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Bessel van der kolk

Bessel van der Kolk
Despite the numerous studies over the past 30 years that have clarified the devastating effects of child maltreatment on mental and physical health, the role of trauma within the caregiving system remains unrecognized both in our diagnostic systems and in our dominant treatment paradigms. Research of people with histories of caregiver abuse and neglect consistently demonstrates problems with concentration, anger, panic, depression, food intake, drugs, and sleep, as well as decreased Heart RateVariability, higher levels of stress hormones, and reduced or impaired immune response...
March 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Alison Rhodes, Joseph Spinazzola, Bessel van der Kolk
INTRODUCTION: Yoga-the integrative practice of physical postures and movement, breath exercises, and mindfulness-may serve as a useful adjunctive component of trauma-focused treatment to build skills in tolerating and modulating physiologic and affective states that have become dysregulated by trauma exposure. A previous randomized controlled study was carried out among 60 women with chronic, treatment-resistant post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and associated mental health problems stemming from prolonged or multiple trauma exposures...
March 2016: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
Mark Gapen, Bessel A van der Kolk, Ed Hamlin, Laurence Hirshberg, Michael Suvak, Joseph Spinazzola
EEG Biofeedback (also known as neurofeedback) has been in use as a clinical intervention for well over 30 years; however, it has made very little impact on clinical care. One reason for this has been the difficulty in designing research to measure clinical change in the real world. While substantial evidence exists for its efficacy in treating attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, relatively little evidence exists for its utility in other disorders including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The current study represents a "proof-of-concept" pilot for the use of neurofeedback with multiply-traumatized individuals with treatment-resistant PTSD...
September 2016: Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback
(no author information available yet)
THE AUTHOR of this book is a psychiatrist, and founder and medical director of the Trauma Centre in Boston, Massachusetts.
June 8, 2015: Emergency Nurse: the Journal of the RCN Accident and Emergency Nursing Association
(no author information available yet)
A PSYCHIATRIST, and founder and medical director of a United States trauma centre, the author of this book has researched post-traumatic stress for decades.
March 2015: Emergency Nurse: the Journal of the RCN Accident and Emergency Nursing Association
(no author information available yet)
This exceptional book helps us understand the complexities of traumatic experiences. Psychiatrist Bessel van der Kolk argues that while humans are a resilient species and able to rebound from wars, violence and disasters, trauma leaves traces on our minds, our emotions, our metabolism, physiology and immune systems.
December 9, 2014: Nursing Standard
Bessel A van der Kolk, Laura Stone, Jennifer West, Alison Rhodes, David Emerson, Michael Suvak, Joseph Spinazzola
BACKGROUND: More than a third of the approximately 10 million women with histories of interpersonal violence in the United States develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Currently available treatments for this population have a high rate of incomplete response, in part because problems in affect and impulse regulation are major obstacles to resolving PTSD. This study explored the efficacy of yoga to increase affect tolerance and to decrease PTSD symptomatology. METHOD: Sixty-four women with chronic, treatment-resistant PTSD were randomly assigned to either trauma-informed yoga or supportive women's health education, each as a weekly 1-hour class for 10 weeks...
June 2014: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Julian D Ford, Damion Grasso, Carolyn Greene, Joan Levine, Joseph Spinazzola, Bessel van der Kolk
OBJECTIVE: Maltreatment, family violence, and disruption in primary caregiver attachment in childhood may constitute a developmental form of trauma that places children at risk for multiple psychiatric and medical diagnoses that often are refractory to well-established evidence-based mental health treatments. No integrative diagnosis exists to guide assessment and treatment for these children and adolescents. This study therefore assessed clinicians' ratings of the clinical utility of a proposed developmental trauma disorder diagnostic framework...
August 2013: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Jean Knox
This paper discusses research by Beatrice Beebe, Bessel van der Kolk and others, exploring the interpersonal processes that underpin early relational trauma and how this contributes to adult psychopathology. An essential feature of early relational trauma, the infant's experience of being unable to evoke an empathic response from the caregiver and the feelings of shame this gives rise to, is discussed and its implications for psychotherapy are considered. The neuroscience that underpins two forms of empathy in the therapeutic relationship, of 'feeling for' and 'feeling with' the patient is discussed and explored in relation to the concordant and complementary countertransference...
September 2013: Journal of Analytical Psychology
Bessel van der Kolk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2013: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Wendy D'Andrea, Julian Ford, Bradley Stolbach, Joseph Spinazzola, Bessel A van der Kolk
Childhood exposure to victimization is prevalent and has been shown to contribute to significant immediate and long-term psychological distress and functional impairment. Children exposed to interpersonal victimization often meet criteria for psychiatric disorders other than posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Therefore, this article summarizes research that suggests directions for broadening current diagnostic conceptualizations for victimized children, focusing on findings regarding victimization, the prevalence of a variety of psychiatric symptoms related to affect and behavior dysregulation, disturbances of consciousness and cognition, alterations in attribution and schema, and interpersonal impairment...
April 2012: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Bessel A van der Kolk
Less than eight years after the establishment of the National Child Traumatic Stress Network in 2001 it has become evident that the current diagnostic classification system is inadequate for tens of thousands of traumatized children. While the inclusion of PTSD in the psychiatric classification system in 1980 led to extensive scientific studies of that diagnosis, over the past 25 years there has been a parallel emergence of the field of Developmental Psychopathology, which has documented the effects of interpersonal trauma and disruption of caregiving systems on the development of affect regulation, attention, cognition, perception, and interpersonal relationships...
2009: Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie
Marylene Cloitre, Bradley C Stolbach, Judith L Herman, Bessel van der Kolk, Robert Pynoos, Jing Wang, Eva Petkova
Exposure to multiple traumas, particularly in childhood, has been proposed to result in a complex of symptoms that includes posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as well as a constrained, but variable group of symptoms that highlight self-regulatory disturbances. The relationship between accumulated exposure to different types of traumatic events and total number of different types of symptoms (symptom complexity) was assessed in an adult clinical sample (N = 582) and a child clinical sample (N = 152). Childhood cumulative trauma but not adulthood trauma predicted increasing symptom complexity in adults...
October 2009: Journal of Traumatic Stress
James W Hopper, Paul A Frewen, Bessel A van der Kolk, Ruth A Lanius
Research suggests that responses to script-driven trauma imagery in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) include reexperiencing and dissociative symptom subtypes. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study employed a dimensional approach to characterizing script-driven imagery responses, using the Responses to Script-Driven Imagery Scale and correlational analyses of relationships between severity of state posttraumatic symptoms and neural activation. As predicted, state reexperiencing severity was associated positively with right anterior insula activity and negatively with right rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC)...
October 2007: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Bessel A van der Kolk, Joseph Spinazzola, Margaret E Blaustein, James W Hopper, Elizabeth K Hopper, Deborah L Korn, William B Simpson
OBJECTIVE: The relative short-term efficacy and long-term benefits of pharmacologic versus psychotherapeutic interventions have not been studied for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study compared the efficacy of a selective serotonin reup-take inhibitor (SSRI), fluoxetine, with a psychotherapeutic treatment, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), and pill placebo and measured maintenance of treatment gains at 6-month follow-up. METHOD: Eighty-eight PTSD subjects diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria were randomly assigned to EMDR, fluoxetine, or pill placebo...
January 2007: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Kate Walsh, Margaret Blaustein, Wanda Grant Knight, Joseph Spinazzola, Bessel A van der Kolk
Research has suggested that childhood sexual abuse (CSA) may be a risk factor for adulthood sexual assault. This study examined associations between CSA experiences, cognitive resiliency variables, and revictimization. Participants were 73 college-age females who completed self-report questionnaires assessing CSA, adult assault, self-efficacy, locus of control (LOC), and coping styles. Sexual assault was categorized as forced or coerced assault based on the tactics used by the perpetrator. Results indicated that CSA alone was the strongest independent predictor of forced adult assault; however, LOC and positive coping were associated with resiliency to coercive sexual assault...
2007: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
Dan J Stein, Bessel A van der Kolk, Carol Austin, Rana Fayyad, Cathryn Clary
BACKGROUND: In posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the nature of the trauma and the age of occurrence may have substantial effects on psychobiological sequelae and treatment response. Interpersonal trauma (physical/sexual assault) and childhood abuse are both prevalent and associated with later PTSD. This analysis was conducted to specifically assess the efficacy of sertraline in the treatment of PTSD secondary to interpersonal trauma or childhood abuse. METHODS: 395 adult patients with PTSD were randomized to 12-weeks double-blind treatment with flexible dose sertraline (50-200 mg/d) or placebo...
October 2006: Annals of Clinical Psychiatry: Official Journal of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists
Bessel A van der Kolk
The research showing how exposure to extreme stress affects brain function is making important contributions to understanding the nature of traumatic stress. This includes the notion that traumatized individuals are vulnerable to react to sensory information with subcortically initiated responses that are irrelevant, and often harmful, in the present. Reminders of traumatic experiences activate brain regions that support intense emotions, and decrease activation in the central nervous system (CNS) regions involved in (a) the integration of sensory input with motor output, (b) the modulation of physiological arousal, and (c) the capacity to communicate experience in words...
July 2006: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Marla Zucker, Joseph Spinazzola, Margaret Blaustein, Bessel A van der Kolk
The present study was designed to assess differences in dissociative symptoms in adults with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) vs. PTSD plus Disorders of Extreme Stress Not Otherwise Specified (DESNOS). This study was done for two reasons: (1) to better understand the clinical profile of DESNOS clients in order to inform more effective treatment, and (2) to further empirical research on the validity of the DESNOS construct. To assess severity of dissociative symptoms, the authors administered the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) to 155 participants with PTSD...
2006: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
James W Hopper, Joseph Spinazzola, William B Simpson, Bessel A van der Kolk
OBJECTIVE: Evidence of elevated basal heart rate (HR) in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been interpreted in terms of elevated sympathetic cardiac activity, as have possible increased cardiovascular disease risks and outcomes associated with elevated HR. Yet it is well-established that the parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system not only influences HR independently of the sympathetic branch, but makes a greater contribution to HR, including resting HR. Additionally, abnormally low tonic parasympathetic activity on the heart has been implicated in cardiovascular disease and hypertension...
January 2006: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
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