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Vibrio cholerae

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457883/mapping-the-h-nox-hk-binding-interface-in-vibrio-cholerae-by-hydrogen-deuterium-exchange-mass-spectrometry
#1
Yirui Guo, Anthony T Iavarone, Matthew M Cooper, Michael A Marletta
Heme-nitric oxide/oxygen binding (H-NOX) proteins are a group of hemoproteins that bind diatomic gas ligands such as nitric oxide (NO) and oxygen (O2 ). H-NOX proteins typically regulate histidine kinases (HK) located within the same operon. It has been reported that NO-bound H-NOXs inhibit cognate histidine kinase autophosphorylation in bacterial H-NOX/HK complexes, however, a detailed mechanism of NO-mediated regulation of the H-NOX/HK activity remains unknown. In this study, the binding interface of Vibrio cholerae (Vc) H-NOX/HK complex was characterized by hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) and further validated by mutagenesis, leading to a new model for NO-dependent kinase inhibition...
February 19, 2018: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454492/potential-transfer-of-aquatic-organisms-via-ballast-water-with-a-particular-focus-on-harmful-and-non-indigenous-species-a-survey-from-adriatic-ports
#2
M Cabrini, F Cerino, A de Olazabal, E Di Poi, C Fabbro, D Fornasaro, A Goruppi, V Flander-Putrle, J Francé, S Gollasch, M Hure, L Lipej, D Lučić, E Magaletti, P Mozetič, T Tinta, A Tornambè, V Turk, J Uhan, M David
Ballast water discharges may cause negative impacts to aquatic ecosystems, human health and economic activities by the introduction of potentially harmful species. Fifty untreated ballast water tanks, ten in each port, were sampled in four Adriatic Italian ports and one Slovenian port. Salinity, temperature and fluorescence were measured on board. Faecal indicator bacteria (FIB), phyto- and zooplankton were qualitatively and quantitatively determined to identify the species assemblage arriving in ballast water...
February 14, 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453341/transcriptomics-reveals-a-cross-modulatory-effect-between-riboflavin-and-iron-and-outlines-responses-to-riboflavin-biosynthesis-and-uptake-in-vibrio-cholerae
#3
Ignacio Sepúlveda-Cisternas, Luis Lozano Aguirre, Andrés Fuentes Flores, Ignacio Vásquez Solis de Ovando, Víctor Antonio García-Angulo
Vibrio cholerae, a pandemic diarrheagenic bacterium, is able to synthesize the essential vitamin riboflavin through the riboflavin biosynthetic pathway (RBP) and also to internalize it through the RibN importer. In bacteria, the way riboflavin biosynthesis and uptake functions correlate is unclear. To gain insights into the role of the riboflavin provision pathways in the physiology of V. cholerae, we analyzed the transcriptomics response to extracellular riboflavin and to deletions of ribD (RBP-deficient strain) or ribN...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448965/temporo-spatial-dynamics-and-behavioural-patterns-of-2012-cholera-epidemic-in-the-african-mega-city-of-conakry-guinea
#4
Alexandre Blake, Veronique Sarr Keita, Delphine Sauvageot, Mamadou Saliou, Berthe Marie Njanpop, Fode Sory, Bertrand Sudre, Koivogui Lamine, Martin Mengel, Bradford D Gessner, Keita Sakoba
BACKGROUND: Cholera is endemic in Guinea, having suffered consecutive outbreaks from 2004 to 2008 followed by a lull until the 2012 epidemic. Here we describe the temporal-spatial and behavioural characteristics of cholera cases in Conakry during a three-year period, including the large-scale 2012 epidemic. METHODS: We used the national and African Cholera Surveillance Network (Africhol) surveillance data collected from every cholera treatment centre in Conakry city from August 2011 to December 2013...
February 15, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446806/divergent-functional-roles-of-d-amino-acids-secreted-by-vibrio-cholerae
#5
REVIEW
Felipe Cava
The L-forms of amino acids are used in all kingdoms of life to synthesize proteins. However, the bacterium Vibriocholerae, the causative agent of cholera, produces D-amino acids which are released to the environment at millimolar concentrations. We baptized these D-amino acids as non-canonical D-amino acids (NCDAAs) since they are different from those (i.e. D-alanine and D-glutamate) normally present in the bacterial cell wall. In V. cholerae, production of NCDAAs relies on the BsrV enzyme, a periplasmic broad spectrum racemase...
September 2017: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446805/genomic-plasticity-of-vibrio-cholerae
#6
REVIEW
Jose Antonio Escudero, Didier Mazel
Vibrio cholerae is one of the deadliest pathogens in the history of humankind. It is the causative agent of cholera, a disease characterized by a profuse and watery diarrhoea that still today causes 95.000 deaths worldwide every year. V. cholerae is a free living marine organism that interacts with and infects a variety of organisms, from amoeba to humans, including insects and crustaceans. The complexity of the lifestyle and ecology of V. cholerae suggests a high genetic and phenotypic plasticity. In this review, we will focus on two peculiar genomic features that enhance genetic plasticity in this bacterium: the division of its genome in two different chromosomes and the presence of the superintegron, a gene capture device that acts as a large, low-cost memory of adaptive functions, allowing V...
September 2017: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446804/t6ss-intraspecific-competition-orchestrates-vibrio-cholerae-genotypic-diversity
#7
REVIEW
Benjamin Kostiuk, Daniel Unterweger, Daniele Provenzano, Stefan Pukatzki
Vibrio cholerae is a diverse species that inhabits a wide range of environments from copepods in brackish water to the intestines of humans. In order to remain competitive, V. cholerae uses the versatile type-VI secretion system (T6SS) to secrete anti-prokaryotic and anti-eukaryotic effectors. In addition to competing with other bacterial species, V. cholerae strains also compete with one another. Some strains are able to coexist, and are referred to as belonging to the same compatibility group. Challenged by diverse competitors in various environments, different V...
September 2017: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446803/coordination-between-replication-segregation-and-cell-division-in-multi-chromosomal-bacteria-lessons-from-vibrio-cholerae
#8
REVIEW
Elena Espinosa, François-Xavier Barre, Elisa Galli
Bacteria display a highly flexible cell cycle in which cell division can be temporally disconnected from the replication/segregation cycle of their genome. The accuracy of genetic transmission is enforced by restricting the assembly of the cell division apparatus to the low DNA-density zones that develop between the regularly spaced nucleoids originating from the concurrent replication and segregation of genomic DNA. In most bacteria, the process is simplified because the genome is encoded on a single chromosome...
September 2017: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446802/mechanisms-of-the-evolutionary-arms-race-between-vibrio-cholerae-and-vibriophage-clinical-isolates
#9
REVIEW
Minmin Yen, Andrew Camilli
This review highlights recent findings on the evolutionary arms race between the causative agent of cholera Vibrio cholerae and virulent bacteriophages (phages) ICP1, ICP2, and ICP3 isolated from cholera patient stool samples. We discuss mechanisms of phage resistance such as a unique phage-inhibitory chromosomal island and mutations that affect phage receptor expression. We also discuss the molecular characterization of ICP1 and its unique CRISPR-Cas system, which it uses to combat the phage-inhibitory chromosomal island...
September 2017: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446801/emergence-ecology-and-dispersal-of-the-pandemic-generating-vibrio-cholerae-lineage
#10
REVIEW
Mohammad T Islam, Munirul Alam, Yan Boucher
Although cholera is an ancient disease that first arose at least half a millennium ago, it remains a major health threat globally. Its pandemic form is caused by strains from a single lineage of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. The ancestor of this lineage harbored several distinctive characteristics, the most notable being the O1 antigen polysaccharide. This lineage generated two biotypes, first Classical, responsible for six pandemics, and later El Tor, responsible for the seventh and ongoing pandemic. Just as El Tor replaced Classical as the main cause of outbreaks in the last fifty years, several variants of El Tor have evolved and displaced their predecessors worldwide...
September 2017: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446800/biology-of-vibrio-cholera-editorial-overview
#11
EDITORIAL
Felipe Cava
In this monographic issue, we have the pleasure to present contributions from six of the leading laboratories at the forefront of Vibrio cholerae genetics, ecology and evolution, together with a brief tribute by Diego Romero to Doctor Jaime Ferrán y Clua, a pioneering Spanish bacteriologist who developed the first vaccine against this pathogen. V. cholerae is a free-living aquatic bacterium that interacts with and infects a variety of organisms. In humans it causes cholera, the deadly diarrhoea that was responsible for millions of deaths during seven pandemics since 1817, and still thousands every year...
September 2017: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434398/a-highly-promiscuous-integron-plasmids-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamases-and-efflux-pumps-as-factors-governing-multidrug-resistance-in-a-highly-drug-resistant-vibrio-fluvialis-isolate-bd146-from-kolkata-india
#12
Neha Rajpara, Mrinalini Nair, Ashima Kushwaha Bhardwaj
In an earlier study from this laboratory, Vibrio fluvialis BD146, a clinical isolate from Kolkata, India, 2002, was found to be resistant to all the fourteen antibiotics tested. It harboured a high copy number plasmid pBD146 and a low copy number plasmid. In the present study, a more detailed analysis was carried out to unravel different resistance mechanisms in this isolate. Sequencing showed that variable region of class 1 integron located on low copy number plasmid harbored arr3-cmlA-blaOXA10-aadA1 gene cassettes...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432487/structural-basis-of-mammalian-glycan-targeting-by-vibrio-cholerae-cytolysin-and-biofilm-proteins
#13
Swastik De, Katherine Kaus, Shada Sinclair, Brandon C Case, Rich Olson
Vibrio cholerae is an aquatic gram-negative microbe responsible for cholera, a pandemic disease causing life-threatening diarrheal outbreaks in populations with limited access to health care. Like most pathogenic bacteria, V. cholerae secretes virulence factors to assist colonization of human hosts, several of which bind carbohydrate receptors found on cell-surfaces. Understanding how pathogenic virulence proteins specifically target host cells is important for the development of treatment strategies to fight bacterial infections...
February 12, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431710/effect-of-salinity-on-medium-and-low-pressure-uv-disinfection-of-vibrio-cholerae
#14
P Y Chen, X N Chu, L Liu, J Y Hu
The problem of biological invasions attributed to ballast water release is an ongoing problem that threatens ecosystems and human health. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation has been increasingly used for ballast water treatment mainly due to the advantages of short contact time and minimized harmful disinfection by products. In this study, the impact of salinity on the inactivation of Vibrio cholerae (NCTC 7253) was examined, and comparison of inactivation level and disinfection kinetics after medium-pressure (MP) (1 kW) and low-pressure (LP) (10 W) UV irradiation was made...
February 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428381/genetic-diversity-of-toxigenic-vibrio-cholerae-o1-from-sabah-malaysia-2015
#15
Myo Thura Zaw, Nor Amalina Emran, Mohd Yusof Ibrahim, Maria Suleiman, Tajul Ariffin Awang Mohd, Aza Sherin Yusuff, Khin Saw Naing, Than Myint, Muhammad Jikal, Mohd Azmi Salleh, Zaw Lin
BACKGROUND: Cholera is an important health problem in Sabah, a Malaysian state in northern Borneo; however, Vibrio cholerae in Sabah have never been characterized. Since 2002, serogroup O1 strains having the traits of both classical and El Tor biotype, designated as atypical El Tor biotype, have been increasingly reported as the cause of cholera worldwide. These variants are believed to produce clinically more severe disease like classical strains. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the genetic diversity of V...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422606/conserved-unstructured-regions-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pilo-are-important-for-type-iva-pilus-function
#16
T L Leighton, M C Mok, M S Junop, P L Howell, L L Burrows
Pseudomonas aeruginosa uses long, thin fibres called type IV pili (T4P) for adherence to surfaces, biofilm formation, and twitching motility. A conserved subcomplex of PilMNOP is required for extension and retraction of T4P. To better understand its function, we attempted to co-crystallize the soluble periplasmic portions of PilNOP, using reductive surface methylation to promote crystal formation. Only PilOΔ109 crystallized; its structure was determined to 1.7 Å resolution using molecular replacement. This new structure revealed two novel features: a shorter N-terminal α1-helix followed by a longer unstructured loop, and a discontinuous β-strand in the second αββ motif, mirroring that in the first motif...
February 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408200/highly-affine-and-selective-aptamers-against-cholera-toxin-as-capture-elements-in-magnetic-bead-based-sandwich-elaa
#17
Esther Frohnmeyer, Farina Frisch, Sven Falke, Christian Betzel, Markus Fischer
Aptamers are single-stranded DNA or RNA oligonucleotides, which have been emerging as recognition elements in disease diagnostics and food control, including the detection of bacterial toxins. In this study, we employed the semi-automated just in time-selection to identify aptamers that bind to cholera toxin (CT) with high affinity and specificity. CT is the main virulence factor of Vibrio cholerae and the causative agent of the eponymous disease. For the selected aptamers, dissociation constants in the low nanomolar range (23-56 nM) were determined by fluorescence-based affinity chromatography and cross-reactivity against related proteins was evaluated by direct enzyme-linked aptamer assay (ELAA)...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404412/in-situ-analyses-directly-in-diarrheal-stool-reveal-large-variations-in-bacterial-load-and-active-toxin-expression-of-enterotoxigenic-escherichiacoli-and-vibrio-cholerae
#18
Yasmin Ara Begum, Hanna A Rydberg, Kaisa Thorell, Young-Keun Kwak, Lei Sun, Enrique Joffré, Firdausi Qadri, Åsa Sjöling
The bacterial pathogens enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and Vibrio cholerae are major causes of diarrhea. ETEC causes diarrhea by production of the heat-labile toxin (LT) and heat-stable toxins (STh and STp), while V. cholerae produces cholera toxin (CT). In this study, we determined the occurrence and bacterial doses of the two pathogens and their respective toxin expression levels directly in liquid diarrheal stools of patients in Dhaka, Bangladesh. By quantitative culture and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) detection of the toxin genes, the two pathogens were found to coexist in several of the patients, at concentrations between 102 and 108 bacterial gene copies per ml...
January 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398650/tracking-vibrio-cholerae-cell-cell-interactions-during-infection-reveals-bacterial-population-dynamics-within-intestinal-microenvironments
#19
Yang Fu, Brian T Ho, John J Mekalanos
Vibrio cholerae is the causative agent of the diarrheal disease cholera. Although many V. cholerae virulence factors have been studied, the role of interbacterial interactions within the host gut and their influence on colonization are poorly understood. Here, we utilized the conjugative properties of a Vibrio-specific plasmid to serve as a quantifiable genetic marker for direct contact among V. cholerae cells in the infant rabbit model for cholera. In conjunction, we also quantified contact-dependent type 6 secretion system (T6SS)-mediated killing of co-infecting V...
February 1, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377882/dried-blood-spots-for-measuring-vibrio-cholerae-specific-immune-responses
#20
Anita S Iyer, Andrew S Azman, Malika Bouhenia, Lul O Deng, Cole P Anderson, Michael Graves, Pavol Kováč, Peng Xu, Edward T Ryan, Jason B Harris, David A Sack, Francisco J Luquero, Daniel T Leung
BACKGROUND: Vibrio cholerae causes over 2 million cases of cholera and 90,000 deaths each year. Serosurveillance can be a useful tool for estimating the intensity of cholera transmission and prioritizing populations for cholera control interventions. Current methods involving venous blood draws and downstream specimen storage and transport methods pose logistical challenges in most settings where cholera strikes. To overcome these challenges, we developed methods for determining cholera-specific immune responses from dried blood spots (DBS)...
January 29, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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