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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920972/potentially-preventable-hospitalizations-for-acute-and-chronic-conditions-in-alaska-2010-2012
#1
Prabhu P Gounder, Sara M Seeman, Robert C Holman, Alice Rarig, Mary K McEwen, Claudia A Steiner, Michael L Bartholomew, Thomas W Hennessy
OBJECTIVE: The U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's Prevention Quality Indicators comprise acute and chronic conditions for which hospitalization can be potentially prevented by high-quality ambulatory care. The Healthy Alaska 2020 initiative (HA2020) targeted reducing potentially preventable hospitalizations (PPH) for acute and chronic conditions among its health indicators. We estimated the PPH rate for adults aged ≥ 18 years in Alaska during 2010-2012. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of state-wide hospital discharge data obtained from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project and the Indian Health Service...
December 2016: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920944/comparing-obesity-related-health-disparities-among-native-hawaiians-pacific-islanders-asians-and-whites-in-california-reinforcing-the-need-for-data-disaggregation-and-operationalization
#2
Adrian Matias Bacong, Christina Holub, Liki Porotesano
Since the 2000 Census, Asians and Pacific Islanders have been categorized as separate races. Government initiatives have called for greater study of Asian, Native Hawaiian, and other Pacific Islander (NHPI) health outcomes. NHPI often have worse health outcomes than Asians and Whites. Despite this, the lack of operationalization of racial definitions may affect the magnitude of health disparities. This analysis examined how utilizing different sociological race definitions could influence NHPI health outcomes when compared to Asians and Whites...
November 2016: Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health: a Journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920314/medicaid-meets-its-equal-access-requirement-for-dental-care-but-oral-health-disparities-remain
#3
Jaffer A Shariff, Burton L Edelstein
Most US children today have public or private dental health insurance, yet oral health among publicly insured children remains a policy concern. We analyzed data for 2011-12 from the National Survey of Children's Health to compare oral health status and the use of dental care among publicly and privately insured children. After we adjusted for demographic and parent characteristics, we found no differences between the two groups in parent-reported use of dental care or unmet need for dental care. However, compared to parents of privately insured children, parents of publicly insured children were less likely to report that the condition of their child's teeth was excellent or very good and more likely to report that the child had had a dental problem in the past twelve months...
December 1, 2016: Health Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920313/previous-medicaid-expansion-may-have-had-lasting-positive-effects-on-oral-health-of-non-hispanic-black-children
#4
Brandy J Lipton, Laura R Wherry, Sarah Miller, Genevieve M Kenney, Sandra Decker
Healthy tooth development starts early in life, beginning even before birth. We present new evidence suggesting that a historic public health insurance expansion for pregnant women and children in the United States in the 1980s and 1990s may have had long-lasting effects on the oral health of the children gaining eligibility. We estimated the relationship between adult oral health and the extent of state public health insurance eligibility for pregnant women, infants, and children throughout childhood separately for non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, and Hispanics...
December 1, 2016: Health Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920306/underrepresented-minority-dentists-quantifying-their-numbers-and-characterizing-the-communities-they-serve
#5
Elizabeth A Mertz, Cynthia D Wides, Aubri M Kottek, Jean Marie Calvo, Paul E Gates
The underrepresentation of Blacks, Hispanics or Latinos, and American Indians or Alaska Natives among dentists raises concerns about the diversity of the dental workforce, disparities in access to dental care and in oral health status, and social justice. We quantified the shortage of underrepresented minority dentists and examined these dentists' practice patterns in relation to the characteristics of the communities they serve. The underrepresented minority dentist workforce is disproportionately smaller than, and unevenly distributed in relation to, minority populations in the United States...
December 1, 2016: Health Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920303/the-dental-medical-divide
#6
Elizabeth A Mertz
The importance of oral health for overall well-being cannot be overstated. Yet the US dental delivery system struggles to address effectively the two most common oral diseases (caries and periodontal disease), which are among the most prevalent of all chronic diseases and are largely preventable. This article describes the evolution of contemporary US dental care policy and practice, highlighting the challenges resulting from the dental system's separation from the rest of health care, and explores the implications of this divide for the future of oral health policy and system reform...
December 1, 2016: Health Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919240/urban-rural-differences-in-the-prevalence-of-non-communicable-diseases-risk-factors-among-25-74-years-old-citizens-in-yangon-region-myanmar-a-cross-sectional-study
#7
Aung Soe Htet, Marius B Bjertness, Lhamo Y Sherpa, Marte Karoline Kjøllesdal, Win Myint Oo, Haakon E Meyer, Hein Stigum, Espen Bjertness
BACKGROUND: Recent societal and political reforms in Myanmar may upturn the socio-economy and, thus, contribute to the country's health transition. Baseline data on urban-rural disparities in non-communicable disease (NCD) risk factors are not thoroughly described in this country which has been relatively closed for more than five decades. We aim to investigate urban-rural differences in mean values and the prevalence of selected behavioral and metabolic risk factors for non-communicable diseases and 10-years risk in development of coronary heart diseases (CHD)...
December 5, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919232/microrna-27a-rs895819-is-associated-with-obesity-in-hiv-infected-preeclamptic-black-south-african-women-on-haart
#8
Niren Ray Maharaj, Prithiksha Ramkaran, Siddharthiya Pillay, Anil Amichund Chuturgoon
BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia (PE) and HIV/AIDS present a major health challenge globally. South Africa has the highest disease burden of both HIV/AIDS and PE in the world. Despite extensive research, the pathophysiology of these conditions is not completely understood, however a genetic predisposition in women may affect susceptibility. MiRNA-27a regulates adipogenesis and glucose metabolism. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in miRNA-27a (rs895819T > C) has shown to have disparate effects in various populations...
December 5, 2016: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918008/diversity-in-the-dermatology-workforce
#9
Jorge A Hinjosa, Amit G Pandya
The United States is becoming increasingly diverse, and minorities are projected to represent the majority of our population in the near future. Unfortunately, health disparities still exist for these groups, and inequalities have also become evident in the field of dermatology. There is currently a lack of diversity within the dermatology workforce. Potential solutions to these health care disparities include increasing cultural competence for all physicians and improving diversity in the dermatology workforce...
December 2016: Seminars in Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917722/racial-disparities-in-papillary-thyroid-microcarcinoma-survival
#10
U C Megwalu, A T Saini
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of race on survival in patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma. METHODS: The study cohort included 17 668 patients diagnosed with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma between 1988 and 2009, identified in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results 18 database of the National Cancer Institute. RESULTS: Black patients had lower overall survival than other racial groups (p < 0.001). Black patients had significantly worse overall survival (hazard ratio = 2...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917564/mind-the-gap-in-clinical-trials-a-participatory-action-analysis-with-citizen-collaborators
#11
Amy Price, Su May Liew, Jo Kirkpatrick, Jazmin Price, Taylor Lopreto, Yasmin Nelken
What are the strengths, gaps, expectations, and barriers to research engagement in clinical trials as communicated through social media? Clinical trials test treatments to provide reliable information for safety and effectiveness. Trials are building blocks in which what is learned in earlier research can be used to improve treatments, compare alternatives, and improve quality of life. For 20 years, the percentages of clinical trials volunteers have decreased whereas the costs of running clinical trials have multiplied...
December 4, 2016: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917490/ethnic-disparities-in-school-based-behavioral-health-service-use-for-children-with-psychiatric-disorders
#12
Jill Locke, Christina D Kang-Yi, Melanie Pellecchia, Steven Marcus, Trevor Hadley, David S Mandell
BACKGROUND: We examined racial/ethnic disparities in school-based behavioral health service use for children with psychiatric disorders. METHODS: Medicaid claims data were used to compare the behavioral healthcare service use of 23,601 children aged 5-17 years by psychiatric disorder (autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], conduct/oppositional defiant disorder, and "other") and by race/ethnicity (African-American, Hispanic, white, and other). Logistic and generalized linear regression analyses were used...
January 2017: Journal of School Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917482/not-enough-time-in-the-day-a-qualitative-assessment-of-in-school-physical-activity-policy-as-viewed-by-administrators-teachers-and-students
#13
Abigail Gamble, Sheryl L Chatfield, Michael L Cormack, Jeffrey S Hallam
BACKGROUND: In recent decades, the alignment of health and education has been at the forefront of school reform. Whereas the establishment of national in-school physical activity (ISPA) recommendations and state-level mandates demonstrates success, there has been less achievement in areas that address health disparities. The purpose of this investigation was to explore barriers and facilitators to implementing state-mandated ISPA policies in the Mississippi Delta. METHODS: Focus groups or interviews were conducted with district administrators, school principals, teachers, and students...
January 2017: Journal of School Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917014/contextual-ecological-and-organizational-variations-in-risk-adjusted-copd-and-asthma-hospitalization-rates-of-rural-medicare-beneficiaries
#14
Thomas T H Wan, Yi-Ling Lin, Judith Ortiz
The purpose of this study is to examine what factors contributing to the variability in chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD) and asthma hospitalization rates when the influence of patient characteristics is being simultaneously considered by applying a risk adjustment method. A longitudinal analysis of COPD and asthma hospitalization of rural Medicare beneficiaries in 427 rural health clinics (RHCs) was conducted utilizing administrative data and inpatient and outpatient claims from Region 4. The repeated measures of risk-adjusted COPD and asthma admission rate were analyzed by growth curve modeling...
2016: Research in the Sociology of Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915474/racial-differences-in-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-prostate-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Giuliano Di Pietro, Ganna Chornokur, Nagi B Kumar, Chemar Davis, Jong Y Park
Disparities between African American and Caucasian men in prostate cancer (PCa) diagnosis and treatment in the United States have been well established, with significant racial disparities documented at all stages of PCa management, from differences in the type of treatment offered to progression-free survival or death. These disparities appear to be complex in nature, involving biological determinants as well as socioeconomic and cultural aspects. We present a review of the literature on racial disparities in the diagnosis of PCa, treatment, survival, and genetic susceptibility...
November 2016: International Neurourology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914874/transmission-networks-and-risk-of-hiv-infection-in-kwazulu-natal-south-africa-a-community-wide-phylogenetic-study
#16
Tulio de Oliveira, Ayesha B M Kharsany, Tiago Gräf, Cherie Cawood, David Khanyile, Anneke Grobler, Adrian Puren, Savathree Madurai, Cheryl Baxter, Quarraisha Abdool Karim, Salim S Abdool Karim
BACKGROUND: The incidence of HIV infection in young women in Africa is very high. We did a large-scale community-wide phylogenetic study to examine the underlying HIV transmission dynamics and the source and consequences of high rates of HIV infection in young women in South Africa. METHODS: We did a cross-sectional household survey of randomly selected individuals aged 15-49 years in two neighbouring subdistricts (one urban and one rural) with a high burden of HIV infection in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa...
November 30, 2016: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914688/systematic-review-of-rheumatic-disease-epidemiology-in-the-indigenous-populations-of-canada-the-united-states-australia-and-new-zealand
#17
REVIEW
Cairistin McDougall, Kelle Hurd, Cheryl Barnabe
OBJECTIVE: Past publications have highlighted an excess rheumatic disease incidence and prevalence in indigenous populations of Canada (First Nations, Inuit, and Métis), and the United States of America (Alaska Native and American Indian). We have updated these reviews and expanded the scope to include New Zealand (Maori) and Australia (Aborigine) indigenous populations. METHODS: We performed a broad search using medical literature databases, indigenous specific online indexes, and government websites to identify publications reporting the incidence and/or prevalence of arthritis conditions (rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthropathies, gout, osteoarthritis, systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases, and juvenile idiopathic arthritis) in the indigenous populations of Canada, America, New Zealand, and Australia...
November 1, 2016: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914506/use-of-high-intensity-statins-for-patients-with-atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-disease-in-the-veterans-affairs-health-system-practice-impact-of-the-new-cholesterol-guidelines
#18
Fatima Rodriguez, Shoutzu Lin, David J Maron, Joshua W Knowles, Salim S Virani, Paul A Heidenreich
BACKGROUND: The November 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association cholesterol guidelines recommend the use of high-intensity statins for patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). We sought to determine how these guidelines are being adopted at the Veterans Affairs (VA) Health System and identify treatment gaps. METHODS: We examined administrative data from the VA 12 months prior to the index dates of April 1, 2013, and after April 1, 2014, to identify patients ≤75 years of age with ≥2 codes for ASCVD...
December 2016: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913765/prevalence-of-chronic-conditions-and-multimorbidities-in-a-geographically-defined-geriatric-population-with-diverse-races-and-ethnicities
#19
Eunjung Lim, Krupa Gandhi, James Davis, John J Chen
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to examine racial/ethnic differences in prevalence of chronic conditions and multimorbidities in the geriatric population of a state with diverse races/ethnicities. METHOD: Fifteen chronic conditions and their dyads and triads were investigated using Hawaii Medicare 2012 data. For each condition, a multivariable logistic regression model was used to investigate differences in race/ethnicity, adjusting for subject characteristics...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Aging and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913658/social-determinants-and-teen-pregnancy-prevention-exploring-the-role-of-nontraditional-partnerships
#20
Taleria R Fuller, Carla P White, Jocelyn Chu, Deborah Dean, Naomi Clemmons, Carmen Chaparro, Jessica L Thames, Anitra Belle Henderson, Pebbles King
Addressing the social determinants of health (SDOH) that influence teen pregnancy is paramount to eliminating disparities and achieving health equity. Expanding prevention efforts from purely individual behavior change to improving the social, political, economic, and built environments in which people live, learn, work, and play may better equip vulnerable youth to adopt and sustain healthy decisions. In 2010, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in partnership with the Office of Adolescent Health funded state- and community-based organizations to develop and implement the Teen Pregnancy Prevention Community-Wide Initiative...
December 1, 2016: Health Promotion Practice
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