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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626475/fgf8-and-fgfr3-are-up-regulated-in-hypertrophic-chondrocytes-association-with-chondrocyte-death-in-deep-zone-of-kashin-beck-disease
#1
Huizhong Liu, Qian Fang, Mengying Wang, Wenjun Wang, Meng Zhang, Dan Zhang, Ying He, Ying Zhang, Hui Wang, Miguel Otero, Tianyou Ma, Jinghong Chen
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate FGF8 and FGFR3 expression in clinical samples of Kashin-Beck disease (KBD), an endemic osteochondropathy found in China, as well as in pre-clinical models of this disease. METHOD: Cartilage was collected from the hand phalanges of five patients with KBD and from five healthy children. Sprague-Dawley rats were administered a selenium-deficient diet for four weeks prior to exposure to the T-2 toxin. ATDC5 cells were differentiated into hypertrophic chondrocytes for twenty-one days, and then treated with 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1) (0, 1, 3, or 5 mM) for 24 h...
April 4, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625437/metalloproteinase-adamts16-is-required-for-proper-closure-of-the-optic-fissure
#2
Mingzhe Cao, Jiamin Ouyang, Jingyi Guo, Siyuan Lin, Shuyi Chen
Purpose: Coloboma is a sight-threatening congenital eye disease caused by a failure in optic fissure (OF) closure. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Adamts16, a metalloproteinase, in OF closure. Methods: RNA in situ hybridization was used to examine the expression of Adamts16 in developing mouse and zebrafish eyes. Morpholino knockdowns were performed to study adamts16 function during zebrafish eye development. Additionally, immunofluorescent staining, RNA in situ hybridization, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling, TUNEL assays, and high-throughput sequencing were used to examine altered cellular and molecular events in adamts16-morphant optic cups (OCs)...
March 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584859/loss-of-function-mutations-in-fgf8-can-be-independent-risk-factors-for-holoprosencephaly
#3
Sungkook Hong, Ping Hu, Erich Roessler, Tommy Hu, Maximilian Muenke
The utilization of next generation sequencing has been shown to accelerate gene discovery in human disease. However, our confidence in the correct disease-associations of rare variants continues to depend on functional analysis. Here we employ a sensitive assay of human FGF8 variants in zebrafish to demonstrate that the spectrum of isoforms of FGF8 produced by alternative splicing can provide key insights into the genetic susceptibility to human malformations. In addition, we describe novel mutations in the FGF core structure that have both subtle and profound effects on ligand post-translational processing and biological activity...
March 23, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580253/excessive-nerve-growth-factor-impairs-bidirectional-communication-between-the-oocyte-and-cumulus-cells-resulting-in-reduced-oocyte-competence
#4
Yiwen Zhai, Guidong Yao, Faiza Rao, Yong Wang, Xiaoyuan Song, Fei Sun
BACKGROUND: Excessive nerve growth factor (NGF) is commonly found in the follicular fluid of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Furthermore, oocytes from PCOS patients exhibit lower developmental competence. The purpose of this study was to explore the association between excessive NGF and low oocyte competence in vitro. METHODS: Excessive NGF was added to mouse cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) cultured in vitro to investigate meiotic maturation of the oocyte...
March 27, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576501/intrastriatal-transplantation-of-stem-cells-from-human-exfoliated-deciduous-teeth-reduces-motor-defects-in-parkinsonian-rats
#5
Nan Zhang, Xianjie Lu, Shichao Wu, Xueli Li, Jing Duan, Chao Chen, Wei Wang, Hao Song, Jiabei Tong, Sen Li, Yanming Liu, Xinjiang Kang, Xuexiang Wang, Fabin Han
BACKGROUND: This study explored the neural differentiation and therapeutic effects of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) in a rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: The SHED were isolated from fresh dental pulp and were induced to differentiate to neurons and dopamine neurons by inhibiting similar mothers against dpp (SMAD) signaling with Noggin and increase conversion of dopamine neurons from SHED with CHIR99021, Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) and FGF8 in vitro...
March 22, 2018: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556477/exposure-to-sub-lethal-dose-of-a-combination-insecticide-during-early-embryogenesis-influences-the-normal-patterning-of-mesoderm-resulting-in-incomplete-closure-of-ventral-body-wall-of-chicks-of-domestic-hen
#6
Shashikant Sharma, Gowri K Uggini, Venus Patel, Isha Desai, Suresh Balakrishnan
Pesticide exposure to the non target groups especially during embryonic development has quite often resulted in congenital malformations. A commercially available combination insecticide (Ci, 50% chlorpyrifos and 5% cypermethrin) is known to induce ventral body wall defects (VBWDs) wherein abdominal viscera protrude out of the ventral body wall. Herein, an attempt was made to understand the mechanistic insight into Ci induced VBWDs. For this, before incubation, the chick embryos were dosed with the test chemical and then at different developmental stages of incubation, they were monitored for the changes in the expression of certain genes, which are indispensable for the ventral body wall closure since they regulate the cell fate, proliferation and survival...
2018: Toxicology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472839/ketamine-modulates-zic5-expression-via-the-notch-signaling-pathway-in-neural-crest-induction
#7
Yu Shi, Jiejing Li, Chunjiang Chen, Yongwu Xia, Yanxi Li, Pan Zhang, Ying Xu, Tingyu Li, Weihui Zhou, Weihong Song
Ketamine is a potent dissociative anesthetic and the most commonly used illicit drug. Many addicts are women at childbearing age. Although ketamine has been extensively studied as a clinical anesthetic, its effects on embryonic development are poorly understood. Here, we applied the Xenopus model to study the effects of ketamine on development. We found that exposure to ketamine from pre-gastrulation (stage 7) to early neural plate (stage 13.5) resulted in disruption of neural crest (NC) derivatives. Ketamine exposure did not affect mesoderm development as indicated by the normal expression of Chordin, Xbra, Wnt8, and Fgf8...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471810/expression-and-function-of-microrna-9-in-the-mid-hindbrain-area-of-embryonic-chick
#8
A Alwin Prem Anand, Carola Huber, John Asnet Mary, Nancy Gallus, Christoph Leucht, Ruth Klafke, Bernhard Hirt, Andrea Wizenmann
BACKGROUND: MiR-9 is a small non-coding RNA that is highly conserved between species and primarily expressed in the central nervous system (CNS). It is known to influence proliferation and neuronal differentiation in the brain and spinal cord of different vertebrates. Different studies have pointed to regional and species-specific differences in the response of neural progenitors to miR-9. METHODS: In ovo and ex ovo electroporation was used to overexpress or reduce miR-9 followed by mRNA in situ hybridisation and immunofluorescent stainings to evaluate miR- expression and the effect of changed miR-9 expression...
February 22, 2018: BMC Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411538/spion-mediated-mir-141-promotes-the-differentiation-of-huaescs-into-dopaminergic-neuron-like-cells-via-suppressing-lncrna-hotair
#9
Te Liu, Hu Zhang, Jiajia Zheng, Jiajia Lin, Yongyi Huang, Jiulin Chen, Zhihua Yu, Lihe Guo, Weidong Pan, Ying Xiong, Chuan Chen
In this study, a bioinformatics analysis and luciferase reporter assay revealed that microRNA-141 could silence the expression of lncRNA-HOTAIR by binding to specific sites on lncRNA-HOTAIR. We used superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) to mediate the high expression of microRNA-141 (SPIONs@miR-141) in human amniotic epithelial stem cells (HuAESCs), which was followed by the induction of the differentiation of HuAESCs into dopaminergic neuron-like cells (iDNLCs). qPCR, western blot, immunofluorescence staining and HPLC all suggested that SPION-mediated overexpression of miR-141 could promote an increased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), DAT and 5-TH in HuAESC-derived iDNLCs...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409666/growth-factors-fgf8-and-fgf2-and-their-receptor-fgfr1-transcriptional-factors-msx-1-and-msx-2-and-apoptotic-factors-p19-and-rip5-participate-in-the-early-human-limb-development
#10
Tina Becic, Darko Kero, Katarina Vukojevic, Snjezana Mardesic, Mirna Saraga-Babic
The expression pattern of fibroblast growth factors FGF8 and FGF2 and their receptor FGFR1, transcription factors MSX-1 and MSX-2, as well as cell proliferation (Ki-67) and cell death associated caspase-3, p19 and RIP5 factors were analyzed in histological sections of eight 4th-9th-weeks developing human limbs by immunohistochemistry and semi-thin sectioning. Increasing expression of all analyzed factors (except FGF8) characterized both the multilayered human apical ectodermal ridge (AER), sub-ridge mesenchyme (progress zone) and chondrocytes in developing human limbs...
February 3, 2018: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405385/specificity-protein-7-is-required-for-proliferation-and-differentiation-of-ameloblasts-and-odontoblasts
#11
Ji-Myung Bae, John C Clarke, Harunur Rashid, Mitra D Adhami, Kayla McCullough, Jordan S Scott, Haiyan Chen, Krishna M Sinha, Benoit de Crombrugghe, Amjad Javed
The Sp7/Osterix transcription factor is essential for bone development. Mutations of the Sp7 gene in humans are associated with craniofacial anomalies and osteogenesis imperfecta. However, the role of Sp7 in embryonic tooth development remains unknown. Here we identified the functional requirement of Sp7 for dentin synthesis and tooth development. Sp7-null mice exhibit craniofacial dysmorphogenesis and are completely void of alveolar bone. Surprisingly, initial tooth morphogenesis progressed normally in Sp7-null mice...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385674/generation-of-isthmic-organizer-like-cells-from-human-embryonic-stem-cells
#12
Junwon Lee, Sang-Hwi Choi, Dongjin R Lee, Dae-Sung Kim, Dong-Wook Kim
The objective of this study was to induce the production of isthmic organizer (IsO)-like cells capable of secreting fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 8 and WNT1 from human embryonic stem cells (ESCs). The precise modulation of canonical Wnt signaling was achieved in the presence of the small molecule CHIR99021 (0.6 μM) during the neural induction of human ESCs, resulting in the differentiation of these cells into IsO-like cells having a midbrain-hindbrain border (MHB) fate in a manner that recapitulated their developmental course in vivo...
January 31, 2018: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363997/utilizing-fibrin-alginate-and-matrigel-alginate-for-mouse-follicle-development-in-three-dimensional-culture-systems
#13
Seyedeh Zeynab Sadr, Roya Fatehi, Saman Maroufizadeh, Christiani Andrade Amorim, Bita Ebrahimi
In vitro culture of ovarian follicles is a new technique in reproductive technology, which helps in understanding the process of folliculogenesis. The in vitro culture of follicles could be carried out using three-dimensional (3D) natural scaffolds that mimic the ovarian tissue stroma. Selection of the right matrix and culture media in these scaffolds could increase the survival and maturation of the follicles. In this work, the applicability of matrigel-alginate (MA) and fibrin-alginate (FA) 3D scaffolds for folliculogenesis was assessed...
January 24, 2018: Biopreservation and Biobanking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355523/sox2-and-sox3-play-unique-roles-in-development-of-hair-cells-and-neurons-in-the-zebrafish-inner-ear
#14
Yunzi Gou, Shruti Vemaraju, Elly M Sweet, Hye-Joo Kwon, Bruce B Riley
Formation of neural and sensory progenitors in the inner ear requires Sox2 in mammals, and in other species is thought to rely on both Sox2 and Sox3. How Sox2 and/or Sox3 promote different fates is poorly understood. Our mutant analysis in zebrafish showed that sox2 is uniquely required for sensory development while sox3 is uniquely required for neurogenesis. Moderate misexpression of sox2 during placodal stages led to development of otic vesicles with expanded sensory and reduced neurogenic domains. However, high-level misexpression of sox2 or sox3 expanded both sensory and neurogenic domains to fill the medial and lateral halves of the otic vesicle, respectively...
March 1, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355522/sox2-and-sox3-cooperate-to-regulate-otic-epibranchial-placode-induction-in-zebrafish
#15
Yunzi Gou, Jinbai Guo, Kirstin Maulding, Bruce B Riley
Expression of sox3 is one of the earliest markers of Fgf-dependent otic/epibranchial placode induction. We report here that sox2 is also expressed in the early otic/epibranchial placode in zebrafish. To address functions of sox2 and sox3, we generated knockouts and heat shock-inducible transgenes. Mutant analysis, and low-level misexpression, showed that sox2 and sox3 act redundantly to establish a full complement of otic/epibranchial cells. Disruption of pax8, another early regulator, caused similar placodal deficiencies to sox3 mutants or pax8-sox3 double mutants, suggesting that sox3 and pax8 operate in the same pathway...
March 1, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342370/fgf8-signaling-alters-the-osteogenic-cell-fate-in-the-hard-palate
#16
J Xu, Z Huang, W Wang, X Tan, H Li, Y Zhang, W Tian, T Hu, Y P Chen
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling has been implicated in the regulation of osteogenesis in both intramembranous and endochondral ossifications. In the developing palate, the anterior bony palate forms by direct differentiation of cranial neural crest (CNC)-derived mesenchymal cells, but the signals that regulate the osteogenic cell fate in the developing palate remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the potential role of FGF signaling in osteogenic fate determination of the palatal mesenchymal cells...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290621/a-gut-brain-axis-regulating-glucose-metabolism-mediated-by-bile-acids-and-competitive-fibroblast-growth-factor-actions-at-the-hypothalamus
#17
Shunmei Liu, Genevieve Marcelin, Clemence Blouet, Jae Hoon Jeong, Young-Hwan Jo, Gary J Schwartz, Streamson Chua
OBJECTIVE: Bile acids have been implicated as important regulators of glucose metabolism via activation of FXR and GPBAR1. We have previously shown that FGF19 can modulate glucose handling by suppressing the activity of hypothalamic AGRP/NPY neurons. As bile acids stimulate the release of FGF19/FGF15 into the circulation, we pursued the potential of bile acids to improve glucose tolerance via a gut-brain axis involving FXR and FGF15/FGF19 within enterocytes and FGF receptors on hypothalamic AGRP/NPY neurons...
February 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280744/update-on-the-genetics-of-idiopathic-hypogonadotropic-hypogonadism
#18
A Kemal Topaloğlu
Traditionally, idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) is divided into two major categories: Kallmann syndrome (KS) and normosmic IHH (nIHH). To date, inactivating variants in more than 50 genes have been reported to cause IHH. These mutations are estimated to account for up to 50% of all apparently hereditary cases. Identification of further causative gene mutations is expected to be more feasible with the increasing use of whole exome/genome sequencing. Presence of more than one IHH-associated mutant gene in a given patient/pedigree (oligogenic inheritance) is seen in 10-20% of all IHH cases...
December 30, 2017: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213092/developmental-nonlinearity-drives-phenotypic-robustness
#19
Rebecca M Green, Jennifer L Fish, Nathan M Young, Francis J Smith, Benjamin Roberts, Katie Dolan, Irene Choi, Courtney L Leach, Paul Gordon, James M Cheverud, Charles C Roseman, Trevor J Williams, Ralph S Marcucio, Benedikt Hallgrímsson
Robustness to perturbation is a fundamental feature of complex organisms. Mutations are the raw material for evolution, yet robustness to their effects is required for species survival. The mechanisms that produce robustness are poorly understood. Nonlinearities are a ubiquitous feature of development that may link variation in development to phenotypic robustness. Here, we manipulate the gene dosage of a signaling molecule, Fgf8, a critical regulator of vertebrate development. We demonstrate that variation in Fgf8 expression has a nonlinear relationship to phenotypic variation, predicting levels of robustness among genotypes...
December 6, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193903/genetic-susceptibility-to-thalidomide-embryopathy-in-humans-study-of-candidate-development-genes
#20
Julia do Amaral Gomes, Thayne Woycinck Kowalski, Lucas Rosa Fraga, Luciana Tovo-Rodrigues, Maria Teresa Vieira Sanseverino, Lavínia Schuler-Faccini, Fernanda Sales Luiz Vianna
Thalidomide is a drug used worldwide for several indications, but the molecular mechanisms of its teratogenic property are not fully understood. Studies in animal models suggest the oxidative stress, the inhibition of angiogenesis, and the binding to E3-ubiquitin ligase complex as mechanisms by which thalidomide can change the expression of genes important to embryonic development. In this study, seven polymorphisms in genes related to development (FGF8, FGF10, BMP4, SHH, TP53, TP63, and TP73) were analyzed in people with thalidomide embryopathy (TE) and compared to people without malformations...
November 28, 2017: Birth Defects Research
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