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Pneumonia childhood

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928442/genome-wide-association-and-hla-region-fine-mapping-studies-identify-susceptibility-loci-for-multiple-common-infections
#1
Chao Tian, Bethann S Hromatka, Amy K Kiefer, Nicholas Eriksson, Suzanne M Noble, Joyce Y Tung, David A Hinds
Infectious diseases have a profound impact on our health and many studies suggest that host genetics play a major role in the pathogenesis of most of them. We perform 23 genome-wide association studies for common infections and infection-associated procedures, including chickenpox, shingles, cold sores, mononucleosis, mumps, hepatitis B, plantar warts, positive tuberculosis test results, strep throat, scarlet fever, pneumonia, bacterial meningitis, yeast infections, urinary tract infections, tonsillectomy, childhood ear infections, myringotomy, measles, hepatitis A, rheumatic fever, common colds, rubella and chronic sinus infection, in over 200,000 individuals of European ancestry...
September 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928185/comparative-effectiveness-of-injectable-penicillin-versus-a-combination-of-penicillin-and-gentamicin-in-children-with-pneumonia-characterised-by-indrawing-in-kenya-protocol-for-an-observational-study
#2
Lucas Malla, Rafael Perera-Salazar, Emily McFadden, Mike English
INTRODUCTION: WHO treatment guidelines are widely recommended for guiding treatment for millions of children with pneumonia every year across multiple low-income and middle-income countries. Guidelines are based on synthesis of available evidence that provides moderate certainty in evidence of effects for forms of pneumonia that can result in hospitalisation. However, trials have included fewer children from Africa than other settings, and it is suggested that African children with pneumonia have higher mortality...
September 18, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922566/streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-chronic-endobronchial-infections-in-childhood
#3
Kim M Hare, Amanda J Leach, Heidi C Smith-Vaughan, Anne B Chang, Keith Grimwood
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is the main cause of bacterial pneumonia worldwide and has been studied extensively in this context. However, its role in chronic endobronchial infections and accompanying lower airway neutrophilic infiltration has received little attention. Severe and recurrent pneumonia are risk factors for chronic suppurative lung disease (CSLD) and bronchiectasis; the latter causes considerable morbidity and, in some populations, premature death in children and adults. Protracted bacterial bronchitis (PBB) is another chronic endobronchial infection associated with substantial morbidity...
September 18, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922054/economic-burden-of-pneumococcal-infections-in-children-under-5%C3%A2-years-of-age
#4
Mehmet Ceyhan, Yasemin Ozsurekci, Kubra Aykac, Basak Hacibedel, Egemen Ozbilgili
The present study aimed to determine the cost of childhood pneumococcal infections under 5 years of age and to provide further data for future health economy studies. Electronic medical records of children diagnosed with meningitis caused by S. pneumoniae and all-cause pneumonia, and acute otitis media (AOM) between January 2013-April 2014 were retrospectively evaluated. Direct costs for the treatments of hospitalized patients (pneumonia and pneumococcal meningitis) including costs of healthcare services consisted of costs of hospital bed, examination, laboratory analyses, scanning methods, consultation, vascular access procedures, and infusion and intravenous treatments...
September 18, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901005/delivery-arrangements-for-health-systems-in-low-income-countries-an-overview-of-systematic-reviews
#5
REVIEW
Agustín Ciapponi, Simon Lewin, Cristian A Herrera, Newton Opiyo, Tomas Pantoja, Elizabeth Paulsen, Gabriel Rada, Charles S Wiysonge, Gabriel Bastías, Lilian Dudley, Signe Flottorp, Marie-Pierre Gagnon, Sebastian Garcia Marti, Claire Glenton, Charles I Okwundu, Blanca Peñaloza, Fatima Suleman, Andrew D Oxman
BACKGROUND: Delivery arrangements include changes in who receives care and when, who provides care, the working conditions of those who provide care, coordination of care amongst different providers, where care is provided, the use of information and communication technology to deliver care, and quality and safety systems. How services are delivered can have impacts on the effectiveness, efficiency and equity of health systems. This broad overview of the findings of systematic reviews can help policymakers and other stakeholders identify strategies for addressing problems and improve the delivery of services...
September 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893195/antimicrobial-resistance-in-bacterial-pathogens-among-hospitalized-children-with-community-acquired-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-in-dongguan-china-2011-2016
#6
Xiaoguang He, Mingyu Xie, Siping Li, Junqin Ye, Qi Peng, Qiang Ma, Xiaomei Lu, Baimao Zhong
BACKGROUND: Bacterial pathogens are a major cause of childhood community acquired lower respiratory tract infections (CA-LRTIs), and few data described the impact of antimicrobial resistance on children with CA-LRTIs. This study aims to investigate the antimicrobial resistance in common bacterial agents among hospitalized children with CA-LRTIs between 2011 and 2016 in Dongguan, China. METHODS: Sputum samples were collected from hospitalized children (0-5 years old) with CA-LRTIs in Dongguan Children's Hospital...
September 11, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891754/mounier-kuhn-syndrome-presenting-with-recurrent-atelectasis
#7
Christine Quentin, Nicolas Lefevre, Eddy Bodart, Laurence Hanssens
Objective and importance Mounier Kuhn syndrome is usually diagnosed in adulthood, and only a few cases have been described in childhood. Clinical presentation We present the case of a seven-year-old boy suffering from recurrent pneumonia and atelectasis. Intervention Previously performed chest X-rays showed bilateral hyperinflation and tracheobronchomegaly. Chest computed tomography (CT) confirmed the presence of distal enlargement of trachea and bronchi. Tracheobronchomegaly associated with recurrent respiratory tract infections is consistent with Mounier Kuhn syndrome...
September 11, 2017: Acta Clinica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877729/effect-of-enhanced-feedback-to-hospitals-that-are-part-of-an-emerging-clinical-information-network-on-uptake-of-revised-childhood-pneumonia-treatment-policy-study-protocol-for-a-cluster-randomized-trial
#8
Philip Ayieko, Grace Irimu, Mike English
BACKGROUND: The national pneumonia treatment guidelines in Kenya changed in February 2016 but such guideline changes are often characterized by prolonged delays in affecting practice. We designed an enhanced feedback intervention, delivered within an ongoing clinical network that provides a general form of feedback, aimed at improving and sustaining uptake of the revised pneumonia treatment policy. The objective was to determine whether an enhanced feedback intervention will improve correctness of classification and treatment of childhood pneumonia, compared to an existing approach to feedback, after nationwide treatment policy change and within an existing hospital network...
September 7, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868646/long-term-pulmonary-disease-among-swiss-childhood-cancer-survivors
#9
Rahel Kasteler, Annette Weiss, Matthias Schindler, Grit Sommer, Philipp Latzin, Nicolas X von der Weid, Roland A Ammann, Claudia E Kuehni
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary diseases are potentially severe late complications of childhood cancer treatment that increase mortality risk among survivors. This nationwide study assesses the prevalence and incidence of pulmonary diseases in long-term childhood cancer survivors (CCS) and their siblings, and quantifies treatment-related risks. METHODS: As part of the Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, we studied CCS who were diagnosed between 1976 and 2005 and alive at least 5 years after diagnosis...
September 4, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844414/childhood-community-acquired-pneumonia-a-review-of-etiology-and-antimicrobial-treatment-studies
#10
REVIEW
Gerdien A Tramper-Stranders
Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a leading cause of childhood morbidity worldwide. Because of the rising antimicrobial resistance rates and adverse effects of childhood antibiotic use on the developing microbiome, rational prescribing of antibiotics for CAP is important. This review summarizes and critically reflects on the available evidence for the epidemiology, etiology and antimicrobial management of childhood CAP. Larger prospective studies on antimicrobial management derive mostly from low- or middle-income countries as they have the highest burden of CAP...
July 15, 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843578/estimates-of-the-global-regional-and-national-morbidity-mortality-and-aetiologies-of-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-in-195-countries-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#11
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors (GBD) Study 2015 provides an up-to-date analysis of the burden of lower respiratory tract infections (LRIs) in 195 countries. This study assesses cases, deaths, and aetiologies spanning the past 25 years and shows how the burden of LRI has changed in people of all ages. METHODS: We estimated LRI mortality by age, sex, geography, and year using a modelling platform shared across most causes of death in the GBD 2015 study called the Cause of Death Ensemble model...
August 23, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827496/cerebrospinal-fluid-cathelicidin-correlates-with-the-bacterial-load-and-outcomes-in-childhood-bacterial-meningitis
#12
Okko Savonius, Otto Helve, Irmeli Roine, Sture Andersson, Annika Saukkoriipi, Antonio González Mata, Heikki Peltola, Tuula Pelkonen
BACKGROUND: Large cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) bacterial load in bacterial meningitis (BM) relates to poor outcome. However, the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin seems important to host defense. We studied how cathelicidin concentrations and bacterial load in CSF relate in childhood BM and to what extent they may predict the disease outcome. METHODS: The patient data originated from a large prospective clinical trial in Latin America in 1996-2003 in which the CSF samples were collected on admission (CSF1) and 12-24 hours later (CSF2)...
August 17, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814258/management-of-complicated-pneumonia-in-childhood-a-review-of-recent-literature
#13
John B Darby, Amrita Singh, Ricardo Quinonez
BACKGROUND: Despite declining rates of community acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children, complicated pneumonia has been on the rise in the last two decades. The management of complicated pneumonia is challenging and continues to be an area of investigation. Despite recently published guidelines, many gaps exist and recent studies attempt to answer challenging questions. OBJECTIVE: To review recently published literature to inform the clinician on the most up to date management of complicated pneumonia in children...
August 16, 2017: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812801/four-challenges-that-global-health-networks-face
#14
EDITORIAL
Jeremy Shiffman
Global health networks, webs of individuals and organizations with a shared concern for a particular condition, have proliferated over the past quarter century. They differ in their effectiveness, a factor that may help explain why resource allocations vary across health conditions and do not correspond closely with disease burden. Drawing on findings from recently concluded studies of eight global health networks-addressing alcohol harm, early childhood development (ECD), maternal mortality, neonatal mortality, pneumonia, surgically-treatable conditions, tobacco use, and tuberculosis-I identify four challenges that networks face in generating attention and resources for the conditions that concern them...
February 8, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808938/advances-in-vaccines-to-prevent-viral-respiratory-illnesses-in-children
#15
Aleisha J Anderson, Tom L Snelling, Hannah C Moore, Christopher C Blyth
Childhood vaccination has played a critical role in the reduction of morbidity and mortality from communicable diseases, including specific respiratory pathogens. Acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) of both bacterial and viral aetiology continues to impact global child health. Key bacterial pathogens including Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenza type b are specifically targeted with current vaccination programmes, while at present there are less effective strategies for the prevention of viral disease...
August 14, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803513/mechanisms-of-unexpected-death-and-autopsy-findings-in-friedreich-ataxia
#16
Roger W Byard, John D Gilbert
A 36-year-old woman with a clinical history of Friedreich ataxia and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was found unexpectedly dead at her home. The heart showed asymmetric left ventricular hypertrophy, with an interventricular septal thickness of 20-25 mm (the remainder of the left ventricular wall measured 15 mm). Histologically, both ventricles had irregular areas of marked myocyte hypertrophy with associated interstitial fibrosis and focal myofibre disarray. There was neuronal loss within the dentate nucleus of the cerebellum, with vacuolation and axonal loss in the dorsal columns and spinocerebellar tracts of the upper cervical spinal cord...
January 1, 2017: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764553/severe-infections-and-subsequent-delayed-cardiovascular-disease
#17
Cecilia Bergh, Katja Fall, Ruzan Udumyan, Hugo Sjöqvist, Ole Fröbert, Scott Montgomery
Background Severe infections in adulthood are associated with subsequent short-term cardiovascular disease. Whether hospital admission for sepsis or pneumonia is associated with persistent increased risk (over a year after infection) is less well established. Design The design of this study was as a register-based cohort study. Methods Some 236,739 men born between 1952-1956 were followed from conscription assessments in adolescence to 2010. All-cause cardiovascular disease ( n = 46,754), including coronary heart disease ( n = 10,279) and stroke ( n = 3438), was identified through national registers 1970-2010 (at ages 18-58 years)...
January 1, 2017: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763554/does-this-child-have-pneumonia-the-rational-clinical-examination-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Sonal N Shah, Richard G Bachur, David L Simel, Mark I Neuman
Importance: Pneumonia is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children. It is important to identify the clinical symptoms and physical examination findings associated with pneumonia to improve timely diagnosis, prevent significant morbidity, and limit antibiotic overuse. Objective: To systematically review the accuracy of symptoms and physical examination findings in identifying children with radiographic pneumonia. Data Sources and Study Selection: MEDLINE and Embase (1956 to May 2017) were searched, along with reference lists from retrieved articles, to identify diagnostic studies of pediatric pneumonia across a broad age range that had to include children younger than age 5 years (although some studies enrolled children up to age 19 years); 3644 unique articles were identified, of which 23 met inclusion criteria...
August 1, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763551/childhood-pneumonia
#19
Sonal N Shah, Richard Gary Bachur, David L Simel, Mark I Neuman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760788/childhood-hospitalisation-and-related-deaths-in-hanoi-vietnam-a-tertiary-hospital-database-analysis-from-2007-to-2014
#20
Nhung T T Nguyen, Tran Minh Dien, Christian Schindler, Nguyen T B Lien, Nicole Probst-Hensch, Vu T H Lan, Nino Künzli, Laura Perez
OBJECTIVE: To describe hospital admission and emergency visit rates and potential risk factors of prolonged hospitalisation and death among children in Hanoi. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study reviewed 212 216 hospitalisation records of children (aged 0-17) who attended the Vietnam National Children's Hospital in Hanoi between 2007 and 2014. Four indicators were analysed and reported: (1) rate of emergency hospital visits, (2) rate of hospitalisation, (3) length of hospital stay and (4) number of deaths...
July 31, 2017: BMJ Open
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