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Vibrio cholerae

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631437/control-of-virulence-gene-transcription-by-indirect-readout-in-vibrio-cholerae-and-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium
#1
Charles J Dorman, Matthew J Dorman
Indirect readout mechanisms of transcription control rely on the recognition of DNA shape by transcription factors (TFs). TFs may also employ a direct readout mechanism that involves the reading of the base sequence in the DNA major groove at the binding site. TFs with winged helix-turn-helix (wHTH) motifs use an alpha helix to read the base sequence in the major groove while inserting a beta sheet 'wing' into the adjacent minor groove. Such wHTH proteins are important regulators of virulence gene transcription in many pathogens; they also control housekeeping genes...
June 19, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625997/quantifying-vibrio-cholerae-enterotoxicity-in-a-zebrafish-infection-model
#2
Kristie C Mitchell, Paul Breen, Sarah Britton, Melody N Neely, Jeffrey H Withey
Vibrio cholerae is the etiological agent of cholera, an acute intestinal infection in humans characterized by voluminous watery diarrhea. Cholera is spread through ingestion of contaminated food or water, primarily in developing countries that lack the proper infrastructure for proper water and sewage treatment. Vibrio cholerae is an aquatic bacterium that inhabits coastal and estuarine areas, and is known to have several environmental reservoirs, including fish. Our laboratory has recently described the use of the zebrafish as a new animal model for the study of V...
June 16, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625543/characterization-of-vibrio-cholerae-o1-strains-that-trace-the-origin-of-haitian-like-genetic-traits
#3
Priyanka Ghosh, Dhirendra Kumar, Goutam Chowdhury, Puneeta Singh, Prosenjit Samanta, Shanta Dutta, T Ramamurthy, N C Sharma, Preety Sinha, Yogendra Prasad, Sumio Shinoda, Asish K Mukhopadhyay
Vibrio cholerae O1 is the etiological agent of the severe diarrheal disease cholera. The bacterium has recently been causing outbreaks in Haiti with catastrophic effects. Numerous mutations have been reported in V. cholerae O1 strains associated with the Haitian outbreak. These mutations encompass among other the genes encoding virulence factors such as the pilin subunit of the toxin-co-regulated pilus (tcpA), cholera toxin B subunit (ctxB), repeat in toxins (rtxA), and other genes such as the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of gyrase A (gyrA), rstB of RS element along with the alteration in the number of repeat sequences at the promoter region of ctxAB...
June 15, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622736/vaxchora-a-single-dose-oral-cholera-vaccine
#4
Adriana Cabrera, Jayne E Lepage, Karyn M Sullivan, Sheila M Seed
OBJECTIVE: To review trials evaluating the efficacy and safety of Vaxchora, a reformulated, single-dose, oral, lyophilized Vibrio cholerae CVD 103-HgR vaccine for the prevention of travel-related cholera caused by V cholerae serogroup O1. DATA SOURCES: A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE (1946 to January week 3, 2017) and EMBASE (1996 to 2017 week 3). Keywords included oral cholera vaccine, single-dose, Vaxchora, and CVD 103-HgR. Limits included human, clinical trials published in English since 2010...
July 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622368/minimal-genetic-change-in-vibrio-cholerae-in-mozambique-over-time-multilocus-variable-number-tandem-repeat-analysis-and-whole-genome-sequencing
#5
Marcelino Garrine, Inácio Mandomando, Delfino Vubil, Tacilta Nhampossa, Sozinho Acacio, Shan Li, Joseph N Paulson, Mathieu Almeida, Daryl Domman, Nicholas R Thomson, Pedro Alonso, Oscar Colin Stine
Although cholera is a major public health concern in Mozambique, its transmission patterns remain unknown. We surveyed the genetic relatedness of 75 Vibrio cholerae isolates from patients at Manhiça District Hospital between 2002-2012 and 3 isolates from river using multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) and whole genome sequencing (WGS). MLVA revealed 22 genotypes in two clonal complexes and four unrelated genotypes. WGS revealed i) the presence of recombination, ii) 67 isolates descended monophyletically from a single source connected to Wave 3 of the Seventh Pandemic, and iii) four clinical isolates lacking the cholera toxin gene...
June 16, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607990/reaction-intermediates-in-the-heme-degradation-reaction-by-hutz-from-vibrio-cholerae
#6
Takeshi Uchida, Yukari Sekine, Nobuhiko Dojun, Ariel Lewis-Ballester, Izumi Ishigami, Toshitaka Matsui, Syun-Ru Yeh, Koichiro Ishimori
HutZ is a heme-degrading enzyme in Vibrio cholerae. It converts heme to biliverdin via verdoheme, suggesting that it follows the same reaction mechanism as that of mammalian heme oxygenase. However, none of the key intermediates have been identified. In this study, we applied steady-state and time-resolved UV-vis absorption and resonance Raman spectroscopy to study the reaction of the heme-HutZ complex with H2O2 or ascorbic acid. We characterized three intermediates: oxyferrous heme, meso-hydroxyheme, and verdoheme complexes...
June 13, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607158/the-two-component-signal-transduction-system-vxrab-positively-regulates-vibrio-cholerae-biofilm-formation
#7
Jennifer K Teschler, Andrew T Cheng, Fitnat H Yildiz
Two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs), typically composed of a sensor histidine kinase (HK) and a response regulator (RR), are the primary mechanism by which pathogenic bacteria sense and respond to extracellular signals. The pathogenic bacterium Vibrio cholerae is no exception and encodes for 52 RR genes. Using in frame deletion mutants of each RR gene, we performed a systematic analysis of their role in V. cholerae biofilm formation. We determined that 7 RRs impacted expression of an essential biofilm gene and found that the recently characterized RR, VxrB, regulates expression of key structural and regulatory biofilm-genes in V...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606647/multiplex-quantification-of-escherichia-coli-salmonella-typhi-and-vibrio-cholera-with-three-dna-targets-in-single-reaction-assay
#8
Pradeepkiran Jangampalli Adi, Jagadish R Naidu, Bhaskar Matcha
Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella typhi and Vibrio cholera harmful pathogens, which causes various diseases in humans. Rapid diagnosis of bacterial infection is important for patient management and appropriate therapy during the early phase of the bacteria-induced disease. Among the existing techniques for identifying pathogens were less sensitive and time-consuming processes. In the present study total, 48 clinical 31 blood and 17 urine samples of patients suspected with the infections were collected from SVRR Hospital and used to detect the pathogens...
June 9, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605374/laboratory-techniques-used-to-maintain-and-differentiate-biotypes-of-vibrio-cholerae-clinical-and-environmental-isolates
#9
Kyle D Brumfield, Bailey M Carignan, Jordan N Ray, Panagiota E Jumpre, Mike S Son
The aquatic Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio cholerae is the etiological agent of the infectious gastrointestinal disease cholera. Due to the global prevalence and severity of this disease, V. cholerae has been extensively studied in both environmental and laboratory settings, requiring proper maintenance and culturing techniques. Classical and El Tor are two main biotypes that compose the V. cholerae O1 serogroup, each displaying unique genotypic and phenotypic characteristics that provide reliable mechanisms for biotype characterization, and require distinct virulence inducing culturing conditions...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605194/discovery-of-two-bacterial-nitric-oxide-responsive-proteins-and-their-roles-in-bacterial-biofilm-regulation
#10
Sajjad Hossain, Lisa-Marie Nisbett, Elizabeth M Boon
Bacterial biofilms form when bacteria adhere to a surface and produce an exopolysaccharide matrix ( Costerton Science 1999 , 284 , 1318 ; Davies Science 1998 , 280 , 295 ; Flemming Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 2010 , 8 , 623 ). Because biofilms are resistant to antibiotics, they are problematic in many aspects of human health and welfare, causing, for instance, persistent fouling of medical implants such as catheters and artificial joints ( Brunetto Chimia 2008 , 62 , 249 ). They are responsible for chronic infections in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients and in open wounds, such as those associated with burns and diabetes...
June 12, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604791/challenges-in-developing-methods-for-quantifying-the-effects-of-weather-and-climate-on-water-associated-diseases-a-systematic-review
#11
Giovanni Lo Iacono, Ben Armstrong, Lora E Fleming, Richard Elson, Sari Kovats, Sotiris Vardoulakis, Gordon L Nichols
Infectious diseases attributable to unsafe water supply, sanitation and hygiene (e.g. Cholera, Leptospirosis, Giardiasis) remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in low-income countries. Climate and weather factors are known to affect the transmission and distribution of infectious diseases and statistical and mathematical modelling are continuously developing to investigate the impact of weather and climate on water-associated diseases. There have been little critical analyses of the methodological approaches...
June 12, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600312/colonization-of-vibrio-cholerae-on-the-soft-shelled-turtle
#12
Jiazheng Wang, Meiying Yan, He Gao, Xin Lu, Biao Kan
Vibrio cholerae is an important human pathogen and environmental microflora species that can both propagate in the human intestine and proliferate in zooplankton and aquatic organisms. Cholera is transmitted through food and water. In recent years, outbreaks caused by V. cholerae-contaminated soft-shelled turtles, mainly of toxigenic serogroup O139, have been frequently reported, posing a new foodborne disease public health problem. In this study, the colonization of toxigenic V. cholerae on the body surface and intestine of the soft-shelled turtle was explored...
June 9, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597815/dksa-hapr-rpos-axis-regulates-haemagglutinin-protease-production-in-vibrio-cholerae
#13
Pallabi Basu, Ritesh Ranjan Pal, Shreya Dasgupta, Rupak K Bhadra
DksA acts as a co-factor for the intracellular small signalling molecule ppGpp during the stringent response. We recently reported that the expression of the haemagglutinin protease (HAP), which is needed for shedding of the cholera pathogen Vibrio cholerae during the late phase of infection, is significantly downregulated in V. cholerae ∆dksA mutant (∆dksAVc) cells. So far, it has been shown that HAP production by V. cholerae cells is critically regulated by HapR and also by RpoS. Here, we provide evidence that V...
June 8, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594826/a-highly-specific-phage-defense-system-is-a-conserved-feature-of-the-vibrio-cholerae-mobilome
#14
Brendan J O'Hara, Zachary K Barth, Amelia C McKitterick, Kimberley D Seed
Vibrio cholerae-specific bacteriophages are common features of the microbial community during cholera infection in humans. Phages impose strong selective pressure that favors the expansion of phage-resistant strains over their vulnerable counterparts. The mechanisms allowing virulent V. cholerae strains to defend against the ubiquitous threat of predatory phages have not been established. Here, we show that V. cholerae PLEs (phage-inducible chromosomal island-like elements) are widespread genomic islands dedicated to phage defense...
June 8, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594177/a-versatile-toolbox-for-the-control-of-protein-levels-using-n-%C3%AE%C2%B5-acetyl-l-lysine-dependent-amber-suppression
#15
Wolfram Volkwein, Christopher Maier, Ralph Krafczyk, Kirsten Jung, Jürgen Lassak
The analysis of the function of essential genes in vivo depends on the ability to experimentally modulate levels of their protein products. Current methods to address this are based on transcriptional or post-transcriptional regulation of mRNAs but approaches based on the exploitation of translational regulation have so far been neglected. Here we describe a toolbox, based on amber suppression in the presence of Nε-acetyl-L-lysine (AcK), for translational tuning of protein output. We chose the highly sensitive luminescence system LuxCDABE as a reporter and incorporated a UAG stop codon into the gene for the reductase subunit LuxC...
June 8, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586382/vibrio-cholerae-ensures-function-of-host-proteins-required-for-virulence-through-consumption-of-luminal-methionine-sulfoxide
#16
Audrey S Vanhove, Saiyu Hang, Vidhya Vijayakumar, Adam Cn Wong, John M Asara, Paula I Watnick
Vibrio cholerae is a diarrheal pathogen that induces accumulation of lipid droplets in enterocytes, leading to lethal infection of the model host Drosophila melanogaster. Through untargeted lipidomics, we provide evidence that this process is the product of a host phospholipid degradation cascade that induces lipid droplet coalescence in enterocytes. This infection-induced cascade is inhibited by mutation of the V. cholerae glycine cleavage system due to intestinal accumulation of methionine sulfoxide (MetO), and both dietary supplementation with MetO and enterocyte knock-down of host methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA) yield increased resistance to infection...
June 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580353/development-and-validation-of-a-novel-real-time-assay-for-the-detection-and-quantification-of-vibrio-cholerae
#17
Ridwan Bin Rashid, Jannatul Ferdous, Suhella Tulsiani, Peter Kjaer Mackie Jensen, Anowara Begum
Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 has been known for its ability to cause epidemics. These strains produce cholera toxin which is the main cause of secretory diarrhea. V. cholerae non-O1 and non-O139 strains are also capable of causing gastroenteritis as well as septicemia and peritonitis. It has been proven that virulence factors such as T6SS, hapA, rtxA, and hlyA are present in almost all V. cholerae strains. It is imperative that viable but non-culturable cells of V. cholerae are also detected since they are also known to cause diarrhea...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579983/effect-of-dietary-minerals-on-virulence-attributes-of-vibrio-cholerae
#18
Varunkumar Bhattaram, Abhinav Upadhyay, Hsin-Bai Yin, Shankumar Mooyottu, Kumar Venkitanarayanan
Vibrio cholerae is a water-borne pathogen responsible for causing a toxin-mediated profuse diarrhea in humans, leading to severe dehydration and death in unattended patients. With increasing reports of antibiotic resistance in V. cholerae, there is a need for alternate interventional strategies for controlling cholera. A potential new strategy for treating infectious diseases involves targeting bacterial virulence rather than growth, where a pathogen's specific mechanisms critical for causing infection in hosts are inhibited...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577398/evaluation-of-synergy-and-bacterial-regrowth-in-photocatalytic-ozonation-disinfection-of-municipal-wastewater
#19
Achisa C Mecha, Maurice S Onyango, Aoyi Ochieng, Maggy N B Momba
The use of solar and ultraviolet titanium dioxide photocatalytic ozonation processes to inactivate waterborne pathogens (Escherichia coli, Salmonella species, Shigella species and Vibrio cholerae) in synthetic water and secondary municipal wastewater effluent is presented. The performance indicators were bacterial inactivation efficiency, post-disinfection regrowth and synergy effects (collaboration) between ozonation and photocatalysis (photocatalytic ozonation). Photocatalytic ozonation effectively inactivated the target bacteria and positive synergistic interactions were observed, leading to synergy indices (SI) of up to 1...
May 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575400/enhancing-multiplex-genome-editing-by-natural-transformation-mugent-via-inactivation-of-ssdna-exonucleases
#20
Triana N Dalia, Soo Hun Yoon, Elisa Galli, Francois-Xavier Barre, Christopher M Waters, Ankur B Dalia
Recently, we described a method for multiplex genome editing by natural transformation (MuGENT). Mutant constructs for MuGENT require large arms of homology (>2000 bp) surrounding each genome edit, which necessitates laborious in vitro DNA splicing. In Vibrio cholerae, we uncover that this requirement is due to cytoplasmic ssDNA exonucleases, which inhibit natural transformation. In ssDNA exonuclease mutants, one arm of homology can be reduced to as little as 40 bp while still promoting integration of genome edits at rates of ∼50% without selection in cis...
May 31, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
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