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Manuel Kussmann, Stefan Hauer, Petra Pichler, Gottfried Reznicek, Heinz Burgmann, Wolfgang Poeppl, Markus Zeitlinger, Martin Wiesholzer
Peritonitis is still the main infectious complication among patients on peritoneal dialysis. For treatment of peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis, the intraperitoneal administration of antibiotics admixed to peritoneal dialysis fluids (PDFs) should be preferred. However, the influence of diverse PDFs on the activity of frequently used antibiotics has been investigated insufficiently. Thus, the present study set out to investigate the in vitro activity of fosfomycin against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Staphylococcus aureus in commercially available PDFs...
March 15, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Hajime Shiotani, Muneaki Miyata, Yu Itoh, Shujie Wang, Aika Kaito, Akira Mizoguchi, Miwako Yamasaki, Masahiko Watanabe, Kenji Mandai, Hideki Mochizuki, Yoshimi Takai
The medial habenula (MHb), implicated in stress, depression, memory, and nicotine withdrawal syndromes, receives septal inputs and sends efferents to the interpeduncular nucleus. We previously showed that the immunoglobulin-like cell adhesion molecules nectin-2α and nectin-2δ are expressed in astrocytes in the brain, but their expression in neurons remains unknown. We showed here by immunofluorescence microscopy that nectin-2α, but not nectin-2δ, was prominently expressed in the cholinergic neurons in the developing and adult MHbs and localized at the boundary between the adjacent somata of the clustered cholinergic neurons where the voltage-gated A-type K+ channel Kv4...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Anas Imran Arshad, Mohammad Khursheed Alam, Mohammad Fadhli Khamis
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to assess the treatment outcome of complete unilateral cleft lip and palate (CUCLP) patients using modified Huddart/Bodenham scoring system (MHB). To determine whether there is an association of congenital and postnatal factors with the treatment outcome. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. SETTING: Two regional cleft-referral centers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: In the current study, 101 pairs of dental models of non-syndromic CUCLP patients were retrieved from hospital archives...
January 1, 2018: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
Yuntong Kou, Mike Halpenny, Heidi Elmoazzen, Sandra Ramirez-Arcos
BACKGROUND: Bacterial contamination of cord blood (CB) represents a safety risk for transplantation patients. CB sterility testing at Canadian Blood Services' Cord Blood Bank is performed using a 1:1 mix of CB-derived plasma and red blood cells (RBCs). Culture bottles of an automated culture system, which lack antimicrobial neutralization properties, are used for bacterial screening of CB. This process is unsuitable for CB-containing antibiotics, potentially resulting in false-negative results...
March 7, 2018: Transfusion
A Alwin Prem Anand, Carola Huber, John Asnet Mary, Nancy Gallus, Christoph Leucht, Ruth Klafke, Bernhard Hirt, Andrea Wizenmann
BACKGROUND: MiR-9 is a small non-coding RNA that is highly conserved between species and primarily expressed in the central nervous system (CNS). It is known to influence proliferation and neuronal differentiation in the brain and spinal cord of different vertebrates. Different studies have pointed to regional and species-specific differences in the response of neural progenitors to miR-9. METHODS: In ovo and ex ovo electroporation was used to overexpress or reduce miR-9 followed by mRNA in situ hybridisation and immunofluorescent stainings to evaluate miR- expression and the effect of changed miR-9 expression...
February 22, 2018: BMC Developmental Biology
Alberto J López, Yousheng Jia, André O White, Janine L Kwapis, Monica Espinoza, Philip Hwang, Rianne Campbell, Yasaman Alaghband, Om Chitnis, Dina P Matheos, Gary Lynch, Marcelo A Wood
Propensity to relapse, even following long periods of abstinence, is a key feature in substance use disorders. Relapse and relapse-like behaviors are known to be induced, in part, by re-exposure to drug-associated cues. Yet, while many critical nodes in the neural circuitry contributing to relapse have been identified and studied, a full description of the networks driving reinstatement of drug-seeking behaviors is lacking. One area that may provide further insight to the mechanisms of relapse is the habenula complex, an epithalamic region composed of lateral and medial (MHb) substructures, each with unique cell and target populations...
February 12, 2018: Addiction Biology
Gabrielle M Bryden, Matthew Browne, Matthew Rockloff, Carolyn Unsworth
We examined the relationship between complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use and vaccination scepticism; and specifically whether a person's more general health-related worldview might explain this relationship. A cross-sectional online survey of adult Australians (N = 2697) included demographic, CAM, and vaccination measures, as well as the holistic and magical health belief scales (HHB, MHB). HHB emphasises links between mind and body health, and the impact of general 'wellness' on specific ailments or resistance to disease, whilst MHB specifically taps ontological confusions and cognitive errors about health...
February 21, 2018: Vaccine
Junwon Lee, Sang-Hwi Choi, Dongjin R Lee, Dae-Sung Kim, Dong-Wook Kim
The objective of this study was to induce the production of isthmic organizer (IsO)-like cells capable of secreting fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 8 and WNT1 from human embryonic stem cells (ESCs). The precise modulation of canonical Wnt signaling was achieved in the presence of the small molecule CHIR99021 (0.6 μM) during the neural induction of human ESCs, resulting in the differentiation of these cells into IsO-like cells having a midbrain-hindbrain border (MHB) fate in a manner that recapitulated their developmental course in vivo...
January 31, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Ying-Ying Zhang, Xue Han, Ye Liu, Jian Chen, Lei Hua, Qian Ma, Yang-Yu-Xin Huang, Qiong-Yao Tang, Zhe Zhang
LRRC55 (leucine-rich repeat-containing protein 55) protein is an auxiliary γ subunit of BK (Big conductance potassium channel) channels, which leftward shifts GVs of BK channels around 50 mV in the absence of cytosolic Ca2+. LRRC55 protein is also the only γ subunit of BK channels that is expressed in mammalian nervous system. However, the expression pattern of LRRC55 gene in adult mammalian brain remains elusive. In this study, we investigated the distribution of LRRC55 mRNA in the adult mouse brain by using in situ hybridization...
2018: PloS One
Yo Otsu, Salvatore Lecca, Katarzyna Pietrajtis, Charly Vincent Rousseau, Païkan Marcaggi, Guillaume Pierre Dugué, Caroline Mailhes-Hamon, Manuel Mameli, Marco Alberto Diana
The medial habenula (MHb) is an epithalamic hub contributing to expression and extinction of aversive states by bridging forebrain areas and midbrain monoaminergic centers. Although contradictory information exists regarding their synaptic properties, the physiology of the excitatory inputs to the MHb from the posterior septum remains elusive. Here, combining optogenetics-based mapping with ex vivo and in vivo physiology, we examine the synaptic properties of posterior septal afferents to the MHb and how they influence behavior...
January 16, 2018: Cell Reports
Ke Luo, Samuel Jung, Kyu-Hwan Park, Young-Rok Kim
Microbial biosynthesis of metal nanoparticles has been extensively studied for the applications in biomedical sciences and engineering. However, the mechanism for their synthesis through microorganism is not completely understood. In this study, several culture media were investigated for their roles in the microbial biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The size and morphology of the synthesized AgNPs were analyzed by UV-Vis spectroscopy, FT-IR, TEM, and DLS. The results demonstrated that nutrient broth (NB) and Mueller-Hinton broth (MHB) among tested media effectively reduced silver ions to form AgNPs with different particle size and shape...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Ajeet Kumar, Tae-Lin Huh, Joonho Choe, Myungchull Rhee
We report the biological functions of a zebrafish homologue of RING-finger protein 152 (rnf152) during embryogenesis. rnf152 was initially identified as a brain-enriched E3 ligase involved in early embryogenesis of zebrafish. Expression of rnf152 was ubiquitous in the brain at 24 hpf but restricted to the eyes, midbrain-hindbrain boundary (MHB), and rhombomeres at 48 hpf. Knockdown of rnf152 in zebrafish embryos caused defects in the eyes, MHB, and rhombomeres (r1-7) at 24 hpf. These defects in rnf152-deficient embryos were analyzed by whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH) using neuroD, deltaD, notch1a, and notch3 probes...
December 22, 2017: Molecules and Cells
Lee B Miles, Charbel Darido, Jan Kaslin, Joan K Heath, Stephen M Jane, Sebastian Dworkin
The grainyhead-like (grhl) transcription factors play crucial roles in craniofacial development, epithelial morphogenesis, neural tube closure, and dorso-ventral patterning. By utilising the zebrafish to differentially regulate expression of family members grhl2b and grhl3, we show that both genes regulate epithelial migration, particularly convergence-extension (CE) type movements, during embryogenesis. Genetic deletion of grhl3 via CRISPR/Cas9 results in failure to complete epiboly and pre-gastrulation embryonic rupture, whereas morpholino (MO)-mediated knockdown of grhl3 signalling leads to aberrant neural tube morphogenesis at the midbrain-hindbrain boundary (MHB), a phenotype likely due to a compromised overlying enveloping layer (EVL)...
December 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
Hidenori Tani, Jun-Ichi Takeshita, Hiroshi Aoki, Kaoru Nakamura, Ryosuke Abe, Akinobu Toyoda, Yasunori Endo, Sadaaki Miyamoto, Masashi Gamo, Masaki Torimura, Hiroaki Sato
Several chemicals, such as methyl p-hydroxybenzoate (MHB), have been widely used as preservatives in the water baths of CO2 incubators used for mammalian cell culture, and they are not considered to produce any biological effects. However, no detailed analyses of the effects of these compounds on cultured cells have been reported. In this study, we thus examined whether MHB in the incubator water bath affects cell viability or genome-wide gene expression in mouse embryonic stem cells under control conditions [using only dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in the culture medium] and under chemical-treated conditions using benzene and chloroform; conditions that simulate a cell-based toxicity assay...
2017: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Abimbola O Famuyide, Shannon K Laughlin-Tommaso, Sherif A Shazly, Kirsten Hall Long, Daniel M Breitkopf, Amy L Weaver, Michaela E McGree, Sherif A El-Nashar, Maureen A Lemens, Matthew R Hopkins
BACKGROUND: Radiofrequency endometrial ablation (REA) is currently a second line treatment in women with heavy menstrual bleeding (MHB) if medical therapy (MTP) is contraindicated or unsatisfactory. Our objective is to compare the effectiveness and cost burden of MTP and REA in the initial treatment of HMB. METHODS: We performed a randomized trial at Mayo Clinic Rochester, Minnesota. The planned sample size was 60 patients per arm. A total of 67 women with HMB were randomly allocated to receive oral contraceptive pills (Nordette ®) or Naproxen (Naprosyn®) (n = 33) or REA (n = 34)...
2017: PloS One
Hugo R Arias, Xiaotao Jin, Dominik Feuerbach, Ryan M Drenan
The inhibitory activity of coronaridine congeners on human (h) α4β2 and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) is determined by Ca2+ influx assays, whereas their effects on neurons in the ventral inferior (VI) aspect of the mouse medial habenula (MHb) are determined by patch-clamp recordings. The Ca2+ influx results clearly establish that coronaridine congeners inhibit hα3β4 AChRs with higher selectivity compared to hα4β2 and hα7 subtypes, and with the following potency sequence, for hα4β2: (±)-18-methoxycoronaridine [(±)-18-MC]>(+)-catharanthine>(±)-18-methylaminocoronaridine [(±)-18-MAC] ∼ (±)-18-hydroxycoronaridine [(±)-18-HC]; and for hα7: (+)-catharanthine>(±)-18-MC>(±)-18-HC>(±)-18-MAC...
November 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Mariana Castanheira, Leonard R Duncan, Paul R Rhomberg, Helio S Sader
The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of cefepime-tazobactam cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth (CA-MHB) supplemented with 0.85% sodium chloride (NaCl) or 50% human serum in comparison to standard CA-MHB when testing KPC-producing isolates. A total of 209 contemporary Enterobacteriaceae clinical isolates carrying blaKPC were tested, and cefepime-tazobactam (tazobactam at fixed 8mg/L) activity was enhanced 2-fold when tested in CA-MHB supplemented with 0.85% NaCl or 50% human serum (MIC50/90, 8/32mg/L for both media) compared to standard CA-MHB (MIC50/90, 16/64mg/L)...
August 24, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Elisabeth Thulin, Måns Thulin, Dan I Andersson
Mecillinam (amdinocillin) is a β-lactam antibiotic used to treat uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs). We have previously shown that inactivation of the Escherichia coli cysB gene is the major cause of mecillinam resistance (Mec(R)) in clinical isolates. In this study, we used different E. coli strains (laboratory and clinical isolates) that were Mec(R) due to cysB mutations to determine how mecillinam susceptibility was affected during growth in urine compared to growth in the commonly used growth medium Mueller Hinton (MHB)...
September 2017: EBioMedicine
Merih Şimşek, Reşat Duman
BACKGROUND: Chlorhexidine belongs to a group of medicines called antiseptic antibacterial agents. Chlorhexidine is commonly used for the care and clean off the skin, hands, and wounds. In recent years, medicinal and aromatic plants have been used for prevention of disease, maintaining health, and improving disease in traditional and modern medicine as a medicament. According to recent research, cineole is the isolated active agent of eucalyptus oil and possesses antimicrobial activity...
July 2017: Pharmacognosy Research
Ian McLaughlin, John A Dani, Mariella De Biasi
Abstinence from chronic use of addictive drugs triggers an aversive withdrawal syndrome that compels relapse and deters abstinence. Many features of this syndrome are common across multiple drugs, involving both affective and physical symptoms. Some of the network signaling underlying withdrawal symptoms overlaps with activity that is associated with aversive mood states, including anxiety and depression. Given these shared features, it is not surprising that a particular circuit, the dorsal diencephalic conduction system, and the medial habenula (MHb) and interpeduncular nucleus (IPN), in particular, have been identified as critical to the emergence of aversive states that arise both as a result and, independently, of drug addiction...
August 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
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