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Vibrio cholerae

Caitlin K Wotanis, William P Brennan, Anthony D Angotti, Elizabeth A Villa, Josiah P Zayner, Alexandra N Mozina, Alexandria C Rutkovsky, Richard C Sobe, Whitney G Bond, Ece Karatan
The polyamine norspermidine is one of the major polyamines synthesized by Vibrionales and has also been found in various aquatic organisms. Norspermidine is among the environmental signals that positively regulate Vibrio cholerae biofilm formation. The NspS/MbaA signaling complex detects extracellular norspermidine and mediates the response to this polyamine. Norspermidine binding to the NspS periplasmic binding protein is thought to inhibit the phosphodiesterase activity of MbaA, increasing levels of the biofilm-promoting second messenger cyclic diguanylate monophosphate, thus enhancing biofilm formation...
2017: PloS One
Sheikh Julfikar Hossain, M Rabiul Islam, Tahmina Pervin, M Iftekharuzzaman, Omer A A Hamdi, Sanzida Mubassara, M Saifuzzaman, Jamil Ahmad Shilpi
Fruits of Sonneratia apetala (Buch.-Ham.), (English: mangrove apple, Bengali: keora) both seeds and pericarps, are largely consumed as food besides their enormous medicinal application. The fruit seeds have high content of nutrients and bioactive components. The seeds powder of S. apetala was successively fractionated using n-hexane, diethyl ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol. The fractions were used to evaluate antibacterial, anti-diarrhoeal, analgesic, and cytotoxic activities. Methanol fraction of seeds (MeS) stronly inhibited Escherichia coli strains, Salmonella Paratyphi A, Salmonella Typhi, Shigella dysenteriae, and Staphylococcus aureus except Vibrio cholerae at 500 μg/disc...
September 2017: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
Anindito Sen, Amar N Ghosh
Phage D10, an O1 El Tor tying vibriophage, has been successfully employed to tract the outspread of cholera epidemic. Using Transmission Electron Microscopy and computational image analysis, we have determined the structures of the capsid, head-to-tail connector, the contractile helical tail, the baseplate and combined them to form the complete three-dimensional (3D) D10 phage structure. Using partial denaturation experiments on the genome and using the computed 3D structure of the phage, we have established the packing of the genome ends inside the capsid together with the release styles during the phage infection, respectively...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Gairika Ghosh, Jayavardhana Reddy, Susmit Sambhare, Ranjan Sen
Rho is a hexameric molecular motor that functions as a conserved transcription terminator in majority of the bacterial species, which is a potential drug target. Psu is a bacteriophage P4 capsid protein that inhibits E.coli Rho by obstructing its ATPase and translocase activities. Here, we explored the anti-Rho activity of Psu for the Rho proteins from different pathogens. Sequence alignment and homology modelling of Rho proteins from pathogenic bacteria revealed the conserved nature of the Psu-interacting regions in all these proteins...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
Loree Mewborn, Jorge A Benitez, Anisia J Silva
Vibrio cholerae of serogroups O1 and O139, the causative agent of Asiatic cholera, continues to be a major global health threat. This pathogen utilizes substratum-specific pili to attach to distinct surfaces in the aquatic environment and the human small intestine and detaches when conditions become unfavorable. Both attachment and detachment are critical to bacterial environmental survival, pathogenesis and disease transmission. However, the factors that promote detachment are less understood. In this study, we examine the role of flagellar motility and hemagglutinin/protease (HapA) in vibrio detachment from a non-degradable abiotic surface and from the suckling mouse intestine...
October 13, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
Laura Stanbery, Jyl S Matson
Antibiotics are important adjuncts to oral rehydration therapy in cholera disease management. However, due to the rapid emergence of resistance to the antibiotics used to treat cholera, therapeutic options are becoming limited. Therefore, there is a critical need to develop additional therapeutics to aid in the treatment of cholera. Previous studies showed that the extracytoplasmic stress response (σ(E)) pathway of Vibrio cholerae is required for full virulence of the organism. The pathway is also required for bacterial growth in the presence of ethanol...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Laura Alvarez, Alena Aliashkevich, Miguel A de Pedro, Felipe Cava
Bacteria face tough competition in polymicrobial communities. To persist in a specific niche, many species produce toxic extracellular effectors to interfere with the growth of nearby microbes. These effectors include the recently reported non-canonical D-amino acids (NCDAAs). In Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, NCDAAs control cell wall integrity in stationary phase. Here, an analysis of the composition of the extracellular medium of V. cholerae revealed the unprecedented presence of D-Arg. Compared with other D-amino acids, D-Arg displayed higher potency and broader toxicity in terms of the number of bacterial species affected...
October 13, 2017: ISME Journal
Maxime J Billick, Philip W Lam, Isaac I Bogoch
Introduction.Vibrio species are curved, motile Gram-negative bacilli found in estuarine and marine environments, and are known to cause to gastroenteritis, skin and soft tissue infections, and septicaemia. While not responsible for cholera epidemics, non-O1/O139 Vibrio cholerae (NOVC) is increasingly reported as a cause of gastroenteritis. Case presentation. A 66-year-old man presented to an emergency department with a 1 week history of epigastric pain, emesis and fever. Blood cultures drawn on admission initially demonstrated Gram-negative bacilli, and ultimately grew NOVC, which was later confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight MS...
July 2017: JMM Case Reports
Samba O Sow, Milagritos D Tapia, Wilbur H Chen, Fadima C Haidara, Karen L Kotloff, Marcela F Pasetti, William C Blackwelder, Awa Traoré, Boubou Tamboura, Moussa Doumbia, Fatoumata Diallo, Flanon Coulibaly, Uma Onwuchekwa, Mamoudou Kodio, Sharon M Tennant, Mardi Reymann, Diana F Lam, Marc Gurwith, Michael Lock, Thomas Yonker, Jonathan Smith, Jakub K Simon, Myron M Levine
Reactive immunization with a single-dose cholera vaccine that could rapidly (within days) protect immunologically-naïve individuals during "virgin soil" epidemics would facilitate cholera control. One dose of attenuated Vibrio cholerae O1 classical Inaba vaccine CVD 103-HgR (Vaxchora™) containing ≥2x10(8) colony forming units (cfu) induces vibriocidal antibody seroconversion (correlate of protection) in >90% of U.S. adults. A previous CVD 103-HgR commercial formulation required ≥2x10(9) cfu to elicit high seroconversion in developing country populations...
October 11, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
Jyl S Matson, Jonathan Livny, Victor J DiRita
The epidemic pathogen Vibrio cholerae senses and responds to different external stresses it encounters in the aquatic environment and in the human host. One stress that V. cholerae encounters in the host is exposure to antimicrobial peptides on mucosal surfaces. We used massively parallel cDNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) to quantitatively identify the transcriptome of V. cholerae grown in the presence and absence of sub-lethal concentrations of the antimicrobial peptide polymyxin B. We evaluated the transcriptome of both wild type V...
2017: PloS One
Juan F Mosley, Lillian L Smith, Patricia Brantley, Dustin Locke, Madison Como
Vaxchora is the first vaccine approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the prophylaxis of cholera infection. Cholera, a potentially life-threatening bacterial infection that occurs in the intestines and causes severe diarrhea and dehydration, has a low incidence in the U.S., but a high incidence in Africa, Southeast Asia, and other locations around the world. These areas draw travelers from the U.S., so cholera can present in patients who return from visits to these regions. Previous means of prophylaxis included the use of doxycycline for the prevention of traveler's diarrhea, but doxycycline is not specific for cholera...
October 2017: P & T: a Peer-reviewed Journal for Formulary Management
Sara Cleto, Timothy K Lu
Peptides that are synthesized independently of the ribosome in plants, fungi, and bacteria can have clinically relevant anticancer, antihemochromatosis, and antiviral activities, among many other. Despite their natural origin, discovering new natural products is challenging, and there is a need to expand the chemical diversity that is accessible. In this work, we created a novel, compressed synthetic pathway for the heterologous expression and diversification of nonribosomal peptides (NRPs) based on homologs of siderophore pathways from Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae To enhance the likelihood of successful molecule production, we established a selective pressure via the iron-chelating properties of siderophores...
October 10, 2017: MBio
Alasdair Cohen, John M Colford
Globally, approximately 2 billion people lack microbiologically safe drinking water. Boiling is the most prevalent household water treatment method, yet evidence of its health impact is limited. To conduct this systematic review, we searched four online databases with no limitations on language or publication date. Studies were eligible if health outcomes were measured for participants who reported consuming boiled and untreated water. We used reported and calculated odds ratios (ORs) and random-effects meta-analysis to estimate pathogen-specific and pooled effects by organism group and nonspecific diarrhea...
September 5, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
David W Oguttu, A Okullo, G Bwire, P Nsubuga, A R Ario
BACKGROUND: On 12 October 2015, a cholera outbreak involving 65 cases and two deaths was reported in a fishing village in Hoima District, Western Uganda. Despite initial response by the local health department, the outbreak persisted. We conducted an investigation to identify the source and mode of transmission, and recommend evidence-led interventions to control and prevent cholera outbreaks in this area. METHODS: We defined a suspected case as the onset of acute watery diarrhoea from 1 October to 2 November 2015 in a resident of Kaiso Village...
October 10, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Cynthia Semá Baltazar, José Paulo Langa, Liliana Dengo Baloi, Richard Wood, Issaka Ouedraogo, Berthe-Marie Njanpop-Lafourcade, Dorteia Inguane, Jucunu Elias Chitio, Themba Mhlanga, Lorna Gujral, Bradford D Gessner, Aline Munier, Martin A Mengel
BACKGROUND: Mozambique suffers recurrent annual cholera outbreaks especially during the rainy season between October to March. The African Cholera Surveillance Network (Africhol) was implemented in Mozambique in 2011 to generate accurate detailed surveillance data to support appropriate interventions for cholera control and prevention in the country. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Africhol was implemented in enhanced surveillance zones located in the provinces of Sofala (Beira), Zambézia (District Mocuba), and Cabo Delgado (Pemba City)...
October 9, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Peng-Hsun Chase Chen, Sheng-Yang Ho, Pin-Lung Chen, Tzu-Chiao Hung, An-Jou Liang, Tang-Feng Kuo, Hsiao-Chun Huang, Tsung-Shing Andrew Wang
Siderophores are small molecules used to specifically transport iron into bacteria via related receptors. By adapting siderophores and hijacking their pathways, we may discover an efficient and selective way to target microbes. Herein, we report the synthesis of a siderophore-fluorophore conjugate VF-FL derived from vibrioferrin (VF). Using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy, the probe selectively labeled vibrios, including V. parahaemolyticus, V. cholerae, and V. vulnificus, even in the presence of other species such as S...
October 16, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
Nicolas Perez-Soto, Lauren Moule, Daniel N Crisan, Ignacio Insua, Leanne M Taylor-Smith, Kerstin Voelz, Francisco Fernandez-Trillo, Anne Marie Krachler
Here we report the first application of non-bactericidal synthetic polymers to modulate the physiology of a bacterial pathogen. Poly(N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl] methacrylamide) (P1) and poly(N-(3-aminopropyl)methacrylamide) (P2), cationic polymers that bind to the surface of V. cholerae, the infectious agent causing cholera disease, can sequester the pathogen into clusters. Upon clustering, V. cholerae transitions to a sessile lifestyle, characterised by increased biofilm production and the repression of key virulence factors such as the cholera toxin (CTX)...
August 1, 2017: Chemical Science
Pavel Dibrov, Elena Dibrov, Grant N Pierce
The recent breakthrough in structural studies on Na+-translocating NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Na+-NQR) from the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae creates a perspective for the systematic design of inhibitors for this unique enzyme, which is the major Na+ pump in aerobic pathogens. Widespread distribution of Na+-NQR among pathogenic species, its key role in energy metabolism, its relation to virulence in different species as well as its absence in eukaryotic cells makes this enzyme especially attractive as a target for prospective antibiotics...
September 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
Shridhar S Paranjape, Ravindranath Shashidhar
The ploidy of Vibrio cholerae was quantified under different growth conditions. The V. cholerae was found to be (mero-) oligoploid or polyploid. The ploidy levels per cell were found to be growth phase regulated. The ploidy is highest during the early stationary phase (56-72 per cell) and lowest in the long-term starved state. In addition to growth phase, an external parameter such as nutrient level influences the ploidy, i.e. ploidy reduces rapidly at the onset of the starvation. The reduction is significant with P-value < 0...
October 16, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Pichet Ruenchit, Onrapak Reamtong, Kanokrat Siripanichgon, Wanpen Chaicumpa, Pornphan Diraphat
Different serogroups of Vibrio cholerae may inhabit the same ecological niche. However, serogroup O1/O139 strains are rarely isolated from their ecological sources. Quite plausibly, the non-O1/non-O139 vibrios and other bacterial species suppress growth of the O1/O139 that shares the same niche. Our bacterial inhibition assay data indicated that certain non-O1/non-O139 strains used a contact-dependent type VI secretion system (T6SS) to suppress growth of the O1 El Tor, N16961 pandemic strain. Meanwhile, comparative proteomics of the O1 and the suppressive non-O1/non-O139 co-cultured in the simulated natural aquatic microcosm showed that SecB and HlyD were upregulated in the latter...
September 6, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
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