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Immune response

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933701/ccr2-mediates-helicobacter-pylori-induced-immune-tolerance-and-contributes-to-mucosal-homeostasis
#1
Xia Sun, Min Zhang, Mohamad El-Zaatari, Gray B Huffnagle, John Y Kao
BACKGROUND: We previously demonstrated that H. pylori infection leads to increased induction of regulatory T cells in local and systemic immune compartments. Here, we investigate the role of CCR2 in the tolerogenic programing of dendritic cells in a mouse model of H. pylori infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CCR2 deficient (CCR2KO) mice and wild-type (Wt) mice infected with H. pylori SS1 strain were analyzed by qPCR and FACS analysis. In vitro, bone marrow-derived DC on day 6 from CCR2KO and Wt mice cocultured with or without H...
December 8, 2016: Helicobacter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933655/immunological-diversity-in-phenotypes-of-chronic-lung-allograft-dysfunction-a-comprehensive-immunohistochemical-analysis
#2
Elly Vandermeulen, Elise Lammertyn, Stijn E Verleden, David Ruttens, Hannelore Bellon, Mario Ricciardi, Jana Somers, Ken R Bracke, Kathleen Van Den Eynde, Thomas Tousseyn, Guy G Brusselle, Erik K Verbeken, Johny Verschakelen, Marie-Paule Emonds, Dirk E Van Raemdonck, Geert M Verleden, Robin Vos, Bart M Vanaudenaerde
Chronic rejection after organ transplantation is defined as a humoral- and cell-mediated immune response directed against the allograft. In lung transplantation, chronic rejection is nowadays clinically defined as a cause of chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD), consisting of different clinical phenotypes including restrictive allograft syndrome (RAS) and bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). However, the differential role of humoral and cellular immunity is not investigated up to now. Explant lungs of patients with end-stage BOS (n = 19) and RAS (n = 18) were assessed for the presence of lymphoid (B and T cells) and myeloid cells (dendritic cells, eosinophils, mast cells, neutrophils, and macrophages) and compared to nontransplant control lung biopsies (n = 21)...
November 7, 2016: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933619/monocyte-mediated-activation-of-endothelial-cells-occurs-only-after-binding-to-extracellular-vesicles-from-red-blood-cell-products-a-process-mediated-by-%C3%AE-integrin
#3
Marleen Straat, Maike E van Hezel, Anita Böing, Anita Tuip-De Boer, Nina Weber, Rienk Nieuwland, Robin van Bruggen, Nicole P Juffermans
BACKGROUND: Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is associated with organ failure. The mechanism remains unknown, but may include adherence of blood cells to the microvasculature. We hypothesized that RBC-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) interact with monocytes to activate endothelial cells. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were incubated with supernatant from fresh and stored RBC units either containing EVs or depleted from EVs, with or without the addition of immune cells...
December 2016: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933593/inflammation-induced-cd69-kupffer-cell-feedback-inhibits-t-cell-proliferation-via-membrane-bound-tgf-%C3%AE-1
#4
Xiang Zhang, Zhengping Jiang, Yan Gu, Yanfang Liu, Xuetao Cao, Yanmei Han
Kupffer cells, tissue-resident macrophage lineage cell, are enriched in vertebrate liver. The mouse F4/80(+) Kupffer cells have been subclassified into two subpopulations according to their phenotype and function: CD68(+) subpopulation with potent reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and phagocytic capacities, and CD11b(+) subpopulation with a potent capacity to produce T helper 1 cytokines. In addition, CD11b(+) Kupffer cells/macrophages may be migrated from the bone marrow or spleen, especially in inflammatory conditions of the liver...
December 6, 2016: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933565/kshv-strategies-for-host-dsdna-sensing-machinery
#5
REVIEW
Hang Gao, Yanyan Song, Chengrong Liu, Qiming Liang
The innate immune system utilizes pattern recognition receptors cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) to sense cytosolic double-stranded (ds) DNA and initiate type 1 interferon signaling and autophagy pathway, which collaborate to limit pathogen infections as well as alarm the adaptive immune response. The genomes of herpesviruses are large dsDNA, which represent a major class of pathogen signatures recognized by cellular DNA sensor cGAS. However, to successfully establish the persistent infection, herpesviruses have evolved their viral genes to modulate different aspects of host immune signaling...
December 5, 2016: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933547/anti-neuroinflammatory-effects-of-fucoxanthin-via-inhibition-of-akt-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-mapks-ap-1-pathways-and-activation-of-pka-creb-pathway-in-lipopolysaccharide-activated-bv-2-microglial-cells
#6
Dong Zhao, Seung-Hwan Kwon, Yoon Sun Chun, Ming-Yao Gu, Hyun Ok Yang
Microglia play a critical role in controlling the homeostasis of the brain, but over-activated microglia secrete pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines, which induce neuronal cell death. Fucoxanthin (Fx), a marine carotenoid, has demonstrated a variety of beneficial health effects. Despite accumulating evidence supporting the immune-modulating effects of Fx in vitro, the underlying signaling pathways remain unknown. In the present study, Fx dose-dependently inhibited the secretion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pro-inflammatory mediators including interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, reactive oxygen species (ROS), prostaglandin (PG) E2, and nitric oxide (NO) productions, and also suppressed the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 enzymes...
December 8, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933315/immunogenicity-of-self-tumor-associated-proteins-is-enhanced-through-protein-truncation
#7
Tim Kottke, Kevin G Shim, Vanesa Alonso-Camino, Shane Zaidi, Rosa Maria Diaz, Jose Pulido, Jill Thompson, Karishma R Rajani, Laura Evgin, Elizabeth Ilett, Hardev Pandha, Kevin Harrington, Peter Selby, Alan Melcher, Richard Vile
We showed previously that therapy with Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV) expressing tumor-associated proteins eradicates established tumors. We show here that when cellular cDNA were cloned into VSV which retained their own poly-A signal, viral species emerged in culture which had deleted the cellular poly-A signal and also contained a truncated form of the protein coding sequence. Typically, the truncation occurred such that a Tyrosine-encoding codon was converted into a STOP codon. We believe that the truncation of tumor-associated proteins expressed from VSV in this way occurred to preserve the ability of the virus to replicate efficiently...
2016: Molecular Therapy Oncolytics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933310/dynamics-of-antigen-presentation-to-transgene-product-specific-cd4-t-cells-and-of-treg-induction-upon-hepatic-aav-gene-transfer
#8
George Q Perrin, Irene Zolotukhin, Alexandra Sherman, Moanaro Biswas, Ype P de Jong, Cox Terhorst, Andrew M Davidoff, Roland W Herzog
The tolerogenic hepatic microenvironment impedes clearance of viral infections but is an advantage in viral vector gene transfer, which often results in immune tolerance induction to transgene products. Although the underlying tolerance mechanism has been extensively studied, our understanding of antigen presentation to transgene product-specific CD4(+) T cells remains limited. To address this, we administered hepatotropic adeno-associated virus (AAV8) vector expressing cytoplasmic ovalbumin (OVA) into wt mice followed by adoptive transfer of transgenic OVA-specific T cells...
2016: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933303/purification-of-baculovirus-vectors-using-heparin-affinity-chromatography
#9
Md Nasimuzzaman, Danielle Lynn, Johannes Cm van der Loo, Punam Malik
Baculoviruses are commonly used for recombinant protein and vaccine production. Baculoviruses are nonpathogenic to vertebrates, have a large packaging capacity, display broad host and cell type tropism, infect both dividing and nondividing cells, and do not elicit strong immune or allergic responses in vivo. Hence, their use as gene delivery vehicles has become increasingly popular in recent years. Moreover, baculovirus vectors carrying mammalian regulatory elements can efficiently transduce and express transgenes in mammalian cells...
2016: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933277/lectins-from-synadenium-carinatum-scll-and-artocarpus-heterophyllus-artinm-are-able-to-induce-beneficial-immunomodulatory-effects-in-a-murine-model-for-treatment-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infection
#10
Eliézer L P Ramos, Silas S Santana, Murilo V Silva, Fernanda M Santiago, Tiago W P Mineo, José R Mineo
Infection by Toxoplasma gondii affects around one-third of world population and the treatment for patients presenting toxoplasmosis clinically manifested disease is mainly based by a combination of sulfadiazine, pyrimethamine, and folinic acid. However, this therapeutic protocol is significantly toxic, causing relevant dose-related bone marrow damage. Thus, it is necessary to improve new approaches to investigate the usefulness of more effective and non-toxic agents for treatment of patients with toxoplasmosis...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933274/screening-and-identification-of-an-h-2k-b-restricted-ctl-epitope-within-the-glycoprotein-of-hantaan-virus
#11
Rui-Xue Ma, Lin-Feng Cheng, Qi-Kang Ying, Rong-Rong Liu, Tie-Jun Ma, Xiao-Xiao Zhang, Zi-Yu Liu, Liang Zhang, Wei Ye, Fang-Lin Zhang, Zhi-Kai Xu, Fang Wang, Xing-An Wu
The cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response plays a key role in controlling viral infection, but only a few epitopes within the HTNV glycoprotein (GP) that are recognized by CTLs have been reported. In this study, we identified one murine HTNV GP-derived H2-K(b)-restricted CTL epitope in C57BL/6 mice, which could be used to design preclinical studies of vaccines for HTNV infection. First, 15 8-mer peptides were selected from the HTNV GP amino acid sequence based on a percentile rank of <=1% by IEDB which is the most comprehensive collection of epitope prediction and analysis tool...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933180/serum-levels-of-immunoglobulins-and-severity-of-community-acquired-pneumonia
#12
Mari C de la Torre, Pere Torán, Mateu Serra-Prat, Elisabet Palomera, Estel Güell, Ester Vendrell, Joan Carles Yébenes, Antoni Torres, Jordi Almirall
INSTRUCTION: There is evidence of a relationship between severity of infection and inflammatory response of the immune system. The objective is to assess serum levels of immunoglobulins and to establish its relationship with severity of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and clinical outcome. METHODS: This was an observational and cross-sectional study in which 3 groups of patients diagnosed with CAP were compared: patients treated in the outpatient setting (n=54), patients requiring in-patient care (hospital ward) (n=173), and patients requiring admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) (n=191)...
2016: BMJ Open Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933160/post-sensitization-administration-of-non-digestible-oligosaccharides-and-bifidobacterium-breve-m-16v-reduces-allergic-symptoms-in-mice
#13
Betty C A M van Esch, Suzanne Abbring, Mara A P Diks, Gemma M Dingjan, Lucien F Harthoorn, A Paul Vos, Johan Garssen
To support dietary management of severe cow's milk allergic infants, a synbiotic mixture of non-digestible oligosaccharides and Bifidobacterium breve M-16V (B. breve) was designed from source materials that are completely cow's milk-free. It was investigated whether this specific synbiotic concept can reduce an established food allergic response in a research model for hen's egg allergy. Mice were orally sensitized once a week for 5 weeks to ovalbumin (OVA) using cholera toxin (CT) as an adjuvant. Non-sensitized mice received CT in PBS only...
June 2016: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933067/peptide-idr-1002-inhibits-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-nuclear-translocation-by-inhibition-of-i%C3%AE%C2%BAb%C3%AE-degradation-and-activates-p38-erk1-2-msk1-dependent-creb-phosphorylation-in-macrophages-stimulated-with-lipopolysaccharide
#14
Alejandro Huante-Mendoza, Octavio Silva-García, Javier Oviedo-Boyso, Robert E W Hancock, Víctor M Baizabal-Aguirre
The inflammatory response is a critical molecular defense mechanism of the innate immune system that mediates the elimination of disease-causing bacteria. Repair of the damaged tissue, and the reestablishment of homeostasis, must be accomplished after elimination of the pathogen. The innate defense regulators (IDRs) are short cationic peptides that mimic natural host defense peptides and are effective in eliminating pathogens by enhancing the activity of the immune system while controlling the inflammatory response...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933064/systemic-expression-of-notch-ligand-delta-like-4-during-mycobacterial-infection-alters-the-t-cell-immune-response
#15
Matthew A Schaller, Ronald M Allen, Soichiro Kimura, Cheryl L Day, Steven L Kunkel
The Notch ligand delta-like 4 (DLL4) is known to fine-tune the CD4(+) T cell cytokine response. DLL4 is expressed on the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in a MyD88-dependent manner. We found that DLL4 expression was upregulated on bone marrow progenitor cells and APCs in mice infected with BCG Mycobacterium. Transfer of DLL4(+) progenitor cells from infected hosts resulted in an increase DLL4(+) myeloid cells in the spleen, indicating that expression of the dll4 gene is propagated throughout hematopoiesis...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933059/formation-of-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-under-low-oxygen-level
#16
Katja Branitzki-Heinemann, Helene Möllerherm, Lena Völlger, Diab M Husein, Nicole de Buhr, Stefanie Blodkamp, Friederike Reuner, Graham Brogden, Hassan Y Naim, Maren von Köckritz-Blickwede
Since their discovery, neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have been characterized as a fundamental host innate immune defense mechanism. Conversely, excessive NET-release may have a variety of detrimental consequences for the host. A fine balance between NET formation and elimination is necessary to sustain a protective effect during an infectious challenge. Our own recently published data revealed that stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) by the iron chelating HIF-1α-agonist desferoxamine or AKB-4924 enhanced the release of phagocyte extracellular traps...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933042/the-role-of-stress-and-stress-adaptations-in-determining-the-fate-of-the-bacterial-pathogen-listeria-monocytogenes-in-the-food-chain
#17
REVIEW
Kerrie NicAogáin, Conor P O'Byrne
The foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is a highly adaptable organism that can persist in a wide range of environmental and food-related niches. The consumption of contaminated ready-to-eat foods can cause infections, termed listeriosis, in vulnerable humans, particularly those with weakened immune systems. Although these infections are comparatively rare they are associated with high mortality rates and therefore this pathogen has a significant impact on food safety. L. monocytogenes can adapt to and survive a wide range of stress conditions including low pH, low water activity, and low temperature, which makes it problematic for food producers who rely on these stresses for preservation...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932997/characterization-of-reproductive-dormancy-in-male-drosophila-melanogaster
#18
Olga I Kubrak, Lucie Kučerová, Ulrich Theopold, Sören Nylin, Dick R Nässel
Insects are known to respond to seasonal and adverse environmental changes by entering dormancy, also known as diapause. In some insect species, including Drosophila melanogaster, dormancy occurs in the adult organism and postpones reproduction. This adult dormancy has been studied in female flies where it is characterized by arrested development of ovaries, altered nutrient stores, lowered metabolism, increased stress and immune resistance and drastically extended lifespan. Male dormancy, however, has not been investigated in D...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932991/cannabidiol-modulates-the-immunophenotype-and-inhibits-the-activation-of-the-inflammasome-in-human-gingival-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#19
Rosaliana Libro, Domenico Scionti, Francesca Diomede, Marco Marchisio, Gianpaolo Grassi, Federica Pollastro, Adriano Piattelli, Placido Bramanti, Emanuela Mazzon, Oriana Trubiani
Human Gingival Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hGMSCs) are multipotential cells that can expand and differentiate in culture under specific and standardized conditions. In the present study, we have investigated whether in vitro pre-treatment of hGMSCs with Cannabidiol (CBD) can influence their expression profile, improving the therapeutic potential of this cell culture. Following CBD treatment (5 μM) for 24 h, gene expression analysis through Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) has revealed several genes differentially expressed between CBD-treated hGMSCs (CBD-hGMSCs) and control cells (CTR-hGMSCs) that were linked to inflammation and apoptosis...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932942/loss-of-fractalkine-signaling-exacerbates-axon-transport-dysfunction-in-a-chronic-model-of-glaucoma
#20
Kevin T Breen, Sarah R Anderson, Michael R Steele, David J Calkins, Alejandra Bosco, Monica L Vetter
Neurodegeneration in glaucoma results in decline and loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), and is associated with activation of myeloid cells such as microglia and macrophages. The chemokine fractalkine (FKN or Cx3cl1) mediates communication from neurons to myeloid cells. Signaling through its receptor Cx3cr1 has been implicated in multiple neurodegenerative diseases, but the effects on neuronal pathology are variable. Since it is unknown how FKN-mediated crosstalk influences RGC degeneration in glaucoma, we assessed this in a chronic mouse model, DBA/2J...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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