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Vibrio cholerae

Rainer Gosert, Ulrich Heininger, Hans H Hirsch
Acute gastroenteritis (GE) has a major impact on morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet comprehensive data regarding infectious agents including enteroviruses are scarce. We hypothesized that enteroviruses constitute a significant cause of acute GE. We analyzed 677 stool samples from 504 patients, which had been submitted for suspected infectious GE. 0.2 ml of stool suspension was extracted using the Abbott m2000 sp robot and analysed by multiplex nucleic acid testing (NAT) using the Luminex xTAG gastrointestinal pathogen panel (GPP) as well as by specific NATs detecting enteroviruses and polioviruses...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
P Kumar, S Karmakar, R Prasad, R Chopra, S Khandelwal, S Gupta, A C Dhariwal, P Yadav, P K Yadava
Cholera toxin (CT) is the principal virulence factor of Vibrio cholerae for fatal cholera diarrhoea. Serogroups O1 and O139 harbour CT and are known to be epidemic strains. The remaining serogroups (nonO1/nonO139) are non-toxigenic and may be associated with mild disease. O1 serogroup emerged with a variant of CT known as Haitian cholera toxin (HCT). The HCT strains are hypervirulent and have been associated with severe cholera outbreaks in India, Western Africa and Haiti. Here, we report the presence of HCT (ctxB7) in a nonO1/nonO139 isolate causing persistent diarrhoea...
January 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
Andrea Angeli, Sonia Del Prete, Sameh M Osman, Fatmah A S Alasmary, Zeid AlOthman, William A Donald, Clemente Capasso, Claudiu T Supuran
The α- and β-class carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC from the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio cholerae, VchCAα, and VchCAβ, were investigated for their activation with natural and non-natural amino acids and amines. The most effective VchCAα activators were L-tyrosine, histamine, serotonin, and 4-aminoethyl-morpholine, which had KAs in the range of 8.21-12.0 µM. The most effective VchCAβ activators were D-tyrosine, dopamine, serotonin, 2-pyridyl-methylamine, 2-aminoethylpyridine, and 2-aminoethylpiperazine, which had KAs in the submicromolar - low micromolar range (0...
December 2018: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
Manuela Terrinoni, Stefan L Nordqvist, Susanne Källgård, Jan Holmgren, Michael Lebens
Antibiotic selection for maintenance of expression plasmids is discouraged in production of recombinant proteins for pharmaceutical or other human uses due to the risks of antibiotic residue contamination of the final products and release of DNA encoding antibiotic resistance into the environment. We describe the construction of expression plasmids that are instead maintained by complementation of the lgt gene encoding a (pro)lipoprotein glyceryl transferase essential for biosynthesis of bacterial lipoprotein...
December 8, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Masahiro Ito, Masato Morino, Terry A Krulwich
Mrp (Multiple resistance and pH) antiporter was identified as a gene complementing an alkaline-sensitive mutant strain of alkaliphilic Bacillus halodurans C-125 in 1990. At that time, there was no example of a multi-subunit type Na+/H+ antiporter comprising six or seven hydrophobic proteins, and it was newly designated as the monovalent cation: proton antiporter-3 (CPA3) family in the classification of transporters. The Mrp antiporter is broadly distributed among bacteria and archaea, not only in alkaliphiles...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Daniela Ceccarelli, Geneviève Garriss, Seon Y Choi, Nur A Hasan, Ramunas Stepanauskas, Mihai Pop, Anwar Huq, Rita R Colwell
We report the complete sequence of two novel plasmids, pSDH-1 and pSDH-2, isolated from clinical Vibrio cholerae non-O1/non-O139 during the early phase of the 2010 Haitian cholera epidemic. Plasmids were revealed by employing single-cell genomics and their genome content suggests self-mobilization and, for pSDH-2, a toxin-antitoxin (TA) system for plasmid stabilization was identified. The putative origin of replication of pSDH-2 was mapped suggesting it replicates following the ColE1 model of plasmid replication...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Abdi Elmi, Amber Dorey, Eleanor Watson, Heena Jagatia, Neil F Inglis, Ozan Gundogdu, Mona Bajaj-Elliott, Brendan W Wren, David G E Smith, Nick Dorrell
Campylobacter jejuni, the leading cause of bacterial acute gastroenteritis worldwide, secretes an arsenal of virulence-associated proteins within outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). C. jejuni OMVs contain three serine proteases (HtrA, Cj0511 and Cj1365c) which cleave the intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) tight and adherens junction proteins occludin and E-cadherin, promoting enhanced C. jejuni adhesion to and invasion of IECs. C. jejuni OMVs also induce IECs innate immune responses. The bile salt sodium taurocholate (ST) is sensed as a host signal to co-ordinate the activation of virulence-associated genes in the enteric pathogen Vibrio cholerae...
December 4, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
Debanjana Bhattacharya, Deblina Ghosh, Semantee Bhattacharya, Soumyadev Sarkar, Parimal Karmakar, Hemanta Koley, Ratan Gachhui
The present study was undertaken to determine the mechanism of antibacterial activity of a polyphenolic fraction, composed of mainly catechin and isorhamnetin, previously isolated from Kombucha, a 14-day fermented beverage of sugared black tea, against the enteropathogen Vibrio cholerae N16961. Bacterial growth was found to be seriously impaired by the polyphenolic fraction in dose-dependent manner. Scanning Electron Microscopy demonstrated morphological alterations in bacterial cells when exposed to the polyphenolic fraction in a concentration-dependent manner...
November 29, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Rezaei Adriani, Seyed Latif Mousavi Gargari, Shahram Nazarian, Samaneh Sarvary, Nafiseh Noroozi
Cholera is caused by toxigenic Vibrio cholerae. It is a significant health problem and an important cause of mortality of children in developing countries. Annually, about 5-7 million people are being infected worldwide, leading to death of 100,000 to 120,000. Immunization using the currently available cholera vaccines has been recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) in areas where cholera is endemic or at risk of outbreaks. Gram-negative bacteria secrete outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) that play important roles in virulence and host-pathogen interaction...
November 27, 2017: Vaccine
Sujan Maharjan, Binod Rayamajhee, Anima Shreshtha, Jyoti Acharya
BACKGROUND: Diarrheal diseases are the major infectious disease in developing countries like Nepal. Lack of proper sanitation and antimicrobial resistance gained by microbes have challenged to address diarrheal diseases in resource-limited countries. Early diagnosis of disease and proper antibiotic treatment can significantly reduce the disease burden. This study was designed to determine the recent antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Vibrio cholerae and Shigella spp. to assure the proper antibiotic treatment...
November 28, 2017: BMC Research Notes
Layla Kamareddine, Adam C N Wong, Audrey S Vanhove, Saiyu Hang, Alexandra E Purdy, Katharine Kierek-Pearson, John M Asara, Afsar Ali, J Glenn Morris, Paula I Watnick
Vibrio cholerae colonizes the human terminal ileum to cause cholera, and the arthropod intestine and exoskeleton to persist in the aquatic environment. Attachment to these surfaces is regulated by the bacterial quorum-sensing signal transduction cascade, which allows bacteria to assess the density of microbial neighbours. Intestinal colonization with V. cholerae results in expenditure of host lipid stores in the model arthropod Drosophila melanogaster. Here we report that activation of quorum sensing in the Drosophila intestine retards this process by repressing V...
November 27, 2017: Nature Microbiology
P Boomi, J Anandha Raj, S P Palaniappan, G Poorani, S Selvam, H Gurumallesh Prabu, P Manisankar, J Jeyakanthan, V K Langeswaran
A rapid and simple chemical synthesis of poly(2-aminothiophenol)‑silver (P2ATP-Ag) nanocomposite using conductive and electroactive silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is reported. The AgNPs was synthesized by chemical reduction method using tri‑sodium citrate as reducing agent and poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP) as stabilizing agent. P2ATP-Ag nanocomposite was synthesized by using potassium peroxodisulphate as oxidant and the samples were characterized. The presence of AgNPs in the composite was confirmed from UV-Vis, FTIR and X-ray diffraction studies...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Christine Marie George, Mahamud Rashid, Mathieu Almeida, K M Saif-Ur-Rahman, Shirajum Monira, Md Sazzadul Islam Bhuyian, Khaled Hasan, Toslim T Mahmud, Shan Li, Jessica Brubaker, Jamie Perin, Zillur Rahman, Munshi Mustafiz, David A Sack, R Bradley Sack, Munirul Alam, O Colin Stine
BACKGROUND: Household contacts of cholera patients have a 100 times higher risk of developing a cholera infection than the general population. To compare the genetic relatedness of clinical and water source Vibrio cholerae isolates from cholera patients' households across three outbreaks, we analyzed these isolates using whole-genome-sequencing (WGS) and multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA). RESULTS: The WGS analyses revealed that 80% of households had source water isolates that were more closely related to clinical isolates from the same household than to any other isolates...
November 25, 2017: BMC Genomics
Hemant Kumar Deokar, Hilaire Playa Barch, John K Buolamwini
Objective: The nucleoside transporter family is an emerging target for cancer, viral and cardiovascular diseases. Due to the difficulty in the expression, isolation and crystallization of membrane proteins, there is a lack of structural information on any of the mammalian and for that matter the human proteins. Thus the objective of this study was to build homology models for the three cloned concentrative nucleoside transporters hCNT1, hCNT2 and hCNT3 and validate them for screening towards the discovery of much needed inhibitors and probes...
March 2017: Drug Designing: Open Access
Sudhakar G Bhandare, Andrew Warry, Richard D Emes, Jingliang Su, Paul A Barrow, Robert J Atterbury
The complete genome sequences of seven closely related Vibrio cholerae phages isolated from environmental sites in southeastern China are reported here. Phages QH, CJY, H1, H2, H3, J2, and J3 are members of the Podoviridae family and are highly similar to the previously sequenced Vibrio phages VP2, VP5, and phiVC8.
November 22, 2017: Genome Announcements
Andrés Fuentes Flores, Ignacio Sepúlveda Cisternas, José Ignacio Vásquez Solis de Ovando, Alexia Torres, Víctor Antonio García-Angulo
Background: The waterborne diarrheagenic bacterium Vibrio cholerae, cause of the pandemic cholera disease, thrives in a variety of environments ranging from estuarine waters to the human intestinal tract. This species has two ways to obtain the essential micronutrient riboflavin, de novo biosynthesis and environmental uptake through the RibN importer. The way these functions interrelate to fulfill riboflavin needs in different conditions in this species is unknown. Results: This study analyzed the contributions of riboflavin biosynthesis and transport to the culturability of Vibrio cholerae in river and seawater in vitro and in the Caenorhabditis elegans nematode host model...
2017: Gut Pathogens
Francesco Chiappelli, Allen Khakshooy, Nicole Balenton
Cholera remains a feared, aggressive, infectious and lethal disease today, despite several decades of intense research, concerted public health modalities designed to prevent, and to control outbreaks, availability of efficacious vaccines aimed at containing its contagious spread, and effective patient-centered medical interventions for reducing morbidity and mortality. Despite these advances, cholera still strikes communities around the world, especially in countries and regions of the globe where medical and nursing care cannot be as effectively proffered to the population at risk as in First World economies...
2017: Bioinformation
Chutima Tanapichatsakul, Sakon Monggoot, Eleni Gentekaki, Patcharee Pripdeevech
Fifty-two strains of endophytic fungi were isolated from flowers of the medicinal plant Melodorum fruticosum. Seven genera were identified including Alternaria, Aspergillus, Colletotrichum, Diaporthe, Fusarium, Greeneria and Nigrospora. All strains were cultured for 30 days and further macerated in ethyl acetate solvent for 3 days. The obtained fungal extracts were examined for antibacterial activity using agar disc diffusion against nine pathogenic bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Vibrio cholerae and V...
November 20, 2017: Current Microbiology
Yi Wang, Hui Li, Yan Wang, Lu Zhang, Jingyun Zhang, Jianguo Xu, Changyun Ye
Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae) is an important human pathogen that is responsible for cholera, a severe acute watery diarrhea. In the current study, a multiple cross displacement amplification (MCDA) coupled with amplicon detection by chromatographic lateral flow biosensor (LFB) method (MCDA-LFB) was successfully established and evaluated for identification of V. cholerae. A set of ten primers was designed specifically to recognize ten different regions of the V. cholerae-specific gene ompW. The optimized time and temperature conditions for the MCDA were 30 min at 63˚C...
November 16, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Julio C Ayala, Hongxia Wang, Jorge A Benitez, Anisia J Silva
VieA is a cyclic diguanylate phosphodiesterase that modulates biofilm development and motility in Vibrio cholerae O1 of the classical biotype. vieA is part of an operon encoding the VieSAB signal transduction pathway that is nearly silent in V. cholerae of the El Tor biotype. A DNA pull-down assay for proteins interacting with the vieSAB promoter identified the LysR-type regulator LeuO. We show that in classical biotype V. cholerae, LeuO cooperates with the nucleoid-associated protein H-NS to repress vieSAB transcription...
November 20, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
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