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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901206/antimicrobial-activity-of-different-disinfectants-against-cariogenic-microorganisms
#1
Esra Uzer Celik, Ayse Tugce Tunac, Mustafa Ates, Bilge Hakan Sen
The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro antimicrobial effects of chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX), polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHBM), and octenidine dihydrochloride (OCT) on cariogenic microorganisms by using their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). CHX, PHBM, and OCT were diluted in distilled water to the final test concentrations. Using the in-tube dilution method, Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Actinomyces viscosus were cultivated on blood agar and Mueller-Hinton broth (MHB) at 37°C for 48 h...
November 28, 2016: Brazilian Oral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891615/a-large-potentiation-effect-of-serum-on-the-in%C3%A2-vitro-potency-of-tulathromycin-against-mannheimia-haemolytica-and-pasteurella-multocida
#2
P Lees, J Illambas, T J Potter, L Pelligand, A Rycroft, P-L Toutain
The antimicrobial properties of tulathromycin were investigated for M. haemolytica and P. multocida. Three in vitro indices of antimicrobial activity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and time-kill curves, were established for six isolates of each organism. Each index was measured in two growth media: Mueller-Hinton broth (MHB) and calf serum. It was shown that MICs and MBCs were markedly lower in serum than in MHB. MHB:serum ratios for MIC were 47:1 (M. haemolytica) and 53:1 (P...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890353/anxiety-and-nicotine-dependence-emerging-role-of-the-habenulo-interpeduncular-axis
#3
REVIEW
Susanna Molas, Steven R DeGroot, Rubing Zhao-Shea, Andrew R Tapper
While innovative modern neuroscience approaches have aided in discerning brain circuitry underlying negative emotional behaviors including fear and anxiety responses, how these circuits are recruited in normal and pathological conditions remains poorly understood. Recently, genetic tools that selectively manipulate single neuronal populations have uncovered an understudied circuit, the medial habenula (mHb)-interpeduncular (IPN) axis, that modulates basal negative emotional responses. Interestingly, the mHb-IPN pathway also represents an essential circuit that signals heightened anxiety induced by nicotine withdrawal...
November 24, 2016: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814710/methemoglobin-and-nitric-oxide-therapy-in-ugandan-children-hospitalized-for-febrile-illness-results-from-a-prospective-cohort-study-and-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#4
Andrea L Conroy, Michael Hawkes, Kyla Hayford, Laura Hermann, Chloe R McDonald, Suparna Sharma, Sophie Namasopo, Robert O Opoka, Chandy C John, W Conrad Liles, Christopher Miller, Kevin C Kain
BACKGROUND: Exposure of red blood cells to oxidants increases production of methemoglobin (MHb) resulting in impaired oxygen delivery to tissues. There are no reliable estimates of methemoglobinemia in low resource clinical settings. Our objectives were to: i) evaluate risk factors for methemoglobinemia in Ugandan children hospitalized with fever (study 1); and ii) investigate MHb responses in critically ill Ugandan children with severe malaria treated with inhaled nitric oxide (iNO), an oxidant that induces MHb in a dose-dependent manner (study 2)...
November 4, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793697/development-and-experience-dependent-plasticity-in-the-dorsomedial-habenula
#5
Peter Koppensteiner, Christopher Galvin, Ipe Ninan
Of the two major subdivisions of the habenula, the medial and lateral nuclei, the medial habenula is the least understood in terms of synaptic transmission, intrinsic properties and plasticity. The medial habenula (MHb) is composed of glutamatergic neurons which receive the majority of their inputs from the septal region and project predominantly to the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN). To understand the synaptic transmission, we studied both glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic transmission in the dorsal region of the medial habenula (dMHb)...
December 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775222/monitoring-macular-pigment-changes-in-macular-holes-using-fluorescence-lifetime-imaging-ophthalmoscopy
#6
Lydia Sauer, Sven Peters, Johanna Schmidt, Dietrich Schweitzer, Matthias Klemm, Lisa Ramm, Regine Augsten, Martin Hammer
PURPOSE: To investigate the impact of macular pigment (MP) on fundus autofluorescence (FAF) lifetimes in vivo by characterizing full-thickness idiopathic macular holes (MH) and macular pseudo-holes (MPH). METHODS: A total of 37 patients with MH and 52 with MPH were included. Using the fluorescence lifetime imaging ophthalmoscope (FLIO), based on a Heidelberg Engineering Spectralis system, a 30° retinal field was investigated. FAF decays were detected in a short (498-560 nm; ch1) and long (560-720 nm; ch2) wavelength channel...
October 24, 2016: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768819/habitat-and-taxon-as-driving-forces-of-carbohydrate-catabolism-in-marine-heterotrophic-bacteria-example-of-the-model-algae-associated-bacterium-zobellia-galactanivorans-dsij-t
#7
Tristan Barbeyron, François Thomas, Valérie Barbe, Hanno Teeling, Chantal Schenowitz, Carole Dossat, Alexander Goesmann, Catherine Leblanc, Frank Oliver Glöckner, Mirjam Czjzek, Rudolf Amann, Gurvan Michel
The marine flavobacterium Zobellia galactanivorans Dsij(T) was isolated from a red alga and by now constitutes a model for studying algal polysaccharide bioconversions. We present an in-depth analysis of its complete genome and link it to physiological traits. Z. galactanivorans exhibited the highest gene numbers for glycoside hydrolases, polysaccharide lyases and carbohydrate esterases and the second highest sulfatase gene number in a comparison to 125 other marine heterotrophic bacteria (MHB) genomes. Its genome contains 50 polysaccharide utilization loci, 22 of which contain sulfatase genes...
October 21, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725766/functional-visualization-and-disruption-of-targeted-genes-using-crispr-cas9-mediated-egfp-reporter-integration-in-zebrafish
#8
Satoshi Ota, Kiyohito Taimatsu, Kanoko Yanagi, Tomohiro Namiki, Rie Ohga, Shin-Ichi Higashijima, Atsuo Kawahara
The CRISPR/Cas9 complex, which is composed of a guide RNA (gRNA) and the Cas9 nuclease, is useful for carrying out genome modifications in various organisms. Recently, the CRISPR/Cas9-mediated locus-specific integration of a reporter, which contains the Mbait sequence targeted using Mbait-gRNA, the hsp70 promoter and the eGFP gene, has allowed the visualization of the target gene expression. However, it has not been ascertained whether the reporter integrations at both targeted alleles cause loss-of-function phenotypes in zebrafish...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721656/role-of-mirna-9-in-brain-development
#9
Balachandar Radhakrishnan, A Alwin Prem Anand
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small regulatory RNAs involved in gene regulation. The regulation is effected by either translational inhibition or transcriptional silencing. In vertebrates, the importance of miRNA in development was discovered from mice and zebrafish dicer knockouts. The miRNA-9 (miR-9) is one of the most highly expressed miRNAs in the early and adult vertebrate brain. It has diverse functions within the developing vertebrate brain. In this article, the role of miR-9 in the developing forebrain (telencephalon and diencephalon), midbrain, hindbrain, and spinal cord of vertebrate species is highlighted...
2016: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703268/optogenetic-activation-of-septal-gabaergic-afferents-entrains-neuronal-firing-in-the-medial-habenula
#10
Kyuhyun Choi, Youngin Lee, Changwoo Lee, Seokheon Hong, Soonje Lee, Shin Jung Kang, Ki Soon Shin
The medial habenula (MHb) plays an important role in nicotine-related behaviors such as nicotine aversion and withdrawal. The MHb receives GABAergic input from the medial septum/diagonal band of Broca (MS/DB), yet the synaptic mechanism that regulates MHb activity is unclear. GABA (γ -aminobutyric acid) is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter activating both GABAA receptors and GABAB receptors. Depending on intracellular chloride concentration, however, GABAA receptors also function in an excitatory manner...
October 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680756/influence-of-different-peritoneal-dialysis-fluids-on-the-in-vitro-activity-of-cefepime-ciprofloxacin-ertapenem-meropenem-and-tobramycin-against-escherichia-coli
#11
Manuel Kussmann, Linda Schuster, Sarah Wrenger, Petra Pichler, Gottfried Reznicek, Heinz Burgmann, Wolfgang Poeppl, Markus Zeitlinger, Martin Wiesholzer
♦ BACKGROUND: Peritonitis is a major problem among patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD). The influence of diverse PD fluids on the activity of frequently used antibiotics has been insufficiently investigated. Thus, the present study set out to investigate the impact of different PD fluids on the activity of cefepime, ciprofloxacin, ertapenem, meropenem, and tobramycin against Escherichia coli. ♦ METHODS: Time-kill curves in 4 different PD fluids (Dianeal PDG4, Extraneal, Nutrineal PD4 and Physioneal 40, all Baxter Healthcare Corp...
November 2016: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622323/mechanism-of-action-and-in%C3%A2-vitro-activity-of-short-hybrid-antimicrobial-peptide-pv3-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#12
Hamed Memariani, Delavar Shahbazzadeh, Jean-Marc Sabatier, Mojtaba Memariani, Ali Karbalaeimahdi, Kamran Pooshang Bagheri
Antimicrobial peptides are attractive candidates for developing novel therapeutic agents, since they are lethal to a broad spectrum of pathogens and have a unique low tendency for resistance development. In this study, mechanism of action and in vitro anti-pseudomonal activity of previously designed short hybrid antimicrobial peptide PV3 were investigated. Compared to ceftazidime, PV3 had not only higher antibacterial activity but also faster bactericidal activity. PV3 reduced biofilm biomass and viability of biofilm embedded bacteria in a concentration-dependent manner...
October 7, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27531501/%C3%AE-3%C3%AE-4-nicotinic-receptors-in-the-medial-habenula-and-substance-p-transmission-in-the-interpeduncular-nucleus-modulate-nicotine-sensitization
#13
Branden L Eggan, Sarah E McCallum
The medial habenula-interpeduncular nucleus (MHb-IPN) pathway has recently been shown to modulate multiple effects nicotine in vivo, however it remains unclear which receptor subtypes in this pathway are critical for mediating these responses. To identify MHb and IPN receptors that play a role in nicotine reward, we studied receptors prevalent in these nuclei, including nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and the receptor for substance P (neuokinin-1; NK1 receptor) using a model of behavioral and neurochemical sensitization to nicotine...
January 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27494716/microrna-profiling-in-the-medial-and-lateral-habenula-of-rats-exposed-to-the-learned-helplessness-paradigm-candidate-biomarkers-for-susceptibility-and-resilience-to-inescapable-shock
#14
Katrine Svenningsen, Morten T Venø, Kim Henningsen, Anne S Mallien, Line Jensen, Trine Christensen, Jørgen Kjems, Barbara Vollmayr, Ove Wiborg
Depression is a highly heterogeneous disorder presumably caused by a combination of several factors ultimately causing the pathological condition. The genetic liability model of depression is likely to be of polygenic heterogeneity. miRNAs can regulate multiple genes simultaneously and therefore are candidates that align with this model. The habenula has been linked to depression in both clinical and animal studies, shifting interest towards this region as a neural substrate in depression. The goal of the present study was to search for alterations in miRNA expression levels in the medial and lateral habenula of rats exposed to the learned helplessness (LH) rat model of depression...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27479096/treatment-outcome-of-bangladeshi-uclp-patients-based-on-both-phenotype-and-postnatal-treatment-factors-using-modified-huddart-bodenham-mhb-index
#15
Sanjida Haque, Mohammad Khursheed Alam, Mohd Fadhli Khamis
OBJECTIVE:   To evaluate the dental arch relationship (DAR) of nonsyndromic unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) and to explore the various phenotype and postnatal treatment factors that are responsible for poor DAR. DESIGN:   Retrospective study. SETTING:   School of Dental Science, Universiti Sains Malaysia. SUBJECTS:   Eighty-four Bangladeshi children with nonsyndromic UCLP who received cheiloplasty and palatoplasty...
August 1, 2016: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27455571/-comparative-cerebroprotective-effect-of-preventive-administration-of-magnesium-hydroxybutyrate-versus-magnesium-sulfate-and-cavinton-in-rats-with-common-carotid-artery-occlusion
#16
COMPARATIVE STUDY
I N Tyurenkov, A A Litvinov, D V Kurkin, E V Volotova, A P Darmanyan, A A Ozerov
Dose-dependent cerebroprotective effect of magnesium hydroxybutyrate (MHB) on common carotid artery occlusion model in rats was established. Administration of 150 mg/kg MHB led to significant decrease in animal mortality (up to 9.3 times) in comparison to control (p < 0.05). This MHB dose also produced significant decrease of neurological deficit on the McGraw scale in comparison to control and magnesium sulfate (50% and 20%, respectively). The MHB treated animals also showed improved locomotor and exploratory performance in the open-field test and retained memory performance in the passive avoidance test and extrapolation escape task test...
2016: Eksperimental'naia i Klinicheskaia Farmakologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27365183/correlation-between-the-modified-huddart-and-bodenham-index-and-the-goslon-yardstick-for-assessing-occlusal-characteristics-at-5-and-10-years-of-age-in-individuals-born-with-unilateral-cleft-lip-and-palate
#17
Yazeed Almuhizi, Anette Leser, Marie Pegelow
BACKGROUND: The Great Ormond Street, London and Oslo, Norway (GOSLON) yardstick and the modified Huddart and Bodenham (MHB) index are two indices for evaluating study models to discern the effects of treatment in individuals born with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP). GOSLON is a tool for ranking study models based on their sagittal, vertical, and transversal planes that requires calibration of the examiners. MHB is a tool for scoring the arch constriction between the jaws for each tooth pair, with scores ranging from +1 to -3...
August 2016: European Journal of Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27357390/consomic-mouse-strain-selection-based-on-effect-size-measurement-statistical-significance-testing-and-integrated-behavioral-z-scoring-focus-on-anxiety-related-behavior-and-locomotion
#18
M Labots, M C Laarakker, F Ohl, H A van Lith
BACKGROUND: Selecting chromosome substitution strains (CSSs, also called consomic strains/lines) used in the search for quantitative trait loci (QTLs) consistently requires the identification of the respective phenotypic trait of interest and is simply based on a significant difference between a consomic and host strain. However, statistical significance as represented by P values does not necessarily predicate practical importance. We therefore propose a method that pays attention to both the statistical significance and the actual size of the observed effect...
2016: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27273073/fgf8-signaling-for-development-of-the-midbrain-and-hindbrain
#19
REVIEW
Hidekiyo Harada, Tatsuya Sato, Harukazu Nakamura
In this paper, we review how midbrain and hindbrain are specified. Otx2 and Gbx2 are expressed from the early phase of development, and their expression abuts at the midbrain hindbrain boundary (MHB), where Fgf8 expression is induced, and functions as an organizing molecule for the midbrain and hindbrain. Fgf8 induces En1 and Pax2 expression at the region where Otx2 is expressed to specify midbrain. Fgf8 activates Ras-ERK pathway to specify hindbrain. Downstream of ERK, Pea3 specifies isthmus (rhombomere 0, r0), and Irx2 may specify r1, where the cerebellum is formed...
June 2016: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27122224/antibacterial-effect-of-n-acetylcysteine-on-common-canine-otitis-externa-isolates
#20
Elizabeth R May, Katherine A Conklin, David A Bemis
BACKGROUND: N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) has the potential to be a useful therapeutic agent for the treatment of otitis externa due to its antimicrobial and mucolytic properties, as well as its ability to disrupt bacterial biofilm. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To determine the antibacterial activity of NAC against common bacterial isolates associated with canine otitis externa. ANIMALS: Twenty two isolates from canine clinical cases of otitis externa were identified and tested, including five Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, six Pseudomonas aeruginosa, five Corynebacterium spp...
June 2016: Veterinary Dermatology
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