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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934499/co-produced-natural-ketolides-methymycin-and-pikromycin-inhibit-bacterial-growth-by-preventing-synthesis-of-a-limited-number-of-proteins
#1
Mashal M Almutairi, Maxim S Svetlov, Douglas A Hansen, Nelli F Khabibullina, Dorota Klepacki, Han-Young Kang, David H Sherman, Nora Vázquez-Laslop, Yury S Polikanov, Alexander S Mankin
Antibiotics methymycin (MTM) and pikromycin (PKM), co-produced by Streptomyces venezuelae, represent minimalist macrolide protein synthesis inhibitors. Unlike other macrolides, which carry several side chains, a single desosamine sugar is attached to the macrolactone ring of MTM and PKM. In addition, the macrolactone scaffold of MTM is smaller than in other macrolides. The unusual structure of MTM and PKM and their simultaneous secretion by S. venezuelae bring about the possibility that two compounds would bind to distinct ribosomal sites...
September 19, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934416/transporter-engineering-in-biomass-utilization-by-yeast
#2
Kiyotaka Y Hara, Jyumpei Kobayashi, Ryosuke Yamada, Daisuke Sasaki, Yuki Kuriya, Yoko Hirono-Hara, Jun Ishii, Michihiro Araki, Akihiko Kondo
Biomass resources are attractive carbon sources for bioproduction because of their sustainability. Many studies have been performed using biomass resources to produce sugars as carbon sources for cell factories. Expression of biomass hydrolyzing enzymes in cell factories is an important approach for constructing biomass-utilizing bioprocesses because external addition of these enzymes is expensive. In particular, yeasts have been extensively engineered to be cell factories that directly utilize biomass because of their manageable responses to many genetic engineering tools, such as gene expression, deletion and editing...
November 1, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934229/above-and-below-ground-carbohydrate-allocation-differs-between-ash-fraxinus-excelsior-l-and-beech-fagus-sylvatica-l
#3
Ronny Thoms, Michael Köhler, Arthur Gessler, Gerd Gleixner
We investigated soluble carbohydrate transport in trees that differed in their phloem loading strategies in order to better understand the transport of photosynthetic products into the roots and the rhizosphere as this knowledge is needed to better understand the respiratory processes in the rhizosphere. We compared beech, which is suggested to use mainly passive loading of transport sugars along a concentration gradient into the phloem, with ash that uses active loading and polymer trapping of raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934129/a-comprehensive-survey-of-the-roles-of-highly-disordered-proteins-in-type-2-diabetes
#4
Zhihua Du, Vladimir N Uversky
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic and progressive disease that is strongly associated with hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) related to either insulin resistance or insufficient insulin production. Among the various molecular events and players implicated in the manifestation and development of diabetes mellitus, proteins play several important roles. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database has information on 34 human proteins experimentally shown to be related to the T2DM pathogenesis...
September 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934111/breakfast-and-breakfast-cereal-choice-and-its-impact-on-nutrient-and-sugar-intakes-and-anthropometric-measures-among-a-nationally-representative-sample-of-australian-children-and-adolescents
#5
Flavia Fayet-Moore, Andrew McConnell, Kate Tuck, Peter Petocz
There is limited evidence in Australia that compares the nutritional impact of a breakfast cereal breakfast to a non-cereal breakfast, and includes the type of cereal. This study investigated the impact of breakfast choice and the total sugar content of breakfast cereal on nutrient intakes and anthropometric measures among Australian children and adolescents. Data from 2 to 18-year-old in the 2011-2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey were used (n = 2821). Participants were classified as breakfast cereal consumers (minimally pre-sweetened (MPS) or pre-sweetened (PS)), non-cereal breakfast consumers, or breakfast skippers...
September 21, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934081/longitudinal-analysis-of-nut-inclusive-diets-and-body-mass-index-among-overweight-and-obese-african-american-women-living-in-rural-alabama-and-mississippi-2011-2013
#6
Samara R Sterling, Brenda Bertrand, Suzanne Judd, Tiffany L Carson, Paula Chandler-Laney, Monica L Baskin
INTRODUCTION: Nuts, when eaten alongside other nutritionally rich foods, may decrease obesity and related chronic disease risks, which are high among African American women in the rural South. We monitored changes in nut intake, other obesity-related foods (fruits, vegetables, red or processed meats, added sugars), and body mass index (BMI) over a 2-year weight loss intervention among 383 overweight and obese African American women in rural Alabama and Mississippi. METHODS: Two dietary recalls were administered at 4 points over 24 months...
September 21, 2017: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933937/changes-in-sugar-sweetened-soda-consumption-weight-and-waist-circumference-2-year-cohort-of-mexican-women
#7
Dalia Stern, Nicole Middaugh, Megan S Rice, Francine Laden, Ruy López-Ridaura, Bernard Rosner, Walter Willett, Martin Lajous
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate 2-year changes in soda consumption, weight, and waist circumference. METHODS: We followed 11 218 women from the Mexican Teachers' Cohort from 2006 to 2008. Dietary data were collected using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Weight was self-reported, and waist circumference was self-measured. We used linear regression to evaluate changes in sugar-sweetened and sugar-free soda consumption in relation to changes in weight and waist circumference, adjusting for lifestyle and other dietary factors...
September 21, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933544/conformational-dynamics-and-exchange-kinetics-of-n-formyl-and-n-acetyl-groups-substituting-3-amino-3-6-dideoxy-%C3%AE-d-galactopyranose-a-sugar-found-in-bacterial-o-antigen-polysaccharides
#8
Olof Engström, Hani Mobarak, Jonas Ståhle, Göran Widmalm
Three dimensional shape and conformation of carbohydrates are important factors in molecular recognition events and the N-acetyl group of a monosaccharide residue can function as a conformational gatekeeper whereby it influences the overall shape of the oligosaccharide. NMR spectroscopy and quantum mechanics (QM) calculations are used herein to investigate both the conformational preferences and the dynamic behavior of N-acetyl and N-formyl substituents of 3-amino-3,6-dideoxy-α-D-galactopyranose, a sugar and substitution patterns found in bacterial O-antigen polysaccharides...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933105/-nrf2-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-axes-epigenetic-regulation-and-traditional-chinese-medicine-natural-medicine-to-treat-type-2-diabetes
#9
REVIEW
Chun-Mei Zhai, Bo-Yu Jia, Zhi-Bin Wang, Xue Huai, Zhi-Chao Ma, Zhen-Kun Tian, Yong-Hai Meng
Diabetes mellitus is a characterized by high blood sugar metabolic disease, is a lifelong disease with a high incidence of major hazards. Prevention and treatment of diabetes and its complications has become a serious challenge and arduous task facing the world pharmaceutical researchers. Oxidative stress, Nfr2-NF-κB signaling axis related epigenomic genes have the apparent close relationship with type 2 diabetes,those have become one of the key focus and effective way to explore its pathogenesis, mechanism and drug screening...
December 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933093/-effect-of-protein-intervention-on-amino-acid-metabolism-spectrum-of-qi-and-yin-deficiency-type-2-diabetic-rats
#10
Li-Na Ma, Xin-Min Mao, Xiao-Li Ma, Lin-Lin Li, Ye Wang, Yi-Cun Tao, Jing-Wei Wang, Jia-Jia Guo, Yi Lan
To study the effect of plant protein and animal protein on amino acid metabolism spectrum of Qi and Yin deficiency type 2 diabetic rats. 110 male SD rats were randomly divided into blank group (n=10), diabetic model group (n=20), disease-symptoms group (n=80). The rats of blank group received ordinary feeding, while other groups were fed with high sugar and fat diets. During the whole process of feeding, rats of disease-symptoms group were given with Qingpi-Fuzi (15.75 g•kg⁻¹) once a day through oral administration...
November 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932978/biobutanol-production-from-apple-pomace-the-importance-of-pretreatment-methods-on-the-fermentability-of-lignocellulosic-agro-food-wastes
#11
María Hijosa-Valsero, Ana I Paniagua-García, Rebeca Díez-Antolínez
Apple pomace was studied as a possible raw material for biobutanol production. Five different soft physicochemical pretreatments (autohydrolysis, acids, alkalis, organic solvents and surfactants) were compared in a high-pressure reactor, whose working parameters (temperature, time and reagent concentration) were optimised to maximise the amount of simple sugars released and to minimise inhibitor generation. The pretreated biomass was subsequently subjected to a conventional enzymatic treatment to complete the hydrolysis...
September 20, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932887/microchip-capillary-gel-electrophoresis-combined-with-lectin-affinity-enrichment-employing-magnetic-beads-for-glycoprotein-analysis
#12
Nicole Y Engel, Victor U Weiss, Christian Wenz, Susanne Glück, Andreas Rüfer, Martin Kratzmeier, Martina Marchetti-Deschmann, Günter Allmaier
Due to the constant search for reliable methods to investigate glycoproteins in complex biological samples, an alternative approach combining affinity enrichment with rapid and sensitive analysis on-a-chip is presented. Glycoproteins were specifically captured by lectin-coated magnetic beads, eluted by competitive sugars, and investigated with microchip capillary gel electrophoresis (MCGE), i.e., CGE-on-a-chip. We compared our results to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) data, which turned out to be in very good agreement...
September 20, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932871/crystal-structures-of-eukaryote-glycosyltransferases-reveal-biologically-relevant-enzyme-homooligomers
#13
REVIEW
Deborah Harrus, Sakari Kellokumpu, Tuomo Glumoff
Glycosyltransferases (GTases) transfer sugar moieties to proteins, lipids or existing glycan or polysaccharide molecules. GTases form an important group of enzymes in the Golgi, where the synthesis and modification of glycoproteins and glycolipids take place. Golgi GTases are almost invariably type II integral membrane proteins, with the C-terminal globular catalytic domain residing in the Golgi lumen. The enzymes themselves are divided into 103 families based on their sequence homology. There is an abundance of published crystal structures of GTase catalytic domains deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB)...
September 20, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932761/digestion-of-peptidoglycan-and-analysis-of-soluble-fragments
#14
Ryan E Schaub, Joseph P Dillard
Peptidoglycan (murein) is a vital component of the cell wall of nearly all bacteria, composed of sugars linked by short peptides. This protocol describes the purification of macromolecular peptidoglycan from cultured bacteria and the analysis of enzyme-digested peptidoglycan fragments using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Digested peptidoglycan fragments can be identified by mass spectrometry, or predicted by comparing retention times with other published chromatograms. The quantitative nature of this method allows for the measurement of changes to peptidoglycan composition between different species of bacteria, growth conditions, or mutations...
August 5, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932265/removal-of-glucuronic-acid-from-xylan-is-a-strategy-to-improve-the-conversion-of-plant-biomass-to-sugars-for-bioenergy
#15
Jan J Lyczakowski, Krzysztof B Wicher, Oliver M Terrett, Nuno Faria-Blanc, Xiaolan Yu, David Brown, Kristian B R M Krogh, Paul Dupree, Marta Busse-Wicher
BACKGROUND: Plant lignocellulosic biomass can be a source of fermentable sugars for the production of second generation biofuels and biochemicals. The recalcitrance of this plant material is one of the major obstacles in its conversion into sugars. Biomass is primarily composed of secondary cell walls, which is made of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin. Xylan, a hemicellulose, binds to the cellulose microfibril and is hypothesised to form an interface between lignin and cellulose. Both softwood and hardwood xylan carry glucuronic acid side branches...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932263/how-does-cellulosome-composition-influence-deconstruction-of-lignocellulosic-substrates-in-clostridium-ruminiclostridium-thermocellum-dsm-1313
#16
Shahar Yoav, Yoav Barak, Melina Shamshoum, Ilya Borovok, Raphael Lamed, Bareket Dassa, Yitzhak Hadar, Ely Morag, Edward A Bayer
BACKGROUND: Bioethanol production processes involve enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass into fermentable sugars. Due to the relatively high cost of enzyme production, the development of potent and cost-effective cellulolytic cocktails is critical for increasing the cost-effectiveness of bioethanol production. In this context, the multi-protein cellulolytic complex of Clostridium (Ruminiclostridium) thermocellum, the cellulosome, was studied here. C. thermocellum is known to assemble cellulosomes of various subunit (enzyme) compositions, in response to the available carbon source...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932161/the-efficacy-of-a-diabetic-educational-program-and-predictors-of-compliance-of-patients-with-noninsulin-dependent-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-al-khobar-saudi-arabia
#17
Fatma M Mokabel, Shadia F Aboulazm, Hanan E Hassan, Mona F Al-Qahtani, Seham F Alrashedi, Fatma A Zainuddin
BACKGROUND: The concept of detection and management of diabetes mellitus at primary health-care centers is justified and widely practised in Saudi Arabia. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of diabetic educational programs for noninsulin-dependent (type 2) diabetes mellitus patients, and to determine the predictors of compliance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A longitudinal experimental research design was adopted for this study and conducted at the diabetic outpatient clinic of King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al Khobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia...
September 2017: Journal of Family & Community Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932158/the-burden-perceived-by-informal-caregivers-of-the-elderly-in-saudi-arabia
#18
Sulaiman A Alshammari, Abdullah A Alzahrani, Khaled A Alabduljabbar, Abdulaziz A Aldaghri, Yazeed A Alhusainy, Mohammed A Khan, Rakan A Alshuwaier, Ismail N Kariz
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to discover the characteristics of informal caregivers of elderly patients; to determine the socioeconomic, psychological, and physical consequences facing informal caregivers; and to measure their burdens and needs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was a cross-sectional survey of informal caregivers of elderly patients. Participants were recruited from different hospitals and primary care clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia...
September 2017: Journal of Family & Community Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932048/use-of-jaggery-and-honey-as-adjunctive-cytological-fixatives-to-ethanol-for-oral-smears
#19
Deepak Pandiar, Harakh Chand Baranwal, Sandip Kumar, Vellaichamy Ganesan, Piyush Kumar Sonkar, Kausik Chattopadhyay
BACKGROUND: Ethanol has satisfactorily been used as cyto-fixative. Owing to its limitations, pathologists have always searched for new fixatives. The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of two natural sweeteners as cyto-fixatives. An attempt has also been made to understand the underlying mechanism by which these fixatives fix the oral mucosal cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three smears were collected from 25 healthy volunteers. One smear was fixed in ethanol and the other two in 20% aqueous honey solution and 30% aqueous jaggery solution for 15-30 min followed by Papanicolaou staining...
May 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931586/urinary-excretion-of-sodium-nitrogen-and-sugar-amounts-are-valid-biomarkers-of-dietary-sodium-protein-and-high-sugar-intake-in-nonobese-adolescents
#20
Lori B Moore, Sarah V Liu, Tanya M Halliday, Andrew P Neilson, Valisa E Hedrick, Brenda M Davy
Background: Objective indicators of dietary intake (e.g., biomarkers) are needed to overcome the limitations of self-reported dietary intake assessment methods in adolescents. To our knowledge, no controlled feeding studies to date have evaluated the validity of urinary sodium, nitrogen, or sugar excretion as dietary biomarkers in adolescents.Objective: This investigation aimed to evaluate the validity of urinary sodium, nitrogen, and total sugars (TS) excretion as biomarkers for sodium, protein, and added sugars (AS) intake in nonobese adolescents...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
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