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David Lessard, Isabelle Toupin, Kim Engler, Andràs Lènàrt, Bertrand Lebouché
Antiretroviral treatment adherence barriers are major concerns in HIV care. They are multiple and change over time. Considering temporality in patients' perceptions of adherence barriers could improve adherence management. We explored how temporality manifests itself in patients' perceptions of adherence barriers. We conducted 2 semi-structured focus groups on adherence barriers with 12 adults with HIV which were analyzed with grounded theory. A third focus group served to validate the results obtained. Three temporal categories were manifest in HIV-positive patients' perceptions of barriers: (1) imprinting (events with lasting impacts on patients), (2) domino effects (chain of life events), and (3) future shadowing (apprehension about long-term adherence)...
January 2018: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
Navdeep K Dhami, Abhijit Mukherjee, Elizabeth L J Watkin
Natural mineral formations are a window into important processes leading to carbon storage and mineralized carbonate structures formed through abiotic and biotic processes. In the current study, we made an attempt to undertake a comprehensive approach to characterize the mineralogical, mechanical, and microbial properties of different kinds of speleothems from karstic caves; with an aim to understand the bio-geo-chemical processes in speleothem structures and their impact on nanomechanical properties. We also investigated the biomineralization abilities of speleothem surface associated microbial communities in vitro ...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Felipe Salech, Daniela P Ponce, Carol D SanMartín, Nicole K Rogers, Mauricio Henríquez, Maria I Behrens
We have proposed that a common biological mechanism deregulated in opposite directions might explain the inverse epidemiological association observed between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cancer. Accordingly, we showed that lymphocytes from AD patients have an increased susceptibility, whereas those from survivors of a skin cancer, an increased resistance to oxidative death induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), compared to healthy controls (HC). We investigated the susceptibility to H2 O2 -induced death of lymphocytes in survivors of any type of cancer and in cancer survivors who later developed AD (Ca&AD)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Silio Lima Moura, Laura Martinez Fajardo, Leonardo Dos Anjos Cunha, Maria Del Pilar Taboada Sotomayor, Francisco Bolivar Correto Machado, Luiz Fernando Araújo Ferrão, Maria Isabel Pividori
This study addresses the rational design of a magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer (magnetic-MIP) for the selective recognition of the hormone levothyroxine. The theoretical study was carried out by the density functional theory (DFT) computations considering dispersion interaction energies, and using the D2 Grimme's correction. The B97-D/def2-SV(P)/PCM method is used not only for studying the structure of the template the and monomer-monomer interactions, but also to assess the stoichiometry, noncovalent binding energies, solvation effects and thermodynamics properties such as binding energy...
January 31, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Andrea Freschi, Stella K Hur, Federica Maria Valente, Folami Y Ideraabdullah, Angela Sparago, Maria Teresa Gentile, Andrea Oneglia, Diego Di Nucci, Luca Colucci-D'Amato, Joanne L Thorvaldsen, Marisa S Bartolomei, Andrea Riccio, Flavia Cerrato
Differential DNA methylation defects of H19/IGF2 are associated with congenital growth disorders characterized by opposite clinical pictures. Due to structural differences between human and mouse, the mechanisms by which mutations of the H19/IGF2 Imprinting Control region (IC1) result in these diseases are undefined. To address this issue, we previously generated a mouse line carrying a humanized IC1 (hIC1) and now replaced the wildtype with a mutant IC1 identified in the overgrowth-associated Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome...
February 22, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Stefan Brönnimann, Jeannine Wintzer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 22, 2018: Nature
G Gillessen-Kaesbach, B Albrecht, T Eggermann, M Elbracht, D Mitter, S Morlot, C M A van Ravenswaaij-Arts, S Schulz, G Strobl-Wildemann, K Buiting, J Beygo
Temple syndrome (TS14, #616222) is a rare imprinting disorder characterised by phenotypic features including pre- and postnatal growth retardation, muscular hypotonia and feeding difficulties in infancy, early puberty and short stature with small hands and feet and often truncal obesity. It is caused by maternal uniparental disomies, paternal deletions and primary imprinting defects that affect the chromosomal region 14q32 and lead to a disturbed expression of imprinted genes in this region. Here we present detailed clinical data of eight patients with Temple syndrome, four with an imprinting defect, two with an imprinting defect in a mosaic state as well as one complete and one segmental maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 14...
February 22, 2018: Clinical Genetics
Sumadi Lukman Anwar, Ulrich Lehmann
The retinoblastoma protein (pRb) plays a central role in the regulation of cell cycle by interaction with members of the E2F transcription factor family. As a tumor suppressor protein, pRb is frequently dysregulated in several major cancers. In addition to mutations, inactivation of pRb is also caused by epigenetic mechanisms including alterations of DNA methylation. There are three CpG islands located within the RB1 gene that encodes pRb that are closely associated with the regulation of pRb expression. Aberrant DNA methylation at the RB1 gene has been reported in sporadic retinoblastoma as well as other cancers including glioblastoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and breast cancer...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Showkat Ahmad Bhawani, Tham Soon Sen, Mohammad Nasir Mohammad Ibrahim
The molecularly imprinted polymers for gallic acid were synthesized by precipitation polymerization. During the process of synthesis a non-covalent approach was used for the interaction of template and monomer. In the polymerization process, gallic acid was used as a template, acrylic acid as a functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a cross-linker and 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile as an initiator and acetonitrile as a solvent. The synthesized imprinted and non-imprinted polymer particles were characterized by using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy...
February 21, 2018: Chemistry Central Journal
Claudia Burrello, Federica Garavaglia, Fulvia Milena Cribiù, Giulia Ercoli, Silvano Bosari, Flavio Caprioli, Federica Facciotti
The gut mucosa is continuously exposed to a vast community of microorganisms, collectively defined as microbiota, establishing a mutualistic relationship with the host and contributing to shape the immune system. Gut microbiota is acquired at birth, and its composition is relatively stable during the entire adult life. Intestinal dysbiosis, defined as a microbial imbalance of gut bacterial communities, can be caused by several factors, including bacterial infections and antibiotic use, and has been associated with an increased risk to develop or exacerbate immune-mediated pathologies, such as allergic reactions, asthma, and inflammatory bowel diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Anna Nowak, Dominik Lock, Petra Bacher, Thordis Hohnstein, Katrin Vogt, Judith Gottfreund, Pascal Giehr, Julia K Polansky, Birgit Sawitzki, Andrew Kaiser, Jörn Walter, Alexander Scheffold
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are an attractive therapeutic tool for several different immune pathologies. Therapeutic Treg application often requires prolonged in vitro culture to generate sufficient Treg numbers or to optimize their functionality, e.g., via genetic engineering of their antigen receptors. However, purity of clinical Treg expansion cultures is highly variable, and currently, it is impossible to identify and separate stable Tregs from contaminating effector T cells, either ex vivo or after prior expansion...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Zulei Zhang, Lei Li
We developed a facile approach to the construction of bio-recognition sites in silica nanoparticles for efficient separation of bovine hemoglobin based on amino-functionalized silica nanoparticles grafting by 3-aminopropyltriethoxylsilane providing hydrogen bonds with bovine hemoglobin through surface molecularly imprinting technology. The resulting amino-functionalized silica surface molecularly imprinted polymers were characterized using scanning electron microscope, transmission electronic microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
Marjan Hassanzadeh, Mousa Ghaemy
In this study, new bio-based magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles (∼23 nm) were synthesized from keratin extracted from chicken feathers and methacrylate-functionalized Fe3 O4 nanoparticles for its potential application in separation and removal of bisphenol A from water. The prepared magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, alternative gradient field magnetometry, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
M Benedetta Casu
In the last decade technology has brought significant changes to our lives, including new habits and a new view on social relationships. These technological innovations are based on several factors, one of which is miniaturization. This was made possible also due to the discovery and synthesis of new materials with characteristics at the nanoscale that are designed for specific purposes. This "on purpose" approach, joined to the development of preparation and growth methods, has led to use of thin films rather than bulk materials in devices...
February 21, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Yukiya Kitayama, Manabu Isomura
Gas-responsive molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) particles, which have nanocavities in their shell layer for protein recognition, were developed for the first time. The MIP particles showed higher affinity for the target protein inside a CO2 -treated aqueous medium as compared to that under N2 -treated conditions, while retaining selectivity to the target protein.
February 21, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Jennifer M SanMiguel, Marisa S Bartolomei
DNA methylation is an essential epigenetic mark crucial for normal mammalian development. This modification controls the expression of a unique class of genes, designated as imprinted, which are expressed monoallelically and in a parent-of-origin-specific manner. Proper parental allele-specific DNA methylation at imprinting control regions (ICRs) is necessary for appropriate imprinting. Processes that deregulate DNA methylation of imprinted loci cause disease in humans. DNA methylation patterns dramatically change during mammalian development: first, the majority of the genome, with the exception of ICRs, is demethylated after fertilization, and subsequently undergoes genome-wide de novo DNA methylation...
February 15, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Chaochao Chen, Jiaxun Luo, Chenglong Li, Mingfang Ma, Wenbo Yu, Jianzhong Shen, Zhanhui Wang
The chemical contaminants in food and environment are quite harmful to food safety and human health. Rapid, accurate and cheap detection can effectively control the potencial risk derived from these chemical contaminants. Among all detection methods, the immunoassay based on specific interaction of antibodies-analyte is one of the most widely used technique in the field. However, biological antibodies employed in immunoassay usually cannot tolerate extreme conditions, resulting in unstable state in both physical and chemical profiles...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Antoine Guitton, Hana Kriaa, Emmanuel Bouzy, Julien Guyon, Nabila Maloufi
In this work, plastic deformation was locally introduced at room temperature by nanoindentation on a γ-TiAl-based alloy. Comprehensive analyses of microstructures were performed before and after deformation. In particular, the Burgers vectors, the line directions, and the mechanical twinning systems were studied via accurate electron channeling contrast imaging. Accommodation of the deformation are reported and a scenario is proposed. All features help to explain the poor ductility of the TiAl-based alloys at room temperature...
February 20, 2018: Materials
Andrew C Heusser, Youssef Ezzyat, Ilana Shiff, Lila Davachi
Episodic memories are not veridical records of our lives, but rather are better described as organized summaries of experience. Theories and empirical research suggest that shifts in perceptual, temporal, and semantic information lead to a chunking of our continuous experiences into segments, or "events." However, the consequences of these contextual shifts on memory formation and organization remains unclear. In a series of 3 behavioral studies, we introduced context shifts (or "event boundaries") between trains of stimuli and then examined the influence of the boundaries on several measures of associative memory...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Dan-Ni Pei, Ai-Yong Zhang, Xiao-Qiang Pan, Yang Si, Han-Qing Yu
Noble metals, nano-structured carbon and their hybrids are widely used for electrochemical detection of persistent organic pollutants. However, despite of the rapid detection process and high accuracy, these materials generally suffer from high costs, metallic impurity, heterogeneity, irreversible adsorption and poor sensitivity. Herein, the high-energy {001}-exposed TiO2 single crystals with specific inorganic-framework molecular recognition ability was prepared as the electrode material to detect bisphenol A (BPA), a typical and widely present organic pollutant in the environment...
February 20, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
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