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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551835/measurement-of-quality-of-life-and-attitudes-towards-illness-in-children-and-young-people-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#1
Jennifer Heath, Paul Norman, Martin Christian, Alan Watson
PURPOSE: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) can place restrictions upon biopsychosocial development in children; consequently, assessment of self-reported quality of life (QoL) is important in patient evaluations. This research aimed to evaluate a generic and renal-specific self-report QoL scale, assess children's attitudes towards living with CKD and propose an appropriate tool for future individual clinical use or departmental audit. METHODS: Seventy-one children (41 male, 30 female; mean age = 13...
May 27, 2017: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549647/pavlovian-influences-on-learning-differ-between-rats-and-mice-in-a-counter-balanced-go-nogo-judgement-bias-task
#2
Samantha Jones, Elizabeth S Paul, Peter Dayan, Emma S J Robinson, Michael Mendl
Judgement bias tests of animal affect and hence welfare assume that the animal's responses to ambiguous stimuli, which may herald positive or negative outcomes, are under instrumental control and reflect 'optimism' or 'pessimism' about what will happen. However, Pavlovian control favours responses (e.g. approach or withdrawal) according to the valence associated with a stimulus, rather than the anticipated response outcomes. Typically, positive contexts promote action and approach whilst negative contexts promote inhibition or withdrawal...
May 23, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547680/the-influence-of-attention-on-value-integration
#3
Melina A Kunar, Derrick G Watson, Konstantinos Tsetsos, Nick Chater
People often have to make decisions based on many pieces of information. Previous work has found that people are able to integrate values presented in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) stream to make informed judgements on the overall stream value (Tsetsos et al. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109(24), 9659-9664, 2012). It is also well known that attentional mechanisms influence how people process information. However, it is unknown how attentional factors impact value judgements of integrated material...
May 25, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545545/a-focused-ethnography-of-a-child-and-adolescent-mental-health-service-factors-relevant-to-the-implementation-of-a-depression-trial
#4
C E W Kitchen, S Lewis, P A Tiffin, P R Welsh, L Howey, D Ekers
BACKGROUND: Prior to commencing a randomised controlled trial, we conducted a focused ethnography to ensure that the trial was well suited to the proposed setting. METHODS: A six-month observation of a Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service site in the North-East of England was undertaken to observe the site procedures, staff culture and patient care pathways. During this period, documentary data were collected and interviews were conducted with key informants to provide insight into staff perceptions of the proposed trial...
May 25, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544942/behavioural-and-neural-evidence-for-the-impact-of-fluency-context-on-conscious-memory
#5
Carlos Alexandre Gomes, Axel Mecklinger, Hubert Zimmer
It has been recently suggested that fluency may impact recognition memory performance when the fluency context varies from trial-to-trial. Surprisingly, such an effect has proved difficult to detect in the masked priming paradigm, one of the most popular means to increase fluency-based memory judgements. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment in which participants encoded words at study and, at test, performed a recognition memory task within a masked priming procedure. In order to optimise the chances of finding priming effects on recognition memory performance, we used low-frequency words, which have been shown to increase hits relative to false alarms and enhance masked priming effects...
April 21, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541496/reason-and-paradox-in-medical-and-family-law-shaping-children-s-bodies
#6
Brian D Earp, Jennifer Hendry, Michael Thomson
Legal outcomes often depend on the adjudication of what may appear to be straightforward distinctions. In this article, we consider two such distinctions that appear in medical and family law deliberations: the distinction between religion and culture and between therapeutic and non-therapeutic. These distinctions can impact what constitutes 'reasonable parenting' or a child's 'best interests' and thus the limitations that may be placed on parental actions. Such distinctions are often imagined to be asocial facts, there for the judge to discover...
May 24, 2017: Medical Law Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541400/identifying-frailty-in-the-emergency-department-feasibility-study
#7
Amy Elliott, Kay Phelps, Emma Regen, Simon Paul Conroy
Introduction: identifying the most at risk older people in Emergency Departments (EDs) may help guide clinical practice, and service improvement in emergency care, but little is known about how to implement such tools in practice. Methods: consensus building was used to determine the desirable characteristics of a risk stratification process, including focus groups and literature reviewing. Candidate tools were tested using clinical vignettes in semi-structured interviews with a range of clinicians working in one large ED, assessing speed of use, ease of use and agreement with clinical judgement...
May 25, 2017: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540073/viscoelastic-testing-inside-and-beyond-the-operating-room
#8
REVIEW
Liang Shen, Sheida Tabaie, Natalia Ivascu
Hemorrhage is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality during the perioperative period. Current methods of diagnosing coagulopathy have various limitations including long laboratory runtimes, lack of information on specific abnormalities of the coagulation cascade, lack of in vivo applicability, and lack of ability to guide the transfusion of blood products. Viscoelastic testing offers a promising solution to many of these problems. The two most-studied systems, thromboelastography (TEG) and rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM), offer similar graphical and numerical representations of the initiation, formation, and lysis of clot...
April 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538648/less-is-more-antibiotic-duration-and-outcomes-in-fournier-s-gangrene
#9
Margaret Lauerman, Olga Kolesnik, Kinjal Sethuraman, Ronald Rabinowitz, Manjari Joshi, Emily Clark, Deborah Stein, Thomas Scalea, Sharon Henry
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic management of Fournier's gangrene (FG) is without evidence-based guidelines, and is based on expert opinion. The effect of duration of antibiotic therapy on outcomes in FG is unknown. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of FG patients from 2012-2015 at a single institution. Patients were managed by our institutional practice of complete primary wound closure as possible, with antibiotic duration according to physician judgement. Patients were stratified into multiple durations of antibiotic administration...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536815/-is-kinesiophobia-associated-with-changes-in-left-right-judgment-and-emotion-recognition-during-a-persisting-pain-condition-a-cross-sectional-study
#10
H von Piekartz, J Lüers, H Daumeyer, G Mohr
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of kinesiophobia on emotion recognition and left/right judgement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 67 patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain were tested. In all, 24 patients achieved a score >37 on the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia and were included in the study. The ability to recognize basic emotions coded through facial expression was assessed using the Facially Expressed Emotion Labeling (FEEL) test...
May 23, 2017: Der Schmerz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535332/interventions-for-treating-anxiety-after-stroke
#11
REVIEW
Peter Knapp, C Alexia Campbell Burton, John Holmes, Jenni Murray, David Gillespie, C Elizabeth Lightbody, Caroline L Watkins, Ho-Yan Y Chun, Sharon R Lewis
BACKGROUND: Approximately 20% of stroke patients experience clinically significant levels of anxiety at some point after stroke. Physicians can treat these patients with antidepressants or other anxiety-reducing drugs, or both, or they can provide psychological therapy. This review looks at available evidence for these interventions. This is an update of the review first published in October 2011. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to assess the effectiveness of pharmaceutical, psychological, complementary, or alternative therapeutic interventions in treating stroke patients with anxiety disorders or symptoms...
May 23, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534211/associations-between-yoga-practice-and-joint-problems-a-cross-sectional-survey-among-9151-australian-women
#12
Romy Lauche, Dania Schumann, David Sibbritt, Jon Adams, Holger Cramer
Yoga exercises have been associated with joint problems recently, indicating that yoga practice might be potentially dangerous for joint health. This study aimed to analyse whether regular yoga practice is associated with the frequency of joint problems in upper middle-aged Australian women. Women aged 62-67 years from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH) were questioned in 2013 whether they experienced regular joint pain or problems in the past 12 months and whether they regularly practiced yoga...
May 22, 2017: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534169/-capacity-to-consent-to-treatment-in-dementia-patients-interdisciplinary-perspectives
#13
REVIEW
Julia Haberstroh, Tanja Müller
BACKGROUND: Currently, there are no concrete, evidence-based default procedures to adequately assess the capacity to consent to medical treatment. This explains why different raters use individual heuristics, differing both within and between disciplines. The lack of a procedure that is standardized, validated, and equally accepted across disciplines to assess the capacity to consent to treatment has led to an uncertainty in legal and medical practice regarding appropriate action and decision making...
May 22, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533465/human-colour-in-mate-choice-and-competition
#14
REVIEW
Hannah M Rowland, Robert P Burriss
The colour of our skin and clothing affects how others perceive us and how we behave. Human skin colour varies conspicuously with genetic ancestry, but even subtle changes in skin colour due to diet, blood oxygenation and hormone levels influence social perceptions. In this review, we describe the theoretical and empirical frameworks in which human colour is researched. We explore how subtle skin colour differences relate to judgements of health and attractiveness. Also, because humans are one of the few organisms able to manipulate their apparent colour, we review how cosmetics and clothing are implicated in courtship and competition, both inside the laboratory and in the real world...
July 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533198/chlamydia-and-hiv-testing-contraception-advice-and-free-condoms-offered-in-general-practice-a-qualitative-interview-study-of-young-adults-perceptions-of-this-initiative
#15
Leah Ffion Jones, Ellie Ricketts, Katy Town, Claire Rugman, Donna Lecky, Kate Folkard, Anthony Nardone, Thomas Nathan Hartney, Cliodna McNulty
BACKGROUND: Opportunistic chlamydia screening is actively encouraged in English general practices. Based on recent policy changes, Public Health England piloted 3Cs and HIV in 2013-2014, integrating the offer of chlamydia testing with providing condoms, contraceptive information, and HIV testing (referred to as 3Cs and HIV) according to national guidelines. AIM: To determine young adults' opinions of receiving a broader sexual health offer of 3Cs and HIV at their GP practice...
May 22, 2017: British Journal of General Practice: the Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533182/biased-visceral-perception-through-fear-learning-biased-intensity-judgements-of-visceral-sensations-after-learning-to-fear-visceral-stimuli-a-drift-diffusion-approach
#16
Jonas Zaman, Victoria J Madden, Julie Iven, Katja Wiech, Nathalie Weltens, Huynh Giao Ly, Johan W S Vlaeyen, Lukas Van Oudenhove, Ilse Van Diest
A growing body of research has identified fear of visceral sensations as a potential mechanism in the development and maintenance of visceral pain disorders. However, the extent to which such learned fear affects visceroception remains unclear. To address this question, we used a differential fear conditioning paradigm with non-painful esophageal balloon distensions of two different intensities as conditioning stimuli (CSs). The experiment comprised pre-acquisition, acquisition and post-acquisition phases during which participants categorized the CSs with respect to their intensity...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532611/hijacked-evidence-based-medicine-stay-the-course-and-throw-the-pirates-overboard
#17
John P A Ioannidis
The article discusses a number of criticisms that have been raised against evidence-based medicine, such as focusing on benefits and ignoring adverse events; being interested in averages and ignoring the wide variability in individual risks and responsiveness; ignoring clinician-patient interaction and clinical judgement; leading to some sort of reductionism; and falling prey to corruption from conflicts of interest. I argue that none of these deficiencies are necessarily inherent to evidence-based medicine...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532470/health-care-professionals-attitudes-towards-evidence-based-medicine-in-the-workers-compensation-setting-a-cohort-study
#18
Nieke A Elbers, Robin Chase, Ashley Craig, Lyn Guy, Ian A Harris, James W Middleton, Michael K Nicholas, Trudy Rebbeck, John Walsh, Simon Willcock, Keri Lockwood, Ian D Cameron
BACKGROUND: Problems may arise during the approval process of treatment after a compensable work injury, which include excess paperwork, delays in approving services, disputes, and allegations of over-servicing. This is perceived as undesirable for injured people, health care professionals and claims managers, and costly to the health care system, compensation system, workplaces and society. Introducing an Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) decision tool in the workers' compensation system could provide a partial solution, by reducing uncertainty about effective treatment...
May 22, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526634/microsurgery-simulation-training-system-and-set-up-an-essential-system-to-complement-every-training-programme
#19
Dhalia Masud, Nadine Haram, Margarita Moustaki, Whitney Chow, Samer Saour, Pari Naz Mohanna
INTRODUCTION: Microsurgical techniques are essential in plastic surgery; however, inconsistent training practices, acquiring these skills can be difficult. To address this, we designed a standardised laboratory-based microsurgical training programme, which allows trainees to develop their dexterity, visuospatial ability, operative flow and judgement as separate components. METHOD: Thirty trainees completed an initial microsurgical anastomosis on a chicken femoral artery, assessed using the structured assessment of microsurgical skills (SAMS) method...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525617/what-sways-people-s-judgement-of-sleep-quality-a-quantitative-choice-making-study-with-good-and-poor-sleepers
#20
Fatanah Ramlee, Adam N Sanborn, Nicole K Y Tang
Study objectives: We conceptualised sleep quality judgement as a decision-making process and examined the relative importance of 17 parameters of sleep quality using a choice-based conjoint analysis. Methods: 100 participants (50 good sleepers; 50 poor sleepers) were asked to choose between two written scenarios to answer one of two questions: "Which describes a better (or worse) night of sleep?". Each scenario described a subjective experience of sleep, stringing together 17 possible determinants of sleep quality that occur at different times of the day (day before, pre-sleep, during sleep, upon waking, day after)...
May 19, 2017: Sleep
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