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Ventilator associate pneumonia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652913/ventilator-associated-pneumonia-in-patients-assisted-by-veno-arterial-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-support-epidemiology-and-risk-factors-of-treatment-failure
#1
Adrien Bouglé, Camille Bombled, Dimitri Margetis, Guillaume Lebreton, Charles Vidal, Marine Coroir, David Hajage, Julien Amour
INTRODUCTION: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is frequent in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients. In the specific case of patients treated with Veno-Arterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Support (VA-ECMO), VAP treatment failures (VAP-TF) have been incompletely investigated. METHODS: To investigate the risk factors of treatment failure (VAP-TF) in a large cohort of ICU patients treated with VA-ECMO, we conducted a retrospective study in a Surgical ICU about patients assisted with VA-ECMO between January 1, 2013, and December 31, 2014...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652241/bacterial-burden-in-critically-injured-ventilated-patients-does-not-correlate-with-progression-to-pneumonia
#2
Bradley M Dennis, Richard D Betzold, Daryl Patton, Herbert A Hopper, Judith Jenkins, Chris Fonnesbeck, Wonder Drake, Addison K May
BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is common in critically injured patients. The pathogenesis of VAP is not completely understood. We hypothesized that mechanically ventilated trauma patients who develop pneumonia have a progressive increase in pathogen burden over the course of ventilation until a threshold for symptomatic pneumonia is reached, leading to clinical suspicion of VAP. METHODS: Critically injured adults ventilated for more than two successive days were enrolled...
March 13, 2018: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649555/paradoxical-acinetobacter-associated-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-incidences-within-prevention-studies-using-respiratory-tract-applications-of-topical-polymyxin-benchmarking-the-evidence-base
#3
James C Hurley
BACKGROUND: Regimens containing topical polymyxin appear more effective in preventing Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) than other methods. AIM: To benchmark the incidences Acinetobacter associated VAP (AAVAP) within component (control and intervention) groups from concurrent controlled studies of polymyxin versus studies of various VAP prevention methods other than polymyxin (non-PM studies). METHODS: An AAVAP benchmark was derived using data from 75 observational groups without any VAP prevention method under study...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629985/ventilator-bundle-and-its-effects-on-mortality-among-icu-patients-a-meta-analysis
#4
Claudia Pileggi, Valentina Mascaro, Aida Bianco, Carmelo G A Nobile, Maria Pavia
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of the ventilator bundle in the reduction of mortality in ICU patients. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library for studies published until June 2017. STUDY SELECTION: Included studies: randomized controlled trials or any kind of nonrandomized intervention studies, made reference to a ventilator bundle approach, assessed mortality in ICU-ventilated adult patients. DATA EXTRACTION: Items extracted: study characteristics, description of the bundle approach, number of patients in the comparison groups, hospital/ICU mortality, ventilator-associated pneumonia-related mortality, assessment of compliance to ventilator bundle and its score...
April 6, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628347/impact-of-selective-digestive-decontamination-without-systemic-antibiotics-in-a-major-heart-surgery-intensive-care-unit
#5
María Jesús Pérez-Granda, José M Barrio, Javier Hortal, Almudena Burillo, Patricia Muñoz, Emilio Bouza
PURPOSE: The incidence density of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is higher in patients undergoing major heart surgery than in other populations, despite the introduction of bundles of preventive measures, because many risk factors are not amenable to intervention. Selective digestive decontamination (SDD) has been shown to be efficacious for decreasing the frequency of VAP, although it has not been incorporated into the routine of most intensive care units. The objective of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of SDD without parenteral antibiotics for preventing VAP in a major heart surgery intensive care unit...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628176/interpreting-carbapenem-susceptibility-testing-results-for-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#6
M Micaëlo, F Brossier, N Bréchot, C E Luyt, Q Lu, A Monsel, V Jarlier, A Aubry
OBJECTIVES: Carbapenems are among the most powerful antipseudomonal agents. Limited data is available on drug susceptibility testing by routine methods (disc diffusion and Etest) for meropenem and doripenem. We aimed to compare the in vitro activity of imipenem, meropenem, and doripenem against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. METHODS: A total of 311 P. aeruginosa strains isolated from respiratory specimens in 170 patients who developed ventilator-associated pneumonia in two intensive care units were collected over a period of 31 months...
April 5, 2018: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617698/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-klebsiella-pneumoniae-adaptation-to-innate-immune-clearance-mechanisms-in-the-lung
#7
Sebastian A Riquelme, Danielle Ahn, Alice Prince
Many different species of gram-negative bacteria are associated with infection in the lung, causing exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis (CF), and ventilator-associated pneumonias. These airway pathogens must adapt to common host clearance mechanisms that include killing by antimicrobial peptides, antibiotics, oxidative stress, and phagocytosis by leukocytes. Bacterial adaptation to the host is often evident phenotypically, with increased extracellular polysaccharide production characteristic of some biofilm-associated organisms...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616405/ventilator-associated-pneumonia-in-pediatric-intensive-care-unit-incidence-risk-factors-and-etiological-agents
#8
Gnanaguru Vijay, Anirban Mandal, Jhuma Sankar, Arti Kapil, Rakesh Lodha, S K Kabra
OBJECTIVES: To study the incidence, etiology and risk factors associated with ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) in children. METHODS: This prospective cohort study was conducted on patients admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) of a tertiary care institute of North India, from June 2012 through March 2014, who received mechanical ventilation for more than 24 h. All enrolled children were assessed daily for development of ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) using the case definition given by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)...
April 4, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615093/continuous-versus-intermittent-endotracheal-cuff-pressure-control-for-the-prevention-of-ventilator-associated-respiratory-infections-in-vietnam-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#9
Vu Quoc Dat, Ronald B Geskus, Marcel Wolbers, Huynh Thi Loan, Lam Minh Yen, Nguyen Thien Binh, Le Thanh Chien, Nguyen Thi Hoang Mai, Nguyen Hoan Phu, Nguyen Phu Huong Lan, Nguyen Van Hao, Hoang Bao Long, Tran Phuong Thuy, Nguyen Van Kinh, Nguyen Vu Trung, Vu Dinh Phu, Nguyen Trung Cap, Dao Tuyet Trinh, James Campbell, Evelyne Kestelyn, Heiman F L Wertheim, Duncan Wyncoll, Guy Edward Thwaites, H Rogier van Doorn, C Louise Thwaites, Behzad Nadjm
BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated respiratory infection (VARI) comprises ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (VAT). Although their diagnostic criteria vary, together these are the most common hospital-acquired infections in intensive care units (ICUs) worldwide, responsible for a large proportion of antibiotic use within ICUs. Evidence-based strategies for the prevention of VARI in resource-limited settings are lacking. Preventing the leakage of oropharyngeal secretions into the lung using continuous endotracheal cuff pressure control is a promising strategy...
April 4, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614915/preliminary-experience-of-tigecycline-treatment-in-critically-ill-children-with-ventilator-associated-pneumonia
#10
Shupeng Lin, Lingfang Liang, Chenmei Zhang, Sheng Ye
Objective Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a life-threatening complication for children who are treated in a paediatric intensive care unit. Tigecycline treatment of children with VAP has not been well studied. This study aimed to describe tigecycline use in children with VAP in a tertiary care hospital. Methods We conducted a retrospective chart review in a tertiary hospital from May 1, 2012 to May 1, 2017. Results Twenty-four children (20 girls) with median age of 8 months (range, 27 days to 6 years and 9 months) were treated with tigecycline...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605237/development-validation-and-application-of-a-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-prevention-checklist-in-a-single-cardiac-surgery-centre
#11
Luolan Li, Qing Wang, Jingjing Wang, Kai Liu, Pei Wang, Xian Li, Jing Yang, Jing Lu, Dian Li, Li Wang, Zhinong Wang, Fei Peng
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to develop, validate and apply a ventilator-associated pneumonia prevention checklist in a single cardiac surgery centre. METHODS: An initial checklist was designed based on the published care bundles for prevention of VAP and the Delphi method used for validation. A total of 20 experts were invited to score the items and give suggestions for the checklist. The final checklist was then applied to patients receiving cardiac surgery...
March 28, 2018: Intensive & Critical Care Nursing: the Official Journal of the British Association of Critical Care Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593918/a-case-of-polymicrobial-bacteremia-in-a-patient-undergoing-chemotherapy
#12
Kyoko Arahata, Ryo Yamaguchi, Takeshi Terashima
We report an aggressive case of polymicrobial bacteremia in a patient with renal pelvis carcinoma. A 76-year-old man developed watery diarrhea after undergoing chemotherapy. He became unconscious and went into shock. Laboratory data showed severe neutropenia, renal failure, and lactic acidosis. Chest radiography showed multiple opacities. He died despite aggressive fluid resuscitation, catecholamine administration, antibiotic treatment, and mechanical ventilation. Blood culture isolates included Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Acinetobacter baumannii , and Moraxella catarrhalis ...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590188/overview-of-systematic-reviews-assessing-the-evidence-for-shorter-versus-longer-duration-antibiotic-treatment-for-bacterial-infections-in-secondary-care
#13
Igho J Onakpoya, A Sarah Walker, Pui S Tan, Elizabeth A Spencer, Oghenekome A Gbinigie, Johanna Cook, Martin J Llewelyn, Christopher C Butler
Our objective was to assess the clinical effectiveness of shorter versus longer duration antibiotics for treatment of bacterial infections in adults and children in secondary care settings, using the evidence from published systematic reviews. We conducted electronic searches in MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane, and Cinahl. Our primary outcome was clinical resolution. The quality of included reviews was assessed using the AMSTAR criteria, and the quality of the evidence was rated using the GRADE criteria. We included 6 systematic reviews (n = 3,162)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588353/erratum-for-drusano-et-al-dilution-factor-of-quantitative-bacterial-cultures-obtained-by-bronchoalveolar-lavage-in-patients-with-ventilator-associated-bacterial-pneumonia
#14
George L Drusano, Michael L Corrado, Gino Girardi, Evelyn J Ellis-Grosse, Richard G Wunderink, Helen Donnelly, Kenneth V Leeper, Mona Brown, Tasnova Malek, Robert Duncan Hite, Michelle Ferrari, Danijela Djureinovic, Marin H Kollef, Lisa Mayfield, Ann Doyle, Jean Chastre, Alain Combes, Thomas J Walsh, Krisztina Dorizas, Hassan Alnuaimat, Brooks Edward Morgan, Jordi Rello, Cristopher A Mazo, Ronald N Jones, Robert K Flamm, Leah Woosley, Paul G Ambrose, Sujata Bhavnani, Christopher M Rubino, Catharine C Bulik, Arnold Louie, Michael Vicchiarelli, Colleen Berman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29583108/bronchoscopic-improvement-of-tracheobronchitis-due-to-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-after-aerosolized-vancomycin-a-case-series
#15
Jun Yeun Cho, Youlim Kim, Sang Hoon Lee, Yeon Joo Lee, Jong Sun Park, Ho Il Yoon, Jae-Joon Yim, Jae Ho Lee, Choon-Taek Lee, Young-Jae Cho
BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (VAT) is an important risk factor for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The efficacy of aerosolized vancomycin (AV) in treating VAT has not been clearly demonstrated. METHODS: Four mechanically ventilated patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia were treated with an additional AV. AV (250 mg twice per day) was administered through a vibrating mesh device for 5 days. All patients were receiving intravenous vancomycin and had severe tracheobronchitis, based on bronchoscopic findings before or soon after additional AV treatment...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582522/education-on-invasive-mechanical-ventilation-involving-intensive-care-nurses-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Michelle C Guilhermino, Kerry J Inder, Deborah Sundin
BACKGROUND: Intensive care unit nurses are critical for managing mechanical ventilation. Continuing education is essential in building and maintaining nurses' knowledge and skills, potentially improving patient outcomes. AIMS: The aim of this study was to determine whether continuing education programmes on invasive mechanical ventilation involving intensive care unit nurses are effective in improving patient outcomes. METHODS: Five electronic databases were searched from 2001 to 2016 using keywords such as mechanical ventilation, nursing and education...
March 26, 2018: Nursing in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581114/determination-of-the-dynamically-linked-indices-of-fosfomycin-for-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-the-hollow-fiber-infection-model-hfim
#17
Arnold Louie, Michael Maynard, Brandon Duncanson, Jocelyn Nole, Michael Vicchiarelli, G L Drusano
Fosfomycin is the only expoxide antimicrobial and is currently under development in the United States as an intravenously administered product. We were interested in identifying the exposure indices most closely linked to the ability to kill bacterial cells and to suppress amplification of less-susceptible subpopulations. We employed the Hollow Fiber Infection model for this investigation and studied wild-type Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Because of anticipated rapid resistance emergence, we shortened study duration to 24 hours but sampled the system more intensively...
March 26, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580362/inadequacy-of-algorithmic-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-diagnosis-in-acute-care-surgery
#18
Jacob A Quick, Matthew D Breite, Stephen L Barnes
Clinical utility of algorithms to diagnose ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in surgical patients has not been established. We aimed to test the diagnostic accuracy of two established methods to reliably diagnose VAP in acutely ill and injured surgical patients. After institutional review board approval, we prospectively collected data on 508 mechanically ventilated acute care surgery patients. Microbiologic samples were taken daily from all patients. Demographics, clinical, laboratory, and radiographic data were collected...
February 1, 2018: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579836/early-bacterial-pneumonia-after-hepatic-transplantation-epidemiologic-profile
#19
J Prieto Amorin, M Lopez, K Rando, J Castelli, J Medina Presentado
BACKGROUND: Postoperative pulmonary complications are major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients receiving liver transplantation (LT), particularly bacterial pneumonia occurring within the first 100 days after transplantation. Our aim in this study was to determine the incidence, microorganisms involved, associated factors, and morbidity of bacterial pneumonia presenting in the first 100 days posttransplant. METHODS: We performed a cohort study in which patients receiving liver transplantation were included prospectively in our national database (Database of Infections in Transplantation of Solid Organs)...
March 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576822/predisposing-factors-clinical-assessment-management-and-outcomes-of-agitation-in-the-trauma-intensive-care-unit
#20
Saeed Mahmood, Omaima Mahmood, Ayman El-Menyar, Mohammad Asim, Hassan Al-Thani
BACKGROUND: Agitation occurs frequently among critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). We aimed to evaluate the frequency, predisposing factors and outcomes of agitation in trauma ICU. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted to include patients who were admitted to the trauma ICU between April 2014 and March 2015. Data included patient's demographics, initial vitals, associated injuries, Ramsey Sedation Scale, Glasgow Coma Scale, head injury lesions, use of sedatives and analgesics, head interventions, ventilator days, and ICU length of stay...
2018: World Journal of Emergency Medicine
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