G Norman, D G Watson, B Burnett, P M Fenne, M A Williams
Toolmark analysis involves examining marks created on an object to identify the likely tool responsible for creating those marks (e.g., a knife). Although a potentially powerful forensic tool, knife mark analysis is still in its infancy and the validation of imaging techniques as well as quantitative approaches is ongoing. This study builds on previous work by simulating real-world stabbings experimentally and statistically exploring quantitative toolmark properties, such as cut mark angle captured by micro-CT imaging, to predict the knife responsible...
December 30, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301289/local-choices-rationality-and-the-contextuality-of-decision-making
#19
Ivo Vlaev
Rational explanation is ubiquitous in psychology and social sciences, ranging from rational analysis, expectancy-value theories, ideal observer models, mental logic to probabilistic frameworks, rational choice theory, and informal "folk psychological" explanation. However, rational explanation appears to be challenged by apparently systematic irrationality observed in psychological experiments, especially in the field of judgement and decision-making (JDM). Here, it is proposed that the experimental results require not that rational explanation should be rejected, but that rational explanation is local, i...
January 2, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298309/the-haptic-and-the-visual-flash-lag-effect-and-the-role-of-flash-characteristics
#20
Knut Drewing, Elena Hitzel, Lisa Scocchia
When a short flash occurs in spatial alignment with a moving object, the moving object is seen ahead the stationary one. Similar to this visual "flash-lag effect" (FLE) it has been recently observed for the haptic sense that participants judge a moving hand to be ahead a stationary hand when judged at the moment of a short vibration ("haptic flash") that is applied when the two hands are spatially aligned. We further investigated the haptic FLE. First, we compared participants' performance in two isosensory visual or haptic conditions, in which moving object and flash were presented only in a single modality (visual: sphere and short color change, haptic: hand and vibration), and two bisensory conditions, in which the moving object was presented in both modalities (hand aligned with visible sphere), but the flash was presented only visually or only haptically...
2018: PloS One
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