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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29807258/inverse-agonism-of-retinoic-acid-receptors-directs-epiblast-cells-into-the-paraxial-mesoderm-lineage
#1
Ryan P Russell, Yu Fu, Yaling Liu, Peter Maye
We have investigated the differentiation of paraxial mesoderm from mouse embryonic stem cells utilizing a Tbx6-EYFP/Brachyury (T)-Cherry dual reporter system. Differentiation from the mouse ESC state directly into mesoderm via Wnt pathway activation was low, but augmented by treatment with AGN193109, a pan-retinoic acid receptor inverse agonist. After five days of differentiation, T+ cells increased from 12.2% to 18.8%, Tbx6+ cells increased from 5.8% to 12.7%, and T+ /Tbx6+ cells increased from 2.4% to 14...
May 22, 2018: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758290/proteome-response-of-dental-pulp-cells-to-exogenous-fgf8
#2
Rozaliya Tsikandelova, Petko Mladenov, Sébastien Planchon, Silvia Kalenderova, Maria Dragneva, Zornitsa Mihaylova, Pavel Stanimirov, Vanyo Mitev, Jenny Renaut, Nikolay Ishkitiev
FGF8 specifies early tooth development by directing the migration of the early tooth founder cells to the site of tooth emergence. To date the effect of the FGF8 in adult dental pulp has not been studied. We have assessed the regenerative potential of FGF8 by evaluating changes in the proteome landscape of dental pulp following short- and long-term exposure to recombinant FGF8 protein. In addition, we carried out qRT PCR analysis to determine extracellular/adhesion gene marker expression and assessed cell proliferation and mineralization in response to FGF8 treatment...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753729/controlled-microenvironments-to-evaluate-chemotactic-properties-of-cultured-m%C3%A3-ller-glia
#3
Juan Pena, Nihan Dulger, Tanya Singh, Jing Zhou, Robert Majeska, Stephen Redenti, Maribel Vazquez
Emerging therapies have begun to evaluate the abilities of Müller glial cells (MGCs) to protect and/or regenerate neurons following retina injury. The migration of donor cells is central to many reparative strategies, where cells must achieve appropriate positioning to facilitate localized repair. Although chemical cues have been implicated in the MGC migratory responses of numerous retinopathies, MGC-based therapies have yet to explore the extent to which external biochemical stimuli can direct MGC behavior...
May 10, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752281/increased-fgf8-signaling-promotes-chondrogenic-rather-than-osteogenic-development-in-the-embryonic-skull
#4
Linnea Schmidt, Aftab Taiyab, Vida Senkus Melvin, Kenneth L Jones, Trevor Williams
The bones of the cranial vault are formed directly from mesenchymal cells through intramembranous ossification rather than via a cartilage intermediate. Formation and growth of the skull bones involves the interaction of multiple cell:cell signaling pathways, with Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs) and their receptors exerting prominent influence. Mutations within this pathway are the most frequent cause of craniosynostosis, which is a common human craniofacial developmental abnormality characterized by the premature fusion of the cranial sutures...
May 10, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738174/-hypospadias-induced-by-maternal-exposure-to-di-n-butyl-phthalate-and-its-mechanisms-in-male-rat-offspring
#5
En-Hui Li, Hai-Bin Wei, Bang-Gao Lhuangi, En-Hui Li, Qi Zhang, Zhi-Hui Xu, Da-Hong Zhang
Objective: To induce hypospadias in male rat offspring by maternal exposure to di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) during late pregnancy and further investigate its mechanisms. METHODS: We randomly divided 20 pregnant rats into a DBP exposure and a control group, the former treated intragastrically with DBP while the latter with soybean oil at 750 mg per kilogram of the body weight per day from gestation days (GD) 14 to 18. On postnatal day (PND) 1, we recorded the incidence rate of hypospadias and observed the histopathological changes in the genital tubercle of the hypospadiac rats...
December 2017: Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue, National Journal of Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721334/ectopic-fgf-signaling-induces-the-intercalary-response-in-developing-chicken-limb-buds
#6
Aki Makanae, Akira Satoh
Background: Intercalary pattern formation is an important regulatory step in amphibian limb regeneration. Amphibian limb regeneration is composed of multiple steps, including wounding, blastema formation, and intercalary pattern formation. Attempts have been made to transfer insights from regeneration-competent animals to regeneration-incompetent animalsat each step in the regeneration process. In the present study, we focused on the intercalary mechanism in chick limb buds. In amphibian limb regeneration, a proximodistal axis is organized as soon as a regenerating blastema is induced...
2018: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720250/efficient-induction-of-functional-ameloblasts-from-human-keratinocyte-stem-cells
#7
Xuefeng Hu, Jyh-Wei Lee, Xi Zheng, Junhua Zhang, Xin Lin, Yingnan Song, Bingmei Wang, Xiaoxiao Hu, Hao-Hueng Chang, Yiping Chen, Chun-Pin Lin, Yanding Zhang
BACKGROUND: Although adult human tissue-derived epidermal stem cells are capable of differentiating into enamel-secreting ameloblasts and forming teeth with regenerated enamel when recombined with mouse dental mesenchyme that possesses odontogenic potential, the induction rate is relatively low. In addition, whether the regenerated enamel retains a running pattern of prism identical to and acquires mechanical properties comparable with human enamel indeed warrants further study. METHODS: Cultured human keratinocyte stem cells (hKSCs) were treated with fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8) and Sonic hedgehog (SHH) for 18 h or 36 h prior to being recombined with E13...
May 2, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707616/rostrocaudal-areal-patterning-of-human-psc-derived-cortical-neurons-by-fgf8-signaling
#8
Kent Imaizumi, Koki Fujimori, Seiji Ishii, Asako Otomo, Yasushi Hosoi, Hiroaki Miyajima, Hitoshi Warita, Masashi Aoki, Shinji Hadano, Wado Akamatsu, Hideyuki Okano
The cerebral cortex is subdivided into distinct areas that have particular functions. The rostrocaudal (R-C) gradient of fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8) signaling defines this areal identity during neural development. In this study, we recapitulated cortical R-C patterning in human pluripotent stem cell (PSC) cultures. Modulation of FGF8 signaling appropriately regulated the R-C markers, and the patterns of global gene expression resembled those of the corresponding areas of human fetal brains. Furthermore, we demonstrated the utility of this culture system in modeling the area-specific forebrain phenotypes [presumptive upper motor neuron (UMN) phenotypes] of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)...
March 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669275/zika-virus-can-strongly-infect-and-disrupt-secondary-organizers-in-the-ventricular-zone-of-the-embryonic-chicken-brain
#9
Ankita Thawani, Devika Sirohi, Richard J Kuhn, Donna M Fekete
Zika virus (ZIKV) is associated with severe neurodevelopmental impairments in human fetuses, including microencephaly. Previous reports examining neural progenitor tropism of ZIKV in organoid and animal models did not address whether the virus infects all neural progenitors uniformly. To explore this, ZIKV was injected into the neural tube of 2-day-old chicken embryos, resulting in nonuniform periventricular infection 3 days later. Recurrent foci of intense infection were present at specific signaling centers that influence neuroepithelial patterning at a distance through secretion of morphogens...
April 17, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626475/fgf8-and-fgfr3-are-up-regulated-in-hypertrophic-chondrocytes-association-with-chondrocyte-death-in-deep-zone-of-kashin-beck-disease
#10
Huizhong Liu, Qian Fang, Mengying Wang, Wenjun Wang, Meng Zhang, Dan Zhang, Ying He, Ying Zhang, Hui Wang, Miguel Otero, Tianyou Ma, Jinghong Chen
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate FGF8 and FGFR3 expression in clinical samples of Kashin-Beck disease (KBD), an endemic osteochondropathy found in China, as well as in pre-clinical models of this disease. METHOD: Cartilage was collected from the hand phalanges of five patients with KBD and from five healthy children. Sprague-Dawley rats were administered a selenium-deficient diet for four weeks prior to exposure to the T-2 toxin. ATDC5 cells were differentiated into hypertrophic chondrocytes for twenty-one days, and then treated with 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1) (0, 1, 3, or 5 mM) for 24 h...
June 2, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625437/metalloproteinase-adamts16-is-required-for-proper-closure-of-the-optic-fissure
#11
Mingzhe Cao, Jiamin Ouyang, Jingyi Guo, Siyuan Lin, Shuyi Chen
Purpose: Coloboma is a sight-threatening congenital eye disease caused by a failure in optic fissure (OF) closure. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Adamts16, a metalloproteinase, in OF closure. Methods: RNA in situ hybridization was used to examine the expression of Adamts16 in developing mouse and zebrafish eyes. Morpholino knockdowns were performed to study adamts16 function during zebrafish eye development. Additionally, immunofluorescent staining, RNA in situ hybridization, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling, TUNEL assays, and high-throughput sequencing were used to examine altered cellular and molecular events in adamts16-morphant optic cups (OCs)...
March 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584859/loss-of-function-mutations-in-fgf8-can-be-independent-risk-factors-for-holoprosencephaly
#12
Sungkook Hong, Ping Hu, Erich Roessler, Tommy Hu, Maximilian Muenke
The utilization of next generation sequencing has been shown to accelerate gene discovery in human disease. However, our confidence in the correct disease-associations of rare variants continues to depend on functional analysis. Here, we employ a sensitive assay of human FGF8 variants in zebrafish to demonstrate that the spectrum of isoforms of FGF8 produced by alternative splicing can provide key insights into the genetic susceptibility to human malformations. In addition, we describe novel mutations in the FGF core structure that have both subtle and profound effects on ligand posttranslational processing and biological activity...
June 1, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580253/excessive-nerve-growth-factor-impairs-bidirectional-communication-between-the-oocyte-and-cumulus-cells-resulting-in-reduced-oocyte-competence
#13
Yiwen Zhai, Guidong Yao, Faiza Rao, Yong Wang, Xiaoyuan Song, Fei Sun
BACKGROUND: Excessive nerve growth factor (NGF) is commonly found in the follicular fluid of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Furthermore, oocytes from PCOS patients exhibit lower developmental competence. The purpose of this study was to explore the association between excessive NGF and low oocyte competence in vitro. METHODS: Excessive NGF was added to mouse cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) cultured in vitro to investigate meiotic maturation of the oocyte...
March 27, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576501/intrastriatal-transplantation-of-stem-cells-from-human-exfoliated-deciduous-teeth-reduces-motor-defects-in-parkinsonian-rats
#14
Nan Zhang, Xianjie Lu, Shichao Wu, Xueli Li, Jing Duan, Chao Chen, Wei Wang, Hao Song, Jiabei Tong, Sen Li, Yanming Liu, Xinjiang Kang, Xuexiang Wang, Fabin Han
BACKGROUND: This study explored the neural differentiation and therapeutic effects of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) in a rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: The SHED were isolated from fresh dental pulp and were induced to differentiate to neurons and dopamine neurons by inhibiting similar mothers against dpp (SMAD) signaling with Noggin and increase conversion of dopamine neurons from SHED with CHIR99021, Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) and FGF8 in vitro...
May 2018: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556477/exposure-to-sub-lethal-dose-of-a-combination-insecticide-during-early-embryogenesis-influences-the-normal-patterning-of-mesoderm-resulting-in-incomplete-closure-of-ventral-body-wall-of-chicks-of-domestic-hen
#15
Shashikant Sharma, Gowri K Uggini, Venus Patel, Isha Desai, Suresh Balakrishnan
Pesticide exposure to the non target groups especially during embryonic development has quite often resulted in congenital malformations. A commercially available combination insecticide (Ci, 50% chlorpyrifos and 5% cypermethrin) is known to induce ventral body wall defects (VBWDs) wherein abdominal viscera protrude out of the ventral body wall. Herein, an attempt was made to understand the mechanistic insight into Ci induced VBWDs. For this, before incubation, the chick embryos were dosed with the test chemical and then at different developmental stages of incubation, they were monitored for the changes in the expression of certain genes, which are indispensable for the ventral body wall closure since they regulate the cell fate, proliferation and survival...
2018: Toxicology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472839/ketamine-modulates-zic5-expression-via-the-notch-signaling-pathway-in-neural-crest-induction
#16
Yu Shi, Jiejing Li, Chunjiang Chen, Yongwu Xia, Yanxi Li, Pan Zhang, Ying Xu, Tingyu Li, Weihui Zhou, Weihong Song
Ketamine is a potent dissociative anesthetic and the most commonly used illicit drug. Many addicts are women at childbearing age. Although ketamine has been extensively studied as a clinical anesthetic, its effects on embryonic development are poorly understood. Here, we applied the Xenopus model to study the effects of ketamine on development. We found that exposure to ketamine from pre-gastrulation (stage 7) to early neural plate (stage 13.5) resulted in disruption of neural crest (NC) derivatives. Ketamine exposure did not affect mesoderm development as indicated by the normal expression of Chordin, Xbra, Wnt8, and Fgf8...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471810/expression-and-function-of-microrna-9-in-the-mid-hindbrain-area-of-embryonic-chick
#17
A Alwin Prem Anand, Carola Huber, John Asnet Mary, Nancy Gallus, Christoph Leucht, Ruth Klafke, Bernhard Hirt, Andrea Wizenmann
BACKGROUND: MiR-9 is a small non-coding RNA that is highly conserved between species and primarily expressed in the central nervous system (CNS). It is known to influence proliferation and neuronal differentiation in the brain and spinal cord of different vertebrates. Different studies have pointed to regional and species-specific differences in the response of neural progenitors to miR-9. METHODS: In ovo and ex ovo electroporation was used to overexpress or reduce miR-9 followed by mRNA in situ hybridisation and immunofluorescent stainings to evaluate miR- expression and the effect of changed miR-9 expression...
February 22, 2018: BMC Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411538/spion-mediated-mir-141-promotes-the-differentiation-of-huaescs-into-dopaminergic-neuron-like-cells-via-suppressing-lncrna-hotair
#18
Te Liu, Hu Zhang, Jiajia Zheng, Jiajia Lin, Yongyi Huang, Jiulin Chen, Zhihua Yu, Lihe Guo, Weidong Pan, Ying Xiong, Chuan Chen
In this study, a bioinformatics analysis and luciferase reporter assay revealed that microRNA-141 could silence the expression of lncRNA-HOTAIR by binding to specific sites on lncRNA-HOTAIR. We used superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) to mediate the high expression of microRNA-141 (SPIONs@miR-141) in human amniotic epithelial stem cells (HuAESCs), which was followed by the induction of the differentiation of HuAESCs into dopaminergic neuron-like cells (iDNLCs). qPCR, western blot, immunofluorescence staining and HPLC all suggested that SPION-mediated overexpression of miR-141 could promote an increased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), DAT and 5-TH in HuAESC-derived iDNLCs...
April 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409666/growth-factors-fgf8-and-fgf2-and-their-receptor-fgfr1-transcriptional-factors-msx-1-and-msx-2-and-apoptotic-factors-p19-and-rip5-participate-in-the-early-human-limb-development
#19
Tina Becic, Darko Kero, Katarina Vukojevic, Snjezana Mardesic, Mirna Saraga-Babic
The expression pattern of fibroblast growth factors FGF8 and FGF2 and their receptor FGFR1, transcription factors MSX-1 and MSX-2, as well as cell proliferation (Ki-67) and cell death associated caspase-3, p19 and RIP5 factors were analyzed in histological sections of eight 4th-9th-weeks developing human limbs by immunohistochemistry and semi-thin sectioning. Increasing expression of all analyzed factors (except FGF8) characterized both the multilayered human apical ectodermal ridge (AER), sub-ridge mesenchyme (progress zone) and chondrocytes in developing human limbs...
April 2018: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405385/specificity-protein-7-is-required-for-proliferation-and-differentiation-of-ameloblasts-and-odontoblasts
#20
Ji-Myung Bae, John C Clarke, Harunur Rashid, Mitra D Adhami, Kayla McCullough, Jordan S Scott, Haiyan Chen, Krishna M Sinha, Benoit de Crombrugghe, Amjad Javed
The Sp7/Osterix transcription factor is essential for bone development. Mutations of the Sp7 gene in humans are associated with craniofacial anomalies and osteogenesis imperfecta. However, the role of Sp7 in embryonic tooth development remains unknown. Here we identified the functional requirement of Sp7 for dentin synthesis and tooth development. Sp7-null mice exhibit craniofacial dysmorphogenesis and are completely void of alveolar bone. Surprisingly, initial tooth morphogenesis progressed normally in Sp7-null mice...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
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