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Immune response

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149782/frequency-of-circulatory-regulatory-immune-cells-in-iranian-patients-with-type-1-diabetes
#1
Tahereh Khamehchian, Eqlim Nemati, Marziyeh Jazayeri, Shirin Azimi, Hassan Nikoueinejad, Hossein Akbari, Behnaz Irandoust
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is the result of the autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing beta cells. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDCs) act as mediators of peripheral tolerance. We investigated the possible alterations of such cells in peripheral blood of patients with T1D compared to normal individuals. This comparison may lead to a better understanding of the immunopathogenesis processes involved in T1D. 92 participants, including 49 patients with T1D and 43 healthy controls were studied...
October 2017: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149778/the-changes-of-th17-treg-and-related-cytokines-il-17-il-23-il-10-and-tgf-%C3%AE-in-respiratory-syncytial-virus-bronchiolitis-rat-model
#2
Meng Gao, Liang-Xiao Liu, Fu-Ling Wu, Xuejing Zhang, Ying-Ying Li, Tao Shi, De-Zhi Li, Ting-Ting Han
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of bronchiolitis and hospitalization that lead to high morbidity and mortality among young infants. T helper 17 (Th17) cells and regulatory T cells (Tregs) play essential roles in the pathogenesis of autoimmune, cancer, and inflammatory diseases. However, whether changes in T-cell subsets are related to the systemic immune responses in RSV-caused bronchiolitis merit further investigation. Three-week-old Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into the normal control (NC) and RSV bronchiolitis (RSV-B) groups...
October 2017: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149705/toll-like-receptor-4-deficiency-increases-resistance-in-sepsis-induced-immune-dysfunction
#3
Chao Cao, Yanfen Chai, Songtao Shou, Jun Wang, Ying Huang, Tao Ma
Sepsis constitutes a serious life-threatening syndrome associated with complications of deregulated inflammatory response against endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated severe infection. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays a critical role in the activation of innate immunity through recognition of LPS. However, the impact of TLR4 signaling on the development of sepsis-induced immune dysfunction remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of TLR4 on regulatory T cells (Tregs) and its potential mechanism...
November 14, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149704/gold-nanoparticles-as-an-adjuvant-influence-of-size-shape-and-technique-of-combination-with-cpg-on-antibody-production
#4
Lev A Dykman, Sergey A Staroverov, Alexander S Fomin, Vitaly A Khanadeev, Boris N Khlebtsov, Vladimir A Bogatyrev
Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are advantageous as an adjuvant in the design of effective vaccines and in the preparation of high-affinity antibodies to haptens and complete antigens. Another method of activating immunocompetent cells with colloidal gold is to conjugate GNPs with CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs). We examined how the size and shape of GNPs and various combinations of GNPs and CpG ODNs 1826 affect the immune response. When animals were injected with a model antigen (BSA) coupled to gold nanospheres (diameters, 15 and 50nm), nanorods, nanoshells, and nanostars, the titers of the resultant antibodies differed substantially...
November 14, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149667/tumor-acidosis-and-hypoxia-differently-modulate-the-inflammatory-program-measurements-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#5
Anne Riemann, Sarah Reime, Oliver Thews
Inflammatory mediators produced by the tumor cells are of importance for immune response but also for malignant progression. The aim of the study was to analyze the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α, inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2, and osteopontin in vitro in two different tumor cell lines under hypoxia (pO2≈1.5 mmHg) and/or acidosis (pH=6.6) for up to 24 hours since hypoxia and acidosis are common characteristics of solid tumors...
November 14, 2017: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149451/transcriptional-alterations-in-hereditary-and-sporadic-nonfunctioning-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumors-according-to-genotype
#6
Xavier M Keutgen, Suresh Kumar, Sudheer Gara, Myriem Boufraqech, Sunita Agarwal, Ralph H Hruban, Naris Nilubol, Martha Quezado, Richard Finney, Maggie Cam, Electron Kebebew
BACKGROUND: Nonfunctioning pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NFPanNETs) may be sporadic or inherited because of germline mutations associated with von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL) or multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1). The clinical behavior of NFPanNETs is difficult to predict, even in tumors of the same stage and grade. The authors analyzed genotype-specific patterns of transcriptional messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of NFPanNETs to understand the molecular features that determine PanNET phenotype...
November 17, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149434/enhancement-of-therapeutic-dna-vaccine-potency-by-melatonin-through-inhibiting-vegf-expression-and-induction-of-antitumor-immunity-mediated-by-cd8-t-cells
#7
Sanaz Baghban Rahimi, Alireza Mohebbi, Gelareh Vakilzadeh, Peyvand Biglari, Soodeh Razeghi Jahromi, Seyed Reza Mohebi, Sadegh Shirian, Ali Gorji, Amir Ghaemi
To be effective, therapeutic cancer vaccines should stimulate both an effective cell-mediated and a robust cytotoxic CD8+ T-cell response against human papillomavirus (HPV)-infected cells to treat the pre-existing tumors and prevent potential future tumors. In this study, the therapeutic experiments were designed in order to evaluate antitumor effect against the syngeneic TC-1 tumor model. The anti-tumor efficacy of a HPV-16 E7 DNA vaccine adjuvanted with melatonin (MLT) was evaluated in a C57BL/6 mouse tumor model by measuring tumor growth post vaccination and the survival rate of tumor-bearing mice, analyzing the specific lymphocyte proliferation responses in control and vaccinated mice by MTT assay...
November 17, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149405/current-understanding-of-the-tctp-interactome
#8
Siting Li, Feng Ge
Evolutionarily conserved and pleiotropic, the translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is a housekeeping protein present in eukaryotic organisms. It plays an important role in regulating many fundamental processes, such as cell proliferation, cell death, immune responses, and apoptosis. As a result of the pioneer work by Adam Telerman and Robert Amson, the critical role of TCTP in tumor reversion was revealed. Moreover, TCTP has emerged as a regulator of cell fate determination and a promising therapeutic target for cancers...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149404/the-translational-controlled-tumour-protein-tctp-biological-functions-and-regulation
#9
Ulrich-Axel Bommer
The Translational Controlled Tumour Protein TCTP (gene symbol TPT1, also called P21, P23, Q23, fortilin or histamine-releasing factor, HRF) is a highly conserved protein present in essentially all eukaryotic organisms and involved in many fundamental cell biological and disease processes. It was first discovered about 35 years ago, and it took an extended period of time for its multiple functions to be revealed, and even today we do not yet fully understand all the details. Having witnessed most of this history, in this chapter, I give a brief overview and review the current knowledge on the structure, biological functions, disease involvements and cellular regulation of this protein...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149330/s101-an-inhibitor-of-proliferating-t-cells-rescues-mice-from-superantigen-induced-shock
#10
Alexei Shir, Shoshana Klein, Idit Sagiv-Barfi, Tamar Geiger, Maya Zigler, Yael Langut, Nufar Edinger, Alexander Levitzki
Superantigens (SAg) are extremely potent bacterial toxins, which evoke a virulent immune response, inducing non-specific T-cell proliferation, rapid cytokine release and lethal toxic shock, for which there is no effective treatment. We previously developed a small molecule, S101, which potently inhibits proliferating T-cells (Sagiv-Barfi et al, Bioorg Med Chem (2010) 18:6404-6413). In a severe mouse model of toxic shock, a single injection of S101 given together with superantigen challenge, rescued 100% of the mice...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149328/mir858-mediated-regulation-of-flavonoid-specific-myb-transcription-factor-genes-controls-resistance-to-pathogen-infection-in-arabidopsis
#11
Rosany Camargo-Ramírez, Beatriz Val-Torregrosa, Blanca San Segundo
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short endogenous non-coding small RNAs that direct post-transcriptional gene silencing in eukaryotes. In plants, the expression of a large number of miRNAs has been shown to be regulated during pathogen infection. However, the functional role of the majority of these pathogen-regulated miRNAs has not been elucidated. In this work, we investigated the role of Arabidopsis miR858 in the defense response of Arabidopsis plants to infection by fungal pathogens with necrotrophic (Plectosphaerella cucumerina) or hemibiotrophic (Fusarium oxysporum and Colletotrichum higginsianum) lifestyles...
November 15, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149221/dietary-protein-sources-differentially-affect-microbiota-mtor-activity-and-transcription-of-mtor-signaling-pathways-in-the-small-intestine
#12
Soumya K Kar, Alfons J M Jansman, Nirupama Benis, Javier Ramiro-Garcia, Dirkjan Schokker, Leo Kruijt, Ellen H Stolte, Johanna J Taverne-Thiele, Mari A Smits, Jerry M Wells
Dietary protein sources can have profound effects on host-microbe interactions in the gut that are critically important for immune resilience. However more knowledge is needed to assess the impact of different protein sources on gut and animal health. Thirty-six wildtype male C57BL/6J mice of 35 d age (n = 6/group; mean ± SEM body weight 21.9 ± 0.25 g) were randomly assigned to groups fed for four weeks with semi synthetic diets prepared with one of the following protein sources containing (300 g/kg as fed basis): soybean meal (SBM), casein, partially delactosed whey powder, spray dried plasma protein, wheat gluten meal and yellow meal worm...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149212/mycolactone-displays-anti-inflammatory-effects-on-the-nervous-system
#13
Caroline Isaac, Annie Mauborgne, Alfonso Grimaldi, Kemy Ade, Michel Pohl, Cristina Limatola, Yves Boucher, Caroline Demangel, Laure Guenin-Macé
BACKGROUND: Mycolactone is a macrolide produced by the skin pathogen Mycobacterium ulcerans, with cytotoxic, analgesic and immunomodulatory properties. The latter were recently shown to result from mycolactone blocking the Sec61-dependent production of pro-inflammatory mediators by immune cells. Here we investigated whether mycolactone similarly affects the inflammatory responses of the nervous cell subsets involved in pain perception, transmission and maintenance. We also investigated the effects of mycolactone on the neuroinflammation that is associated with chronic pain in vivo...
November 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149207/evolution-of-the-metabolome-in-response-to-selection-for-increased-immunity-in-populations-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#14
Navdeep Gogna, Rakesh Sharma, Vanika Gupta, Kavita Dorai, N G Prasad
We used NMR-based metabolomics to test two hypotheses-(i) there will be evolved differences in the metabolome of selected and control populations even under un-infected conditions and (ii) post infection, the metabolomes of the selected and control populations will respond differently. We selected replicate populations of Drosophila melanogaster for increased survivorship (I) against a gram-negative pathogen. We subjected the selected (I) and their control populations (S) to three different treatments: (1) infected with heat-killed bacteria (i), (2) sham infected (s), and (3) untreated (u)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149197/sieve-analysis-of-breakthrough-hiv-1-sequences-in-hvtn-505-identifies-vaccine-pressure-targeting-the-cd4-binding-site-of-env-gp120
#15
Allan C deCamp, Morgane Rolland, Paul T Edlefsen, Eric Sanders-Buell, Breana Hall, Craig A Magaret, Andrew J Fiore-Gartland, Michal Juraska, Lindsay N Carpp, Shelly T Karuna, Meera Bose, Steven LePore, Shana Miller, Annemarie O'Sullivan, Kultida Poltavee, Hongjun Bai, Kalpana Dommaraju, Hong Zhao, Kim Wong, Lennie Chen, Hasan Ahmed, Derrick Goodman, Matthew Z Tay, Raphael Gottardo, Richard A Koup, Robert Bailer, John R Mascola, Barney S Graham, Mario Roederer, Robert J O'Connell, Nelson L Michael, Merlin L Robb, Elizabeth Adams, Patricia D'Souza, James Kublin, Lawrence Corey, Daniel E Geraghty, Nicole Frahm, Georgia D Tomaras, M Juliana McElrath, Lisa Frenkel, Sheila Styrchak, Sodsai Tovanabutra, Magdalena E Sobieszczyk, Scott M Hammer, Jerome H Kim, James I Mullins, Peter B Gilbert
Although the HVTN 505 DNA/recombinant adenovirus type 5 vector HIV-1 vaccine trial showed no overall efficacy, analysis of breakthrough HIV-1 sequences in participants can help determine whether vaccine-induced immune responses impacted viruses that caused infection. We analyzed 480 HIV-1 genomes sampled from 27 vaccine and 20 placebo recipients and found that intra-host HIV-1 diversity was significantly lower in vaccine recipients (P ≤ 0.04, Q-values ≤ 0.09) in Gag, Pol, Vif and envelope glycoprotein gp120 (Env-gp120)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149085/the-design-and-characterization-of-a-prototype-wideband-voltage-sensor-based-on-a-resistive-divider
#16
Fernando Garnacho, Abderrahim Khamlichi, Jorge Rovira
The most important advantage of voltage dividers over traditional voltage transformers is that voltage dividers do not have an iron core with non-linear hysteresis characteristics. The voltage dividers have a linear behavior with respect to over-voltages and a flat frequency response larger frequency range. The weak point of a voltage divider is the influence of external high-voltage (HV) and earth parts in its vicinity. Electrical fields arising from high voltages in neighboring phases and from ground conductors and structures are one of their main sources for systematic measurement errors...
November 17, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149077/rna-virus-evolution-via-a-quasispecies-based-model-reveals-a-drug-target-with-a-high-barrier-to-resistance
#17
Richard J Bingham, Eric C Dykeman, Reidun Twarock
The rapid occurrence of therapy-resistant mutant strains provides a challenge for anti-viral therapy. An ideal drug target would be a highly conserved molecular feature in the viral life cycle, such as the packaging signals in the genomes of RNA viruses that encode an instruction manual for their efficient assembly. The ubiquity of this assembly code in RNA viruses, including major human pathogens, suggests that it confers selective advantages. However, their impact on viral evolution cannot be assessed in current models of viral infection that lack molecular details of virus assembly...
November 17, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149046/impact-of-a-single-oral-acute-dose-of-aflatoxin-b%C3%A2-on-liver-function-cytokines-and-the-lymphoproliferative-response-in-c57bl-6-mice
#18
Angélica Tieme Ishikawa, Elisa Yoko Hirooka, Paula Leonello Alvares E Silva, Ana Paula Frederico Rodrigues Loureiro Bracarense, Karina Keller Marques da Costa Flaiban, Claudia Yuri Akagi, Osamu Kawamura, Marcio Carvalho da Costa, Eiko Nakagawa Itano
Aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁), a mycotoxin found in food and feed, exerts harmful effects on humans and animals. The liver is the earliest target of AFB₁, and its effects have been evaluated in animal models exposed to acute or chronic doses. Considering the possibility of sporadic ingestion of AFB₁-contaminated food, this study investigated the impact of a single oral dose of AFB₁ on liver function/cytokines and the lymphoproliferative response in mice. C57BL/6 mice were treated with a single oral AFB₁ dose (44, 442 or 663 μg AFB₁/kg of body weight) on the first day...
November 17, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148965/nonclinical-safety-assessment-of-anti-factor-d-key-strategies-and-challenges-for-the-nonclinical-development-of-intravitreal-biologics
#19
Vladimir Bantseev, Rebecca Erickson, Douglas Leipold, Caroline Amaya, Paul E Miller, Helen Booler, Evan A Thackaberry
PURPOSE: The nonclinical toxicology program described here was designed to characterize the safety profile of anti-factor D (AFD; FCFD4514S, lampalizumab) to support intravitreal (ITV) administration in patients with geographic atrophy (GA). METHODS: The toxicity of AFD was assessed in a single-dose and 6-month repeat-dose study in monkeys at doses up to 10 mg/eye. Toxicity was assessed by clinical ophthalmic examinations, intraocular pressure measurements, ocular photography, electroretinography, fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography, and anatomic pathology...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148853/multi-stage-subunit-vaccines-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-an-alternative-to-the-bcg-vaccine-or-a-bcg-prime-boost
#20
Farzad Khademi, Mohammad Derakhshan, Arshid Yousefi-Avarvand, Mohsen Tafaghodi, Saman Soleimanpour
More than two billion people are latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Most tuberculosis (TB)-subunit vaccines currently in various stages of clinical trials are designed for prevention of active TB, but not to prevent reactivation of latent TB-infection. Thus, there is an urgent need for an effective multi-stage vaccine based on early-expressed and latently-expressed antigens that prevents both acute and latent infections. Areas covered: Here, we reviewed the published pre-clinical and clinical studies of multi-stage subunit vaccines against TB, and the protective capacities of the vaccines were compared with BCG, either alone or in combination with different vaccine delivery systems/adjuvants...
November 17, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
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