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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778822/formulation-techniques-for-high-dose-dry-powders
#1
Ashlee D Brunaugh, Hugh D C Smyth
Delivery of drugs to the lungs via dry powder inhaler (DPI) is a promising approach for the treatment of both local pulmonary conditions and systemic diseases. Though DPIs are widely used for the pulmonary deposition of potent bronchodilators, anticholinergics, and corticosteroids, there is growing interest in the utilization of this delivery system for the administration of high drug doses to the lungs, as made evident by recent regulatory approvals for anti-microbial, anti-viral and osmotic agents. However, the formulation of high dose DPIs carries several challenges from both a physiological and physicochemical standpoint...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777389/iron-based-metal-organic-frameworks-as-a-theranostic-carrier-for-local-tuberculosis-therapy
#2
Gabriela Wyszogrodzka, Przemysław Dorożyński, Barbara Gil, Wieslaw J Roth, Maciej Strzempek, Bartosz Marszałek, Władysław P Węglarz, Elżbieta Menaszek, Weronika Strzempek, Piotr Kulinowski
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was initial evaluation of applicability of metal organic framework (MOF) Fe-MIL-101-NH2 as a theranostic carrier of antituberculous drug in terms of its functionality, i.e. drug loading, drug dissolution, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast and cytotoxic safety. METHODS: Fe-MIL-101-NH2 was characterized using X-ray powder diffraction, FTIR spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy. The particle size analysis was determined using laser diffraction...
May 18, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775956/typology-of-new-psychoactive-substance-use-among-the-general-australian-population
#3
Rachel Sutherland, Amy Peacock, Amanda Roxburgh, Monica J Barratt, Lucinda Burns, Raimondo Bruno
AIM: The aim of this study was to examine the typology of Australian illicit drug consumers to determine whether those who use new psychoactive substances (NPS) differ from those using other illicit substances. METHODS: Data were from the 2013 National Drug Strategy Household Survey, a representative population study; analyses were limited to participants reporting past year illicit drug use (including NPS; n = 3309). Latent class analysis identified groups based on past year substance use, and a weighted multivariable, multinomial regression model was used to examine characteristics associated with group membership...
May 3, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775668/current-approaches-to-the-discovery-of-novel-inhaled-medicines
#4
REVIEW
Peter Strong, Kazuhiro Ito, John Murray, Garth Rapeport
Inhaled administration is underutilised because the drug discovery process is viewed as challenging, risky, and expensive. However, unmet medical need continues to grow, and significant opportunities exist to discover novel inhaled medicines delivering the required lung concentrations while minimising systemic exposure. This profile could be achieved by a combination of properties, including lung retention and low oral bioavailability. Property-based rules exist for orally administered compounds, but there has been limited progress defining in silico predictors to guide the discovery of novel inhaled drugs...
May 15, 2018: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773055/crystal-engineering-upcoming-paradigm-for-efficacious-pulmonary-drug-delivery
#5
Preshita P Desai, Sanyat S Mapara, Vandana B Patravale
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Pulmonary drug delivery has transformed over a past few decades from being a platform for local pulmonary disease treatment to systemic drug delivery opportunities. In case of pulmonary delivery systems, particle properties are critical as they affect inhalation efficacy, pulmonary deposition, drug delivery and overall performance. With this in view, particle engineering has emerged as an advanced science that helps in designing of efficacious pulmonary delivery systems...
May 17, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767468/central-adenosine-a-1-receptors-inhibit-cough-via-suppression-of-excitatory-glutamatergic-and-tachykininergic-neurotransmission
#6
Ahmed Z El-Hashim, Seena Mathews, Fajer Al-Shamlan
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The A1 adenosine receptor is reported to mediate several excitatory effects in the airways and has inhibitory effects in the central nervous system. In this study, we investigated the role of peripheral and central A1 adenosine receptors in regulating cough and airway obstruction. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Drugs were administered to guinea pigs via the inhaled or intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) routes. Cough was induced by exposing guinea pigs to aerosolised 0...
May 16, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765201/deposition-and-transport-of-linezolid-mediated-by-a-synthetic-surfactant-synsurf-%C3%A2-within-a-pressurized-metered-dose-inhaler-a-calu-3-model
#7
Lyné van Rensburg, Johann M van Zyl, Johan Smith
Background: Previous studies in our laboratory demonstrated that a synthetic peptide containing lung surfactant enhances the permeability of chemical compounds through bronchial epithelium. The purpose of this study was to test two formulations of Synsurf® combined with linezolid as respirable compounds using a pressurized metered dose inhaler (pMDI). Methods: Aerosolization efficiency of the surfactant-drug microparticles onto Calu-3 monolayers as an air interface culture was analyzed using a Next Generation Impactor™...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763833/%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptor-signalling-bias-in-asthma-and-copd-and-the-potential-impact-on-the-comorbidities-associated-with-these-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Maria Gabriella Matera, Clive Page, Barbara Rinaldi
Inhaled selective β2-agonists are the most widely used treatment for obstructive airway diseases. The classical mechanism of action of these drugs is considered as their ability to activate β2-adrenergic receptors (β2-AR) on airway smooth muscle leading to G-protein activation and subsequent generation of c-AMP causing bronchodilation. However, there is now growing evidence to suggest that binding of β2-agonists to β2-AR is pleotropically coupled to many intracellular pathways whereby depending on the state of the β2-AR when activated, a subset of different intracellular responses can be triggered...
May 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762864/population-pharmacokinetic-analysis-of-fluticasone-furoate-umeclidinium-vilanterol-via-a-single-inhaler-in-patients-with-copd
#9
Rashmi Mehta, Eleni Pefani, Misba Beerahee, Noushin Brealey, Helen Barnacle, Ruby Birk, Chang-Qing Zhu, David A Lipson
A population pharmacokinetic analysis was conducted from a subset of samples obtained from the Lung Function and Quality of Life Assessment in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease with Closed Triple Therapy trial to characterize the pharmacokinetics of fluticasone furoate, umeclidinium, and vilanterol in patients with symptomatic COPD following treatment with fluticason furoate-umeclidinium-vilanterol combined in a single inhaler. This was a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy study comparing 24 weeks of once-daily triple therapy (fluticason furoate-umeclidinium-vilanterol, 100 μg/62...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762314/effectiveness-of-dexmedetomidine-versus-propofol-on-extubation-times-length-of-stay-and-mortality-rates-in-adult-cardiac-surgery-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
John Nguyen, Noel Nacpil
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of dexmedetomidine versus propofol on extubation time, intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay, total hospital length of stay and in-hospital mortality rates in cardiac surgery patients. INTRODUCTION: Recovery from cardiovascular surgery involves weaning from mechanical ventilation. Mechanical ventilation decreases the work of breathing for patients by inhaling oxygen and exhaling carbon dioxide via a ventilator or breathing machine...
May 2018: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755982/clinical-genetics-in-interstitial-lung-disease
#11
REVIEW
Chad A Newton, Philip L Molyneaux, Justin M Oldham
Interstitial lung disease (ILD) comprises a heterogeneous group of diffuse parenchymal lung processes with overlapping clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic features. Among the most common and deadly ILDs are idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (CHP). As the name implies, the cause of IPF remains elusive, but a variety of genetic and infectious risk factors have been identified. CHP results from chronic inhalation of an organic antigen, usually of avian or mold origin, and may occur in patients with a genetic predisposition...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752817/national-treatment-guidelines-decreased-the-use-of-racemic-adrenaline-for-bronchiolitis-in-four-finnish-university-hospitals
#12
Sauli Palmu, Minna Mecklin, Paula Heikkilä, Katri Backman, Ville Peltola, Marjo Renko, Matti Korppi
AIM: Inhaled racemic adrenaline was used for bronchiolitis in many hospitals in Finland prior to new national current care guidelines for bronchiolitis in 2014, which limited its recommendations to on-demand rescue therapy. We studied the drug's use before and after the new guidelines to gauge changes in prescribing habits. METHODS: This 2012-2016 study analysed how many 0.5 ml doses of racemic adrenaline were used for children by emergency rooms, paediatric wards and paediatric intensive care units at four university hospitals and estimated drug and staff costs...
May 12, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751142/preparation-of-micrometric-powders-of-parathyroid-hormone-pth1-34-loaded-chitosan-oligosaccharide-by-supercritical-fluid-assisted-atomization
#13
Dong-Xiao Hong, Yu-Long Yun, Yi-Xin Guan, Shan-Jing Yao
Parathyroid hormone (PTH1-34)-loaded dry powders were fabricated from aqueous solution for pulmonary administration using supercritical fluid assisted atomization introduced by a hydrodynamic cavitation mixer (SAA-HCM). Herein, chitosan oligosaccharide (CSO) was selected as a carrier in an effort to enhance transmucosal absorption of the drug. Well-defined, separated and spherical PTH(1-34)/CSO composite microparticles were obtained, and the particles size could be well controlled with narrow distribution. Aerodynamic performance was determined using next generation impactor (NGI), and the mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) ranged strictly 1-5 μm range with fine particle fraction (FPF) up to 63...
May 8, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748900/ehealth-familias-unidas-efficacy-trial-of-an-evidence-based-intervention-adapted-for-use-on-the-internet-with-hispanic-families
#14
Yannine Estrada, Tae Kyoung Lee, Rachel Wagstaff, Lourdes M Rojas, Maria I Tapia, Maria Rosa Velázquez, Krystal Sardinas, Hilda Pantin, Madeline Y Sutton, Guillermo Prado
While substance use and sexual risk behaviors among Hispanic youth continue to be public health concerns, few evidence-based preventive interventions are developed for and implemented with Hispanic/Latino youth. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of eHealth Familias Unidas, an Internet adaptation of an evidence-based family intervention for Hispanics. A randomized controlled trial design (n = 230) was used to evaluate intervention effects on substance use and condomless sex among a sample of Hispanic eighth graders with behavioral problems...
May 10, 2018: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747656/maternal-drug-use-and-the-risk-of-anorectal-malformations-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
REVIEW
Nadine Zwink, Ekkehart Jenetzky
BACKGROUND: Origin of anorectal malformations (ARM) are considered multifactorial. Several genetic and non-genetic risk factors are discussed in literature. Maternal periconceptional medical drug use as possible risk factor, however, has not been reviewed systematically. METHODS: Studies published between 1977 and April 2017 were reviewed through systematic search in PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge and Scopus databases. Furthermore, related and cross-referencing publications were reviewed...
May 10, 2018: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746211/latent-classes-of-substance-use-among-american-indian-and-white-students-living-on-or-near-reservations-2009-2013
#16
Linda R Stanley, Randall C Swaim
OBJECTIVES: American Indian adolescents who reside on or near reservations report higher levels of substance use than adolescents in other racial/ethnic groups. Little research has addressed patterns of use, which have important implications for prevention and treatment planning. The objective of our study was to describe substance use among a large, population-based sample of American Indian and white students who lived on or near reservations. METHODS: We obtained data from 4964 students in grades 7-12 attending 46 schools on or near reservations throughout the United States during 4 academic years (2009-2013)...
January 1, 2018: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745939/antiviral-treatment-of-childhood-influenza-an-update
#17
Amaran Moodley, John S Bradley, David W Kimberlin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Influenza virus can cause severe or life-threatening infection in children. This review provides an update on antiviral medications available to treat and prevent influenza in both healthy children and children with underlying medical conditions, and recommendations on their appropriate use in the outpatient and inpatient settings. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite the significant morbidity and mortality associated with influenza infection, a large number of children hospitalized with influenza do not receive specific antiviral treatment with a neuraminidase inhibitor...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745565/-progress-in-numerical-simulation-and-experimental-study-on-inhalable-particles-deposition-in-human-respiratory-system
#18
REVIEW
Rong Li, Xiuguo Zhao, Yajun Liu, Xinxi Xu
Inhalable particles deposition in the human respiratory system is the main cause of many respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. It plays an important role in related disease prevention and treatment through establishing computer or external entity models to study rules of particle deposition. The paper summarized and analyzed the present research results of various inhalable particle deposition models of upper respiratory tract and pulmonary area, and expounded the application in the areas of disease inducement analysis, drug inhale treatment etc...
August 1, 2017: Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue za Zhi, Journal of Biomedical Engineering, Shengwu Yixue Gongchengxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741897/novel-pyrrolidine-derivatives-of-budesonide-as-long-acting-inhaled-corticosteroids-for-the-treatment-of-pulmonary-inflammatory-diseases
#19
Eleonora Ghidini, Gessica Marchini, Anna Maria Capelli, Chiara Carnini, Valentina Cenacchi, Alessandro Fioni, Fabrizio Facchinetti, Fabio Rancati
Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) represent the first line therapy for the treatment of asthma and are also extensively utilized in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Our goal was to develop a new ICS with a basic group which can allow solid state feature modulation, achieving at the same time high local antiinflammatory effect and low systemic exposure. Through a rational drug design approach a new series of a pyrrolidine derivatives of budesonide was identified. Within the series, several compounds showed nanomolar binding affinity (Ki) with GR that mostly correlated with the effect in inducing GR nuclear translocation in CHO cells and anti-inflammatory effects in macrophagic cell lines...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740404/inhalational-gentamicin-treatment-is-effective-against-pneumonic-plague-in-a-mouse-model
#20
David Gur, Itai Glinert, Moshe Aftalion, Yaron Vagima, Yinon Levy, Shahar Rotem, Ayelet Zauberman, Avital Tidhar, Arnon Tal, Sharon Maoz, Raphael Ber, Avi Pass, Emanuelle Mamroud
Pneumonic plague is an infectious disease characterized by rapid and fulminant development of acute pneumonia and septicemia that results in death within days of exposure. The causative agent of pneumonic plague, Yersinia pestis (Y. pestis) , is a Tier-1 bio-threat agent. Parenteral antibiotic treatment is effective when given within a narrow therapeutic window after symptom onset. However, the non-specific "flu-like" symptoms often lead to delayed diagnosis and therapy. In this study, we evaluated inhalational gentamicin therapy in an infected mouse model as a means to improve antibiotic treatment efficacy...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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