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Ilan Gobius, Laura Morcom, Rodrigo Suárez, Jens Bunt, Polina Bukshpun, William Reardon, William B Dobyns, John L R Rubenstein, A James Barkovich, Elliott H Sherr, Linda J Richards
The corpus callosum is the major axon tract that connects and integrates neural activity between the two cerebral hemispheres. Although ∼1:4,000 children are born with developmental absence of the corpus callosum, the primary etiology of this condition remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that midline crossing of callosal axons is dependent upon the prior remodeling and degradation of the intervening interhemispheric fissure. This remodeling event is initiated by astroglia on either side of the interhemispheric fissure, which intercalate with one another and degrade the intervening leptomeninges...
October 11, 2016: Cell Reports
Balachandar Radhakrishnan, A Alwin Prem Anand
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small regulatory RNAs involved in gene regulation. The regulation is effected by either translational inhibition or transcriptional silencing. In vertebrates, the importance of miRNA in development was discovered from mice and zebrafish dicer knockouts. The miRNA-9 (miR-9) is one of the most highly expressed miRNAs in the early and adult vertebrate brain. It has diverse functions within the developing vertebrate brain. In this article, the role of miR-9 in the developing forebrain (telencephalon and diencephalon), midbrain, hindbrain, and spinal cord of vertebrate species is highlighted...
2016: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
M Phan, F Conte, K D Khandelwal, C W Ockeloen, T Bartzela, T Kleefstra, H van Bokhoven, M Rubini, H Zhou, C E L Carels
Tooth agenesis and orofacial clefts represent the most common developmental anomalies and their co-occurrence is often reported in patients as well in animal models. The aim of the present systematic review is to thoroughly investigate the current literature (PubMed, EMBASE) to identify the genes and genomic loci contributing to syndromic or non-syndromic co-occurrence of tooth agenesis and orofacial clefts, to gain insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying their dual involvement in the development of teeth and facial primordia...
December 2016: Human Genetics
Margherita Tussellino, Raffaele Ronca, Rosa Carotenuto, Maria M Pallotta, Maria Furia, Teresa Capriglione
Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is an organophosphate insecticide used primarily to control foliage and soil-borne insect pests on a variety of food and feed crops. In mammals, maternal exposure to CPF has been reported to induce dose-related abnormalities such as slower brain growth and cerebral cortex thinning. In lower vertebrates, for example, fish and amphibians, teratogenic activity of this compound is correlated with several anatomical alterations. Little is known about the effects of CPF on mRNA expression of genes involved in early development of the anatomical structures appearing abnormal in embryos...
October 2016: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Michio Yoshida, Eriko Kajikawa, Daisuke Yamamoto, Daisuke Kurokawa, Shigenobu Yonemura, Kensaku Kobayashi, Hiroshi Kiyonari, Shinichi Aizawa
BACKGROUND: Previous comparative studies suggest that the requirement for Nodal in epiblast and hypoblast development is unique to mammalians. Expression of anterior visceral endoderm (AVE) genes in the visceral endoderm and of their orthologs in the hypoblast may be unique to mammalians and avians, and is absent in the reptilian hypoblast. Axis formation in reptiles is signaled by the formation of the posterior marginal epiblast (PME), which expresses a series of primitive streak genes...
September 26, 2016: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
Alexander Dee, Kairong Li, Xin Heng, Qiuxia Guo, James Y H Li
During embryogenesis, the tectum (dorsal midbrain) displays gradients in both gene expression and cytogenesis along the anteroposterior axis, and eventually produces the superior colliculus anteriorly and inferior colliculus posteriorly. Although it is known that different strengths and durations of FGF signaling control the developmental gradient and cell fate decision in the developing tectum, the underlying mechanism and signaling cascade downstream of FGF remains unclear. Here, we showed that deleting Shp2, which links FGF with the ERK pathway, prevented inferior colliculus formation by depleting a previously uncharacterized stem cell zone, designated as tectal stem zone, in the posterior part of the developing tectum...
August 30, 2016: Development
Hsiu-Huei Peng, Nai-Chung Chang, Kuo-Ting Chen, Jang-Jih Lu, Pi-Yueh Chang, Shih-Cheng Chang, Yah-Huei Wu-Chou, Yi-Ting Chou, Wanni Phang, Po-Jen Cheng
BACKGROUND: Nonsyndromic orofacial cleft is a common birth defect with a complex etiology, including multiple genetic and environmental risk factors. Recent whole genome analyses suggested associations between nonsyndromic orofacial cleft and up to 18 genetic risk loci (ABCA4, BMP4, CRISPLD2, GSTT1, FGF8, FGFR2, FOXE1, IRF6, MAFB, MSX1, MTHFR, MYH9, PDGFC, PVRL1, SUMO1, TGFA, TGFB3, and VAX1), each of which confers a different relative risk in different populations. We evaluate the nonsynonymous variants in these 18 genetic risk loci in nonsyndromic orofacial clefts and normal controls to clarify the specific variants in Taiwanese population...
2016: BMC Medical Genetics
Xing Chen, Xiao-Ming Hou, You-Fei Fan, Yu-Ting Jin, Yu-Lin Wang
The sonic hedgehog (SHH) morphogen regulates cell differentiation and controls a number of genes during renal morphogenesis. To date, the effects of SHH on fibroblast growth factors (Fgfs) in embryonic kidney development remain unclear. In the present study, explants of BALB/c mouse embryonic kidney tissues were used to investigate the role of exogenous SHH on Fgf8 and Fgf10 expression levels ex vivo. Ureteric bud branches and epithelial metanephric derivatives were used to determine the renal morphogenesis with Dolichos biflorus agglutinin or hematoxylin‑eosin staining...
October 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Sandeep Kumar, Thomas J Cunningham, Gregg Duester
Retinoic acid (RA) repression of Fgf8 is required for many different aspects of organogenesis, however relatively little is known about how endogenous RA controls gene repression as opposed to gene activation. Here, we show that nuclear receptor corepressors NCOR1 and NCOR2 (SMRT) redundantly mediate the ability of RA to repress Fgf8. Ncor1;Ncor2 double mutants generated by CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing exhibited a small somite and distended heart phenotype similar to that of RA-deficient Raldh2-/- embryos, associated with increased Fgf8 expression and FGF signaling in caudal progenitors and heart progenitors...
October 1, 2016: Developmental Biology
Akira Satoh, Aki Makanae, Yurie Nishimoto, Kazumasa Mitogawa
Urodele amphibians have a remarkable organ regeneration ability that is regulated by neural inputs. The identification of these neural inputs has been a challenge. Recently, Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) and Bone morphogenic protein (Bmp) were shown to substitute for nerve functions in limb and tail regeneration in urodele amphibians. However, direct evidence of Fgf and Bmp being secreted from nerve endings and regulating regeneration has not yet been shown. Thus, it remained uncertain whether they were the nerve factors responsible for successful limb regeneration...
September 1, 2016: Developmental Biology
Carina Lund, Kristiina Pulli, Venkatram Yellapragada, Paolo Giacobini, Karolina Lundin, Sanna Vuoristo, Timo Tuuri, Parinya Noisa, Taneli Raivio
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons regulate human puberty and reproduction. Modeling their development and function in vitro would be of interest for both basic research and clinical translation. Here, we report a three-step protocol to differentiate human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) into GnRH-secreting neurons. Firstly, hPSCs were differentiated to FOXG1, EMX2, and PAX6 expressing anterior neural progenitor cells (NPCs) by dual SMAD inhibition. Secondly, NPCs were treated for 10 days with FGF8, which is a key ligand implicated in GnRH neuron ontogeny, and finally, the cells were matured with Notch inhibitor to bipolar TUJ1-positive neurons that robustly expressed GNRH1 and secreted GnRH decapeptide into the culture medium...
August 9, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
Victor M Fresco, Christine B Kern, Moosa Mohammadi, Waleed O Twal
Fibulin-1 (FBLN1) is a member of a growing family of extracellular matrix glycoproteins that includes eight members and is involved in cellular functions such as adhesion, migration, and differentiation. FBLN1 has also been implicated in embryonic heart and valve development and in the formation of neural crest-derived structures, including aortic arch, thymus, and cranial nerves. Fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8) is a member of a large family of growth factors, and its functions include neural crest cell (NCC) maintenance, specifically NCC migration as well as patterning of structures formed from NCC such as outflow tract and cranial nerves...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Jacqueline M Tabler, Christopher P Rice, Karen J Liu, John B Wallingford
The skull is essential for protecting the brain from damage, and birth defects involving disorganization of skull bones are common. However, the developmental trajectories and molecular etiologies by which many craniofacial phenotypes arise remain poorly understood. Here, we report a novel skull defect in ciliopathic Fuz mutant mice in which only a single bone pair encases the forebrain, instead of the usual paired frontal and parietal bones. Through genetic lineage analysis, we show that this defect stems from a massive expansion of the neural crest-derived frontal bone...
September 1, 2016: Developmental Biology
Christèle Dubourg, Wilfrid Carré, Houda Hamdi-Rozé, Charlotte Mouden, Joëlle Roume, Benmansour Abdelmajid, Daniel Amram, Clarisse Baumann, Nicolas Chassaing, Christine Coubes, Laurence Faivre-Olivier, Emmanuelle Ginglinger, Marie Gonzales, Annie Levy-Mozziconacci, Sally-Ann Lynch, Sophie Naudion, Laurent Pasquier, Amélie Poidvin, Fabienne Prieur, Pierre Sarda, Annick Toutain, Valérie Dupé, Linda Akloul, Sylvie Odent, Marie de Tayrac, Véronique David
Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is the most common congenital cerebral malformation in humans, characterized by impaired forebrain cleavage and midline facial anomalies. It presents a high heterogeneity, both in clinics and genetics. We have developed a novel targeted NGS assay and screened a cohort of 257 HPE patients. Mutations with high confidence in their deleterious effect were identified in approximately 24% of the cases and were held for diagnosis, while VUS were identified in 10% of cases. This study provides a new classification of genes that are involved in HPE...
July 1, 2016: Human Mutation
Courtney E Stewart, Kristina M Corella, Brittany D Samberg, Paula T Jones, Megan L Linscott, Wilson C J Chung
Our previous studies showed that Fgf8 mutations can cause Kallmann syndrome (KS), a form of congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, in which patients do not undergo puberty and are infertile. Interestingly, some KS patients also have agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) suggesting that KS pathology is not limited to reproductive function. Here, we asked whether FGF8 dysfunction is the underlying cause of ACC in some KS patients. Indeed, early studies in transgenic mice with Fgf8 mutations reported the presence of failed or incomplete corpus callosum formation...
September 1, 2016: Brain Research
Camilla Bosone, Abraham Andreu, Diego Echevarria
Gap junctions (GJs) are integral membrane proteins that enable the direct cytoplasmic exchange of ions and low molecular weight metabolites between adjacent cells. They are formed by the apposition of two connexons belonging to adjacent cells. Each connexon is formed by six proteins, named connexins (Cxs). Current evidence suggests that gap junctions play an important part in ensuring normal embryo development. Mutations in connexin genes have been linked to a variety of human diseases, although the precise role and the cell biological mechanisms of their action remain almost unknown...
June 2016: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Hidekiyo Harada, Tatsuya Sato, Harukazu Nakamura
In this paper, we review how midbrain and hindbrain are specified. Otx2 and Gbx2 are expressed from the early phase of development, and their expression abuts at the midbrain hindbrain boundary (MHB), where Fgf8 expression is induced, and functions as an organizing molecule for the midbrain and hindbrain. Fgf8 induces En1 and Pax2 expression at the region where Otx2 is expressed to specify midbrain. Fgf8 activates Ras-ERK pathway to specify hindbrain. Downstream of ERK, Pea3 specifies isthmus (rhombomere 0, r0), and Irx2 may specify r1, where the cerebellum is formed...
June 2016: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Akram Yazdani, Azam Yazdani, Xiaoming Liu, Eric Boerwinkle
We use whole genome sequence data and rare variant analysis methods to investigate a subset of the human serum metabolome, including 16 carnitine-related metabolites that are important components of mammalian energy metabolism. Medium pass sequence data consisting of 12,820,347 rare variants and serum metabolomics data were available on 1,456 individuals. By applying a penalization method, we identified two genes FGF8 and MDGA2 with significant effects on lysine and cis-4-decenoylcarnitine, respectively, using Δ-AIC and likelihood ratio test statistics...
September 2016: Genetic Epidemiology
Jayanta Gupta, Nandita Mitra, Raymond R Townsend, Michael Fischer, Jeffrey R Schelling, David J Margolis
Diabetes is the major risk factor for nontraumatic lower extremity amputation (LEA). The role of genetic polymorphisms in predisposing diabetics to impaired wound healing leading to LEA has not been sufficiently explored. We investigated the association between a set of genes belonging to the angiogenesis/wound repair pathway with LEA in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort, a study of adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD) that includes a subgroup with diabetes. This study was performed on 3,772 Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort participants who were genotyped on the ITMAT-Broad-CARe array chip...
July 2016: Wound Repair and Regeneration
Megan L Linscott, Wilson C J Chung
Fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8) is a potent morphogen that regulates the embryonic development of hypothalamic neuroendocrine cells. Indeed, using Fgf8 hypomorphic mice, we showed that reduced Fgf8 mRNA expression completely eliminated the presence of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. These findings suggest that FGF8 signaling is required during the embryonic development of mouse GnRH neurons. Additionally, in situ hybridization studies showed that the embryonic primordial birth place of GnRH neurons, the olfactory placode, is highly enriched for Fgf8 mRNA expression...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
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