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Vibrio cholerae

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327641/sequential-displacement-of-type-vi-secretion-system-effector-genes-leads-to-evolution-of-diverse-immunity-gene-arrays-in-vibrio-cholerae
#1
Paul C Kirchberger, Daniel Unterweger, Daniele Provenzano, Stefan Pukatzki, Yan Boucher
Type VI secretion systems (T6SS) enable bacteria to engage neighboring cells in contact-dependent competition. In Vibrio cholerae, three chromosomal clusters each encode a pair of effector and immunity genes downstream of those encoding the T6SS structural machinery for effector delivery. Different combinations of effector-immunity proteins lead to competition between strains of V. cholerae, which are thought to be protected only from the toxicity of their own effectors. Screening of all publically available V...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324231/occurrence-and-virulence-properties-of-vibrio-and-salinivibrio-isolates-from-tropical-lagoons-of-the-southern-caribbean-sea
#2
Milagro Fernández-Delgado, Paula Suárez, Sandra Giner, Virginia Sanz, Jessy Peña, Damarys Sánchez, M Alexandra García-Amado
The Vibrionaceae are Gram-negative bacteria present in marine and estuarine environments worldwide, including several species known as important pathogens to humans and aquatic organisms. The aim of this research was to investigate the occurrence and virulence properties of Vibrio and Salinivibrio isolated from lagoons at Cuare Wildlife Refuge and Margarita Island in the southern Caribbean Sea. Water, plankton and oyster samples were collected during October 2011 and March 2012 and examined by specific PCR and culture methods...
March 21, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319200/induction-of-immunomodulatory-mir-146a-and-mir-155-in-small-intestinal-epithelium-of-vibrio-cholerae-infected-patients-at-acute-stage-of-cholera
#3
Aziz Bitar, Rituparna De, Silvia Melgar, Kyaw Min Aung, Arman Rahman, Firdausi Qadri, Sun Nyunt Wai, Tahmina Shirin, Marie-Louise Hammarström
The potential immunomodulatory role of microRNAs in small intestine of patients with acute watery diarrhea caused by Vibrio cholerae O1 or enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infection was investigated. Duodenal biopsies were obtained from study-participants at the acute (day 2) and convalescent (day 21) stages of disease, and from healthy individuals. Levels of miR-146a, miR-155 and miR-375 and target gene (IRAK1, TRAF6, CARD10) and 11 cytokine mRNAs were determined by qRT-PCR. The cellular source of microRNAs in biopsies was analyzed by in situ hybridization...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319101/a-vibrio-cholerae-autoinducer-receptor-pair-that-controls-biofilm-formation
#4
Kai Papenfort, Justin E Silpe, Kelsey R Schramma, Jian-Ping Cong, Mohammad R Seyedsayamdost, Bonnie L Bassler
Quorum sensing (QS) is a cell-cell communication process that enables bacteria to track cell population density and orchestrate collective behaviors. QS relies on the production and detection of, and the response to, extracellular signal molecules called autoinducers. In Vibrio cholerae, multiple QS circuits control pathogenesis and biofilm formation. Here, we identify and characterize a new QS autoinducer-receptor pair. The autoinducer is 3,5-dimethylpyrazin-2-ol (DPO). DPO is made from threonine and alanine, and its synthesis depends on threonine dehydrogenase (Tdh)...
March 20, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318894/synthesis-and-human-bacterial-carbonic-anhydrase-inhibition-with-a-series-of-sulfonamides-incorporating-phthalimido-moieties
#5
Menshawy A Mohamed, Alaa A-M Abdel-Aziz, Helmy M Sakr, Adel S El-Azab, Silvia Bua, Claudiu T Supuran
A series of sulfonamides was obtained by reacting substituted-2-(1,3-dioxo-1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran-5-carboxamido)benzoic acids with aromatic sulfonamides incorporating primary amino moieties. The new compounds were investigated as inhibitor of four carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) isoforms, the human (h) hCA I and II, and the α- and β-class CAs from the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio cholerae, VchCAα and VhcCAβ. hCA I was effectively inhibited by the new sulfonamides, with inhibition constants in the range of 4...
March 9, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302312/cholera
#6
REVIEW
John D Clemens, G Balakrish Nair, Tahmeed Ahmed, Firdausi Qadri, Jan Holmgren
Cholera is an acute, watery diarrhoeal disease caused by Vibrio cholerae of the O1 or O139 serogroups. In the past two centuries, cholera has emerged and spread from the Ganges Delta six times and from Indonesia once to cause global pandemics. Rational approaches to the case management of cholera with oral and intravenous rehydration therapy have reduced the case fatality of cholera from more than 50% to much less than 1%. Despite improvements in water quality, sanitation, and hygiene, as well as in the clinical treatment of cholera, the disease is still estimated to cause about 100 000 deaths every year...
March 10, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300142/late-assembly-of-the-vibrio-cholerae-cell-division-machinery-postpones-septation-to-the-last-10-of-the-cell-cycle
#7
Elisa Galli, Evelyne Paly, François-Xavier Barre
Bacterial cell division is a highly regulated process, which involves the formation of a complex apparatus, the divisome, by over a dozen proteins. In the few model bacteria in which the division process was detailed, divisome assembly occurs in two distinct steps: a few proteins, including the FtsZ tubulin-like protein, form a membrane associated contractile ring, the Z-ring, at ~30% of the cell cycle. The Z-ring serves as a scaffold for the recruitment of a second series of proteins, including integral membrane and periplasmic cell wall remodelling enzymes, at ~50% of the cell cycle...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298441/identification-of-the-binding-sites-for-ubiquinone-and-inhibitors-in-the-na-pumping-nadh-ubiquinone-oxidoreductase-of-vibrio-cholerae-by-photoaffinity-labeling
#8
Takeshi Ito, Masatoshi Murai, Satoshi Ninokura, Yuki Kitazumi, Katherine G Mezic, Brady F Cress, Mattheos A G Koffas, Joel E Morgan, Blanca Barquera, Hideto Miyoshi
The Na(+)-pumping NADH-quinone oxidoreductase (Na(+)-NQR) is the first enzyme of the respiratory chain and the main ion transporter in many marine and pathogenic bacteria, including Vibrio cholerae The V. cholerae Na(+)-NQR has been extensively studied, but its binding sites for ubiquinone and inhibitors remain controversial. Here, using a photoreactive ubiquinone PUQ-3 as well as two aurachin-type inhibitors [(125)I]PAD-1 and [(125)I]PAD-2 and photoaffinity labeling experiments on the isolated enzyme, we demonstrate that the ubiquinone ring binds to the NqrA subunit in the regions Leu32-Met39 and Phe131-Lys138, encompassing the rear wall of a predicted ubiquinone-binding cavity...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293221/fish-as-hosts-of-vibrio-cholerae
#9
REVIEW
Malka Halpern, Ido Izhaki
Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of pandemic cholera, is abundant in marine and freshwater environments. Copepods and chironomids are natural reservoirs of this species. However, the ways V. cholerae is globally disseminated are as yet unknown. Here we review the scientific literature that provides evidence for the possibility that some fish species may be reservoirs and vectors of V. cholerae. So far, V. cholerae has been isolated from 30 fish species (22 freshwater; 9 marine). V. cholerae O1 was reported in a few cases...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283521/an-amoebal-grazer-of-cyanobacteria-requires-cobalamin-produced-by-heterotrophic-bacteria
#10
Amy T Ma, Joris Beld, Bianca Brahamsha
Amoebae are unicellular eukaryotes that consume microbial prey through phagocytosis, playing a role in shaping microbial foodwebs. Many amoebal species can be cultivated axenically in rich media or monoxenically with single bacterial prey species. Here we characterize heterolobosean amoeba LPG3, a recent natural isolate, which is unable to grow on unicellular cyanobacteria, its primary food source, in the absence of a heterotrophic bacterium, a Pseudomonas species coisolate. To investigate the molecular basis of this requirement for heterotrophic bacteria, we performed a screen using a defined non-redundant transposon library of Vibrio cholerae which implicated genes in corrinoid uptake and biosynthesis...
March 10, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278575/vibrio-cholerae-lipopolysaccharide-loaded-chitosan-nanoparticle-could-save-life-by-induction-of-specific-immunoglobulin-isotype
#11
Mahdi Fasihi-Ramandi, Hamideh Ghobadi-Ghadikolaee, Sajjad Ahmadi-Renani, Ramezan Ali Taheri, Kazem Ahmadi
The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae) plays an important role in cholera disease and the induction of primary protection. In this study, we evaluate mice humoral immune response in intranasal and intraperitoneal administrated V. cholerae LPS. The results showed that the intranasal administration of LPS-chitosan nanoparticle induced the high level of antibodies compared to intraperitoneal injection of antigen without chitosan (P < .001). These results indicated that intranasal and intraperitoneal administration of LPS has been able to induce the high level of antibodies both in the sera and lavage fluid and confirmed our strategy for using intranasal administration of antigen...
February 28, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270803/vibrio-cholerae-o1-with-reduced-susceptibility-to-ciprofloxacin-and-azithromycin-isolated-from-a-rural-coastal-area-of-bangladesh
#12
Shah M Rashed, Nur A Hasan, Munirul Alam, Abdus Sadique, Marzia Sultana, Md Mozammel Hoq, R Bradley Sack, Rita R Colwell, Anwar Huq
Cholera outbreaks occur each year in the remote coastal areas of Bangladesh and epidemiological surveillance and routine monitoring of cholera in these areas is challenging. In this study, a total of 97 Vibrio cholerae O1 isolates from Mathbaria, Bangladesh, collected during 2010 and 2014 were analyzed for phenotypic and genotypic traits, including antimicrobial susceptibility. Of the 97 isolates, 95 possessed CTX-phage mediated genes, ctxA, ace, and zot, and two lacked the cholera toxin gene, ctxA. Also both CTX(+) and CTX(-)V...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270154/pandemics-pathogenicity-and-changing-molecular-epidemiology-of-cholera-in-the-era-of-global-warming
#13
REVIEW
Fazle Rabbi Chowdhury, Zannatun Nur, Nazia Hassan, Lorenz von Seidlein, Susanna Dunachie
BACKGROUND: Vibrio cholerae, a Gram-negative, non-spore forming curved rod is found in diverse aquatic ecosystems around the planet. It is classified according to its major surface antigen into around 206 serogroups, of which O1 and O139 cause epidemic cholera. A recent spatial modelling technique estimated that around 2.86 million cholera cases occur globally every year, and of them approximately 95,000 die. About 1.3 billion people are currently at risk of infection from cholera. Meta-analysis and mathematical modelling have demonstrated that due to global warming the burden of vector-borne diseases like malaria, leishmaniasis, meningococcal meningitis, viral encephalitis, dengue and chikungunya will increase in the coming years in the tropics and beyond...
March 7, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264992/crispr-cas-and-contact-dependent-secretion-systems-present-on-excisable-pathogenicity-islands-with-conserved-recombination-modules
#14
Megan R Carpenter, Sai S Kalburge, Joseph D Borowski, Molly C Peters, Rita R Colwell, E Fidelma Boyd
Pathogenicity islands (PAIs) are mobile integrated genetic elements that contain a diverse range of virulence factors. PAIs integrate into the host chromosome at a tRNA locus that contains their specific bacterial attachment site, attB, via integrase mediated site-specific recombination generating attL and attR sites. We identified conserved recombination modules (integrases and att sites) previously described in choleragenic V. cholerae PAIs but with novel cargo genes. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-associated proteins (Cas proteins) and a type VI secretion system (T6SS) gene cluster were identified at the Vibrio Pathogenicity Island-1 (VPI-1) insertion site in nineteen V...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264910/the-expanding-role-of-type-ii-secretion-in-bacterial-pathogenesis-and-beyond
#15
Nicholas P Cianciotto, Richard C White
Type II secretion (T2S) is one means by which Gram-negative pathogens secrete proteins into the extracellular milieu and/or host organisms. Based upon recent genome sequencing, it is clear that T2S is largely restricted to the Proteobacteria, occurring in many, but not all genera in the α-, β-, γ-, and δ- classes. Prominent human and/or animal pathogens that express a T2S system(s) include Acinetobacter baumannii, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Chlamydia trachomatis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Vibrio cholerae, and Yersinia enterocolitica T2S-expressing plant pathogens include Dickeya dadantii, Erwinia amylovora, Pectobacterium carotovorum, Ralstonia solanacearum, Xanthomonas campestris, Xanthomonas oryzae, and Xylella fastidiosa T2S also occurs in non-pathogenic bacteria, facilitating symbioses, among other things...
March 6, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246358/the-proximity-of-ribosomal-protein-genes-to-oric-enhances-vibrio-cholerae-fitness-in-the-absence-of-multifork-replication
#16
Alfonso Soler-Bistué, Michaël Timmermans, Didier Mazel
Recent works suggest that bacterial gene order links chromosome structure to cell homeostasis. Comparative genomics showed that, in fast-growing bacteria, ribosomal protein genes (RP) locate near the replication origin (oriC). We recently showed that Vibrio cholerae employs this positional bias as a growth optimization strategy: under fast-growth conditions, multifork replication increases RP dosage and expression. However, RP location may provide advantages in a dosage-independent manner: for example, the physical proximity of the many ribosomal components, in the context of a crowded cytoplasm, may favor ribosome biogenesis...
February 28, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242357/transcriptional-and-post-transcriptional-regulation-of-pst2-operon-expression-in-vibrio-cholerae-o1
#17
Daniel M da C Leite, Livia C Barbosa, Nathalia Mantuano, Carolina L Goulart, Giovani C Veríssimo da Costa, Paulo M Bisch, Wanda M A von Krüger
One of the most abundant proteins in V. cholerae O1 cells grown under inorganic phosphate (Pi) limitation is PstS, the periplasmic Pi-binding component of the high-affinity Pi transport system Pst2 (PstSCAB), encoded in pst2 operon (pstS-pstC2-pstA2-pstB2). Besides its role in Pi uptake, Pst2 has been also associated with V. cholerae virulence. However, the mechanisms regulating pst2 expression and the non-stoichiometric production of the Pst2 components under Pi-limitation are unknown. A computational-experimental approach was used to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms behind pst2 expression in V...
February 27, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239422/differential-regulation-of-riboflavin-supply-genes-in-vibrio-cholerae
#18
Ignacio Sepúlveda Cisternas, Alexia Torres, Andrés Fuentes Flores, Víctor Antonio García Angulo
BACKGROUND: Riboflavin is the precursor of important redox cofactors such as flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide, required for several biological processes. Vibrio cholerae, a pathogenic bacterium responsible for the cholera disease, possesses the ability to biosynthesize de novo as well as to uptake riboflavin through the riboflavin biosynthetic pathway (RBP) and the RibN importer, respectively. The intra-organism relationship between riboflavin biosynthesis and uptake functions has not been studied...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235640/groel-pcr-rflp-an-efficient-tool-to-discriminate-closely-related-pathogenic-vibrio-species
#19
Reshma Silvester, Deborah Alexander, Ally C Antony, Mohamed Hatha
Vibrio sp. are autochthonous to marine and estuarine waters. Several species of Vibrio are pathogens. It is of utmost importance to detect and discriminate the Vibrio sp. that are often involved in food and water borne infections. Since 16S rRNA based identification has limited utility in differentiating the closely related pathogenic species from non pathogenic species, we have evaluated the discriminatory power of groEL PCR-RFLP for identification of closely related Vibrio sp. Accordingly, in the current study, the efficiency of groEL PCR- RFLP for detection and accurate differentiation of known pathogens among Vibrio sp...
February 22, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228329/stringent-factor-and-proteolysis-control-of-sigma-factor-rpos-expression-in-vibrio-cholerae
#20
Philipp Wurm, Sarah Tutz, Beatrice Mutsam, Dina Vorkapic, Barbara Heyne, Claudia Grabner, Katharina Kleewein, Anja Halscheidt, Stefan Schild, Joachim Reidl
Vibrio cholerae can colonize the gastrointestinal track of humans and cause the disease cholera. During colonization, the alternative sigma factor, RpoS, controls a process known as "mucosal escape response," defining a specific spatial and temporal response and effecting chemotaxis and motility. In this report, the expression and proteolytic control of RpoS in V. cholerae was characterized. To date, aspects of proteolysis control, the involved components, and proteolysis regulation have not been addressed for RpoS in V...
February 7, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
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