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Chittaranjan Andrade
Patients with schizophrenia have increased prevalence rates for many cardiometabolic risk factors; the prevalence and severity of these risks increase after the institution of antipsychotic medication. Nearly 2 dozen different pharmacologic interventions have been trialed to prevent or attenuate antipsychotic-related cardiometabolic changes. Metformin (usually 1,000-1,500 mg/d) has emerged as the best-studied intervention; in short- and intermediate-duration randomized controlled trials, it has been shown to bring about improvements in weight and other anthropometric indices, in fasting sugar and other glycemic control indices, and in total cholesterol and other lipid metabolism indices...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
E Rudy, K W Bauer, S O Hughes, T M O'Connor, K Vollrath, A Davey, N E M Correa, T-A Chen, J O Fisher
BACKGROUND: Snacking among US preschoolers has increased in recent decades, raising questions about whether snacking contributes to dietary excess. OBJECTIVES: This research aimed to characterize snacking contributions to dietary excess and to evaluate associations with appetite and weight among preschool-aged children. METHODS: This study is a cross-sectional, observational study of 187 Hispanic low-income preschoolers. Three 24-h dietary recalls were used to assess snacking frequency and parameters of dietary excess including energy, saturated fat, trans fats and added sugars...
October 25, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
Makoto Takahashi, Mutanda Ishmael, Yonathan Asikin, Naoto Hirose, Masami Mizu, Takesi Shikanai, Hajime Tamaki, Koji Wada
In this study, 2 types of solidified noncentrifugal brown sugars (W-NCS and P-NCS) were prepared from the whole stalk and separated pith, respectively, of raw sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.). These products were discriminated in terms of their quality attributes, including color, sugars and minerals composition, taste, aroma, and antioxidant activity. The brown color of P-NCS was clearly different compared with that of W-NCS with a color difference value (ΔE(*) ) of 9.36. There was no difference in the sugars and minerals composition between the 2 types of sugar, which led to very similar taste profiles...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Food Science
Blanka Bucsella, Antoine Fornage, Catherine Le Denmat, Franka Kálmán
In biotechnological processes the intracellular level of nucleotides and nucleotide sugars have a direct impact on the post-translational modification (glycosylation) of the therapeutic protein products and on the exopolysaccharide pattern of the cells. Thus, they are precursors and also key components in the production of glycoproteins and glycolipids. All four nucleotides (at different phosphorylation stages) and their natural sugar derivatives coexist in biological samples. Their relative ratios depend on the actual conditions under which the cells are grown...
October 2016: Chimia
Lisa J Neilson, Lesley A Macaskill, Jonathan M H Luk, Navreeti Sharma, Steve M Killip, Marina I Salvadori, Jamie A Seabrook, Paula D N Dworatzek
PURPOSE: To assess the type and quantity of foods children brought and consumed at school in the balanced school day (BSD), with two 20-minute eating periods, versus the traditional schedule (TS), with one 20-minute lunch. METHODS: Direct observation identified food items and amounts in BSD and TS lunches of grade 3 and 4 students (n = 321). RESULTS: The mean (SD) servings of foods packed in BSD lunches were significantly higher than the TS lunches for milk and alternatives (0...
October 25, 2016: Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research
Hayford M Avedzi, Nonsikelelo Mathe, Stephanie Bearman, Kate Storey, Jeffrey A Johnson, Steven T Johnson
We examined self-care dietary practices and usual intakes among adults with Type 2 diabetes in Alberta, Canada, using data from the Healthy Eating and Active Living for Diabetes study. Participants completed a modified Fat/Sugar/Fruit/Vegetable Screener and answered questions about the number of days per week they followed specific diabetes self-care dietary recommendations. Capillary blood samples were collected to assess glycemic control measured by hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). ANOVA was used to examine differences in dietary self-care, intakes, and glycemic control across categories of days/week of practicing recommended dietary behaviour...
October 25, 2016: Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research
Gour Chand Daskhan, Carlo Pifferi, Olivier Renaudet
The synthesis of heteroglycoclusters (hGCs) is being subjected to rising interest, owing to their potential applications in glycobiology. In this paper, we report an efficient and straightforward convergent protocol based on orthogonal chemoselective ligations to prepare structurally well-defined cyclopeptide-based homo- and heterovalent glycoconjugates displaying 5-N-acetyl-neuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), galactose (Gal), and/or N-acetyl glucosamine (GlcNAc). We first used copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition and/or thiol-ene coupling to conjugate propargylated α-sialic acid 3, β-GlcNAc thiol 5, and β-Gal thiol 6 onto cyclopeptide scaffolds 7-9 to prepare tetravalent homoglycoclusters (10-12) and hGCs (13-14) with 2:2 combinations of sugars...
October 2016: ChemistryOpen
Rituparna Das, Balaram Mukhopadhyay
The development of glycobiology relies on the sources of particular oligosaccharides in their purest forms. As the isolation of the oligosaccharide structures from natural sources is not a reliable option for providing samples with homogeneity, chemical means become pertinent. The growing demand for diverse oligosaccharide structures has prompted the advancement of chemical strategies to stitch sugar molecules with precise stereo- and regioselectivity through the formation of glycosidic bonds. This Review will focus on the key developments towards chemical O-glycosylations in the current century...
October 2016: ChemistryOpen
Ramin Heshmat, Gita Shafiee, Mostafa Qorbani, Fatemeh Azizi-Soleiman, Shirin Djalalinia, Mohammad Esmaeil Motlagh, Gelayol Ardalan, Zeinab Ahadi, Omid Safari, Saeid Safiri, Roya Kelishadi
Introduction: Current evidence suggests that ghrelin could contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adults, but limited experience exists in adolescents. This study aims to explore the association of ghrelin levels with the MetS components among Iranian adolescents. Methods: In this case-control study, 32 adolescents with MetS and 148 healthy controls were selected randomly from the childhood and Adolescence Surveillance and Prevention of Adult Non communicable disease (CASPIAN-III) study...
2016: Journal of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Research
David W Templeton, Justin B Sluiter, Amie Sluiter, Courtney Payne, David P Crocker, Ling Tao, Ed Wolfrum
BACKGROUND: In an effort to find economical, carbon-neutral transportation fuels, biomass feedstock compositional analysis methods are used to monitor, compare, and improve biofuel conversion processes. These methods are empirical, and the analytical variability seen in the feedstock compositional data propagates into variability in the conversion yields, component balances, mass balances, and ultimately the minimum ethanol selling price (MESP). We report the average composition and standard deviations of 119 individually extracted National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) bagasse [Reference Material (RM) 8491] run by seven analysts over 7 years...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Guankui Wang, Fangfang Chen, Nirmal K Banda, V Michael Holers, LinPing Wu, S Moein Moghimi, Dmitri Simberg
While having tremendous potential as therapeutic and imaging tools, the clinical use of engineered nanoparticles has been associated with serious safety concerns. Activation of the complement cascade and the release of proinflammatory factors C3a and C5a may contribute to infusion-related reactions, whereas opsonization with C3 fragments promotes rapid recognition and clearance of nanomaterials by mononuclear phagocytes. We used dextran-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO), which are potent activators of the complement system, to study the role of nanoparticle surface chemistry in inciting complement in human serum...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Sira Chuaychan, Soottawat Benjakul
Characteristics and antioxidative activity of gelatin and gelatin hydrolysate powders from scale of spotted golden goatfish using maltodextrin as a carrier agent at different ratios [1:0, 2:1, 1:1 and 1:2 (w/w)] were investigated. Gelatin hydrolysates with 40 % degree of hydrolysis exhibited the highest antioxidative activity. With increasing maltodextrin proportions, the resulting powders showed an increase in yields, total sugar content and whiteness with coincidental decrease in [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]-values and browning intensity...
September 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Zhao-Guang Tan, Wei-Hong Gao, Xiang-Sheng Cai, Fang Wang, Hong-Xiang Hui
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) on cognitive dysfunction in diabetic rats. METHODS: Male SD rats were randomly divided into normal control group, diabetes mellitus (DM) group, and GLP-1 treatment group. Rat models of type 2 diabetes were established by high-sugar and high-fat feeding and streptozotocin (STZ) injection, and 25 days after the onset of diabetes, GLP-1 was infused in GLP-1 treatment group at the rate of 30 pmol·kg(-1)·min(-1) via a subcutaneous osmotic pump for 7 days...
October 20, 2016: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
Fan Wang, Juerong Feng, Qian Gao, Minxing Ma, Xue Lin, Jing Liu, Jin Li, Qiu Zhao
BACKGROUND & AIM: Dietary carbohydrate and protein intake is generally thought as risk factors for onset of ulcerative colitis (UC), while epidemiological data had been controversial. This study aimed to evaluate the role of carbohydrate and protein intake in the development of UC. METHODS: Comprehensive search in PubMed and Embase was conducted to identify all relevant studies, and the role of carbohydrate and protein intake in the development of UC was quantitatively assessed by dose-response meta-analysis...
October 15, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
E Saplaoura, F Kragler
Phloem serves as a highway for mobile signals in plants. Apart from sugars and hormones, proteins and RNAs are transported via the phloem and contribute to the intercellular communication coordinating growth and development. Different classes of RNAs have been found mobile and in the phloem exudate such as viral RNAs, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), microRNAs, transfer RNAs, and messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Their transport is considered to be mediated via ribonucleoprotein complexes formed between phloem RNA-binding proteins and mobile RNA molecules...
2016: Enzymes
A Ra Cho, Su Jin Lee, Bong Gyu Kim, Joong-Hoon Ahn
BACKGROUND: Nucleotide sugars serve as sugar donors for the synthesis of various glycones. The biological and chemical properties of glycones can be altered depending which sugar is attached. Bacteria synthesize unusual nucleotide sugars. A novel nucleotide sugar can be synthesized in Escherichia coli by introducing nucleotide biosynthetic genes from other microorganisms into E. coli. The engineered E. coli strains can be used as a platform for the synthesis of novel glycones. RESULTS: Four genes, Pdeg (UDP-N-acetylglucosamine C4,6-dehydratase), Preq (UDP-4-reductase), UDP-GlcNAc 6-DH (UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 6-dehydrogenase), and UXNAcS (UDP-N-acetylxylosamine synthase), were employed to synthesize UDP-quinovosamine, UDP-N-acetylglucosaminuronic acid, and UDP-N-acetylxylosamine in E...
October 24, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
Daniel P Brink, Celina Borgström, Felipe G Tueros, Marie F Gorwa-Grauslund
BACKGROUND: The sugar sensing and carbon catabolite repression in Baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is governed by three major signaling pathways that connect carbon source recognition with transcriptional regulation. Here we present a screening method based on a non-invasive in vivo reporter system for real-time, single-cell screening of the sugar signaling state in S. cerevisiae in response to changing carbon conditions, with a main focus on the response to glucose and xylose. RESULTS: The artificial reporter system was constructed by coupling a green fluorescent protein gene (yEGFP3) downstream of endogenous yeast promoters from the Snf3p/Rgt2p, SNF1/Mig1p and cAMP/PKA signaling pathways: HXT1p/2p/4p; SUC2p, CAT8p; TPS1p/2p and TEF4p respectively...
October 24, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
Xiao Qi Ye, Jin Liu Meng, Bo Zeng, Ming Wu, Ye Yi Zhang, Xiao Ping Zhang
Carbon assimilation by submerged plants is greatly reduced due to low light levels. It is hypothesized that submergence reduces carbohydrate contents and that plants recover from submergence in the same way as darkness-treated plants. To test this hypothesis, the responses of plants to submergence and darkness were studied and compared. Plants of a submergence-tolerant species, Alternanthera philoxeroides, were exposed to well drained and illuminated conditions, complete submergence conditions or darkness conditions followed by a recovery growth period in a controlled experiment...
2016: PloS One
Katsuhiko Warita, Nana Oshima, Naoko Takeda-Okuda, Jun-Ichi Tamura, Yoshinao Z Hosaka
Chondroitin sulfate (CS), a type of glycosaminoglycan (GAG), is a factor involved in the suppression of myogenic differentiation. CS comprises two repeating sugars and has different subtypes depending on the position and number of bonded sulfate groups. However, the effect of each subtype on myogenic differentiation remains unclear. In this study, we spiked cultures of C₂C12 myoblasts, cells which are capable of undergoing skeletal muscle differentiation, with one of five types of CS (CS-A, -B, -C, -D, or -E) and induced differentiation over a fixed time...
October 21, 2016: Marine Drugs
Mariangela Marrelli, Filomena Conforti, Fabrizio Araniti, Giancarlo A Statti
Obesity is one of the greatest public health problems. This complex condition has reached epidemic proportions in many parts of the world, and it constitutes a risk factor for several chronic disorders, such as hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. In the last few decades, several studies dealt with the potential effects of natural products as new safe and effective tools for body weight control. Saponins are naturally-occurring surface-active glycosides, mainly produced by plants, whose structure consists of a sugar moiety linked to a hydrophobic aglycone (a steroid or a triterpene)...
October 20, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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