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Satoshi Ota, Kiyohito Taimatsu, Kanoko Yanagi, Tomohiro Namiki, Rie Ohga, Shin-Ichi Higashijima, Atsuo Kawahara
The CRISPR/Cas9 complex, which is composed of a guide RNA (gRNA) and the Cas9 nuclease, is useful for carrying out genome modifications in various organisms. Recently, the CRISPR/Cas9-mediated locus-specific integration of a reporter, which contains the Mbait sequence targeted using Mbait-gRNA, the hsp70 promoter and the eGFP gene, has allowed the visualization of the target gene expression. However, it has not been ascertained whether the reporter integrations at both targeted alleles cause loss-of-function phenotypes in zebrafish...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
Balachandar Radhakrishnan, A Alwin Prem Anand
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small regulatory RNAs involved in gene regulation. The regulation is effected by either translational inhibition or transcriptional silencing. In vertebrates, the importance of miRNA in development was discovered from mice and zebrafish dicer knockouts. The miRNA-9 (miR-9) is one of the most highly expressed miRNAs in the early and adult vertebrate brain. It has diverse functions within the developing vertebrate brain. In this article, the role of miR-9 in the developing forebrain (telencephalon and diencephalon), midbrain, hindbrain, and spinal cord of vertebrate species is highlighted...
2016: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Kyuhyun Choi, Youngin Lee, Changwoo Lee, Seokheon Hong, Soonje Lee, Shin Jung Kang, Ki Soon Shin
The medial habenula (MHb) plays an important role in nicotine-related behaviors such as nicotine aversion and withdrawal. The MHb receives GABAergic input from the medial septum/diagonal band of Broca (MS/DB), yet the synaptic mechanism that regulates MHb activity is unclear. GABA (γ -aminobutyric acid) is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter activating both GABAA receptors and GABAB receptors. Depending on intracellular chloride concentration, however, GABAA receptors also function in an excitatory manner...
October 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
Manuel Kussmann, Linda Schuster, Sarah Wrenger, Petra Pichler, Gottfried Reznicek, Heinz Burgmann, Wolfgang Poeppl, Markus Zeitlinger, Martin Wiesholzer
♦ Background: Peritonitis is a major problem among patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD). The influence of diverse PD fluids on the activity of frequently used antibiotics has been insufficiently investigated. Thus, the present study set out to investigate the impact of different PD fluids on the activity of cefepime, ciprofloxacin, ertapenem, meropenem, and tobramycin against Escherichia coli. ♦ Methods: Time-kill curves in 4 different PD fluids (Dianeal PDG4, Extraneal, Nutrineal PD4 and Physioneal 40, all Baxter Healthcare Corp...
September 28, 2016: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
Hamed Memariani, Delavar Shahbazzadeh, Jean-Marc Sabatier, Mojtaba Memariani, Ali Karbalaeimahdi, Kamran Pooshang Bagheri
Antimicrobial peptides are attractive candidates for developing novel therapeutic agents, since they are lethal to a broad spectrum of pathogens and have a unique low tendency for resistance development. In this study, mechanism of action and in vitro anti-pseudomonal activity of previously designed short hybrid antimicrobial peptide PV3 were investigated. Compared to ceftazidime, PV3 had not only higher antibacterial activity but also faster bactericidal activity. PV3 reduced biofilm biomass and viability of biofilm embedded bacteria in a concentration-dependent manner...
October 7, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Branden L Eggan, Sarah E McCallum
The medial habenula-interpeduncular nucleus (MHb-IPN) pathway has recently been shown to modulate multiple effects nicotine in vivo, however it remains unclear which receptor subtypes in this pathway are critical for mediating these responses. To identify MHb and IPN receptors that play a role in nicotine reward, we studied receptors prevalent in these nuclei, including nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and the receptor for substance P (neuokinin-1; NK1 receptor) using a model of behavioral and neurochemical sensitization to nicotine...
January 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
Katrine Svenningsen, Morten T Venø, Kim Henningsen, Anne S Mallien, Line Jensen, Trine Christensen, Jørgen Kjems, Barbara Vollmayr, Ove Wiborg
Depression is a highly heterogeneous disorder presumably caused by a combination of several factors ultimately causing the pathological condition. The genetic liability model of depression is likely to be of polygenic heterogeneity. miRNAs can regulate multiple genes simultaneously and therefore are candidates that align with this model. The habenula has been linked to depression in both clinical and animal studies, shifting interest towards this region as a neural substrate in depression. The goal of the present study was to search for alterations in miRNA expression levels in the medial and lateral habenula of rats exposed to the learned helplessness (LH) rat model of depression...
2016: PloS One
Sanjida Haque, Mohammad Khursheed Alam, Mohd Fadhli Khamis
OBJECTIVE:   To evaluate the dental arch relationship (DAR) of nonsyndromic unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) and to explore the various phenotype and postnatal treatment factors that are responsible for poor DAR. DESIGN:   Retrospective study. SETTING:   School of Dental Science, Universiti Sains Malaysia. SUBJECTS:   Eighty-four Bangladeshi children with nonsyndromic UCLP who received cheiloplasty and palatoplasty...
August 1, 2016: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
I N Tyurenkov, A A Litvinov, D V Kurkin, E V Volotova, A P Darmanyan, A A Ozerov
Dose-dependent cerebroprotective effect of magnesium hydroxybutyrate (MHB) on common carotid artery occlusion model in rats was established. Administration of 150 mg/kg MHB led to significant decrease in animal mortality (up to 9.3 times) in comparison to control (p < 0.05). This MHB dose also produced significant decrease of neurological deficit on the McGraw scale in comparison to control and magnesium sulfate (50% and 20%, respectively). The MHB treated animals also showed improved locomotor and exploratory performance in the open-field test and retained memory performance in the passive avoidance test and extrapolation escape task test...
2016: Eksperimental'naia i Klinicheskaia Farmakologiia
Yazeed Almuhizi, Anette Leser, Marie Pegelow
BACKGROUND: The Great Ormond Street, London and Oslo, Norway (GOSLON) yardstick and the modified Huddart and Bodenham (MHB) index are two indices for evaluating study models to discern the effects of treatment in individuals born with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP). GOSLON is a tool for ranking study models based on their sagittal, vertical, and transversal planes that requires calibration of the examiners. MHB is a tool for scoring the arch constriction between the jaws for each tooth pair, with scores ranging from +1 to -3...
August 2016: European Journal of Orthodontics
M Labots, M C Laarakker, F Ohl, H A van Lith
BACKGROUND: Selecting chromosome substitution strains (CSSs, also called consomic strains/lines) used in the search for quantitative trait loci (QTLs) consistently requires the identification of the respective phenotypic trait of interest and is simply based on a significant difference between a consomic and host strain. However, statistical significance as represented by P values does not necessarily predicate practical importance. We therefore propose a method that pays attention to both the statistical significance and the actual size of the observed effect...
2016: BMC Genetics
Hidekiyo Harada, Tatsuya Sato, Harukazu Nakamura
In this paper, we review how midbrain and hindbrain are specified. Otx2 and Gbx2 are expressed from the early phase of development, and their expression abuts at the midbrain hindbrain boundary (MHB), where Fgf8 expression is induced, and functions as an organizing molecule for the midbrain and hindbrain. Fgf8 induces En1 and Pax2 expression at the region where Otx2 is expressed to specify midbrain. Fgf8 activates Ras-ERK pathway to specify hindbrain. Downstream of ERK, Pea3 specifies isthmus (rhombomere 0, r0), and Irx2 may specify r1, where the cerebellum is formed...
June 2016: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Elizabeth R May, Katherine A Conklin, David A Bemis
BACKGROUND: N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) has the potential to be a useful therapeutic agent for the treatment of otitis externa due to its antimicrobial and mucolytic properties, as well as its ability to disrupt bacterial biofilm. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To determine the antibacterial activity of NAC against common bacterial isolates associated with canine otitis externa. ANIMALS: Twenty two isolates from canine clinical cases of otitis externa were identified and tested, including five Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, six Pseudomonas aeruginosa, five Corynebacterium spp...
June 2016: Veterinary Dermatology
Catherine B Martin, Xinhui Ma, Grant T McIntyre, Weijie Wang, Ping Lin, Elinor V Chalmers, Peter A Mossey
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate an automated software tool for the assessment of dental arch relationships using the modified Huddart and Bodenham (MHB) index. DESIGN: Cohort of 43 models of subjects aged 9-21 with UCLP and the ten GOSLON reference models sets. METHOD: The 53 sets of plaster models were scored using the MHB index and scanned with a benchtop scanner. The digital models were MHB scored visually using a commercial software program and landmarked for automatic scoring using a software plug-in...
August 2016: European Journal of Orthodontics
Branden L Eggan, Sarah E McCallum
Systemic 18-methoxycoronaridine, an alpha3beta4 nicotinic antagonist, slows the rate of induction of behavioral sensitization to nicotine (Glick et al., 1996; 2011). The primary mechanism of action of 18-MC is believed to be the inhibition of α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors which are densely expressed in the medial habenula and interpeduncular nucleus (Pace et al., 2004; Glick et al., 2012). Recently, these habenular nicotinic receptors and their multiple roles in nicotine aversion and withdrawal have been increasingly emphasized (Antolin-Fontes et al...
July 1, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Xueyan Pang, Liwang Liu, Jennifer Ngolab, Rubing Zhao-Shea, J Michael McIntosh, Paul D Gardner, Andrew R Tapper
Cholinergic neurons in the medial habenula (MHb) modulate anxiety during nicotine withdrawal although the molecular neuroadaptation(s) within the MHb that induce affective behaviors during nicotine cessation is largely unknown. MHb cholinergic neurons are unique in that they robustly express neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), although their behavioral role as autoreceptors in these neurons has not been described. To test the hypothesis that nAChR signaling in MHb cholinergic neurons could modulate anxiety, we expressed novel "gain of function" nAChR subunits selectively in MHb cholinergic neurons of adult mice...
August 2016: Neuropharmacology
Timothy Jones, Sam Leary, Nikki Atack, Tony Ireland, Jonathan Sandy
OBJECTIVE: To determine the optimal dentoalveolar measure to assess unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) patient plaster models. DESIGN: The models of 34 patients with UCLP taken at 5, 10, and 15-20 years of age were scored by two examiners on two separate occasions using five indices: the 5 Year Olds' (5YO), GOSLON, Modified Huddart/Bodenham (MHB), EUROCRAN, and Overjet. Reliability, validity, and ease of use were recorded for each index/examiner. SETTING: All models were scored in either Bristol Dental Hospital or Derriford Hospital, Plymouth, United Kingdom by senior orthodontic clinicians...
August 2016: European Journal of Orthodontics
Peter Fabian, Chrysoula N Pantzartzi, Iryna Kozmikova, Zbynek Kozmik
The midbrain-hindbrain boundary (MHB) is one of the key organizing centers of the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS). Its patterning is governed by a well-described gene regulatory network (GRN) involving several transcription factors, namely, pax, gbx, en, and otx, together with signaling molecules of the Wnt and Fgf families. Here, we describe the onset of these markers in Oryzias latipes (medaka) early brain development in comparison to previously known zebrafish expression patterns. Moreover, we show for the first time that vox, a member of the vent gene family, is expressed in the developing neural tube similarly to CNS markers...
March 2016: Development Genes and Evolution
Franziska Wagner, René Bernard, Christian Derst, Leon French, Rüdiger W Veh
In vertebrates the "anti-reward-system" mainly is represented by the habenula and its medial (MHb) and especially lateral (LHb) complexes. Considerable knowledge has accumulated concerning subnuclear structures and connectivities of MHb and LHb subnuclei. The present investigation aimed to obtain novel information, whether MHb or LHb or their subnuclei display field-characteristic gene products, which may shed light on biological functions of these areas. Unfortunately this was not the case. Microarray analysis of mRNAs in microdissected habenular and thalamic control areas yielded expression values of 17,745 RNAs representing protein-coding genes, to which annotated gene names could be assigned...
February 18, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
R Seixas, D Varanda, R Bexiga, L Tavares, M Oliveira
Staphylococcus is the genus most commonly isolated from bovine mastitis in many countries. It may express several virulence factors including biofilm formation, which may protect the bacterial community from antimicrobials' action, preventing these compounds from reaching its interior, where they reach subinhibitory concentrations (subMIC). Most biofilm production assays are performed in static conditions, while studies regarding antimicrobial resistance usually do not resemble the udder environment because they are performed at high concentrations...
2015: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
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