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Judgement

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431197/serum-c-reactive-protein-procalcitonin-and-lactate-dehydrogenase-for-the-diagnosis-of-pancreatic-necrosis
#1
REVIEW
Oluyemi Komolafe, Stephen P Pereira, Brian R Davidson, Kurinchi Selvan Gurusamy
BACKGROUND: The treatment of people with pancreatic necrosis differs from that of people with oedematous pancreatitis. It is important to know the diagnostic accuracy of serum C-reactive protein (CRP), serum procalcitonin, and serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as a triage test for the detection of pancreatic necrosis in people with acute pancreatitis, so that an informed decision can be made as to whether the person with pancreatic necrosis needs further investigations such as computed tomography (CT) scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan and treatment for pancreatic necrosis started...
April 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429560/is-there-a-role-for-newer-biomarkers-in-chronic-kidney-disease-mineral-and-bone-disorder-management
#2
Sven-Jean Tan, Michael Mx Cai
The current management of Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral Bone Disorder (CKD-MBD) relies largely on clinical judgement and assessment of biochemical parameters including serum calcium, phosphate and intact parathyroid hormone concentrations. In the past two decades, there has been a leap in the understanding of the pathophysiology of CKD-MBD, leading to the discovery of novel biomarkers. The potential utility of these markers in this clinical setting is an area of intense investigation. In the absence of any guidelines aiding the clinician's understanding and application of these markers, we summarise the current available literature surrounding fibroblast growth factor-23, α-Klotho, sclerostin and serum calcification propensity testing and their respective assays in the context of CKD-MBD management...
March 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429555/management-of-mineral-and-bone-disorders-in-renal-transplant-recipients
#3
Matthew J Damasiewicz, Peter R Ebeling
The management of post-transplantation bone disease is a complex problem that remains under-appreciated in clinical practice. In these patients, pre-existing metabolic bone disorder is further impacted by the use of immunosuppressive medications (glucocorticoids and calcineurin-inhibitors), variable post-transplantation renal allograft function and post-transplantation diabetes mellitus. The treatment of post-transplantation bone loss should begin pre-transplantation. All patients active on transplant waiting lists should be screened for bone disease...
March 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427496/mortality-risk-factors-in-intensive-care-unit-patients-with-acute-kidney-injury-requiring-renal-replacement-therapy-a-retrospective-cohort-study%C3%A2
#4
Michael Schmitz, Frank P Tillmann, Ausra Paluckaite, Erich A Laufer, Brian Rayner, Lars C Rump, Peter J Heering
BACKGROUND: Mortality of critically-ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) in an intensive-care setting continues to remain high. There is still uncertainty as to which factors should guide clinical judgement. METHODS: A cohort of 155 patients admitted to an intensive-care unit and necessitating RRT due to AKI were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic and clinical parameters at the time of RRT initiation were retrieved...
April 21, 2017: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427308/larger-stimuli-require-longer-processing-time-for-perception
#5
Ryota Kanai, Edwin S Dalmaijer, Maxine T Sherman, Genji Kawakita, Chris L E Paffen
The time it takes for a stimulus to reach awareness is often assessed by measuring reaction times (RTs) or by a temporal order judgement (TOJ) task in which perceived timing is compared against a reference stimulus. Dissociations of RT and TOJ have been reported earlier in which increases in stimulus intensity such as luminance intensity results in a decrease of RT, whereas perceived perceptual latency in a TOJ task is affected to a lesser degree. Here, we report that a simple manipulation of stimulus size has stronger effects on perceptual latency measured by TOJ than on motor latency measured by RT tasks...
May 2017: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425560/impact-of-simulated-three-dimensional-perception-on-precision-of-depth-judgements-technical-performance-and-perceived-workload-in-laparoscopy
#6
S Sakata, P M Grove, A Hill, M O Watson, A R L Stevenson
BACKGROUND: This study compared precision of depth judgements, technical performance and workload using two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) laparoscopic displays across different viewing distances. It also compared the accuracy of 3D displays with natural viewing, along with the relationship between stereoacuity and 3D laparoscopic performance. METHODS: A counterbalanced within-subjects design with random assignment to testing sequences was used. The system could display 2D or 3D images with the same set-up...
April 20, 2017: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425433/prior-context-in-audition-informs-binding-and-shapes-simple-features
#7
Claire Chambers, Sahar Akram, Vincent Adam, Claire Pelofi, Maneesh Sahani, Shihab Shamma, Daniel Pressnitzer
A perceptual phenomenon is reported, whereby prior acoustic context has a large, rapid and long-lasting effect on a basic auditory judgement. Pairs of tones were devised to include ambiguous transitions between frequency components, such that listeners were equally likely to report an upward or downward 'pitch' shift between tones. We show that presenting context tones before the ambiguous pair almost fully determines the perceived direction of shift. The context effect generalizes to a wide range of temporal and spectral scales, encompassing the characteristics of most realistic auditory scenes...
April 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424392/-the-role-of-brodmann-area-12-taste-social-cognition-and-mental-time
#8
Mitsuru Kawamura
Broadman area 12, together with area 11, is located in the orbitofrontal area. A voxel-based morphometric (VBM) study revealed the association between bilateral brodmann areas 12/47 and taste disturbance in individuals with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). In our VBM study in patients with Parkinson's disease, decision-making impairments were associated with atrophy of the bilateral Brodmann area 12, indicating that this area may play an important role in social cognitive function. Our recent study also demonstrated that this area may serve as time order judgement or mental time travel...
April 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421018/the-emergence-of-explicit-knowledge-in-a-serial-reaction-time-task-the-role-of-experienced-fluency-and-strength-of-representation
#9
Sarah Esser, Hilde Haider
The Serial Reaction Time Task (SRTT) is an important paradigm to study the properties of unconscious learning processes. One specifically interesting and still controversially discussed topic are the conditions under which unconsciously acquired knowledge becomes conscious knowledge. The different assumptions about the underlying mechanisms can contrastively be separated into two accounts: single system views in which the strengthening of associative weights throughout training gradually turns implicit knowledge into explicit knowledge, and dual system views in which implicit knowledge itself does not become conscious...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419714/young-people-s-beliefs-about-the-risk-of-bowel-cancer-and-its-link-with-physical-activity
#10
Katie V Newby, Chloe Cook, Susanne F Meisel, Thomas L Webb, Bernadette Fisher, Abi Fisher
OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to explore young people's risk appraisals of bowel cancer, including whether they had a coherent understanding of the protective effects of physical activity (PA). A secondary objective was to examine whether the illness risk representations (IRRs) framework could be used to understand beliefs underlying bowel cancer risk appraisals. DESIGN: Qualitative. METHODS: Framework analysis of semi-structured interviews with 19 people aged 14-17 years...
April 17, 2017: British Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416095/self-and-other-agency-in-people-with-passivity-first-rank-symptoms-in-schizophrenia
#11
Kyran T Graham-Schmidt, Mathew T Martin-Iverson, Flavie A V Waters
Individuals with passivity (first-rank) symptoms report that their actions, thoughts and sensations are influenced or controlled by an external (non-self) agent. Passivity symptoms are closely linked to schizophrenia and related disorders yet they remain poorly understood. One dominant framework posits a role for deficits in the sense of agency. An important question is whether deficits in self-agency can be differentiated from other-agency in schizophrenia and passivity symptoms. This study aimed to evaluate self- and other-agency in 51 people with schizophrenia (n=20 current, 10 past, 21 no history of passivity symptoms), and 48 healthy controls...
April 13, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409200/return-to-sport-after-shoulder-arthroplasty-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Joseph N Liu, Michael E Steinhaus, Grant H Garcia, Brenda Chang, Kara Fields, David M Dines, Russell F Warren, Lawrence V Gulotta
PURPOSE: With increasing incidence and indications for shoulder arthroplasty, there is an increasing emphasis on the ability to return to sports. The main goal of this study was to determine the rate of return to sport after shoulder arthroplasty. METHODS: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were followed to perform this systematic review and meta-analysis. A search was performed on MEDLINE, Scopus, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library...
April 13, 2017: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407997/the-diagnosis-of-urinary-tract-infection-in-young-children-duty-study-clinical-rule-economic-evaluation
#13
William Hollingworth, John Busby, Christopher C Butler, Kathryn O'Brien, Jonathan A C Sterne, Kerenza Hood, Paul Little, Michael Lawton, Kate Birnie, Emma Thomas-Jones, Kim Harman, Alastair D Hay
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of a two-step clinical rule using symptoms, signs and dipstick testing to guide the diagnosis and antibiotic treatment of urinary tract infection (UTI) in acutely unwell young children presenting to primary care. METHODS: Decision analytic model synthesising data from a multicentre, prospective cohort study (DUTY) and the wider literature to estimate the short-term and lifetime costs and healthcare outcomes (symptomatic days, recurrent UTI, quality adjusted life years) of eight diagnostic strategies...
April 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406719/structured-expert-consensus-on-actinic-keratosis-treatment-algorithm-focusing-on-daylight-pdt
#14
Piergiacomo Calzavara-Pinton, Merete Hædersdal, Kirk Barber, Nicole Basset-Seguin, María Emilia Del Pino Flores, Peter Foley, Gaston Galimberti, Rianne Gerritsen, Yolanda Gilarbete, Sally Ibbotson, Ketty Peris, Sheetal Sapra, Eleni Sotiriou, Luis Torezan, Claas Ulrich, Jonathan Guillemot, Janek Hendrich, Rolf-Markus Szeimies
BACKGROUND: A practical and up-to-date consensus among experts is paramount to further improve patient care in actinic keratosis (AK). OBJECTIVES: To develop a structured consensus statement on the diagnosis, classification, and practical management of AK based on up-to-date information. METHODS: A systematic review of AK clinical guidelines was conducted. This informed the preparation of a 3-round Delphi procedure followed by a consensus meeting, which combined the opinions of 16 clinical experts from 13 countries, to construct a structured consensus statement and a treatment algorithm positioning daylight photodynamic therapy (dl-PDT) among other AK treatment options...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406548/dentists-use-of-validated-child-dental-anxiety-measures-in-clinical-practice-a-mixed-methods-study
#15
Hussain Alshammasi, Heather Buchanan, Paul Ashley
BACKGROUND: Assessing anxiety is an important part of the assessment of a child presenting for dental treatment; however, the use of dental anxiety scales in practice is not well-documented. AIMS: To introduce child dental anxiety scales, and to monitor the extent to which dentists used them; to explore the experience and views of dentists regarding anxiety assessment. DESIGN: A mixed-methods design was employed. METHOD: A protocol for child anxiety assessment was introduced to paediatric dentists in Eastman Dental Hospital...
April 12, 2017: International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405783/how-do-clinical-genetics-consent-forms-address-the-familial-approach-to-confidentiality-and-incidental-findings-a-mixed-methods-study
#16
Sandi Dheensa, Gillian Crawford, Claire Salter, Michael Parker, Angela Fenwick, Anneke Lucassen
Genetic test results can be relevant to patients and their relatives. Questions thus arise around whether clinicians regard genetic information as confidential to individuals or to families, and about how they broach this and other issues, including the potential for incidental findings, in consent (forms) for genetic testing. We conducted a content analysis of UK-wide genetic testing consent forms and interviewed 128 clinicians/laboratory scientists. We found that almost all genetic services offered patients multiple, sometimes unworkable, choices on forms, including an option to veto the use of familial genetic information to benefit relatives...
April 12, 2017: Familial Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405372/putative-sex-specific-human-pheromones-do-not-affect-gender-perception-attractiveness-ratings-or-unfaithfulness-judgements-of-opposite-sex-faces
#17
Robin M Hare, Sophie Schlatter, Gillian Rhodes, Leigh W Simmons
Debate continues over the existence of human sex pheromones. Two substances, androstadienone (AND) and estratetraenol (EST), were recently reported to signal male and female gender, respectively, potentially qualifying them as human sex pheromones. If AND and EST truly signal gender, then they should affect reproductively relevant behaviours such as mate perception. To test this hypothesis, heterosexual, Caucasian human participants completed two computer-based tasks twice, on two consecutive days, exposed to a control scent on one day and a putative pheromone (AND or EST) on the other...
March 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404558/factors-associated-with-participation-in-resistance-training-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Ryan E Rhodes, David R Lubans, Nandini Karunamuni, Sarah Kennedy, Ronald Plotnikoff
OBJECTIVE: Regular participation in resistance training (RT) is critical to health and recommended in most international physical activity guidelines. Few people, however, participate in RT. The purpose of this review was to assess the demographic, behavioural, intrapersonal, interpersonal and environmental factors associated with participating in RT. DATA SOURCES: Eligible studies were from English peer-reviewed published articles that examined correlates or determinants of RT in adult samples...
April 12, 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403502/-innovative-e-health-approaches-for-comorbid-depression-in-patients-with-obesity-patient-and-expert-perspectives-on-user-acceptance
#19
Margrit Löbner, Janine Stein, Theresia Rost, Franziska Förster, Marie Dorow, Jana Keller, Enrico Weidauer, Steffi G Riedel-Heller
Objective Patients with chronic somatic diseases such as obesity often suffer from comorbid depressive disorders and present a great challenge for the medical health care system. The study aims to investigate the user acceptance of an internet-based self-management program regarding depression (using the example of MoodGYM) from two different perspectives: (A) the perspective of patients as well as (B) the perspective of experts based on Rogers´ 5 stages model of the innovation-decision process (2003). Methods This study is following a qualitative design including qualitative patient interviews (N = 7) and a focus group with medical experts (N = 12)...
April 12, 2017: Psychiatrische Praxis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403195/does-ought-imply-can
#20
Miklos Kurthy, Holly Lawford-Smith, Paulo Sousa
Most philosophers believe that a person can have an obligation only insofar as she is able to fulfil it, a principle generally referred to as "Ought Implies Can". Arguably, this principle reflects something basic about the ordinary concept of obligation. However, in a paper published recently in this journal, Wesley Buckwalter and John Turri presented evidence for the conclusion that ordinary people in fact reject that principle. With a series of studies, they claimed to have demonstrated that, in people's judgements, obligations persist irrespective of whether those who hold them have the ability to fulfil them...
2017: PloS One
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