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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140872/an-experimental-investigation-of-implicit-hiv-and-prep-stigma-evidence-for-ancillary-benefits-of-prep-use
#1
Sarit A Golub, Corina Lelutiu-Weinberger, Anthony Surace
BACKGROUND: PrEP stigma (i.e., negative attitudes toward PrEP users) has been widely documented and is considered a significant barrier to implementation. However, few studies have examined PrEP stigma using implicit measures designed to reduce demand characteristics in responding. This study examined implicit PrEP- and HIV-related stigma among gay and bisexual men using geospatial social networking applications (i.e., "hookup apps"). METHODS: Participants were presented with four simulated online profiles (pre-tested for comparability) paired with each of the following characteristics: HIV-negative, HIV-positive, on PrEP, or Substance User...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136209/use-of-18f-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-in-the-diagnosis-of-polymyalgia-rheumatica-a-prospective-study-of-99-patients
#2
Liesbet Henckaerts, Olivier Gheysens, Steven Vanderschueren, Karolien Goffin, Daniel Blockmans
Objective: Previous studies have shown that the majority of patients with PMR have increased 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake around the shoulders, hips and processes of the cervical and lumbar spine on PET. The specificity of these findings for PMR is, however, not known. Methods: We prospectively included 99 consecutive patients with a possible clinical diagnosis of PMR. All patients underwent 18F-FDG-PET scanning before treatment with glucocorticoids was started...
October 7, 2017: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135293/-from-the-hallervorden-spatz-eponym-to-the-molecular-terminology
#3
Ferenc Garzuly
INTRODUCTION AND AIM: A combination of Niemann-Pick- and Hallervorden-Spatz diseases led to the death of a 17-year-old boy in 1994. Genetic counseling necessitated further investigations in 2017. Meanwhile, the nomenclature of Hallervorden-Spatz disease has been abandoned. The author analyze the reasons for this change. METHOD: Professional activities of Hallervorden and Spatz during and after the Nazi euthanasia program are presented. Also, the scientific efforts that led to the discovery of the genetic background of the disease and ultimately to its new name are highlighted...
October 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132765/cortical-thinning-correlates-of-changes-in-visuospatial-and-visuoperceptual-performance-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-4-year-follow-up
#4
A I Garcia-Diaz, B Segura, H C Baggio, C Uribe, A Campabadal, A Abos, M J Marti, F Valldeoriola, Y Compta, N Bargallo, C Junque
BACKGROUND: Growing evidence highlights the relevance of posterior cortically-based cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease (PD) as possible biomarkers of the evolution to dementia. Cross-sectional correlational studies have established a relationship between the degree of atrophy in posterior brain regions and visuospatial and visuoperceptual (VS/VP) impairment. The aim of this study is to address the progressive cortical thinning correlates of VS/VP performance in PD. METHODS: Forty-four PD patients and 20 matched healthy subjects were included in this study and followed for 4 years...
November 7, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131113/speech-production-quality-of-cochlear-implant-users-with-respect-to-duration-and-onset-of-hearing-loss
#5
Suzan Ruff, Tobias Bocklet, Elmar Nöth, Joachim Müller, Eva Hoster, Maria Schuster
PURPOSE: To assess whether postlingual onset and shorter duration of deafness before cochlear implant (CI) provision predict higher speech intelligibility results of CI users. METHODS: For an objective judgement of speech intelligibility, we used an automatic speech recognition system computing the word recognition rate (WR) of 50 adult CI users and 50 age-matched control individuals. All subjects were recorded reading a standardized text. Subjects were divided into three groups: pre- or perilingual deafness (A), both >2 years before implantation, postlingual deafness <2 years before implantation (B), or postlingual deafness >2 years before implantation (C)...
November 9, 2017: ORL; Journal for Oto-rhino-laryngology and its related Specialties
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129955/a-comparative-analysis-of-bioethical-issues-from-view-points-of-religious-affairs-administration-in-turkey-roman-catholicism-and-orthodox-judaism
#6
Cemal Huseyin Güvercin, Kerim M Munir
The arguments set forth by religious authority are important since they play a crucial role in shaping the social values of the public and influence the decision of individuals in practice pertaining to bioethical issues. The Religious Affairs Administration (RAA) was established at the inception of the Republic of Turkey in 1924 to guide religious considerations moving out of the Ottoman caliphate to a secular bioethical framework. In this article, the bioethical views of the RAA under Islamic tradition is examined and contrasted with those influenced by the Roman Catholic and Orthodox Judaic traditions...
July 2017: Acta Bioethica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129187/developing-the-fourth-evaluation-dimension-a-protocol-for-evaluation-of-video-from-the-patient-s-perspective-during-major-incident-exercises
#7
J J Mark Haverkort, Luke P H Leenen
OBJECTIVE: Presently used evaluation techniques rely on 3 traditional dimensions: reports from observers, registration system data, and observational cameras. Some of these techniques are observer-dependent and are not reproducible for a second review. This proof-of-concept study aimed to test the feasibility of extending evaluation to a fourth dimension, the patient's perspective. METHODS: Footage was obtained during a large, full-scale hospital trauma drill. Two mock victims were equipped with point-of-view cameras filming from the patient's head...
October 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126260/association-between-risk-of-bias-assessments-and-results-of-randomized-trials-in-cochrane-reviews-the-robes-meta-epidemiologic-study
#8
Jelena Savovic, Rebecca M Turner, David Mawdsley, Hayley E Jones, Rebecca Beynon, Julian P T Higgins, Jonathan A C Sterne
Flaws in trial design may bias intervention effect estimates and increase between-trial heterogeneity. Empirical evidence suggests that these problems are greatest for subjectively assessed outcomes. For the ROBES study, we extracted risk-of-bias judgements (for sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding and incomplete data) from a large collection of meta-analyses published in the Cochrane Library, issue 4, 2011. We categorized outcome measures as mortality, other objective or subjective, and estimated associations of bias judgements with intervention effect estimates using Bayesian hierarchical models...
November 8, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125898/biodiversity-impact-assessment-bia-methodological-framework-for-screening-biodiversity
#9
Lisa Winter, Stephan Pflugmacher, Markus Berger, Matthias Finkbeiner
PURPOSE: For the past twenty years the life cycle assessment (LCA) community has sought to integrate impacts on biodiversity into the LCA framework. However, existing impact assessment methods still fail to do so comprehensively, as they only quantify few impacts related to specific species and specific regions. This paper proposes a methodological framework that will allow LCA practitioners to assess currently missing impacts on biodiversity on a global scale. METHOD: Building on existing models which seek to quantify the impacts of human activities on biodiversity, the herein proposed methodological framework consists of two components: a habitat factor for 14 major habitat types and the impact on the biodiversity status in those major habitat types...
November 10, 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124766/direct-costs-of-transfusion-reactions-an-expert-judgement-approach
#10
M P Janssen, A J W van Tilborgh, K M K de Vooght, A G Bokhorst, J C Wiersum-Osselton
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Despite increasingly meticulous haemovigilance reporting throughout the world, a systematic assessment of the cost of transfusion reactions is still lacking. This is partly caused by the fact that such an assessment requires a subjective expert assessment of the additional costs linked to the adverse reaction. Data on the cost of transfusion reactions could support decision-making regarding blood transfusion safety measures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirteen experts from nine hospitals were asked to estimate the additional care required following various types of transfusion reactions...
November 9, 2017: Vox Sanguinis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122975/efficiency-and-thoroughness-trade-offs-in-high-volume-organisational-routines-an-ethnographic-study-of-prescribing-safety-in-primary-care
#11
Suzanne Grant, Bruce Guthrie
BACKGROUND: Prescribing is a high-volume primary care routine where both speed and attention to detail are required. One approach to examining how organisations approach quality and safety in the face of high workloads is Hollnagel's Efficiency and Thoroughness Trade-Off (ETTO). Hollnagel argues that safety is aligned with thoroughness and that a choice is required between efficiency and thoroughness as it is not usually possible to maximise both. This study aimed to ethnographically examine the efficiency and thoroughness trade-offs made by different UK general practices in the achievement of prescribing safety...
November 9, 2017: BMJ Quality & Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121284/neuropathic-pain-in-cancer-systematic-review-performance-of-screening-tools-and-analysis-of-symptom-profiles
#12
M R Mulvey, E G Boland, D Bouhassira, R Freynhagen, J Hardy, M J Hjermstad, S Mercadante, C Pérez, M I Bennett
Background: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the methodological quality of rigorous neuropathic pain assessment tools in applicable clinical studies, and determine the performance of screening tools for identifying neuropathic pain in patients with cancer. Methods: Systematic literature search identified studies reporting use of Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (LANSS), Douleur Neuropathique en 4 (DN4) or painDETECT (PDQ) in cancer patients with a clinical diagnosis of neuropathic or not neuropathic pain...
October 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119582/emotions-and-assessment-considerations-for-rater-based-judgements-of-entrustment
#13
Carlos Gomez-Garibello, Meredith Young
CONTEXT: Assessment is subject to increasing scrutiny as medical education transitions towards a competency-based medical education (CBME) model. Traditional perspectives on the roles of assessment emphasise high-stakes, summative assessment, whereas CBME argues for formative assessment. Revisiting conceptualisations about the roles and formats of assessment in medical education provides opportunities to examine understandings and expectations of the assessment of learners. The act of the rater generating scores might be considered as an exclusively cognitive exercise; however, current literature has drawn attention to the notion of raters as measurement instruments, thereby attributing additional factors to their decision-making processes, such as social considerations and intuition...
November 9, 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118339/action-categorization-in-rhesus-monkeys-discrimination-of-grasping-from-non-grasping-manual-motor-acts
#14
Koen Nelissen, Wim Vanduffel
The ability to recognize others' actions is an important aspect of social behavior. While neurophysiological and behavioral research in monkeys has offered a better understanding of how the primate brain processes this type of information, further insight with respect to the neural correlates of action recognition requires tasks that allow recording of brain activity or perturbing brain regions while monkeys simultaneously make behavioral judgements about certain aspects of observed actions. Here we investigated whether rhesus monkeys could actively discriminate videos showing grasping or non-grasping manual motor acts in a two-alternative categorization task...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118128/a-valence-free-definition-of-sociality-as-any-violation-of-inter-individual-independence
#15
Peggy Mason, Haozhe Shan
Well over 90% of studies in biomedical sciences are performed on single animals. While knowledge of the genetics, development and physiology of single individuals accrues, an understanding of the biological mechanisms by which individuals interact has barely budged. Yet many of society's greatest problems derive from an inability of humans to get along with each other. Studies in social neuroscience are primarily observational and rarely employ subjects who physically interact. Thus, social interaction represents a largely unexplored frontier of biology...
November 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112776/a-meta-ethnography-of-the-facilitators-and-barriers-to-successful-implementation-of-patient-complaints-processes-in-health-care-settings
#16
David A H Scott, Suzanne M Grant
OBJECTIVE: To synthesize experiences of the patient complaints process for patients and health-care professionals to identify facilitators and barriers in the successful implementation of patient complaints processes. This will assist the development of cultural change programmes, enabling complaints managers to incorporate stakeholder perspectives into future care. DESIGN: Systematic literature search and meta-ethnography, comprising reciprocal syntheses of "patient" and "professional" qualitative studies, combined to form a "line-of-argument" embodying both perspectives...
November 7, 2017: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111998/combining-the-outcomes-of-endoscopy-laboratory-testing-and-professional-judgement-in-gastroenterological-decision-making
#17
Amnon Sonnenberg
The need to combine the results of multiple separate tests or make decisions based on the judgement by multiple experts permeates the clinical and professional practice of a gastroenterologist. The present analysis is aimed at delineating four different means to combine results of multiple tests and discuss their applicability and limitations. In serial testing, the overall test outcome is rated as being positive if the outcome is positive in all individual tests applied in series. Serial testing increases the overall specificity at the expense of decreasing sensitivity...
December 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110338/use-of-viscoelastic-tests-to-predict-clinical-thromboembolic-events-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
REVIEW
Yusrah Harahsheh, Kwok M Ho
We aimed to assess whether whole-blood viscoelastic tests are useful to identify patients who are hypercoagulable and at increased risk of thromboembolism. Two investigators independently analyzed studies in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane controlled trial register databases to determine the ability of viscoelastic tests to identify a hypercoagulable state that is predictive of objectively proven thromboembolic events. Thirty-eight eligible studies, including 8748 patients, were identified and subject to meta-analysis...
November 7, 2017: European Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105556/twenty-five-years-of-french-jurisprudence-in-criminal-medical-liability
#19
Maxime Faisant, Frédérique Papin-Lefebvre, Camille Rerolle, Pauline Saint-Martin, Clotilde Rougé-Maillart
We report on a comprehensive 25-year study on criminal medical liability in France, undertaken to establish trends in the number of cases being brought before the criminal courts. We did this by querying the database on the Légifrance website using a Boolean equation (' pénal' (criminal) AND ' médecin' (physician) OR ' docteur' (doctor)). In total 539 cases were selected, in which the status of the physician either influenced the punishment imposed, or was a prerequisite for the commission of the offence...
January 1, 2017: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103743/elderly-patients-affected-by-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-unfit-for-standard-curative-treatment-is-de-intensified-hypofractionated-radiotherapy-a-feasible-strategy
#20
Pierluigi Bonomo, Isacco Desideri, Mauro Loi, Monica Lo Russo, Emanuela Olmetto, Virginia Maragna, Giulio Francolini, Camilla Delli Paoli, Roberta Grassi, Donato Pezzulla, Daniela Greto, Icro Meattini, Lorenzo Livi
OBJECTIVES: The aim of our work was to report on the clinical outcome of a moderately hyprofractionated radiotherapy regimen in elderly patients affected by head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: HNSCC aged ≥65 deemed unsuitable for curatively-intended concurrent chemo-radiotherapy or high-dose radiotherapy by clinical judgement were further evaluated with the Geriatric 8 (G8) questionnaire and Charlson comorbidity index (CCI). In case of a G8 score ≤14, a de-intensified radiation schedule of 40 Gy delivered in 16 fractions was prescribed...
November 2017: Oral Oncology
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