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Immune response

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214377/reciprocal-translocation-of-small-numbers-of-inbred-individuals-rescues-immunogenetic-diversity
#1
Catherine E Grueber, Jolene T Sutton, Sol Heber, James V Briskie, Ian G Jamieson, Bruce C Robertson
Genetic rescue can reduce inbreeding depression and increase fitness of small populations, even when the donor populations are highly inbred. In a recent experiment involving two inbred island populations of the South Island robin, Petroica australis, reciprocal translocations improved microsatellite diversity and individual fitness. While microsatellite loci may reflect patterns of genome-wide diversity, they generally do not indicate the specific genetic regions responsible for increased fitness. We tested the effectiveness of this reciprocal translocation for rescuing diversity of two immunogenetic regions: toll-like receptor (TLR) and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes...
February 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214365/peripheral-blood-leukocytes-show-differential-expression-of-tumour-progression-related-genes-in-colorectal-cancer-patients-who-have-a-postoperative-intra-abdominal-infection-a-prospective-matched-cohort-study
#2
S Alonso, X Mayol, L Nonell, S Salvans, M Pascual, M Pera
AIM: Anastomotic leak is associated with higher rates of recurrence after surgery for colorectal cancer. However, the mechanisms responsible are unknown. We hypothesized that the infection-induced inflammatory response may induce overexpression of tumour progression-related genes in immune cells. The aim was to investigate the effect of postoperative intra-abdominal infection on the gene expression patterns of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) after surgery for colorectal cancer. METHODS: Prospective matched cohort study...
February 18, 2017: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214198/tumor-derived-cd4-cd25-regulatory-t-cells-inhibit-dendritic-cells-function-by-ctla-4
#3
Xin Chen, Yong Du, Qingqing Hu, ZhiMing Huang
PURPOSE: CD4+CD25+regulatoryT cells (Tregs) play an important role in anti-tumor immune responses. Poor prognosis and declining survival rates have intimate connection with high Treg expression in cancer patients. Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte-associated protein (CTLA-4) is one of the most prominent molecules on Treg. In our previous research, we have demonstrated that HCC-derived Tregs can interfere with Dendritic cells (DCs) function and down-modulate CD80/CD86 on DCs in vitro in a cell-contact dependent way...
December 21, 2016: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214182/opportunistic-autoimmunity-secondary-to-cancer-immunotherapy-oasi-an-emerging-challenge
#4
M Kostine, L Chiche, E Lazaro, P Halfon, C Charpin, D Arniaud, F Retornaz, P Blanco, N Jourde-Chiche, C Richez, C Stavris
With "checkpoint inhibitors" targeting PD1/PD-1-ligands or CTLA-4/CD28 pathways, immunotherapy has profoundly modified therapeutic strategies in oncology. First approved in refractory metastatic neoplasms (melanoma and lung adenocarcinoma), it is now being tested broadly in other cancers and/or as adjuvant treatment. For a significant proportion of patients, immunotherapy is responsible for "immunological" events, identified as Immune-Related Adverse Events (irAEs). Owing to the increasing number of prescriptions, identification and management of specific immunological side effects is crucial and requires close collaboration between oncologists and internists and/or other organ specialists...
February 14, 2017: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214181/-adult-immunisation-general-points-hot-topics-and-perspectives
#5
P Loubet, O Launay
Vaccination in immunocompetent adult mainly concerns booster vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, polio and pertussis. Some chronic diseases may also require the achievement of pneumococcal and influenza vaccines. In addition, from the age of 65, annual influenza vaccination as well as one dose of a live attenuated shingles vaccine between 64 and 75 years are recommended. Immunocompromised adults, due to the increased risk of serious infections responsible of significant morbidity and mortality, are particularly concerned by vaccination...
February 14, 2017: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214177/dendritic-cells-in-host-response-to-biologic-scaffolds
#6
REVIEW
Cynthia A Leifer
Tissue regeneration and repair require a highly complex and orchestrated series of events that require inflammation, but can be compromised when inflammation is excessive or becomes chronic. Macrophages are one of the first cells to contact and respond to implanted materials, and mediate the inflammatory response. The series of events following macrophage association with biomaterials has been well-studied. Dendritic cells (DCs) also directly interact with biomaterials, are critical for specific immune responses, and can be activated in response to interactions with biomaterials...
February 14, 2017: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214171/g-protein-based-elisa-as-a-potency-test-for-rabies-vaccines
#7
Martine Chabaud-Riou, Nadège Moreno, Fabien Guinchard, Marie Claire Nicolai, Elisabeth Niogret-Siohan, Nicolas Sève, Catherine Manin, Françoise Guinet-Morlot, Patrice Riou
The NIH test is currently used to assess the potency of rabies vaccine, a key criterion for vaccine release. This test is based on mice immunization followed by intracerebral viral challenge. As part of global efforts to reduce animal experimentation and in the framework of the development of Sanofi Pasteur next generation, highly-purified vaccine, produced without any material of human or animal origin, we developed an ELISA as an alternative to the NIH test. This ELISA is based on monoclonal antibodies recognizing specifically the native form of the viral G-protein, the major antigen that induces neutralizing antibody response to rabies virus...
February 14, 2017: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214147/simultaneous-idiopathic-bilateral-sudden-hearing-loss-characteristics-and-response-to-treatment
#8
Ferit Akil, Umur Yollu, Mehmet Yilmaz, H Murat Yener, Marlen Mamanov, Ender Inci
INTRODUCTION: The aetiology of sudden hearing loss is poorly defined; however, infectious, vascular and neoplastic aetiologies are presumed to be responsible. In addition, the aetiology of bilateral sudden hearing loss is also unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is identify the characteristics and treatment response of simultaneous bilateral sudden hearing loss. METHODS: This is a case-control study that practised in tertiary care academic centre...
January 24, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214099/lymph-node-stroma-dynamics-and-approaches-for-their-visualization
#9
REVIEW
Rebecca Gentek, Marc Bajénoff
Lymphoid stromal cells are best known as the architectural cells of lymphoid organs. For decades, they have been considered as inert elements of the immune system but this view has changed dramatically in recent years, when it was discovered that they are endowed with critical immunoregulatory functions. It is now accepted that without them, the adaptive immune response would be compromised, if not abrogated entirely. Here, we review the function of the major lymphoid stromal cell types; the way they remodel upon inflammation; discuss the available tools to track their behavior; and introduce several methodological approaches that we believe will help improving our knowledge of these pivotal cell types...
February 14, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214044/enhancement-of-antigen-specific-cd4-and-cd8-t-cell-responses-using-a-self-assembled-biologic-nanolipoprotein-particle-vaccine
#10
Dina Weilhammer, Alexis D Dunkle, Craig D Blanchette, Nicholas O Fischer, Michele Corzett, Doerte Lehmann, Tyler Boone, Paul Hoeprich, Adam Driks, Amy Rasley
To address the need for vaccine platforms that induce robust cell-mediated immunity, we investigated the potential of utilizing self-assembling biologic nanolipoprotein particles (NLPs) as an antigen and adjuvant delivery system to induce antigen-specific murine T cell responses. We utilized OT-I and OT-II TCR-transgenic mice to investigate the effects of NLP-mediated delivery of the model antigen ovalbumin (OVA) on T cell activation. Delivery of OVA with the TLR4 agonist monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) in the context of NLPs significantly enhanced the activation of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in vitro compared to co-administration of free OVA and MPLA...
February 14, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214040/reinforcement-of-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-by-arabinoxylans-in-overweight-and-obese-subjects-a-randomized-controlled-trial-arabinoxylans-in-gut-barrier
#11
Bouke N Salden, Freddy J Troost, Ellen Wilms, Pilar Truchado, Ramiro Vilchez-Vargas, Dietmar H Pieper, Ruy Jáuregui, Massimo Marzorati, Tom van de Wiele, Sam Possemiers, Ad A Masclee
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Obesity and metabolic diseases are associated with alterations in microbial composition and impaired gut barrier. Previous in vitro and animal studies have shown that arabinoxylans (AX) have the potential to modulate gut microbiota and gut barrier and therefore could have a protective role. Primary aim of the study was to investigate the effect of AX on intestinal permeability. Secondary aims included the effect of AX on gene transcription and protein expression of tight junctions (TJ), intestinal microbiota composition and activity, immune response and metabolic markers in overweight and obese individuals...
February 3, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213974/molecular-characterization-and-clinical-epidemiology-of-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus-hrsv-a-and-b-in-hospitalized-children-southern-brazil
#12
F B Moreira, C S Rosario, J S Santos, V M Avanzi, M B Nogueira, L R Vidal, S M Raboni
Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a major etiologic agent of pediatric respiratory infections. Genetic variability of its glycoprotein G enables HRSV to evade the immune response and determines its seasonal dissemination. This study reports genetic variability and clinical profiles of HRSV-infected patients from Southern Brazil. Seventy positive samples, 78% type A and 22% type B, were analyzed. Of the patients (median age, 6 months; interquartile range, 2-11 years) 16% had co-morbidities and 17% developed severe disease...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213939/protective-antibodies-against-clostridium-difficile-are-present-in-intravenous-immunoglobulin-and-are-retained-in-humans-following-its-administration
#13
Ola H Negm, Brendon MacKenzie, Mohamed R Hamed, Omar Aj Ahmad, Clifford C Shone, David P Humphreys, K Ravi Acharya, Christine E Loscher, Izabela Marszalowska, Mark Lynch, Mark H Wilcox, Tanya M Monaghan
The prevalence of serum antibodies against C. difficile (CD) toxins A and B in healthy populations have prompted interest in evaluating the therapeutic activity of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) in individuals experiencing severe or recurrent C. difficile infection (CDI). Despite some promising case reports, a definitive clinical role for IVIg in CDI remains unclear. Contradictory results may be attributed to a lack of consensus regarding optimal dose, timing of administration and patient selection as well as variability in specific antibody content between commercial preparations...
February 18, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213891/opioids-and-the-immune-system-friend-or-foe
#14
REVIEW
Lisanne Mirja Plein, Heike L Rittner
Systemically administered opioids are among the most powerful analgesics for treating severe pain. Several negative side-effects (respiratory depression, addiction, nausea, confusion) and the risk of opioid-induced hyperalgesia accompany opioid administration. One other side effect is the potential of opioids to suppress the immune response and thereby to increase the vulnerability for infections. Several studies have investigated the link between opioids and immunosuppression in vitro, in vivo as well as in patients with divergent results: Exogenous opioids such as morphine and fentanyl can impair macrophage and natural killer cell as well as T cell function and weaken the gut barrier in vitro and in animal studies...
February 18, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213733/the-localization-of-a-heterologous-displayed-antigen-in-the-baculovirus-budded-virion-determines-the-type-and-strength-of-induced-adaptive-immune-response
#15
Eugenia Tavarone, Guido Nicolás Molina, Sabrina Amalfi, Andrea Peralta, Paula Molinari, Oscar Taboga
In the search of strategies of presentation of heterologous antigens to elicit humoral or cellular immune responses that modulate and properly potentiate each type of response, researchers have been studying baculovirus (BV) as vaccine vectors with promising results. For some years, several research groups explored different antigen presentation approaches using the BV AcNPV by expressing polypeptides on the surface of budded virions or by de novo synthesis of heterologous antigens by transduction of mammalian cells...
February 17, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213726/pd-1-and-pd-l1-antibodies-in-cancer-current-status-and-future-directions
#16
REVIEW
Arjun Vasant Balar, Jeffrey S Weber
Immunotherapy has moved to the center stage of cancer treatment with the recent success of trials in solid tumors with PD-1/PD-L1 axis blockade. Programmed death-1 or PD-1 is a checkpoint molecule on T cells that plays a vital role in limiting adaptive immune responses and preventing autoimmune and auto-inflammatory reactivity in the normal host. In cancer patients, PD-1 expression is very high on T cells in the tumor microenvironment, and PD-L1, its primary ligand, is variably expressed on tumor cells and antigen-presenting cells within tumors, providing a potent inhibitory influence within the tumor microenvironment...
February 17, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213652/evaluating-stress-physiology-and-parasite-infection-parameters-in-the-translocation-of-critically-endangered-woylies-bettongia-penicillata
#17
Stephanie Hing, Amy S Northover, Edward J Narayan, Adrian F Wayne, Krista L Jones, Sarah Keatley, R C Andrew Thompson, Stephanie S Godfrey
Translocation can be stressful for wildlife. Stress may be important in fauna translocation because it has been suggested that it can exacerbate the impact of infectious disease on translocated wildlife. However, few studies explore this hypothesis by measuring stress physiology and infection indices in parallel during wildlife translocations. We analysed faecal cortisol metabolite (FCM) concentration and endoparasite parameters (nematodes, coccidians and haemoparasites) in a critically endangered marsupial, the woylie (Bettongia penicillata), 1-3 months prior to translocation, at translocation, and 6 months later...
February 17, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213571/mir-146a-b-a-family-with-shared-seeds-and-different-roots
#18
Mark Paterson, Alison J Kriegel
MicroRNAs are small, non-coding, RNAs known for their powerful modulation of molecular processes, making them a major focus for studying pathological mechanisms. The human miR-146 family of microRNAs consists of two member genes - MIR146A and MIR146B These two miRNAs are located on different chromosomes and exhibit differential regulation in many cases. However, they are nearly identical in sequence and share a seed sequence, thus they are predicted to target the same set of genes. A large proportion of the miR-146 literature focuses on its role in regulating the innate immune response in the context of various pathologies by modulating two widely studied target genes in the toll-like receptor signaling cascade...
February 17, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213497/mitochondrial-damage-elicits-a-tcdd-inducible-poly-adp-ribose-polymerase-mediated-antiviral-response
#19
Tatsuya Kozaki, Jun Komano, Daiki Kanbayashi, Michihiro Takahama, Takuma Misawa, Takashi Satoh, Osamu Takeuchi, Taro Kawai, Shigeomi Shimizu, Yoshiharu Matsuura, Shizuo Akira, Tatsuya Saitoh
The innate immune system senses RNA viruses by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and protects the host from virus infection. PRRs mediate the production of immune modulatory factors and direct the elimination of RNA viruses. Here, we show a unique PRR that mediates antiviral response. Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-inducible poly(ADP ribose) polymerase (TIPARP), a Cysteine3 Histidine (CCCH)-type zinc finger-containing protein, binds to Sindbis virus (SINV) RNA via its zinc finger domain and recruits an exosome to induce viral RNA degradation...
February 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213473/central-role-of-t-helper-17-cells-in-chronic-hypoxia-induced-pulmonary-hypertension
#20
Levi D Maston, David T Jones, Wieslawa Giermakowska, Tamara A Howard, Judy L Cannon, Wei Wang, Yongyi Wei, Weimin Xuan, Thomas C Resta, Laura V Gonzalez Bosc
RATIONALE: Inflammation is a prominent pathologic feature in pulmonary arterial hypertension as demonstrated by pulmonary vascular infiltration of inflammatory cells, including T and B lymphocytes. However, the contribution of the adaptive immune system is not well characterized in pulmonary hypertension caused by chronic hypoxia. CD4(+) T cells are required for initiating and maintaining inflammation, suggesting these cells could play an important role in the pathogenesis of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension...
February 17, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
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