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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713249/crispr-cas9-mediated-zebrafish-knock-in-as-a-novel-strategy-to-study-midbrain-hindbrain-boundary-development
#1
Gokul Kesavan, Avinash Chekuru, Anja Machate, Michael Brand
The midbrain-hindbrain boundary (MHB) acts as an organizer and controls the fate of neighboring cells to develop into either mesencephalic (midbrain) or metencephalic (hindbrain) cells by secreting signaling molecules like Wnt1 and Fgf8. The zebrafish is an excellent vertebrate model for studying MHB development due to the ease of gene manipulation and the possibility of following cellular dynamics and morphogenetic processes using live imaging. Currently, only very few reporter and/or Cre-driver lines are available to study gene expression at the MHB, hampering the understanding of MHB development, and traditional transgenic technologies using promoter/enhancer fragments or bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-mediated transgenesis often do not faithfully recapitulate endogenous expression patterns...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697330/ra-gets-out-of-the-way-to-allow-high-acuity-vision
#2
Adele Tufford, Michel Cayouette
Specialized areas in the vertebrate retina are critical for high-acuity vision, yet the molecular mechanisms driving the development of high-acuity areas (HAAs) remain largely unknown. In Developmental Cell, da Silva and Cepko (2017) show that restricted degradation of retinoic acid and elevated FGF8 signaling give rise to the chick HAA.
July 10, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654889/methylomics-of-nitroxidative-stress-on-precancerous-cells-reveals-dna-methylation-alteration-at-the-transition-from-in-situ-to-invasive-cervical-cancer
#3
Po-Hsuan Su, Yao-Wen Hsu, Rui-Lan Huang, Yu-Chun Weng, Hui-Chen Wang, Yu-Chih Chen, Yueh-Ju Tsai, Chiou-Chung Yuan, Hung-Cheng Lai
Epigenetic dysregulation is important in cervical cancer development, but the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. Increasing evidence indicates that DNA methylation is sensitive to changes in microenvironmental factors, such as nitric oxide (NO) in the chronic inflammatory cervix. However, the epigenomic effects of NO in cancer have not been investigated. In this study, we explored the methylomic effects of nitroxidative stress in HPV-immortalized precancerous cells. Chronic NO exposure promoted the acquisition of malignant phenotypes such as cell growth, migration, invasion, and anchorage-independent growth...
June 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648799/fgf8-expression-and-degradation-of-retinoic-acid-are-required-for-patterning-a-high-acuity-area-in-the-retina
#4
Susana da Silva, Constance L Cepko
Species that are highly reliant on their visual system have a specialized retinal area subserving high-acuity vision, e.g., the fovea in humans. Although of critical importance for our daily activities, little is known about the mechanisms driving the development of retinal high-acuity areas (HAAs). Using the chick as a model, we found a precise and dynamic expression pattern of fibroblast growth factor 8 (Fgf8) in the HAA anlage, which was regulated by enzymes that degrade retinoic acid (RA). Transient manipulation of RA signaling, or reduction of Fgf8 expression, disrupted several features of HAA patterning, including photoreceptor distribution, ganglion cell density, and organization of interneurons...
July 10, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579317/six3-in-a-small-population-of-progenitors-at-e8-5-is-required-for-neuroretinal-specification-via-regulating-cell-signaling-and-survival-in-mice
#5
Wei Liu, Ales Cvekl
Neuroretina and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) are differentiated from the progenitors in optic vesicles, but it is unclear when and how the two lineages are segregated. Manipulation of chick embryos reveals that the early anteroventral optic vesicle is crucial for neuroretinal development, but the molecular mechanism is unclear. Homeodomain transcription factor Six3 is required for neuroretinal specification and is dispensable for RPE formation, but the cell fates of Six3-deficient progenitors and the origins of remnant RPE are unknown...
August 1, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510270/mouse-fgf8-cre-lacz-lineage-analysis-defines-the-territory-of-the-postnatal-mammalian-isthmus
#6
Charles Watson, Tomomi Shimogori, Luis Puelles
The isthmus is recognized as the most rostral segment of the hindbrain in non-mammalian vertebrates. In mammalian embryos, transient Fgf8 expression defines the developing isthmic region, lying between the midbrain and the first rhombomere, but there has been uncertainty about the existence of a distinct isthmic segment in postnatal mammals. We attempted to find if the region of early embryonic Fgf8 expression (which is considered to involve the entire extent of the prospective isthmus initially) might help to identify the boundaries of the isthmus in postnatal animals...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506615/modelling-asymmetric-somitogenesis-deciphering-the-mechanisms-behind-species-differences
#7
Renske M A Vroomans, Kirsten H W J Ten Tusscher
Somitogenesis is one of the major hallmarks of bilateral symmetry in vertebrates. This symmetry is lost when retinoic acid (RA) signalling is inhibited, allowing the left-right determination pathway to influence somitogenesis. In all three studied vertebrate model species, zebrafish, chicken and mouse, the frequency of somite formation becomes asymmetric, with slower gene expression oscillations driving somitogenesis on the right side. Still, intriguingly, the resulting left-right asymmetric phenotypes differ significantly between these model species...
May 12, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472127/expression-of-teneurins-is-associated-with-tumor-differentiation-and-patient-survival-in-ovarian-cancer
#8
Rebecca Graumann, Gabriella A Di Capua, Juan E Oyarzún, Marcos A Vásquez, Christine Liao, Jorge A Brañes, Iván Roa, Paola Casanello, Alejandro H Corvalán, Gareth I Owen, Iris Delgado, Uwe Zangemeister-Wittke, Annemarie Ziegler
Teneurins are a family of highly conserved pair-rule proteins involved in morphogenesis and development of the central nervous system. Their function in adult tissues and in disease is largely unknown. Recent evidence suggests a role for dysregulated expression of Teneurins in human tumors, but systematic investigations are missing. Here, we investigated Teneurin-2 and Teneurin-4 expression in various cancer cell lines and in ovarian tumor tissues. Teneurin-2 and Teneurin-4 were expressed in most of the breast cancer cell lines tested...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461333/msh-homeobox-1-msx1-and-msx2-overexpressing-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-resemble-blastema-cells-and-enhance-regeneration-in-mice
#9
Leila Taghiyar, Mahdi Hesaraki, Forough Azam Sayahpour, Leila Satarian, Samaneh Hosseini, Naser Aghdami, Mohamadreza Baghaban Eslaminejad
Amputation of the proximal region in mammals is not followed by regeneration because blastema cells (BCs) and expression of regenerative genes, such as Msh homeobox (Msx) genes, are absent in this animal group. The lack of BCs and positional information in other cells is therefore the main obstacle to therapeutic approaches for limb regeneration. Hence, this study aimed to create blastema-like cells (BlCs) by overexpressing Msx1 and Msx2 genes in mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (mBMSCs) to regenerate a proximally amputated digit tip...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442438/dorsal-fin-development-in-flounder-paralichthys-olivaceus-bud-formation-and-its-cellular-origin
#10
Jie Chen, Xiaoyu Liu, Xiaohua Yao, Fei Gao, Baolong Bao
The development of the median fin has not been investigated extensively in teleosts, although in other fishes it has been proposed that it involves the same genetic programs operating in the paired appendages. Adult median fins develop from the larval bud; therefore an investigation of fin bud formation and its cellular origin is essential to understanding the maturation mechanisms. In Paralichthys olivaceus, skeletogenesis proceeds from an anterior to posterior direction providing a good opportunity to study the formation of dorsal fin bud...
April 22, 2017: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419086/low-birth-weight-is-associated-with-impaired-murine-kidney-development-and-function
#11
Christina Barnett, Oluwadara Nnoli, Wasan Abdulmahdi, Lauren Nesi, Michael Shen, Joseph A Zullo, David L Payne, Tala Azar, Parth Dwivedi, Kunzah Syed, Jonathan Gromis, Mark Lipphardt, Edson Jules, Eric L Maranda, Amy Patel, May M Rabadi, Brian B Ratliff
BackgroundLow birth weight (LBW) neonates have impaired kidney development that leaves them susceptible to kidney disease and hypertension during adulthood. The study here identifies events that blunt nephrogenesis and kidney development in the murine LBW neonate.MethodsWe examined survival, kidney development, GFR, gene expression, and cyto-/chemokines in the LBW offspring of malnourished (caloric and protein-restricted) pregnant mice.ResultsMalnourished pregnant mothers gave birth to LBW neonates that had 40% reduced body weight and 54% decreased survival...
May 31, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340475/irinotecan-upregulates-fibroblast-growth-factor-receptor-3-expression-in-colorectal-cancer-cells-which-mitigates-irinotecan-induced-apoptosis
#12
Zeynep N Erdem, Stefanie Schwarz, Daniel Drev, Christine Heinzle, Andrea Reti, Petra Heffeter, Xenia Hudec, Klaus Holzmann, Bettina Grasl-Kraupp, Walter Berger, Michael Grusch, Brigitte Marian
BACKGROUND: Irinotecan (IRI) is an integral part of colorectal cancer (CRC) therapy, but response rates are unsatisfactory and resistance mechanisms are still insufficiently understood. As fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) mediates essential survival signals in CRC, it is a candidate gene for causing intrinsic resistance to IRI. METHODS: We have used cell line models overexpressing FGFR3 to study the receptor's impact on IRI response. For pathway blockade, a dominant-negative receptor mutant and a small molecule kinase inhibitor were employed...
June 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333962/different-regulation-of-limb-development-by-p63-transcript-variants
#13
Manabu Kawata, Yuki Taniguchi, Daisuke Mori, Fumiko Yano, Shinsuke Ohba, Ung-Il Chung, Tomomi Shimogori, Alea A Mills, Sakae Tanaka, Taku Saito
The apical ectodermal ridge (AER), located at the distal end of each limb bud, is a key signaling center which controls outgrowth and patterning of the proximal-distal axis of the limb through secretion of various molecules. Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), particularly Fgf8 and Fgf4, are representative molecules produced by AER cells, and essential to maintain the AER and cell proliferation in the underlying mesenchyme, meanwhile Jag2-Notch pathway negatively regulates the AER and limb development. p63, a transcription factor of the p53 family, is expressed in the AER and indispensable for limb formation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270602/integration-of-shh-and-fgf-signaling-in-controlling-hox-gene-expression-in-cultured-limb-cells
#14
Alan R Rodrigues, Nayuta Yakushiji-Kaminatsui, Yuji Atsuta, Guillaume Andrey, Patrick Schorderet, Denis Duboule, Clifford J Tabin
During embryonic development, fields of progenitor cells form complex structures through dynamic interactions with external signaling molecules. How complex signaling inputs are integrated to yield appropriate gene expression responses is poorly understood. In the early limb bud, for instance, Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is expressed in the distal posterior mesenchyme, where it acts as a mediator of anterior to posterior (AP) patterning, whereas fibroblast growth factor 8 (Fgf8) is produced by the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) at the distal tip of the limb bud to direct outgrowth along the proximal to distal (PD) axis...
March 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257739/candidate-gene-analyses-of-3-dimensional-dentoalveolar-phenotypes-in-subjects-with-malocclusion
#15
Cole A Weaver, Steven F Miller, Clarissa S G da Fontoura, George L Wehby, Brad A Amendt, Nathan E Holton, Veeratrishul Allareddy, Thomas E Southard, Lina M Moreno Uribe
INTRODUCTION: Genetic studies of malocclusion etiology have identified 4 deleterious mutations in genes DUSP6,ARHGAP21, FGF23, and ADAMTS1 in familial Class III cases. Although these variants may have large impacts on Class III phenotypic expression, their low frequency (<1%) makes them unlikely to explain most malocclusions. Thus, much of the genetic variation underlying the dentofacial phenotypic variation associated with malocclusion remains unknown. In this study, we evaluated associations between common genetic variations in craniofacial candidate genes and 3-dimensional dentoalveolar phenotypes in patients with malocclusion...
March 2017: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251550/the-mystery-of-puberty-initiation-genetics-and-epigenetics-of-idiopathic-central-precocious-puberty-icpp
#16
REVIEW
Sofia Leka-Emiri, George P Chrousos, Christina Kanaka-Gantenbein
Puberty is a major developmental stage. Damaging mutations, considered as "mistakes of nature", have contributed to the unraveling of the networks implicated in the normal initiation of puberty. Genes involved in the abnormal hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis development, in the normosmic idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (nIHH), in the X-linked or autosomal forms of Kallmann syndrome and in precocious puberty have been identified (GNRH1, GNRHR, KISS1, GPR54, FGFR1, FGF8, PROK2, PROKR2, TAC3, TACR3, KAL1, PROK2, PROKR2, CHD7, LEP, LEPR, PC1, DAX1, SF-1, HESX-1, LHX3, PROP-1)...
August 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205287/upstream-regulation-for-initiation-of-restricted-shh-expression-in-the-chick-limb-bud
#17
Haruka Matsubara, Daisuke Saito, Gembu Abe, Hitoshi Yokoyama, Takayuki Suzuki, Koji Tamura
BACKGROUND: The organizing center, which serves as a morphogen source, has crucial functions in morphogenesis in animal development. The center is necessarily located in a certain restricted area in the morphogenetic field, and there are several ways in which an organizing center can be restricted. The organizing center for limb morphogenesis, the ZPA (zone of polarizing activity), specifically expresses the Shh gene and is restricted to the posterior region of the developing limb bud...
May 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195315/genetic-testing-facilitates-prepubertal-diagnosis-of-congenital-hypogonadotropic-hypogonadism
#18
C Xu, M Lang-Muritano, F Phan-Hug, A A Dwyer, G P Sykiotis, D Cassatella, J Acierno, M Mohammadi, N Pitteloud
Neonatal micropenis and cryptorchidism raise the suspicion of congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH), a rare genetic disorder caused by gonadotropin-releasing hormone deficiency. Low plasma testosterone levels and low gonadotropins during minipuberty provide a clinical diagnostic clue, yet these tests are seldomly performed in general practice. We report a male neonate with no family history of reproductive disorders who was born with micropenis and cryptorchidism. Hormonal testing at age 2.5 months showed low testosterone (0...
August 2017: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125843/pituitary-adenylate-cyclase-activating-peptide-pacap-a-novel-secretagogue-regulates-secreted-morphogens-in-newborn-rat-retina
#19
Monika Lakk, Viktoria Denes, Karmen Kovacs, Orsolya Hideg, Bence F Szabo, Robert Gabriel
Purpose: Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP)1-38 has been reported to be responsible for regulation of a disparate array of developmental processes in the central nervous system, and its antiapoptotic effect has been revealed in numerous models, pointing to its relevance in the etiology of neurodegenerative disorders. However, its function in retinal development remains unclear. Here, we aimed to point out that versatility can be achieved through interaction with other regulators, in which PACAP can act indirectly on the retinal microenvironment...
January 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987378/in-vitro-differentiation-of-neural-stem-cells-derived-from-human-olfactory-bulb-into-dopaminergic-like-neurons
#20
Rafieh Alizadeh, Gholamreza Hassanzadeh, Mohammad Taghi Joghataei, Mansoureh Soleimani, Fatemeh Moradi, Shahram Mohammadpour, Jahangir Ghorbani, Ali Safavi, Maryam Sarbishegi, Vahid Pirhajati Mahabadi, Leila Alizadeh, Mahmoudreza Hadjighassem
This study describes a new accessible source of neuronal stem cells that can be used in Parkinson's disease cell transplant. The human olfactory bulb contains neural stem cells (NSCs) that are responsible for neurogenesis in the brain and the replacement of damaged cellular components throughout life. NSCs are capable of differentiating into neuronal and glial cells. We isolated NSCs from the olfactory bulb of brain-death donors and differentiated them into dopaminergic neurons. The olfactory bulb tissues obtained were cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium/nutrient mixture F12, B27 supplemented with basic fibroblast growth factor, epidermal growth factor and leukemia inhibitory factor...
December 17, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
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