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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913219/tbx2-regulates-anterior-neural-specification-by-repressing-fgf-signaling-pathway
#1
Gun-Sik Cho, Dong-Seok Park, Sun-Cheol Choi, Jin-Kwan Han
During early embryogenesis, FGF signals regulate the antero-posterior (AP) patterning of the neural plate by promoting posterior cell fates. In particular, BMP signal-mediated attenuation of FGF pathway plays a critical role in the determination of the anterior neural region. Here we show that Tbx2, a T-box transcriptional repressor regulates anterior neural specification by suppressing FGF8 signaling pathway in Xenopus embryo. Tbx2 is expressed in the anterior edge of the neural plate in early neurulae. Overexpression and knockdown of Tbx2 induce expansion and reduction in the expression of anterior neural markers, respectively...
November 30, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899509/sensory-evolution-in-blind-cavefish-is-driven-by-early-embryonic-events-during-gastrulation-and-neurulation
#2
Hélène Hinaux, Lucie Devos, Maryline Blin, Yannick Elipot, Jonathan Bibliowicz, Alexandre Alié, Sylvie Rétaux
Natural variations in sensory systems constitute adaptive responses to the environment. Here, we compared sensory placode development in the blind cave-adapted morph and the eyed river-dwelling morph of Astyanax mexicanus Focusing on the lens and olfactory placodes, we found a trade-off between these two sensory components in the two morphs: from neural plate stage onwards, cavefish have larger olfactory placodes and smaller lens placodes. In a search for developmental mechanisms underlying cavefish sensory evolution, we analyzed the roles of Shh, Fgf8 and Bmp4 signaling, which are known to be fundamental in patterning the vertebrate head and are subtly modulated in space and time during cavefish embryogenesis...
December 1, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853465/epigenetic-dna-methylation-profiling-with-msre-a-quantitative-ngs-approach-using-a-parkinson-s-disease-test-case
#3
Adam G Marsh, Matthew T Cottrell, Morton F Goldman
Epigenetics is a rapidly developing field focused on deciphering chemical fingerprints that accumulate on human genomes over time. As the nascent idea of precision medicine expands to encompass epigenetic signatures of diagnostic and prognostic relevance, there is a need for methodologies that provide high-throughput DNA methylation profiling measurements. Here we report a novel quantification methodology for computationally reconstructing site-specific CpG methylation status from next generation sequencing (NGS) data using methyl-sensitive restriction endonucleases (MSRE)...
2016: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845689/expression-patterns-of-fgf8-and-shh-in-the-developing-external-genitalia-of-suncus-murinus
#4
Mami Miyado, Kenji Miyado, Akihiro Nakamura, Maki Fukami, Gen Yamada, Sen-Ichi Oda
Reciprocal epithelial-mesenchymal interactions and several signalling pathways regulate the development of the genital tubercle (GT), an embryonic primordium of external genitalia. The morphology of the adult male external genitalia of the Asian house musk shrew Suncus murinus (hereafter, laboratory name: suncus) belonging to the order Eulipotyphla (the former order Insectivora or Soricomorpha) differs from those of mice and humans. However, the developmental process of the suncus GT and its regulatory genes are unknown...
February 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803896/roles-of-fgf-signals-in-heart-development-health-and-disease
#5
REVIEW
Nobuyuki Itoh, Hiroya Ohta, Yoshiaki Nakayama, Morichika Konishi
The heart provides the body with oxygen and nutrients and assists in the removal of metabolic waste through the blood vessels of the circulatory system. It is the first organ to form during embryonic morphogenesis. FGFs with diverse functions in development, health, and disease are signaling proteins, mostly as paracrine growth factors or endocrine hormones. The human/mouse FGF family comprises 22 members. Findings obtained from mouse models and human diseases with FGF signaling disorders have indicated that several FGFs are involved in heart development, health, and disease...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793834/early-molecular-events-during-retinoic-acid-induced-differentiation-of-neuromesodermal-progenitors
#6
Thomas J Cunningham, Alexandre Colas, Gregg Duester
Bipotent neuromesodermal progenitors (NMPs) residing in the caudal epiblast drive coordinated body axis extension by generating both posterior neuroectoderm and presomitic mesoderm. Retinoic acid (RA) is required for body axis extension, however the early molecular response to RA signaling is poorly defined as is its relationship to NMP biology. As endogenous RA is first seen near the time when NMPs appear, we used WNT/FGF agonists to differentiate embryonic stem cells to NMPs which were then treated with a short 2-hour pulse of 25 nM RA or 1 µM RA followed by RNA-seq transcriptome analysis...
October 28, 2016: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732850/astroglial-mediated-remodeling-of-the-interhemispheric-midline-is-required-for-the-formation-of-the-corpus-callosum
#7
Ilan Gobius, Laura Morcom, Rodrigo Suárez, Jens Bunt, Polina Bukshpun, William Reardon, William B Dobyns, John L R Rubenstein, A James Barkovich, Elliott H Sherr, Linda J Richards
The corpus callosum is the major axon tract that connects and integrates neural activity between the two cerebral hemispheres. Although ∼1:4,000 children are born with developmental absence of the corpus callosum, the primary etiology of this condition remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that midline crossing of callosal axons is dependent upon the prior remodeling and degradation of the intervening interhemispheric fissure. This remodeling event is initiated by astroglia on either side of the interhemispheric fissure, which intercalate with one another and degrade the intervening leptomeninges...
October 11, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721656/role-of-mirna-9-in-brain-development
#8
Balachandar Radhakrishnan, A Alwin Prem Anand
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small regulatory RNAs involved in gene regulation. The regulation is effected by either translational inhibition or transcriptional silencing. In vertebrates, the importance of miRNA in development was discovered from mice and zebrafish dicer knockouts. The miRNA-9 (miR-9) is one of the most highly expressed miRNAs in the early and adult vertebrate brain. It has diverse functions within the developing vertebrate brain. In this article, the role of miR-9 in the developing forebrain (telencephalon and diencephalon), midbrain, hindbrain, and spinal cord of vertebrate species is highlighted...
2016: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699475/tooth-agenesis-and-orofacial-clefting-genetic-brothers-in-arms
#9
M Phan, F Conte, K D Khandelwal, C W Ockeloen, T Bartzela, T Kleefstra, H van Bokhoven, M Rubini, H Zhou, C E L Carels
Tooth agenesis and orofacial clefts represent the most common developmental anomalies and their co-occurrence is often reported in patients as well in animal models. The aim of the present systematic review is to thoroughly investigate the current literature (PubMed, EMBASE) to identify the genes and genomic loci contributing to syndromic or non-syndromic co-occurrence of tooth agenesis and orofacial clefts, to gain insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying their dual involvement in the development of teeth and facial primordia...
December 2016: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669663/chlorpyrifos-exposure-affects-fgf8-sox9-and-bmp4-expression-required-for-cranial-neural-crest-morphogenesis-and-chondrogenesis-in-xenopus-laevis-embryos
#10
Margherita Tussellino, Raffaele Ronca, Rosa Carotenuto, Maria M Pallotta, Maria Furia, Teresa Capriglione
Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is an organophosphate insecticide used primarily to control foliage and soil-borne insect pests on a variety of food and feed crops. In mammals, maternal exposure to CPF has been reported to induce dose-related abnormalities such as slower brain growth and cerebral cortex thinning. In lower vertebrates, for example, fish and amphibians, teratogenic activity of this compound is correlated with several anatomical alterations. Little is known about the effects of CPF on mRNA expression of genes involved in early development of the anatomical structures appearing abnormal in embryos...
October 2016: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666927/conserved-and-divergent-expression-patterns-of-markers-of-axial-development-in-the-laboratory-opossum-monodelphis-domestica
#11
Michio Yoshida, Eriko Kajikawa, Daisuke Yamamoto, Daisuke Kurokawa, Shigenobu Yonemura, Kensaku Kobayashi, Hiroshi Kiyonari, Shinichi Aizawa
BACKGROUND: Previous comparative studies suggest that the requirement for Nodal in epiblast and hypoblast development is unique to mammalians. Expression of anterior visceral endoderm (AVE) genes in the visceral endoderm and of their orthologs in the hypoblast may be unique to mammalians and avians, and is absent in the reptilian hypoblast. Axis formation in reptiles is signaled by the formation of the posterior marginal epiblast (PME), which expresses a series of primitive streak genes...
December 2016: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27578777/regulation-of-self-renewing-neural-progenitors-by-fgf-erk-signaling-controls-formation-of-the-inferior-colliculus
#12
Alexander Dee, Kairong Li, Xin Heng, Qiuxia Guo, James Y H Li
The embryonic tectum displays an anteroposterior gradient in development and produces the superior colliculus and inferior colliculus. Studies suggest that partition of the tectum is controlled by different strengths and durations of FGF signals originated from the so-called isthmic organizer at the mid/hindbrain junction; however, the underlying mechanism is unclear. We show that deleting Ptpn11, which links FGF with the ERK pathway, prevents inferior colliculus formation by depleting a previously uncharacterized stem cell zone...
October 15, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527345/nonsynonymous-variants-in-myh9-and-abca4-are-the-most-frequent-risk-loci-associated-with-nonsyndromic-orofacial-cleft-in-taiwanese-population
#13
Hsiu-Huei Peng, Nai-Chung Chang, Kuo-Ting Chen, Jang-Jih Lu, Pi-Yueh Chang, Shih-Cheng Chang, Yah-Huei Wu-Chou, Yi-Ting Chou, Wanni Phang, Po-Jen Cheng
BACKGROUND: Nonsyndromic orofacial cleft is a common birth defect with a complex etiology, including multiple genetic and environmental risk factors. Recent whole genome analyses suggested associations between nonsyndromic orofacial cleft and up to 18 genetic risk loci (ABCA4, BMP4, CRISPLD2, GSTT1, FGF8, FGFR2, FOXE1, IRF6, MAFB, MSX1, MTHFR, MYH9, PDGFC, PVRL1, SUMO1, TGFA, TGFB3, and VAX1), each of which confers a different relative risk in different populations. We evaluate the nonsynonymous variants in these 18 genetic risk loci in nonsyndromic orofacial clefts and normal controls to clarify the specific variants in Taiwanese population...
2016: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27510750/sonic-hedgehog-protein-regulates-fibroblast-growth-factor-8-expression-in-metanephric-explant-culture-from-balb-c-mice-possible-mechanisms-associated-with-renal-morphogenesis
#14
Xing Chen, Xiao-Ming Hou, You-Fei Fan, Yu-Ting Jin, Yu-Lin Wang
The sonic hedgehog (SHH) morphogen regulates cell differentiation and controls a number of genes during renal morphogenesis. To date, the effects of SHH on fibroblast growth factors (Fgfs) in embryonic kidney development remain unclear. In the present study, explants of BALB/c mouse embryonic kidney tissues were used to investigate the role of exogenous SHH on Fgf8 and Fgf10 expression levels ex vivo. Ureteric bud branches and epithelial metanephric derivatives were used to determine the renal morphogenesis with Dolichos biflorus agglutinin or hematoxylin‑eosin staining...
October 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27506116/nuclear-receptor-corepressors-ncor1-and-ncor2-smrt-are-required-for-retinoic-acid-dependent-repression-of-fgf8-during-somitogenesis
#15
Sandeep Kumar, Thomas J Cunningham, Gregg Duester
Retinoic acid (RA) repression of Fgf8 is required for many different aspects of organogenesis, however relatively little is known about how endogenous RA controls gene repression as opposed to gene activation. Here, we show that nuclear receptor corepressors NCOR1 and NCOR2 (SMRT) redundantly mediate the ability of RA to repress Fgf8. Ncor1;Ncor2 double mutants generated by CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing exhibited a small somite and distended heart phenotype similar to that of RA-deficient Raldh2-/- embryos, associated with increased Fgf8 expression and FGF signaling in caudal progenitors and heart progenitors...
October 1, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27432514/fgf-and-bmp-derived-from-dorsal-root-ganglia-regulate-blastema-induction-in-limb-regeneration-in-ambystoma-mexicanum
#16
Akira Satoh, Aki Makanae, Yurie Nishimoto, Kazumasa Mitogawa
Urodele amphibians have a remarkable organ regeneration ability that is regulated by neural inputs. The identification of these neural inputs has been a challenge. Recently, Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) and Bone morphogenic protein (Bmp) were shown to substitute for nerve functions in limb and tail regeneration in urodele amphibians. However, direct evidence of Fgf and Bmp being secreted from nerve endings and regulating regeneration has not yet been shown. Thus, it remained uncertain whether they were the nerve factors responsible for successful limb regeneration...
September 1, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27426041/development-of-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-secreting-neurons-from-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#17
Carina Lund, Kristiina Pulli, Venkatram Yellapragada, Paolo Giacobini, Karolina Lundin, Sanna Vuoristo, Timo Tuuri, Parinya Noisa, Taneli Raivio
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons regulate human puberty and reproduction. Modeling their development and function in vitro would be of interest for both basic research and clinical translation. Here, we report a three-step protocol to differentiate human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) into GnRH-secreting neurons. Firstly, hPSCs were differentiated to FOXG1, EMX2, and PAX6 expressing anterior neural progenitor cells (NPCs) by dual SMAD inhibition. Secondly, NPCs were treated for 10 days with FGF8, which is a key ligand implicated in GnRH neuron ontogeny, and finally, the cells were matured with Notch inhibitor to bipolar TUJ1-positive neurons that robustly expressed GNRH1 and secreted GnRH decapeptide into the culture medium...
August 9, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27402846/fibulin-1-binds-to-fibroblast-growth-factor-8-with-high-affinity-effects-on-embryo-survival
#18
Victor M Fresco, Christine B Kern, Moosa Mohammadi, Waleed O Twal
Fibulin-1 (FBLN1) is a member of a growing family of extracellular matrix glycoproteins that includes eight members and is involved in cellular functions such as adhesion, migration, and differentiation. FBLN1 has also been implicated in embryonic heart and valve development and in the formation of neural crest-derived structures, including aortic arch, thymus, and cranial nerves. Fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8) is a member of a large family of growth factors, and its functions include neural crest cell (NCC) maintenance, specifically NCC migration as well as patterning of structures formed from NCC such as outflow tract and cranial nerves...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27395007/a-novel-ciliopathic-skull-defect-arising-from-excess-neural-crest
#19
Jacqueline M Tabler, Christopher P Rice, Karen J Liu, John B Wallingford
The skull is essential for protecting the brain from damage, and birth defects involving disorganization of skull bones are common. However, the developmental trajectories and molecular etiologies by which many craniofacial phenotypes arise remain poorly understood. Here, we report a novel skull defect in ciliopathic Fuz mutant mice in which only a single bone pair encases the forebrain, instead of the usual paired frontal and parietal bones. Through genetic lineage analysis, we show that this defect stems from a massive expansion of the neural crest-derived frontal bone...
September 1, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27363716/mutational-spectrum-in-holoprosencephaly-shows-that-fgf-is-a-new-major-signaling-pathway
#20
Christèle Dubourg, Wilfrid Carré, Houda Hamdi-Rozé, Charlotte Mouden, Joëlle Roume, Benmansour Abdelmajid, Daniel Amram, Clarisse Baumann, Nicolas Chassaing, Christine Coubes, Laurence Faivre-Olivier, Emmanuelle Ginglinger, Marie Gonzales, Annie Levy-Mozziconacci, Sally-Ann Lynch, Sophie Naudion, Laurent Pasquier, Amélie Poidvin, Fabienne Prieur, Pierre Sarda, Annick Toutain, Valérie Dupé, Linda Akloul, Sylvie Odent, Marie de Tayrac, Véronique David
Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is the most common congenital cerebral malformation in humans, characterized by impaired forebrain cleavage and midline facial anomalies. It presents a high heterogeneity, both in clinics and genetics. We have developed a novel targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) assay and screened a cohort of 257 HPE patients. Mutations with high confidence in their deleterious effect were identified in approximately 24% of the cases and were held for diagnosis, whereas variants of uncertain significance were identified in 10% of cases...
December 2016: Human Mutation
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