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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855073/reversion-of-high-level-mecillinam-resistance-to-susceptibility-in-escherichia-coli-during-growth-in-urine
#1
Elisabeth Thulin, Måns Thulin, Dan I Andersson
Mecillinam (amdinocillin) is a β-lactam antibiotic used to treat uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs). We have previously shown that inactivation of the Escherichia coli cysB gene is the major cause of mecillinam resistance (Mec(R)) in clinical isolates. In this study, we used different E. coli strains (laboratory and clinical isolates) that were Mec(R) due to cysB mutations to determine how mecillinam susceptibility was affected during growth in urine compared to growth in the commonly used growth medium Mueller Hinton (MHB)...
August 24, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827963/investigation-of-effect-of-1-8-cineole-on-antimicrobial-activity-of-chlorhexidine-gluconate
#2
Merih Şimşek, Reşat Duman
BACKGROUND: Chlorhexidine belongs to a group of medicines called antiseptic antibacterial agents. Chlorhexidine is commonly used for the care and clean off the skin, hands, and wounds. In recent years, medicinal and aromatic plants have been used for prevention of disease, maintaining health, and improving disease in traditional and modern medicine as a medicament. According to recent research, cineole is the isolated active agent of eucalyptus oil and possesses antimicrobial activity...
July 2017: Pharmacognosy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791703/the-medial-habenula-and-interpeduncular-nucleus-circuitry-is-critical-in-addiction-anxiety-and-mood-regulation
#3
REVIEW
Ian McLaughlin, John A Dani, Mariella De Biasi
Abstinence from chronic use of addictive drugs triggers an aversive withdrawal syndrome that compels relapse and deters abstinence. Many features of this syndrome are common across multiple drugs, involving both affective and physical symptoms. Some of the network signaling underlying withdrawal symptoms overlaps with activity that is associated with aversive mood states, including anxiety and depression. Given these shared features, it is not surprising that a particular circuit, the dorsal diencephalic conduction system, and the medial habenula (MHb) and interpeduncular nucleus (IPN), in particular, have been identified as critical to the emergence of aversive states that arise both as a result and, independently, of drug addiction...
August 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768196/a-cooperative-mechanism-involving-ca-2-permeable-ampa-receptors-and-retrograde-activation-of-gabab-receptors-in-interpeduncular-nucleus-plasticity
#4
Peter Koppensteiner, Riccardo Melani, Ipe Ninan
The medial habenula-interpeduncular nucleus (MHb-IPN) pathway, which connects the limbic forebrain to the midbrain, has recently been implicated in aversive behaviors. The MHb-IPN circuit is characterized by a unique topographical organization, an excitatory role of GABA, and a prominent co-release of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides. However, little is known about synaptic plasticity in this pathway. An application of a high-frequency stimulation resulted in a long-lasting potentiation of glutamate release in IPN neurons...
August 1, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756106/comprehensive-analysis-of-target-genes-in-zebrafish-embryos-reveals-gbx2-involvement-in-neurogenesis
#5
Yukiko Nakayama, Chihiro Inomata, Tatsuya Yuikawa, Sachiko Tsuda, Kyo Yamasu
It is well established that the gbx2 homeobox gene contributes to the positioning of the midbrain-hindbrain boundary (MHB) governing the development of adjacent brain regions in vertebrate embryos, but the specific aspects of the gene regulatory network regulated by gbx2 during brain development remain unclear. In the present study, we sought to comprehensively identify gbx2 target genes in zebrafish embryos by microarray analysis around the end of gastrulation, when the MHB is established, using transgenic embryos harboring heat-inducible gbx2...
July 26, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713249/crispr-cas9-mediated-zebrafish-knock-in-as-a-novel-strategy-to-study-midbrain-hindbrain-boundary-development
#6
Gokul Kesavan, Avinash Chekuru, Anja Machate, Michael Brand
The midbrain-hindbrain boundary (MHB) acts as an organizer and controls the fate of neighboring cells to develop into either mesencephalic (midbrain) or metencephalic (hindbrain) cells by secreting signaling molecules like Wnt1 and Fgf8. The zebrafish is an excellent vertebrate model for studying MHB development due to the ease of gene manipulation and the possibility of following cellular dynamics and morphogenetic processes using live imaging. Currently, only very few reporter and/or Cre-driver lines are available to study gene expression at the MHB, hampering the understanding of MHB development, and traditional transgenic technologies using promoter/enhancer fragments or bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-mediated transgenesis often do not faithfully recapitulate endogenous expression patterns...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690600/differential-growth-of-francisella-tularensis-which-alters-expression-of-virulence-factors-dominant-antigens-and-surface-carbohydrate-synthases-governs-the-apparent-virulence-of-ft-schus4-to-immunized-animals
#7
Kristen M Holland, Sarah J Rosa, Kolbrun Kristjansdottir, Donald Wolfgeher, Brian J Franz, Tiffany M Zarrella, Sudeep Kumar, Raju Sunagar, Anju Singh, Chandra S Bakshi, Prachi Namjoshi, Eileen M Barry, Timothy J Sellati, Stephen J Kron, Edmund J Gosselin, Douglas S Reed, Karsten R O Hazlett
The gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis (Ft) is both a potential biological weapon and a naturally occurring microbe that survives in arthropods, fresh water amoeba, and mammals with distinct phenotypes in various environments. Previously, we used a number of measurements to characterize Ft grown in Brain-Heart Infusion (BHI) broth as (1) more similar to infection-derived bacteria, and (2) slightly more virulent in naïve animals, compared to Ft grown in Mueller Hinton Broth (MHB). In these studies we observed that the free amino acids in MHB repress expression of select Ft virulence factors by an unknown mechanism...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678687/ceruloplasmin-inhibits-the-production-of-extracellular-hepatitis-b-virions-by-targeting-its-middle-surface-protein
#8
Kaitao Zhao, Chunchen Wu, Yongxuan Yao, Liang Cao, Zhenhua Zhang, Yifei Yuan, Yun Wang, Rongjuan Pei, Jizheng Chen, Xue Hu, Yuan Zhou, Mengji Lu, Xinwen Chen
Ceruloplasmin (CP) is mainly synthesized by hepatocytes and plays an essential role in iron metabolism. Previous reports have shown that CP levels correlate negatively with disease progression in patients with chronic hepatitis B. However, the function of CP in the hepatitis B virus (HBV) life cycle and the mechanism underlying the above correlation remain unclear. Here, we report that CP can selectively inhibit the production of extracellular HBV virions without altering intracellular viral replication. HBV expression can also downregulate the expression of CP...
June 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645327/impact-of-growth-matrix-on-pharmacodynamics-of-antimicrobial-drugs-for-pig-pneumonia-pathogens
#9
Lucy Dorey, Peter Lees
BACKGROUND: The most widely used measure of potency of antimicrobial drugs is Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). MIC is usually determined under standardised conditions in broths formulated to optimise bacterial growth on a species-by-species basis. This ensures comparability of data between laboratories. However, differences in values of MIC may arise between broths of differing chemical composition and for some drug classes major differences occur between broths and biological fluids such as serum and inflammatory exudate...
June 23, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616377/blue-after-splenectomy
#10
Taaran Cariappa Ballachanda Subbaiah, Jeremy P Feldman
INTRODUCTION: We present a 51 year old, African American, female who presented with persistent hypoxemia. She had been taking dapsone for many years for prophylaxis against Pneumocystic Jiroveci with no symptoms but eventually developed methemoglobinemia only after a splenectomy. From our literature review there are no documented cases that have demonstrated this relationship between dapsone, splenic function and methemoglobin and we hope to share our perplexing case and shed light on the interaction...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581712/ionic-liquid-based-heterogeneous-covalent-triazine-framework-cobalt-catalyst-for-the-direct-synthesis-of-methyl-3-hydroxybutyrate-from-propylene-oxide
#11
Senkuttuvan Rajendiran, Kwangho Park, Kwangyeol Lee, Sungho Yoon
β-Hydroxy esters are considered as potential building blocks for the production of fine chemicals and potential drug molecules in various industries. Developing an efficient and recyclable catalyst for the synthesis of β-hydroxy esters is challenging. Here we report the first ionic-liquid-based heterogenized cobalt catalyst, [imidazolium-CTF][Co(CO)4], for the direct ring-opening carbonylation of propylene oxide to methyl 3-hydroxybutyrate (MHB) with 86% selectivity (>99% conversion).
June 5, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576510/the-role-of-the-habenula-in-the-transition-from-reward-to-misery-in-substance-use-and-mood-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Albert Batalla, Judith R Homberg, Tatiana V Lipina, Guillaume Sescousse, Maartje Luijten, Svetlana A Ivanova, Arnt F A Schellekens, Anton J M Loonen
The habenula (Hb) is an evolutionary well-conserved structure located in the epithalamus. The Hb receives inputs from the septum, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, anterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex, and projects to several midbrain centers, most importantly the inhibitory rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg) and the excitatory interpeduncular nucleus (IPN), which regulate the activity of midbrain monoaminergic nuclei. The Hb is postulated to play a key role in reward and aversion processing across species, including humans, and to be implicated in the different stages of transition from recreational drug intake to addiction and co-morbid mood disorders...
May 30, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559254/human-bile-reduces-antimicrobial-activity-of-selected-antibiotics-against-enterococcus-faecalis-and-escherichia-coli-in-vitro
#13
Beatrix Wulkersdorfer, David Jaros, Sabine Eberl, Stefan Poschner, Walter Jäger, Enrico Cosentini, Markus Zeitlinger, Richard Schwameis
It has been known from previous studies that body fluids, such as cerebrospinal fluid, lung surfactant, and urine, have a strong impact on the bacterial killing of many anti-infective agents. However, the influence of human bile on the antimicrobial activity of antibiotics is widely unknown. Human bile was obtained and pooled from 11 patients undergoing cholecystectomy. After sterilization of the bile fluid by gamma irradiation, its effect on bacterial killing was investigated for linezolid (LZD) and tigecycline (TGC) against Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212...
August 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549975/knockdown-of-epigenetic-transcriptional-co-regulator-brd2a-disrupts-apoptosis-and-proper-formation-of-hindbrain-and-midbrain-hindbrain-boundary-mhb-region-in-zebrafish
#14
Tami Murphy, Heather Melville, Eliza Fradkin, Giana Bistany, Gregory Branigan, Kelly Olsen, Catharine R Comstock, Hayley Hanby, Ellie Garbade, Angela J DiBenedetto
Brd2 is a member of the bromodomain-extraterminal domain (BET) family of proteins and functions as an acetyl-histone-directed transcriptional co-regulator and recruitment scaffold in chromatin modification complexes affecting signal-dependent transcription. While Brd2 acts as a protooncogene in mammalian blood, developmental studies link it to regulation of neuronal apoptosis and epilepsy, and complete knockout of the gene is invariably embryonic lethal. In Drosophila, the Brd2 homolog acts as a maternal effect factor necessary for segment formation and identity and proper expression of homeotic loci, including Ultrabithorax and engrailed...
August 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549526/mobile-phone-ecological-momentary-assessment-of-daily-stressors-among-people-living-with-hiv-elucidating-factors-underlying-health-related-challenges-in-daily-routines
#15
Shu Farmer, Deborah Mindry, W Scott Comulada, Dallas Swendeman
Stressful life events and daily hassles affect people living with HIV (PLWH). However, capturing stress-related events and cognitive impairment is often plagued with recall biases. Incorporating reliable information technology, such as mobile phones, can be a resourceful method for measuring health behaviors (MHB). We report findings from an MHB pilot study with 32 African American, Latino/Hispanic, and White PLWH from Los Angeles. Participants reported perceived stressors in their daily routines using a smartphone Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) application...
September 2017: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528079/the-lateral-habenula-and-the-serotonergic-system
#16
REVIEW
Martin Metzger, Debora Bueno, Leandro B Lima
The habenula (Hb) is an epithalamic structure differentiated into two nuclear complexes, medial (MHb) and lateral habenula (LHb). After decades of relative neglect, interest in the Hb resurged when it was demonstrated that LHb neurons play a key role in encoding disappointments and expectation of punishments. Consistent with such a role, the LHb has been implicated in a broad array of functions and pathologic conditions, notably in mechanisms of stress and pain, as well as in the pathophysiology of mood disorders...
May 17, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396290/neuroanatomical-demonstration-of-calbindin-2a-and-calbindin-2b-like-calcium-binding-proteins-in-the-early-embryonic-development-of-zebrafish-mrna-study
#17
Rahul C Bhoyar, Arun G Jadhao, Sridhar Sivasubbu, A R Singh, Ankit Sabharwal, Nikhil V Palande, Saikat Biswas
Certain calcium binding proteins (CaBPs) are essential for metabolic processes but the role of these proteins in the development is not well known. We have investigated the mRNA expression of CaBPs, calbindin 2a (Calb2a) and calbindin 2b (Calb2b) in the zebrafish embryos 24, 36, 48 and 72h post fertilization (hpf). We have seen very high Calb2a mRNA expression in the tegmentum (Tg), midbrain-hindbrain boundary (Mhb), hindbrain (Hb), spinal cord (Sc), retina and cranial ganglion (Crg). Also very high Calb2b mRNA expression was noted in olfactory cells, cerebellum, Tg, Mhb, Hb, optic tectum, retina, retinal ganglion cell layer, retinal inner nuclear layer, Sc, Neural crest, infraorbital neuromasts, pharyngeal arch 3-7 skeleton and mandibular neuromasts...
August 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387937/specific-connections-of-the-interpeduncular-subnuclei-reveal-distinct-components-of-the-habenulopeduncular-pathway
#18
Lely A Quina, Julie Harris, Hongkui Zeng, Eric E Turner
The habenulopeduncular pathway consists of the medial habenula (MHb), its output tract, the fasciculus retroflexus, and its principal target, the interpeduncular nucleus (IP). Several IP subnuclei have been described, but their specific projections and relationship to habenula inputs are not well understood. Here we have used viral, transgenic, and conventional anterograde and retrograde tract-tracing methods to better define the relationship between the dorsal and ventral MHb, the IP, and the secondary efferent targets of this system...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368384/glp-1-acts-on-habenular-avoidance-circuits-to-control-nicotine-intake
#19
Luis M Tuesta, Zuxin Chen, Alexander Duncan, Christie D Fowler, Masago Ishikawa, Brian R Lee, Xin-An Liu, Qun Lu, Michael Cameron, Matthew R Hayes, Theodore M Kamenecka, Matthew Pletcher, Paul J Kenny
Tobacco smokers titrate their nicotine intake to avoid its noxious effects, sensitivity to which may influence vulnerability to tobacco dependence, yet mechanisms of nicotine avoidance are poorly understood. Here we show that nicotine activates glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). The antidiabetic drugs sitagliptin and exenatide, which inhibit GLP-1 breakdown and stimulate GLP-1 receptors, respectively, decreased nicotine intake in mice. Chemogenetic activation of GLP-1 neurons in NTS similarly decreased nicotine intake...
May 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340505/afferent-and-efferent-connections-of-the-interpeduncular-nucleus-with-special-reference-to-circuits-involving-the-habenula-and-raphe-nuclei
#20
Leandro B Lima, Debora Bueno, Fernanda Leite, Stefani Souza, Luciano Gonçalves, Isadora C Furigo, Jose Donato, Martin Metzger
The habenula is an epithalamic structure differentiated into two nuclear complexes, medial (MHb) and lateral habenula (LHb). Recently, MHb together with its primary target, the interpeduncular nucleus (IP), have been identified as major players in mediating the aversive effects of nicotine. However, structures downstream of the MHb-IP axis, including the median (MnR) and caudal dorsal raphe nucleus (DRC), may contribute to the behavioral effects of nicotine. The afferent and efferent connections of the IP have hitherto not been systematically investigated with sensitive tracers...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
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