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Ileana-Andreea Ratiu, Hossam Al-Suod, Magdalena Ligor, Tomasz Ligor, Viorica Railean-Plugaru, Bogusław Buszewski
Cyclitols are phytochemicals naturally occurring in plant material which attracted an increasing interest due to multiple medicinal attributes, amongst the most important are the anti-diabetic, antioxidant and anti-cancer properties. Due to their valuable properties, sugars are used in food industry as sweeteners, preservatives, texture modifiers, fermentation substrates, flavoring and coloring agents. In this study we report for the first time the quantitative analysis of sugars and cyclitols isolated from Solidago virgaurea L...
March 15, 2018: Electrophoresis
Saisi Xue, A Daniel Jones, Leonardo Sousa, Jeff Piotrowski, Mingjie Jin, Cory Sarks, Bruce E Dale, Venkatesh Balan
Biochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to liquid fuels requires pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of the biomass to produce fermentable sugars. Degradation products produced during thermochemical pretreatment, however, inhibit the microbes with regard to both ethanol yield and cell growth. In this work, we used synthetic hydrolysates (SynH) to study the inhibition of yeast fermentation by water-soluble components (WSC) isolated from lignin streams obtained after extractive ammonia pretreatment (EA)...
2018: PloS One
Danika Martyn, Maryse Darch, Ashley Roberts, Han Youl Lee, Tina Yaqiong Tian, Naoko Kaburagi, Pablo Belmar
The current review examined published data on the intake of all major low-/no-calorie sweeteners-aspartame, acesulfame-K, saccharin, sucralose, cyclamate, thaumatin and steviol glycosides-globally over the last decade. The most detailed and complex exposure assessments were conducted in Europe, following a standardized approach. Japan and Korea similarly had up-to-date and regular intake data available. The data for other Asian countries, Latin America, Australia/New Zealand and global estimates, evaluated by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), while available, were shown to be more limited in terms of design...
March 15, 2018: Nutrients
Barbara Demmig-Adams, Jared J Stewart, Christopher R Baker, William W Adams
We review the role of a family of transcription factors and their regulons in maintaining high photosynthetic performance across a range of challenging environments with a focus on extreme temperatures and water availability. Specifically, these transcription factors include CBFs (C-repeat binding factors) and DREBs (dehydration-responsive element-binding), with CBF/DREB1 primarily orchestrating cold adaptation and other DREBs serving in heat, drought, and salinity adaptation. The central role of these modulators in plant performance under challenging environments is based on (i) interweaving of these regulators with other key signaling networks (plant hormones and redox signals) as well as (ii) their function in integrating responses across the whole plant, from light-harvesting and sugar-production in the leaf to foliar sugar export and water import and on to the plant's sugar-consuming sinks (growth, storage, and reproduction)...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Kimberly L Savin, Emily R Hamburger, Alexandra D Monzon, Niral J Patel, Katia M Perez, Jadienne H Lord, Sarah S Jaser
Family conflict in adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) has been linked to worse disease management (i.e., glycemic control, adherence to treatment regimen) and reduced quality of life. We sought to examine parental risk factors associated with increased levels of diabetes-specific family conflict and to investigate the discrepancies between parent and adolescent reports of conflict. Adolescents with T1D and their parents (N = 120 dyads) completed measures of diabetes-specific family conflict. Adolescents also reported on health-related quality of life, and parents reported on demographic information...
February 2018: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
Yan Zhang, Zhongyuan Huang, Letao Wang, Chunming Wang, Changde Zhang, Thomas E Wiese, Guangdi Wang, Kevin Eugene Riley, Zhe Wang
This work aims to face the challenge of monitoring small molecule drugs accurately and rapidly for point-of-care (POC) diagnosis in current clinical settings. Overdose of acetaminophen (AP), a commonly used OTC analgesic drug, has been determined to be a major cause of acute liver failure in the US and the UK. However, there is no rapid and accurate detection method available for this drug in the emergency room. The present study examined an AP sensing strategy that relies on a previously unexplored strong interaction between AP and the arginine (Arg) molecule...
March 15, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Elsa Desnoues, Michel Génard, Bénédicte Quilot-Turion, Valentina Baldazzi
The concentrations of sugars in fruit vary with fruit development, environment, and genotype. In general, there were weak correlations between the variations in sugar concentrations and the activities of enzymes directly related with the synthesis or degradation of sugars. This finding suggests that the relationships between enzyme activities and metabolites are often non-linear and are difficult to assess. To simulate the concentrations of sucrose, glucose, fructose and sorbitol during the development of peach fruits, a kinetic model of sugar metabolism was developed by taking advantage of recent profiling data...
March 15, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Hathairat Rachniyom, Atsuko Matsumoto, Yuki Inahashi, Akira Take, Yoko Takahashi, Arinthip Thamchaipenet
A novel actinomycete strain, designated GKU 128T , isolated from the roots of an Indian oak tree [Barringtonia acutangula (L.) Gaertn.] at Khao Khitchakut district, Chantaburi province, Thailand, was characterized by using a polyphasic approach. The strain formed a branched substrate and aerial mycelia which differentiated into straight to flexuous chains of smooth-ornamented spores. Analysis of the cell wall revealed the presence of meso-diaminopimelic acid and N-acetylmuramic acid in the peptidoglycan. The whole-cell sugars were glucose, madurose, mannose, rhamnose and ribose...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
André O Werneck, Edilson S Cyrino, Paul J Collings, Enio R V Ronque, Célia L Szwarcwald, Luís B Sardinha, Danilo R Silva
BACKGROUND: This study describes the levels and patterns of television (TV) viewing in Brazilian adults and investigates associations of TV viewing with hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and heart disease. METHODS: Data from the Brazilian Health Survey, a nationally representative survey that was conducted in 2013 (N = 60,202 men and women aged ≥18 y), were used. Information regarding TV viewing, physician diagnoses of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease was collected via interview-administered questionnaire...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
Victor Laurent, Ekaterina Darii, Angelina Aujon, Marine Debacker, Jean-Louis Petit, Virgil Hélaine, Tibor Liptaj, Martin Breza, Aline Mariage, Lionel Nauton, Mounir Traikia, Marielle Lemaire, Marcel Salanoubat, Christine Guérard-Hélaine, Véronique De Berardinis
Dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP)-dependent rhamnulose aldolases display an unprecedented versatility for ketones as electrophile substrates. We selected and characterized a rhamnulose aldolase from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (RhuABthet) to provide a proof of concept. DHAP was added as a nucleophile to several alpha-hydroxylated ketones used as electrophiles. This aldol addition was stereoselective and produced branched-chain monosaccharide adducts with a tertiary alcohol moiety. Several aldols were thus readily obtained in good to excellent yields (from 76 to 95%)...
March 15, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Christina A Roselli, Michel R Gagné
We report a computational study of the transfer of silylium from phosphine to heteroatom containing Lewis bases including ethers, phosphines, and amines. The relative free energies of these compounds are compared to develop a thermodynamic scale of stabilities that can help to interpret the chemoselectivity observed with complex natural products and biomass-derived sugars. Both the choice of silane and the phosphine Lewis base impact the thermodynamics of this transfer.
March 15, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Ryan Oozeerally, David L Burnett, Thomas W Chamberlain, Richard I Walton, Volkan Degirmenci
Heterogeneous catalysts are desired for the conversion of glucose, the most abundant sugar in renewable biomass, but presently their synthesis requires highly toxic chemicals with long synthesis times. We report the conversion of glucose into fructose and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural on a heterogeneous catalyst that is stable and selective and operates in the most environmentally benign solvent, water. We used a bifunctional solid with Lewis and Brønsted acid sites by partially replacing the organic linker of the zirconium organic framework UiO-66 with 2-monosulfo-benzene-1,4-dicarboxylate...
February 21, 2018: ChemCatChem
Cuimei Zhang, Shangli Shi
Drought severely limits global plant distribution and agricultural production. Elucidating the physiological and molecular mechanisms governing alfalfa stress responses will contribute to the improvement of drought tolerance in leguminous crops. In this study, the physiological and proteomic responses of two alfalfa ( Medicago sativa L.) varieties contrasting in drought tolerance, Longzhong (drought-tolerant) and Gannong No. 3 (drought-sensitive), were comparatively assayed when seedlings were exposed to -1...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Hong Li, Xiaonan Li, Yuanhu Xuan, Jing Jiang, Yangdou Wei, Zhongyun Piao
Plasmodiophora brassicae is a soil borne pathogen and the causal agent of clubroot, a devastating disease of Brassica crops. The pathogen lives inside roots, and hijacks nutrients from the host plants. It is suggested that clubroot galls created an additional nutrient sink in infected roots. However, the molecular mechanism underlying P. brassicae infection and sugar transport is unclear. Here, we analyzed sugar contents in leaves and roots before and after P. brassicae infection using a pair of Chinese cabbage near-isogenic lines (NILs), carrying either a clubroot resistant (CR) or susceptible (CS) allele at the CRb locus...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ayalew Ligaba-Osena, Jenna Jones, Emmanuel Donkor, Sanjeev Chandrayan, Farris Pole, Chang-Hao Wu, Claire Vieille, Michael W W Adams, Bertrand B Hankoua
To address national and global low-carbon fuel targets, there is great interest in alternative plant species such as cassava ( Manihot esculenta ), which are high-yielding, resilient, and are easily converted to fuels using the existing technology. In this study the genes encoding hyperthermophilic archaeal starch-hydrolyzing enzymes, α-amylase and amylopullulanase from Pyrococcus furiosus and glucoamylase from Sulfolobus solfataricus , together with the gene encoding a modified ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase ( glgC ) from Escherichia coli , were simultaneously expressed in cassava roots to enhance starch accumulation and its subsequent hydrolysis to sugar...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Bin Zhao, Jun-Jie Xia, Lu-Min Wang, Chang Gao, Jia-Li Li, Jia-Yin Liu, Qi-Jun Cheng, Chen Dai, Qi-Lin Ma, Zhong-Quan Qi, Ben-Hua Zhao
The role of arsenic trioxide (As2 O3 ) in inhibiting immune rejection and prolonging islet allograft survival has been identified in islet allotransplantation. This study aims to explore the role of As2 O3 in islet xenotransplantation and the action mechanism. The streptozotocin (STZ) was used in C57BL/6 mice to induce the type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) for xenotransplantation models establishment. Donor islets were isolated by digesting. The flow cytometry (FCM) was used to analyze lymphocyte types. The blood sugar level was detected by using intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT)...
March 14, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Ben A Wagstaff, Edward S Hems, Martin Rejzek, Jennifer Pratscher, Elliot Brooks, Sakonwan Kuhaudomlarp, Ellis C O'Neill, Matthew I Donaldson, Steven Lane, John Currie, Andrew M Hindes, Gill Malin, J Colin Murrell, Robert A Field
Prymnesium parvum is a toxin-producing microalga that causes harmful algal blooms globally, which often result in large-scale fish kills that have severe ecological and economic implications. Although many toxins have previously been isolated from P. parvum , ambiguity still surrounds the responsible ichthyotoxins in P. parvum blooms and the biotic and abiotic factors that promote bloom toxicity. A major fish kill attributed to P. parvum occurred in Spring 2015 on the Norfolk Broads, a low-lying set of channels and lakes (Broads) found on the East of England...
March 14, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
Raffaella Mastrocola, Ilario Ferrocino, Erica Liberto, Fausto Chiazza, Alessia Sofia Cento, Debora Collotta, Giulia Querio, Debora Nigro, Valeria Bitonto, Juan Carlos Cutrin, Kalliopi Rantsiou, Mariaconcetta Durante, Emanuela Masini, Manuela Aragno, Chiara Cordero, Luca Cocolin, Massimo Collino
Despite clinical findings suggesting that the form (liquid versus solid) of the sugars may significantly affect the development of metabolic diseases, no experimental data are available on the impact of their formulations on gut microbiota, integrity and hepatic outcomes. In the present sudy, C57Bl/6j mice were fed a standard diet plus water (SD), a standard diet plus 60% fructose syrup (L-Fr) or a 60% fructose solid diet plus water (S-Fr) for 12 weeks. Gut microbiota was characterized through 16S rRNA phylogenetic profiling and shotgun sequencing of microbial genes in ileum content and related volatilome profiling...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Mariette Andersson, Helle Turesson, Stéphanie Arrivault, Youjun Zhang, Ann-Sofie Fält, Alisdair R Fernie, Per Hofvander
The importance of a plastidial soluble inorganic pyrophosphatase (psPPase) and an ATP/ADP translocator (NTT) for starch composition and tuber formation in potato (Solanum tuberosum) was evaluated by individual and simultaneous down-regulation of the corresponding endogenous genes. Starch and amylose content of the transgenic lines were considerably lower, and granule size substantially smaller, with down-regulation of StpsPPase generating the most pronounced effects. Single-gene down-regulation of either StpsPPase or StNTT resulted in increased tuber numbers per plant and higher fresh weight yield...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Dingchun Li, Wu Li, Yihui Chen, Lihui Liu, Dehong Ma, Hongtu Wang, Lu Zhang, Shenjun Zhao, Qin Peng
Hepatic fibrosis is resulted from sustained wound-healing responses to various harmful stimuli, including viral infection, drug toxicity, alcohol, and autoimmune hepatopathy, and it has recently attracted the attention of an increasing number of researchers and clinical workers. The aims of this study were to examine the anti-fibrotic effects of extracts of Periplaneta americana (EPA) on CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats, to preliminary determine the anti-fibrotic efficacy of EPA, and to identify a potential and effective therapeutic agent to attenuate hepatic fibrosis...
March 12, 2018: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
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