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Vibrio cholerae

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923919/quorum-sensing-coordinates-cooperative-expression-of-pyruvate-metabolism-genes-to-maintain-a-sustainable-environment-for-population-stability
#1
Lisa A Hawver, Jennifer M Giulietti, James D Baleja, Wai-Leung Ng
: Quorum sensing (QS) is a microbial cell-cell communication system that regulates gene expression in response to population density to coordinate collective behaviors. Yet, the role of QS in resolving the stresses caused by the accumulation of toxic metabolic by-products at high cell density is not well defined. In response to cell density, QS could be involved in reprogramming of the metabolic network to maintain population stability. Using unbiased metabolomics, we discovered that Vibrio cholerae mutants genetically locked in a low cell density (LCD) QS state are unable to alter the pyruvate flux to convert fermentable carbon sources into neutral acetoin and 2,3-butanediol molecules to offset organic acid production...
December 6, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923270/comparison-of-antibody-immobilization-strategies-in-detection-of-vibrio-cholerae-by-surface-plasmon-resonance
#2
Ramezan Ali Taheri, Ali Hossein Rezayan, Fereshteh Rahimi, Javad Mohammadnejad, Mehdi Kamali
Surface plasmon resonance immunosensor for the detection of bacterial cells was first reported in 1998 with high detection limit as much as 10(7 )cfu/ml. Since then, many efforts have been made aiming to lower the detection limit and improve the sensitivity of detection. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of four most frequently used immobilization strategies, including direct physical adsorption (physisorption), covalent immobilization via self-assembled monolayer (SAM) formation, bioaffinity immobilization using protein G-mediated immobilization and using mixed SAM of alkane thiols on signal strength of detection of Vibrio cholerae using these modified surfaces...
December 6, 2016: Biointerphases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921342/cross-protection-against-vibrio-cholerae-infection-by-monoclonal-antibodies-against-vibrio-vulnificus-rtxa1-martxvv
#3
Tae Hee Lee, Sun-Shin Cha, Chang-Seop Lee, Joon Haeng Rhee, Hye Ryun Woo, Kyung Min Chung
Gram-negative Vibrio species secrete multifunctional autoprocessing repeats-in-toxin (MARTX) toxins associated with bacterial pathogenesis. Here, the cross-reactivity and cross-protectivity of mAbs against V. vulnificus RtxA1/MARTXVv was evaluated. Passive administration of any of these mAbs (21RA, 24RA, 46RA, 47RA and 50RA) provided strong protection against lethal V. cholerae infection. Interestingly, 24RA and 46RA, which map to the cysteine protease domain of V. cholerae MARTXVc , inhibited CPD autocleavage in vitro; this process is involved in V...
November 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917206/anticancer-and-antibacterial-secondary-metabolites-from-the-endophytic-fungus-penicillium-sp-cam64-against-multi-drug-resistant-gram-negative-bacteria
#4
Jean-Bosco Jouda, Jean-de-Dieu Tamokou, Céline Djama Mbazoa, Prodipta Sarkar, Prasanta Kumar Bag, Jean Wandji
BACKGROUND: The emergence of multiple-drug resistance bacteria has become a major threat and thus calls for an urgent need to search for new effective and safe anti-bacterial agents. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to evaluate the anticancer and antibacterial activities of secondary metabolites from Penicillium sp., an endophytic fungus associated with leaves of Garcinia nobilis. METHODS: The culture filtrate from the fermentation of Penicillium sp...
September 2016: African Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916412/kinetics-of-antibody-secreting-cell-and-fecal-iga-responses-after-oral-cholera-vaccination-in-different-age-groups-in-a-cholera-endemic-country
#5
Marjahan Akhtar, Firdausi Qadri, Taufiqur R Bhuiyan, Sarmin Akter, Tanzeem A Rafique, Arifuzzaman Khan, Laila N Islam, Amit Saha, Ann-Mari Svennerholm, Anna Lundgren
Immune responses to oral enteric vaccines in children and infants may be influenced by factors such as age, previous priming with related microorganisms and breast feeding. In this study, we aimed to determine optimal time points to assess immune responses to oral enteric vaccines in different clinical specimens. This was done by investigating antibody secreting cell (ASC) and fecal antibody responses on different days after vaccination using the licensed oral cholera vaccine Dukoral, containing cholera toxin B-subunit (rCTB) and inactivated Vibrio cholerae bacteria, as a model vaccine...
December 1, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910791/effects-of-ethyl-acetate-extracts-from-the-polycephalomyces-nipponicus-isolate-cod-mk1201-ascomycetes-against-human-pathogenic-bacteria-and-a-breast-cancer-cell-line
#6
Kusavadee Sangdee, Prapairat Seephonkai, Benjaporn Buranrat, Nilawan Surapong, Aphidech Sangdee
This study aimed to identify a suitable organic solvent for extracting bioactive compounds from Polycephalomyces nipponicus and to evaluate the antibacterial and anticancer activities of the extracts obtained. Only extracts obtained with ethyl acetate exhibited antibacterial activity, so ethyl acetate was chosen for large-scale extraction. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) against Gram-positive and Gram-negative human pathogenic bacteria of the 3 ethyl acetate-derived extracts-ethyl acetate extract from P...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903655/random-versus-cell-cycle-regulated-replication-initiation-in-bacteria-insights-from-studying-vibrio-cholerae-chromosome-2
#7
REVIEW
Revathy Ramachandran, Jyoti Jha, Johan Paulsson, Dhruba Chattoraj
Bacterial chromosomes initiate replication at a fixed time in the cell cycle, whereas there is generally no particular time for plasmid replication initiation or chromosomal replication initiation from integrated plasmids. In bacteria with divided genomes, the replication system of one of the chromosomes typically resembles that of bacteria with undivided genomes, whereas the remaining chromosomes have plasmid-like replication systems. For example, in Vibrio cholerae, a bacterium with two chromosomes (chromosome 1 [Chr1] and Chr2), the Chr1 system resembles that of the Escherichia coli chromosome, and the Chr2 system resembles that of iteron-based plasmids...
March 2017: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902431/effects-of-chromosomal-deletion-of-the-operon-encoding-the-multiple-resistance-and-ph-mrp-antiporter-in-vibrio-cholerae
#8
Alisha Marie Aagesen, Carla B Schubiger, Eric C Hobson, Pavel Dibrov, Claudia Häse
To examine the possible physiological significance of Mrp, a multi-subunit cation-proton antiporter from Vibrio cholerae, a chromosomal deletion Δmrp of V. cholerae was constructed and characterized. The resulting mutant showed a consistent early growth defect in LB broth that became more evident at elevated pH of the growth medium and increasing Na+ or K+ loads. After 24 hours of incubation, these differences disappear likely due to the concerted effort of other cation pumps in the mrp mutant. Phenotype Microarray analyses revealed an unexpected systematic defect in nitrogen utilization in the Δmrp mutant that was complemented by using the mrpA'-F operon on an arabinose-inducible expression vector...
October 24, 2016: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900286/selective-and-efficient-elimination-of-vibrio-cholerae-with-a-chemical-modulator-that-targets-glucose-metabolism
#9
Young Taek Oh, Hwa Young Kim, Eun Jin Kim, Junhyeok Go, Wontae Hwang, Hyoung Rae Kim, Dong Wook Kim, Sang Sun Yoon
Vibrio cholerae, a Gram-negative bacterium, is the causative agent of pandemic cholera. Previous studies have shown that the survival of the seventh pandemic El Tor biotype V. cholerae strain N16961 requires production of acetoin in a glucose-rich environment. The production of acetoin, a neutral fermentation end-product, allows V. cholerae to metabolize glucose without a pH drop, which is mediated by the production of organic acid. This finding suggests that inhibition of acetoin fermentation can result in V...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892495/quorum-regulated-resistance-of-vibrio-cholerae-against-environmental-bacteriophages
#10
M Mozammel Hoque, Iftekhar Bin Naser, S M Nayeemul Bari, Jun Zhu, John J Mekalanos, Shah M Faruque
Predation by bacteriophages can significantly influence the population structure of bacterial communities. Vibrio cholerae the causative agent of cholera epidemics interacts with numerous phages in the aquatic ecosystem, and in the intestine of cholera patients. Seasonal epidemics of cholera reportedly collapse due to predation of the pathogen by phages. However, it is not clear how sufficient number of the bacteria survive to seed the environment in the subsequent epidemic season. We found that bacterial cell density-dependent gene expression termed "quorum sensing" which is regulated by signal molecules called autoinducers (AIs) can protect V...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891338/non-o157-h7-shiga-toxin-producing-diarrhoeagenic-escherichia-coli-stec-in-southern-india-a-tinderbox-for-starting-epidemic
#11
Shashank Purwar, Subrana Roy, Sharada Metgud
INTRODUCTION: Outbreaks due to non-O157:H7 Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) resulting in Haemolytic Uraemic Syndrome (HUS) have garnered much attention because of associated mortality transcending across continents and also because diarrhoea due to E.coli itself is rare in developed countries. The actual incidence of non-O157:H7 STEC in sporadic acute diarrhoea is not fully elucidated, both in developing as well as in developed countries. Due to larger extent of faecal-oral transmission in developing countries it is prudent to look for non-O157: H7 STEC in such epidemiological settings because of very high potential to spread across larger geographical regions and cause life threatening illness...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891182/case-control-study-of-diarrheal-disease-etiology-in-individuals-over-5%C3%A2-years-in-southwest-china
#12
Shun-Xian Zhang, Chun-Li Yang, Wen-Peng Gu, Lin Ai, Emmanuel Serrano, Pin Yang, Xia Zhou, Shi-Zhu Li, Shan Lv, Zhi-Sheng Dang, Jun-Hu Chen, Wei Hu, Li-Guang Tian, Jia-Xu Chen, Xiao-Nong Zhou
BACKGROUND: Acute diarrhea is one of the major public health problems worldwide. Most of studies on acute diarrhea have been made on infants aged below 5 years and few efforts have been made to identify the etiological agents of acute diarrhea in people over five, especially in China. METHODS: 271 diarrhea cases and 149 healthy controls over 5 years were recruited from four participating hospitals between June 2014 and July 2015. Each stool specimen was collected to detect a series of enteric pathogens, involving five viruses (Rotavirus group A, RVA; Norovirus, NoV; Sapovirus, SaV; Astrovirus, As; and Adenovirus, Ad), seven bacteria (diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, DEC; non-typhoidal Salmonella, NTS; Shigella spp...
2016: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888291/whole-genome-enrichment-provides-deep-insights-into-vibrio-cholerae-metagenome-from-an-african-river
#13
L Vezzulli, C Grande, G Tassistro, I Brettar, M G Höfle, R P A Pereira, D Mushi, A Pallavicini, P Vassallo, C Pruzzo
The detection and typing of Vibrio cholerae in natural aquatic environments encounter major methodological challenges related to the fact that the bacterium is often present in environmental matrices at very low abundance in nonculturable state. This study applied, for the first time to our knowledge, a whole-genome enrichment (WGE) and next-generation sequencing (NGS) approach for direct genotyping and metagenomic analysis of low abundant V. cholerae DNA (<50 genome unit/L) from natural water collected in the Morogoro river (Tanzania)...
November 25, 2016: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888174/phenotypic-and-antibiogram-pattern-of-v-cholerae-isolates-from-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-mumbai-during-2004-2013-a-retrospective-cross-sectional-study
#14
V Torane, S Kuyare, G Nataraj, P Mehta, S Dutta, B Sarkar
OBJECTIVES: Cholera is a major gastroenteric disease with reports on fluctuation and resistance. Hence, the objective is to determine the trend in seasonality, resistance pattern, prevalent biotypes, serotypes and phage types between 2004 and 2013 among Vibrio cholerae isolates. DESIGN: A retrospective cross-sectional study. SETTINGS: A single-centre study was carried out at a tertiary care hospital in a metropolitan city (Mumbai) of a developing country (India)...
November 25, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874136/a-self-quenching-resistant-carbon-nanodot-powder-with-multicolored-solid-state-fluorescence-for-ultra-fast-staining-of-various-representative-bacterial-species-within-one-minute
#15
Yongqiang Zhang, Chunfeng Li, Yi Fan, Chengbin Wang, Ruifu Yang, Xingyuan Liu, Lei Zhou
In this study, we prepared self-quenching-resistant solid-state fluorescent carbon nanodots (SFCDs) without any other solid matrices. The SFCDs were prepared using a one-step microwave synthesis method through precise control of the heating power and time. The resulting SFCD powder showed excitation-dependent emission behavior with a maximum fluorescence quantum yield of 40%. The multicolored SFCDs were successfully used as fluorescent agents for rapid staining of 14 representative bacterial species, including Gram-negative, Gram-positive, and acid-fast bacteria...
December 1, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871750/biogeochemical-and-hydrological-drivers-of-the-dynamics-of-vibrio-species-in-two-patagonian-estuaries
#16
Germán A Kopprio, M Eugenia Streitenberger, Kentaro Okuno, Mónica Baldini, Florencia Biancalana, Anna Fricke, Ana Martínez, Sucharit B Neogi, Boris P Koch, Shinji Yamasaki, Rubén J Lara
The ecology of the most relevant Vibrio species for human health and their relation to water quality and biogeochemistry were studied in two estuaries in Argentinian Patagonia. Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus were reported in >29% of cases at the Río Colorado and Río Negro estuaries. Neither the pandemic serogroups of Vibrio cholerae O1, Vibrio cholerae O139 nor the cholera toxin gene were detected in this study. However, several strains of V. cholerae (not O1 or O139) are able to cause human disease or acquire pathogenic genes by horizontal transfer...
November 18, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871138/high-genetic-diversity-of-vibrio-cholerae-in-the-european-lake-neusiedler-see-is-associated-with-intensive-recombination-in-the-reed-habitat-and-the-long-distance-transfer-of-strains
#17
Carina Pretzer, Irina S Druzhinina, Carmen Amaro, Eva Benediktsdóttir, Ingela Hedenström, Dominique Hervio-Heath, Steliana Huhulescu, Franciska M Schets, Andreas H Farnleitner, Alexander K T Kirschner
Coastal marine Vibrio cholerae populations usually exhibit high genetic diversity. To assess the genetic diversity of abundant V. cholerae non-O1/non-O139 populations in the Central European lake Neusiedler See we performed a phylogenetic analysis based on recA, toxR, gyrB and pyrH loci sequenced for 472 strains. The strains were isolated from three ecologically different habitats in a lake that is a hot-spot of migrating birds and an important bathing water. We also analysed 76 environmental and human V. cholerae non-O1/non-O139 isolates from Austria and other European countries and added sequences of seven genome-sequenced strains...
November 21, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864644/targeting-and-alteration-of-tight-junctions-by-bacteria-and-their-virulence-factors-such-as-clostridium-perfringens-enterotoxin
#18
REVIEW
Miriam Eichner, Jonas Protze, Anna Piontek, Gerd Krause, Jörg Piontek
The integrity of tight junctions, which regulate paracellular permeability, is challenged by many bacterial pathogens. This is caused by inflammatory responses triggered by pathogens and direct interaction of bacteria or their toxins with host epithelial cells. In some cases, tight junction proteins represent receptors for cell surface proteins or toxins of the pathogen, such as Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE). CPE causes diarrhea and cramps-the symptoms of a common foodborne illness, caused by C...
November 18, 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858184/pathogenic-mechanisms-of-actin-cross-linking-toxins-peeling-away-the-layers
#19
Elena Kudryashova, David B Heisler, Dmitri S Kudryashov
Actin cross-linking toxins are produced by Gram-negative bacteria from Vibrio and Aeromonas genera. The toxins were named actin cross-linking domains (ACD), since the first and most of the subsequently discovered ACDs were found as effector domains in larger MARTX and VgrG toxins. Among recognized human pathogens, ACD is produced by Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio vulnificus, and Aeromonas hydrophila. Upon delivery to the cytoplasm of a host cell, ACD covalently cross-links actin monomers into non-polymerizable actin oligomers of various lengths...
November 18, 2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849586/origins-of-the-current-seventh-cholera-pandemic
#20
Dalong Hu, Bin Liu, Lu Feng, Peng Ding, Xi Guo, Min Wang, Boyang Cao, Peter R Reeves, Lei Wang
Vibrio cholerae has caused seven cholera pandemics since 1817, imposing terror on much of the world, but bacterial strains are currently only available for the sixth and seventh pandemics. The El Tor biotype seventh pandemic began in 1961 in Indonesia, but did not originate directly from the classical biotype sixth-pandemic strain. Previous studies focused mainly on the spread of the seventh pandemic after 1970. Here, we analyze in unprecedented detail the origin, evolution, and transition to pandemicity of the seventh-pandemic strain...
November 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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