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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453375/genetic-factors-influencing-the-reduction-of-central-corneal-thickness-in-disorders-affecting-the-eye
#1
Joanna Swierkowska, Marzena Gajecka
BACKGROUND: The aim was to summarize and discuss the current knowledge about genetic factors influencing the reduction of central corneal thickness (CCT) in disorders affecting the eye, such as primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), brittle cornea syndrome (BCS), keratoconus (KTCN), Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS; types I, II, and VI), osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), and myopia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A review of the published literature by use of key databases such as PubMed was undertaken in accordance with PRISMA guidelines and experience based on own research findings was applied...
April 28, 2017: Ophthalmic Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448629/structure-and-function-of-a-novel-gh8-endoglucanase-from-the-bacterial-cellulose-synthase-complex-of-raoultella-ornithinolytica
#2
Sandra Mara Naressi Scapin, Flavio Henrique Moreira Souza, Leticia Maria Zanphorlin, Thamyres Silva de Almeida, Youssef Bacila Sade, Alexander Machado Cardoso, Guilherme Luiz Pinheiro, Mario Tyago Murakami
Cellulose synthesis in bacteria is a complex process involving the concerted action of several enzymes whose genes are often organized in operons. This process influences many fundamental physiological aspects such as bacteria and host interaction, biofilm formation, among others. Although it might sound contradictory, the participation of cellulose-degrading enzymes is critical to this process. The presence of endoglucanases from family 8 of glycosyl hydrolases (GH8) in bacterial cellulose synthase (Bcs) complex has been described in different bacteria, including the model organism Komagataeibacter xylinus; however, their role in this process is not completely understood...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445439/her2-in-breast-cancer-stemness-a-negative-feedback-loop-towards-trastuzumab-resistance
#3
REVIEW
Babak Nami, Zhixiang Wang
HER2 receptor tyrosine kinase that is overexpressed in approximately 20% of all breast cancers (BCs) is a poor prognosis factor and a precious target for BC therapy. Trastuzumab is approved by FDA to specifically target HER2 for treating HER2+ BC. However, about 60% of patients with HER2+ breast tumor develop de novo resistance to trastuzumab, partially due to the loss of expression of HER2 extracellular domain on their tumor cells. This is due to shedding/cleavage of HER2 by metalloproteinases (ADAMs and MMPs)...
April 26, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443333/emulation-and-sensitivity-analysis-of-the-cmaq-model-for-a-uk-ozone-pollution-episode
#4
Andrew V Beddows, Nutthida Kitwiroon, Martin L Williams, Sean D Beevers
Gaussian process emulation techniques have been used for the first time with the CMAQ model, simulating the effects of input uncertainties on ozone and NO\textsubscript{2} output, to allow robust global sensitivity analysis (SA). A screening process ranked the effect of perturbations in 223 inputs, isolating the 30 most influential from emissions, boundary conditions (BCs) and reaction rates. CMAQ simulations of a July 2006 ozone pollution episode in the UK were made with input values for these variables plus ozone dry deposition velocity chosen according to a 576 point Latin hypercube design...
April 26, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439547/tuning-across-the-bcs-bec-crossover-in-the-multiband-superconductor-fe1-y-se-x-te1-x-an-angle-resolved-photoemission-study
#5
Shahar Rinott, K B Chashka, Amit Ribak, Emile D L Rienks, Amina Taleb-Ibrahimi, Patrick Le Fevre, François Bertran, Mohit Randeria, Amit Kanigel
The crossover from Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) superconductivity to Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) is difficult to realize in quantum materials because, unlike in ultracold atoms, one cannot tune the pairing interaction. We realize the BCS-BEC crossover in a nearly compensated semimetal, Fe1+y Se x Te1-x , by tuning the Fermi energy εF via chemical doping, which permits us to systematically change Δ/εF from 0.16 to 0.50, where Δ is the superconducting (SC) gap. We use angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy to measure the Fermi energy, the SC gap, and characteristic changes in the SC state electronic dispersion as the system evolves from a BCS to a BEC regime...
April 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435140/biowaiver-monographs-for-immediate-release-solid-oral-dosage-forms-enalapril
#6
REVIEW
Roger K Verbeeck, Isadore Kanfer, Raimar Löbenberg, Bertil Abrahamsson, Rodrigo Cristofoletti, D W Groot, Peter Langguth, James E Polli, Alan Parr, Vinod P Shah, Mehul Mehta, Jennifer B Dressman
Literature data relevant to the decision to allow a waiver of in vivo bioequivalence testing for the marketing authorization of immediate release, solid oral dosage forms containing enalapril maleate are reviewed. Enalapril, a prodrug, is hydrolyzed by carboxylesterases to the active angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor enalaprilat. Enalapril as the maleate salt is shown to be highly soluble, but only 60 to 70% of an orally administered dose of enalapril is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract into the enterocytes...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434750/integrating-an-automated-activity-monitor-into-an-artificial-insemination-program-and-the-associated-risk-factors-affecting-reproductive-performance-of-dairy-cows
#7
Tracy A Burnett, Augusto M L Madureira, Bruna F Silper, A C C Fernandes, Ronaldo L A Cerri
The aim of this study was to compare 2 reproductive programs for the management of first postpartum artificial insemination (AI) based on activity monitors and timed AI, as well as to determine the effect of health-related factors on detection and expression of estrus. Lactating Holstein cows (n = 918) from 2 commercial farms were enrolled. Estrous cycles of all cows were presynchronized with 2 injections of PGF2α administered 2 wk apart. Treatments were (1) first insemination performed by timed AI (TAI) and (2) first insemination based upon the detection of estrus by activity monitors (ACT; Heatime, SCR Engineering, Netanya, Israel) after the presynchronization, whereas cows not inseminated by the detection of estrus were enrolled in the Ovsynch protocol...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434746/supplementing-an-immunomodulatory-feed-ingredient-to-modulate-thermoregulation-physiologic-and-production-responses-in-lactating-dairy-cows-under-heat-stress-conditions
#8
T Leiva, R F Cooke, A P Brandão, K M Schubach, L F D Batista, M F Miranda, E A Colombo, R O Rodrigues, J R G Junior, R L A Cerri, J L M Vasconcelos
This study compared vaginal temperature, physiologic, and productive parameters in lactating dairy cows supplemented or not with Omnigen-AF (Phibro Animal Health, Teaneck, NJ) during the summer months in a tropical environment. Thirty-two lactating, primiparous (n = 16) and multiparous (n = 16) pregnant Holstein × Gir cows were ranked by parity, days in milk, body weight, and body condition score (BCS), and assigned to receive (SUPP; n = 16) or not (CON; n = 16) Omnigen-AF (Phibro Animal Health, Teaneck, NJ) at 56 g/cow daily (as-fed basis)...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434744/a-prospective-cohort-study-of-digital-cushion-and-corium-thickness-part-1-associations-with-body-condition-lesion-incidence-and-proximity-to-calving
#9
R F Newsome, M J Green, N J Bell, N J Bollard, C S Mason, H R Whay, J N Huxley
Claw horn disruption lesions (CHDL) are a major cause of lameness in dairy cattle and are likely a result of excessive forces being applied to the germinal epithelium that produces the claw horn. The digital cushion is a connective tissue structure, containing depots of adipose tissue, that sits beneath the distal phalanx and has been shown to be thicker in fatter cows. Body condition score (BCS) loss is a risk factor for CHDL, and one possible explanation is that fat is mobilized from the digital cushion during negative energy balance, causing the digital cushion to thin and lose force-dissipating capacity, leading to disruption of claw horn growth...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432781/cognitive-functioning-and-emotion-processing-in-breast-cancer-survivors-and-controls-an-erp-pilot-study
#10
Janine Wirkner, Mathias Weymar, Andreas Löw, Carmen Hamm, Anne-Marie Struck, Clemens Kirschbaum, Alfons O Hamm
Diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer is a very emotionally aversive and stressful life event, which can lead to impaired cognitive functioning and mental health. Breast cancer survivors responding with repressive emotion regulation strategies often show less adaptive coping and adverse outcomes. We investigated cognitive functioning and neural correlates of emotion processing using ERPs. Self-report measures of depression, anxiety, and fatigue, as well as hair cortisol as an index of chronic stress, were assessed...
April 22, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431434/bright-light-suppresses-form-deprivation-myopia-development-with-activation-of-dopamine-d1-receptor-signaling-in-the-on-pathway-in-retina
#11
Si Chen, Zhina Zhi, Qingqing Ruan, Qingxia Liu, Fen Li, Fen Wan, Peter S Reinach, Jiangfan Chen, Jia Qu, Xiangtian Zhou
Purpose: To determine whether dopamine receptor D1 (D1R) signaling pathway activation by bright light (BL) in specific retinal neuronal cell types contributes to inhibiting form-deprivation myopia (FDM) in mice. Methods: Mice (3-weeks old) were raised under either normal light (NL: 100-200 lux) or BL (2500-5000 lux) conditions with or without form deprivation. Refraction changes were evaluated with an eccentric infrared photorefractor, and ocular axial components with optical coherence tomography...
April 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427202/clinical-implications-of-genomic-profiles-in-metastatic-breast-cancer-with-a-focus-on-tp53-and-pik3ca-the-most-frequently-mutated-genes
#12
Ji-Yeon Kim, Eunjin Lee, Kyunghee Park, Woong-Yang Park, Hae Hyun Jung, Jin Seok Ahn, Young-Hyuck Im, Yeon Hee Park
Breast cancer (BC) has been genetically profiled through large-scale genome analyses. However, the role and clinical implications of genetic alterations in metastatic BC (MBC) have not been evaluated. Therefore, we conducted whole-exome sequencing (WES) and RNA-Seq of 37 MBC samples and targeted deep sequencing of another 29 MBCs. We evaluated somatic mutations from WES and targeted sequencing and assessed gene expression and performed pathway analysis from RNA-Seq. In this analysis, PIK3CA was the most commonly mutated gene in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive BC, while in ER-negative BC, TP53 was the most commonly mutated gene (p = 0...
March 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424945/date-palm-waste-biochars-alter-a-soil-respiration-microbial-biomass-carbon-and-heavy-metal-mobility-in-contaminated-mined-soil
#13
Mohammad I Al-Wabel, Adel Rabie A Usman, Abdullah S Al-Farraj, Yong Sik Ok, Adel Abduljabbar, Abdulelah I Al-Faraj, Abdelazeem S Sallam
A 30-day incubation experiment was conducted using a heavy metal-contaminated mined soil amended with date palm feedstock (FS) and its derivative biochars (BCs) at three pyrolysis temperatures of 300 (BC-300), 500 (BC-500), and 700 °C (BC-700) with different application rates (0.0, 5, 15, and 30 g kg(-1)) to investigate their short-term effects on soil respiration (CO2-C efflux), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), soil organic carbon (SOC), mobile fraction of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Mn, and Fe), pH, and electrical conductivity (EC)...
April 19, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421725/no-association-of-positive-superficial-and-or-deep-margins-with-local-recurrence-in-invasive-breast-cancer-treated-with-breast-conserving-surgery
#14
Tae In Yoon, Jong Won Lee, Sae Byul Lee, Guiyun Sohn, Jisun Kim, Il Young Chung, Hee Jeong Kim, Beom Seok Ko, Byung Ho Son, Gyungyub Gong, Sung-Bae Kim, Su Ssan Kim, Seung Do Ahn, Minsung Chung, Sei Hyun Ahn
Purpose: We evaluated the effect of positive superficial and/or deep margin status on local recurrence (LR) in invasive breast cancer treated with breast-conserving surgery (BCS) followed by radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: In total, 3403 stage 1 and 2 invasive breast cancer patients treated with BCS followed by radiotherapy from January 2000 to December 2008 were included in this study. These patients were divided into 3 groups according to margin status: clear resection margin status for all sections (group 1, n = 3195); positive margin status in superficial and/or deep sections (group 2, n = 121); and positive peripheral parenchymal margin regardless of superficial and/or deep margin involvement (group 3, n = 87)...
April 14, 2017: Cancer Research and Treatment: Official Journal of Korean Cancer Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417238/bilateral-mastectomy-as-overtreatment-for-breast-cancer-in-women-age-forty-years-and-younger-with-unilateral-operable-invasive-breast-cancer
#15
Cory A Donovan, Jean Bao, Alexandra Gangi, Farin Amersi, Xiao Zhang, Armando E Giuliano, Alice P Chung
BACKGROUND: Young women with breast cancer (BC) have an increased risk of contralateral breast cancer (CBC) compared with older women. This may contribute to the rising rates of bilateral mastectomy (BM), but it is unclear if BM leads to improved outcomes. METHODS: A prospectively maintained database was reviewed. Patient and tumor characteristics, survival, and rate of CBC were compared in women age ≤40 years treated for unilateral Stage 1-3 BC from January 2000 through December 2013...
April 17, 2017: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415667/effect-of-radiotherapy-after-breast-conserving-surgery-in-older-patients-with-early-breast-cancer-and-breast-ductal-carcinoma-in-situ-a-meta-analysis
#16
Xuan-Zhang Huang, You Chen, Wen-Jun Chen, Xi Zhang, Cong-Cong Wu, Chao-Ying Zhang, Shuang-Shuang Sun, Jian Wu
BACKGROUND: There are no consistent agreements on whether radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) could provide local control and survival benefit for older patients with early breast cancer or breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of radiotherapy after BCS in older patients with early breast cancer or DCIS. RESULTS: Radiotherapy could reduce the risk of local relapse in older patients with early breast cancer...
March 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411330/a-restorative-yoga-intervention-for-african-american-breast-cancer-survivors-a-pilot-study
#17
Teletia R Taylor, Judith Barrow, Kepher Makambi, Vanessa Sheppard, Sherrie Flynt Wallington, Chloe Martin, Danyella Greene, Sri Lakshmi Hyndavi Yeruva, Sara Horton
BACKGROUND: Data show that yoga is effective for improving health-related outcomes in breast cancer survivors. While breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among African-American women (AAW), AAW are less likely to engage in yoga compared to other ethnic groups. The goals of the current study were to assess the feasibility of an 8-week restorative yoga program among African-American breast cancer survivors (AA BCS). Specifically, study aims were to (1) measure changes in study outcomes in a restorative yoga (RY) group compared to a wait list control group, (2) assess adherence to the RY program, and (3) assess program satisfaction among study participants...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408621/endocrine-therapy-initiation-and-medical-oncologist-utilization-among-women-diagnosed-with-ductal-carcinoma-in-situ
#18
Chelsea Anderson, Anne Marie Meyer, Stephanie B Wheeler, Lei Zhou, Katherine E Reeder-Hayes, Hazel B Nichols
BACKGROUND: Though randomized clinical trials have demonstrated a reduction in second breast events with endocrine therapy among women with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), use of these therapies remains highly variable. The purpose of this study was to evaluate patient and treatment-related factors associated with endocrine therapy initiation and medical oncology specialty utilization after DCIS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified women with a DCIS diagnosis during 2006-2010 in the North Carolina Central Cancer Registry with linked public and private insurance claims in the University of North Carolina Integrated Cancer Information Surveillance System data resource...
April 13, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408413/distinct-physiological-maturation-of-parvalbumin-positive-neuron-subtypes-in-mouse-prefrontal-cortex
#19
Takeaki Miyamae, Kehui Chen, David A Lewis, Guillermo Gonzalez Burgos
Parvalbumin-positive (PV(+)) neurons control the timing of pyramidal cell output in cortical neuron networks. In the prefrontal cortex (PFC), PV(+) neuron activity is involved in cognitive function, suggesting that PV(+) neuron maturation is critical for cognitive development. The two major PV(+) neuron subtypes found in the PFC, chandelier (ChCs) and basket cells (BCs), are thought to play different roles in cortical circuits, but the trajectories of their physiological maturation have not been compared. Using two separate mouse lines, we found that in the mature PFC both ChCs and BCs are abundant in the superficial layer 2, but only BCs are present in deeper laminar locations...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407856/relationship-between-circulating-progesterone-at-timed-ai-and-fertility-in-dairy-cows-subjected-to-gnrh-based-protocols
#20
M G Colazo, I López Helguera, A Behrouzi, D J Ambrose, R J Mapletoft
The objectives of this retrospective study were: 1) to investigate the effect of plasma progesterone (P4) concentrations at the time of timed-AI (TAI) on fertility, and 2) to examine risk factors associated with plasma P4 concentrations that impair fertility in lactating dairy cows subjected to GnRH-based protocols. Data from 872 lactating Holstein cows that had, or had not been presynchronized prior to a 7-day GnRH-based TAI protocol were examined. However, data from only those cows (n = 697; 79.9%) that ovulated after second GnRH were analyzed...
May 2017: Theriogenology
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