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Immune response

Akhilesh Kumar, Manas Ranjan Dikhit, Ajay Amit, Amir Zaidi, Raj Kishor Pandey, Ashish Kumar Singh, Shashi S Suman, Vahab Ali, Vidya Nand Rabi Das, Krishna Pandey, Vikas Kumar, Shubhankar Kumar Singh, Shyam Narayan, Hirendra Kumar Chourasia, Pradeep Das, Sanjiva Bimal
We report here a Leishmania donovani ornithine decarboxylase (Ld-ODC) gene used as a DNA vaccine against visceral leishmaniasis in a murine Balb/c mouse model. This study also evaluated the possible mechanism of action directed by this candidate. We found a Th1 immune response after immunization using an Ld-ODC DNA vaccine, with results based on the rearrangement of TCR-V-α-2, proliferation of Carboxy fluorescein Succinimidyle ester positive T cells, which were able to produce cytokines such as TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-12 and IL-2, but not IL-4, IL-5, IL-6 and IL-10, and modulations of the STAT-1 and p38 MAP kinase signaling pathways...
March 17, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Yuri Ishiuchi, Hitoshi Sato, Narumi Komatsu, Hideo Kawaguchi, Takashi Matsuwaki, Keitaro Yamanouchi, Masugi Nishihara, Taku Nedachi
Skeletal muscle is an endocrine organ that secretes several proteins, which are collectively termed myokines. Although many studies suggest that exercise regulates myokine secretion, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear and all the exercise-dependent myokines have not yet been identified. Therefore, in this study, we attempted to identify novel exercise-dependent myokines by using our recently developed in vitro contractile model. Differentiated C2C12 myotubes were cultured with or without electrical pulse stimulation (EPS) for 24 h to induce cell contraction, and the myokines secreted in conditioned medium were analyzed using a cytokine array...
March 17, 2018: Cytokine
Xiangzhi Meng, Thomas Kaever, Bo Yan, Paula Traktman, Dirk M Zajonc, Bjoern Peters, Shane Crotty, Yan Xiang
Vaccinia virus (VACV) A14 is a major envelope protein and a dominant antibody target in the smallpox vaccine. However, the role of anti-A14 antibodies in immunity against orthopoxviruses is unclear. Here, we characterized 22 A14 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) from two mice immunized with VACV. Epitope mapping showed that 21 mAbs targeted the C-terminal hydrophilic region, while one mAb recognized the middle region predicted to be across the viral envelope from the C-terminus. However, none of the mAbs bound to virions in studies with electron microscopy...
March 17, 2018: Virology
Kirsten Glaser, Christine Silwedel, Markus Fehrholz, Birgit Henrich, Ana Maria Waaga-Gasser, Heike Claus, Christian P Speer
Being generally regarded as commensal bacteria, the pro-inflammatory capacity of Ureaplasma species has long been debated. Recently, we confirmed Ureaplasma-driven pro-inflammatory cytokine responses and a disturbance of cytokine equilibrium in primary human monocytes in vitro. The present study addressed the expression of CC chemokines and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in purified term neonatal and adult monocytes stimulated with serovar 8 of Ureaplasma urealyticum (Uu) and serovar 3 of U. parvum (Up)...
2018: PloS One
Dimitrios Chanouzas, Alexander Small, Richard Borrows, Simon Ball
BACKGROUND: The measurement of CMV specific cellular immunity in organ transplant recipients could contribute additional acuity to serology based, CMV infection risk stratification, facilitating optimisation of immunosuppression and anti-viral prophylaxis. METHODS: A pilot study of renal transplant recipient (RTR's) responses in the T-SPOT.CMV ELISPOT based assay. 108 RTR's were recruited 3 months post-transplantation, immediately prior to the cessation of stratified anti-viral prophylaxis, used in recipients from seropositive donors...
2018: PloS One
Nuria González, Krisha McKee, Rebecca M Lynch, Ivelin S Georgiev, Laura Jimenez, Eulalia Grau, Eloísa Yuste, Peter D Kwong, John R Mascola, José Alcamí
BACKGROUND: Only a small fraction of HIV-1-infected patients develop broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs), a process generally associated to chronic antigen stimulation. It has been described that rare aviremic HIV-1-infected patients can generate bNAbs but this issue remains controversial. To address this matter we have assessed bNAb responses in a large cohort of long-term non-progressors (LTNPs) with low or undetectable viremia. METHODS: Samples from the LTNP cohort of the Spanish AIDS Research Network (87 elite and 42 viremic controllers) and a control population of 176 viremic typical-progressors (TPs) were screened for bNAbs using Env-recombinant viruses...
2018: PloS One
Caetano Souto-Maior, Gabriel Sylvestre, Fernando Braga Stehling Dias, M Gabriela M Gomes, Rafael Maciel-de-Freitas
Infection is a complex and dynamic process involving a population of invading microbes, the host and its responses, aimed at controlling the situation. Depending on the purpose and level of organization, infection at the organism level can be described by a process as simple as a coin toss, or as complex as a multi-factorial dynamic model; the former, for instance, may be adequate as a component of a population model, while the latter is necessary for a thorough description of the process beginning with a challenge with an infectious inoculum up to establishment or elimination of the pathogen...
March 20, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Jing Jie, Yixin Zhang, Hongyue Zhou, Xiaoyu Zhai, Nannan Zhang, Hongyan Yuan, Weihua Ni, Guixiang Tai
Mucin 1 ( MUC1 ), being an oncogene, is an attractive target in tumor immunotherapy. Maltose binding protein (MBP) is a potent built-in adjuvant to enhance protein immunogenicity. Thus, a recombinant MUC1 and MBP antitumor vaccine (M-M) was constructed in our laboratory. To enhance the antitumor immune activity of M-M, CpG oligodeoxynucleotides 1826 (CpG 1826), a toll-like receptor-9 agonist, was examined in this study as an adjuvant. The combination of M-M and CpG 1826 significantly inhibited MUC1 -expressing B16 cell growth and prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Timsy Uppal, Roni Sarkar, Ranjit Dhelaria, Subhash C Verma
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus or Human herpesvirus-8 (KSHV/HHV-8), an oncogenic human herpesvirus and the leading cause of cancer in HIV-infected individuals, is a major public health concern with recurring reports of epidemics on a global level. The early detection of KSHV virus and subsequent activation of the antiviral immune response by the host's immune system are crucial to prevent KSHV infection. The host's immune system is an evolutionary conserved system that provides the most important line of defense against invading microbial pathogens, including viruses...
March 20, 2018: Cancers
Hee Kyoung Kang, Moon-Chang Choi, Chang Ho Seo, Yoonkyung Park
Various organisms exist in the oceanic environment. These marine organisms provide an abundant source of potential medicines. Many marine peptides possess anticancer properties, some of which have been evaluated for treatment of human cancer in clinical trials. Marine anticancer peptides kill cancer cells through different mechanisms, such as apoptosis, disruption of the tubulin-microtubule balance, and inhibition of angiogenesis. Traditional chemotherapeutic agents have side effects and depress immune responses...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Magdalena Dryglewska, Bogdan Kolarz, Maria Majdan
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease that results in uncontrolled immune system activation and overproduction of autoantibodies. The pathogenesis of the disease is complex and not fully understood, nevertheless, genetic and environmental factors play an important role. So far, about 30 genes have been identified to be involved in the SLE pathomechanism. However, not all genetically predisposed individuals develop the disease. This phenomenon can be associated with epigenetic changes that occur under the influence of environmental factors...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Kerri M Malone, Kévin Rue-Albrecht, David A Magee, Kevin Conlon, Olga T Schubert, Nicolas C Nalpas, John A Browne, Alicia Smyth, Eamonn Gormley, Ruedi Aebersold, David E MacHugh, Stephen V Gordon
Members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) are the causative agents of tuberculosis in a range of mammals, including humans. A key feature of MTBC pathogens is their high degree of genetic identity yet distinct host tropism. Notably, while Mycobacterium bovis is highly virulent and pathogenic for cattle, the human pathogen M. tuberculosis is attenuated in cattle. Previous research also suggests that host preference amongst MTBC members has a basis in host innate immune responses. To explore MTBC host tropism, we present in-depth profiling of the MTBC reference strains M...
March 20, 2018: Microbial Genomics
Daniel Lüdke, Charlotte Roth, Denise Hartken, Marcel Wiermer
The Arabidopsis nuclear transport receptor IMPORTIN-α3/MOS6 (MODIFIER OF SNC1, 6) is required for constitutive defense responses of the auto-immune mutant snc1 (suppressor of npr1-1, constitutive 1) and contributes to basal disease resistance, suggesting a role in nuclear import of defense-regulatory cargo proteins. We recently showed that MOS6 selectively interacts with TN13, a TIR-NBS protein involved in basal resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 lacking the effectors AvrPto and AvrPtoB...
March 20, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
A J Mercer
The main feature of the epidemiological transition is a shift in the recorded causes of death from infectious diseases to other morbid conditions. This paper outlines modifications made to Omran's original model and stages of transition, and suggests that without a focus on aetiology and morbidity, these have been basically descriptive rather than explanatory, and potentially misleading because infections have been confirmed as causes of various chronic diseases. Common infections and related immune responses or inflammatory processes contribute to the multifactorial aetiology of morbid conditions that together make a substantial contribution to overall mortality, and infectious causation is suspected for many others because of strong evidence of association...
March 20, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Anders Blomqvist, David Engblom
Fever is a common symptom of infectious and inflammatory disease. It is well-established that prostaglandin E2 is the final mediator of fever, which by binding to its EP3 receptor subtype in the preoptic hypothalamus initiates thermogenesis. Here, we review the different hypotheses on how the presence of peripherally released pyrogenic substances can be signaled to the brain to elicit fever. We conclude that there is unequivocal evidence for a humoral signaling pathway by which proinflammatory cytokines, through their binding to receptors on brain endothelial cells, evoke fever by eliciting prostaglandin E2 synthesis in these cells...
March 1, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
Cemile Sonmez, Aysegul Atak Yucel, Turan Hilmi Yesil, Hamit Kucuk, Berna Sezgin, Ridvan Mercan, Ahmet Eftal Yucel, Gulderen Yanikkaya Demirel
Behcet's disease is a chronic multisystemic disease with remissions and relapses. Several studies have shown that immune mechanisms play an important role in the development of the disease. In order to assess the association of disease activity with IL-17A/F, IL-23, IL-12/23 (p40) and IL-35 expression, we aimed to investigate production of these cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from Behcet's patients and normal controls. Furthermore, we included Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) as disease control to evaluate the specificity of our data for immunopathogenesis of BD...
March 20, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
Qingxia Yao, Karl P Fischer, D Lorne Tyrrell, Klaus S Gutfreund
Programmed death-1 (PD-1), upon engagement by its ligands, programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) and programmed death ligand-2 (PD-L2), provides signals that attenuate adaptive immune responses. Here we describe the identification of the Pekin duck PD-L2 (duPD-L2) and its gene structure. The duPD-L2 cDNA encodes a 321 amino acid protein that has an amino acid identity of 76% and 35% with chicken and human PD-L2, respectively. Mapping of the duPD-L2 cDNA with duck genomic sequences revealed an exonic structure similar to that of the human P dcd1lg2 gene...
March 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Catherine A Lozupone
In recent years, there has been a deluge of papers linking altered microbiome compositions to a myriad of diseases. Mechanistic insight into microbial drivers of disease phenotypes is essential for translation to novel therapies. A key mechanism by which microbes influence health is immune modulation by components of their capsule and cell envelope and their metabolites. A major research focus of my laboratory is to gain mechanistic insight into which microbes modulate host immunity generally and in the context of disease...
March 2018: MSystems
Mirella Luciani, Tiziana Di Febo, Massimiliano Orsini, Ivanka Krasteva, Angela Cattaneo, Michele Podaliri Vulpiani, Chiara Di Pancrazio, Angela Bachi, Manuela Tittarelli
The diagnosis of dourine can be difficult because the clinical signs of this disease in horses are similar to those of surra, caused by Trypanosoma evansi . Moreover, T. equiperdum and T. evansi are closely related and, so far, they cannot be distinguished using serological tests. In a previous work, the T. equiperdum protein pattern recognized by antibodies from dourine-infected horses and the humoral immune response kinetics were investigated by immunoblotting assay; a total of 20 sera from naturally and experimentally infected horses and from healthy animals were tested...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Jebi Sudan, Meenakshi Raina, Ravinder Singh
Plants have evolved various defense mechanisms including morphological adaptations, cellular pathways, specific signalling molecules and inherent immunity to endure various abiotic stresses during different growth stages. Most of the defense mechanisms are controlled by stress-responsive genes by transcribing and translating specific genes. However, certain modifications of DNA and chromatin along with small RNA-based mechanisms have also been reported to regulate the expression of stress-responsive genes and constitute another line of defense for plants in their struggle against stresses...
March 2018: 3 Biotech
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