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Arun Gupta, Pratima Murthy, Shobini Rao
Chronic use of mind altering substances can lead to a wide variety of neuropsychological deficits, affecting the domains of attention, learning, memory, reasoning. Executive functions such as working memory, cognitive flexibility and inhibitory control may specifically be impaired. These deficits can impact engagement in effective psychosocial interventions. Mild to moderate cognitive dysfunction may not be picked up in routine clinical examination or through commonly used tests like the mini-mental state examination (MMSE)...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Ryungsa Kim, Ami Kawai, Megumi Wakisaka, Yuri Funaoka, Yui Nishida, Naomi Yasuda, Koji Arihiro
Advances in surgical and anesthetic techniques have allowed for outpatient treatment of breast cancer. We evaluated the feasibility, safety, efficacy, and surgical outcomes of outpatient surgery in 370 patients with breast cancer who underwent breast-conserving surgery (BCS)/axillar lymph node (ALN) management. There were no deaths or severe intraoperative complications, but 41 complications were observed and disease recurrence occurred in 18 patients. The cumulative overall survival rate was 95.2%. Outpatient surgery was well tolerated, feasible, and safe in patients receiving BCS/ALN management...
March 14, 2018: Breast Journal
Hyun Min Jang, Seunghyun Yoo, Yong-Keun Choi, Sunkyu Park, Eunsung Kan
The objective of this study was to evaluate the adsorption of tetracycline (TC) on the Pinus taeda-derived activated biochar (BC). After NaOH activation, the well-developed porous surface structure was observed with a significantly increase in surface area (959.9 m2 /g). The kinetic and isotherm studies indicated that hydrogen bonding and π-π interaction on the heterogeneous surface would be the possible mechanisms, while intra-particle diffusion was considered as the major limitation for the adsorption of TC on the activated BC...
March 6, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Daniel Reyes, Mucio A Continentino, Fernanda Deus da Silva, Christopher Thomas
Superconductivity in strongly correlated systems is a remarkable phenomenon that attracts a huge interest. The study of this problem is relevant for materials as the high Tc oxides, pnictides and heavy fermions. These systems also have in common the existence of electrons of several orbitals that coexist at a common Fermi-surface. In this paper we study the effect of pressure, chemical or applied on multi-band superconductivity. Pressure varies the atomic distances and consequently the overlap of the wave-functions in the crystal...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Claudia Miranda, Zenia Pérez-Rodríguez, Rosario Hernández-Armengol, Yaidel Quiñones-García, Tania Betancourt-Purón, Miguel Ángel Cabrera-Pérez
The aim of the present study is to contribute to the scientific characterization of sildenafil citrate according to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System, following the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for biowaivers. The solubility and intestinal permeability data of sildenafil citrate were collected from literature; however, the experimental solubility studies are inconclusive and its "high permeability" suggests an API in the borderline of BCS Class I and Class II. The pH-solubility profile was determined using the saturation shake-flask method over the pH range of 1...
March 12, 2018: AAPS PharmSciTech
Laura Lupini, Anna Moretti, Cristian Bassi, Alessio Schirone, Massimo Pedriali, Patrizia Querzoli, Roberta Roncarati, Antonio Frassoldati, Massimo Negrini
Approximately 70% of breast cancers (BCs) express estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and are treated with endocrine therapy. However, the effectiveness of this therapy is limited by innate or acquired resistance in approximately one-third of patients. Activating mutations in the ESR1 gene that encodes ERα promote critical resistance mechanisms. Here, we developed a high sensitivity approach based on enhanced-ice-COLD-PCR for detecting ESR1 mutations. The method produced an enrichment up to 100-fold and allowed the unambiguous detection of ESR1 mutations even when they consisted of only 0...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Esther Solomon Mshelia, Lawan Adamu, Yakaka Wakil, Usman Aliyu Turaki, Isa Adamu Gulani, Jasini Musa
The equine gut harbours complex microbial populations which influence physiology, metabolism, nutrition and immune functions, while disruption to the gut microbiota has been linked with conditions such as lameness, diabetes and obesity. Therefore, the present study was conducted to determine the association between microbial dysbiosis, sex, age and body condition scores (BCS) of horses (Equus equus caballus) in Maiduguri and its environs. Forty horses were assessed by convenient sampling, while faecal samples were collected and analyzed to determine the microbiomes in the various age groups with variable BSC in stallions and mares...
March 9, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Muxin Yu, Rujuan Xie, Yan Zhang, Hui Liang, Li Hou, Chengyuan Yu, Jinming Zhang, Zengxiang Dong, Ye Tian, Yayan Bi, Junjie Kou, Valerie A Novakovic, Jialan Shi
Background: Relatively little is known about the role of phosphatidylserine (PS) in procoagulant activity (PCA) in patients with diabetic kidney disease (DKD). This study was designed to evaluate whether exposed PS on microparticles (MPs) and MP-origin cells were involved in the hypercoagulability in DKD patients. Methods: DKD patients (n = 90) were divided into three groups based on urinary albumin excretion rate, defined as normoalbuminuria (No-A) (<30 mg/24 h), microalbuminuria (Mi-A) (30-299 mg/24 h) or macroalbuminuria (Ma-A) (>300 mg/24 h), and compared with healthy controls (n = 30)...
February 26, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Jean-Baptiste Fassier, Marion Lamort-Bouché, Guillaume Broc, Laure Guittard, Julien Péron, Sabrina Rouat, Julien Carretier, Béatrice Fervers, Laurent Letrilliart, Philippe Sarnin
Return to work (RTW) is an important step for breast cancer survivors (BCSs). However, they face many barriers that affect particularly women with low socioeconomic status (SES). Health care, workplace, and insurance actors lack knowledge and collaborate poorly. No intervention to date has proven effective to reduce social disparities in employment after breast cancer. The intervention mapping (IM) protocol is being used in France to develop, implement, and evaluate an intervention to facilitate and sustain RTW after breast cancer [ FAciliter et Soutenir le retour au TRAvail après un Cancer du Sein (FASTRACS) project]...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Annie W T Lee, Johnson K S Lam, Ricky K W Lam, Wan H Ng, Ella N L Lee, Vicky T Y Lee, Po P Sze, Rahim Rajwani, Kitty S C Fung, Wing K To, Rodney A Lee, Dominic N C Tsang, Gilman K H Siu
Objective: This study evaluated the capability of a MALDI Biotyper system equipped with the newly introduced MBT STAR-BL module to simultaneously perform species identification and β-lactamase-mediated resistance detection in bacteremia -causing bacteria isolated from cultured isolates and patient-derived blood cultures (BCs). Methods: Two hundred retrospective cultured isolates and 153 prospective BCs containing Gram-negative rods (GNR) were collected and subjected to direct bacterial identification, followed by the measurement of β-lactamase activities against ampicillin, piperacillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and meropenem using the MBT STAR-BL module...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Keisuke Kakisaka, Kei Endo, Ryo Sugimoto, Kazuyuki Ishida, Tamotsu Sugai, Yasuhiro Takikawa
Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is the second-most common primary liver cancer, although its occurrence is relatively rare. Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) is characterized by outflow obstruction from the liver, with hepatocellular carcinoma being the most common cause of malignant BCS. In this case report, we describe the occurrence of an unrecognized ICC that induced BCS and esophageal achalasia.
March 9, 2018: Internal Medicine
Mehdi Gheisari, Behzad Iranmanesh, Bita Saghi
BACKGROUND AND AIM: A comprehensive study comparing two different modalities, Nokor needle subcision (NNS) and blunt cannula subcision (BCS), for treatment of acne scars, has not been reported previously. The aim was to compare the effectiveness of these two methods based on patient's and doctor's satisfaction measures, in addition to the late complications 3 months postsubcision. METHOD OF INTERVENTION: Patients had 18-65 years old, with acne scars on both malar sides...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
Yanchun Li, Mateusz Opyrchal, Song Yao, Xuan Peng, Li Yan, Hossam Jabbour, Thaer Khoury
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to investigate the prognostic significance of programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) expression and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in HER2+ breast cancer (BC). METHODS: HER2+ BC cases (n  = 191) were collected between 1996 and 2013. Tissue microarray (TMA) slides were stained with two clones of PD-L1 antibodies (28-8 and 22C3) and the percentage of positive membranous staining was scored. TILs of the full sections were also scored using percentage scale...
March 9, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Amanda Gehrke, Sukhyung Steve Lee, Karrie Hilton, Barbara Ganster, Rebecca Trupp, Corinne McCullough, Elizabeth Mott, Michael Feuerstein
PURPOSE: Despite advancements in care, cancer survivors continue to report unmet needs following active cancer treatment. The Cancer Survivor Profile-Breast Cancer (CSPro-BC) application (app) was developed to help address these needs, using breast cancer survivors (BCS) as a pilot group. This paper describes the app development, BCS and nurse perceptions of the app, and changes made based on this feedback. METHODS: The CSPro-BC app was developed for use on an iPad and includes (1) administration of a 15-20-min survey assessing 18 needs, (2) generation of a profile of needs, relative to a reference group of BCS (median 2 years post-treatment), and (3) provision of problem-specific online resources...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Cancer Survivorship: Research and Practice
Marcus George Kwesi Cumberbatch, Beat Foerster, James W F Catto, Ashish M Kamat, Wassim Kassouf, Ibrahim Jubber, Shahrokh F Shariat, Richard J Sylvester, Paolo Gontero
CONTEXT: Initial treatment for most bladder cancers (BCs) involves transurethral resection (TUR) or tumours. Often more cancer is found after the initial treatment in around half of patients, requiring a second resection. Repeat transurethral resection (reTUR) is recommended for high-risk, non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) to remove any residual disease and improve cancer outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the practice and therapeutic benefit of an early reTUR for high-risk NMIBC...
March 6, 2018: European Urology
Dawen Kou, Chen Zhang, Hiuwing Yiu, Tania Ng, Joseph W Lubach, Matthew Janson, Chen Mao, Matthew Durk, Leslie Chinn, Helen Winter, Larry Wigman, Peter Yehl
In this study, a multi-pronged approach of in vitro experiments, in silico simulations, and in vivo studies was developed to evaluate the dissolution, supersaturation, precipitation, and absorption of three formulations of Compound-A, a BCS Class 2 weak base with pH-dependent solubility. In in vitro 2-stage dissolution experiments, the solutions were highly supersaturated with no precipitation at the low dose but increasing precipitation at higher doses. No difference in precipitation was observed between the capsules and tablets...
March 9, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Tao Jiang, Donghua Wei, Rui Sha, Junqing Zhang, Xiaopeng Zhang, Rui Feng, Xingrong Shen, Paul Kadetz, Debin Wang
OBJECTIVE: The study aims to investigate relationships between demands for breast and cervical cancer screening (BCS/CCS) and related health beliefs. METHODS: The study used cluster-randomized sampling and collected data about demands for BCS/CCS and constructs of health beliefs model (HBM). It calculated indices of perceived risk and seriousness of the cancers and perceived effectiveness, benefits and difficulties of the screening; and performed descriptive and multivariate regression analysis of the demands and the HBM constructs...
February 24, 2018: Patient Education and Counseling
Brigid K Killelea, Jessica B Long, Weixiong Dang, Sarah S Mougalian, Suzanne B Evans, Cary P Gross, Shi-Yi Wang
PURPOSE: To examine the associations between sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and complications among older patients who underwent breast-conserving surgery (BCS) for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). METHODS: We identified women from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare dataset aged 67-94 years diagnosed during 1998-2011 with DCIS who underwent BCS as initial treatment. We assessed incidence of complications, including lymphedema, wound infection, seroma, or pain, within 9 months of diagnosis...
March 7, 2018: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Hiroshi Inui, Shuji Taketomi, Ryota Yamagami, Nobuyuki Shirakawa, Kouhei Kawaguchi, Sakae Tanaka
A new design of the so-called "guided-motion" total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is expected to produce normal-like kinematics. The implant behaves strictly as a mechanically constraint-guided motion system. However, no previous reports have demonstrated the most appropriate surgical technique or soft-tissue balance that would reproduce ideal kinematics. The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between soft-tissue balance and the intraoperative kinematics of guided-motion TKA. In this study, intraoperative kinematics of 95 patients whose TKA was performed with a guided-motion prosthesis (Journey II BCS Smith and Nephew) were measured using the computed tomography (CT)-free navigation system...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Knee Surgery
Yuan Cao, Valla Fatemi, Shiang Fang, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Efthimios Kaxiras, Pablo Jarillo-Herrero
The behaviour of strongly correlated materials, and in particular unconventional superconductors, has puzzled physicists for decades. Such difficulties have stimulated new research paradigms, such as ultracold atom lattices for simulating quantum materials. Here we report on the realization of intrinsic unconventional superconductivity in a two-dimensional superlattice created by stacking two graphene sheets with a small twist angle. For angles near 1.1°, the first 'magic' angle, twisted bilayer graphene exhibits ultraflat bands near charge neutrality, which lead to correlated insulating states at half-filling...
March 5, 2018: Nature
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