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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546377/respiratory-care-considerations-in-the-childhood-cancer-patient
#1
Lama Elbahlawan, K Jason Rains, Dennis C Stokes
This article reviews the common pulmonary complications seen in the pediatric oncology population and our approach to diagnosis, management, and therapy considerations in this specialized population, including patients receiving chemotherapy, radiation, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Although infections cause the most significant complications in this population, non-infectious complications, including acute lung injury from chemotherapy or radiation, idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, bronchiolitis obliterans, and cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, also occur commonly...
June 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542661/-benign-acute-childhood-myositis-clinical-series-and-literature-review
#2
Felipe Cavagnaro S M, Alejandra Aird G, Ingrid Harwardt R, Carmen Gloria Marambio Q
Benign acute childhood myositis (BACM) is a rare clinical condition that mainly affects pre-school and school age-children. It is usually preceded by a viral illness, particularly influenza virus infection. OBJECTIVE: To describe a cluster of BACM cases that were seen in a paediatric unit. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective series of cases that presented with a clinical picture suggestive of BACM between August and November 2012 in the paediatric emergency department of a private clinic...
April 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538501/invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-patients-with-sickle-cell-disease
#3
Pournima Navalkele, Bülent Özgönenel, Eric McGrath, Paul Lephart, Sharada Sarnaik
BACKGROUND: Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) are at risk of fatal sepsis with encapsulated bacteria, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, because of the inherent autosplenectomy that occurs in SCD. This risk is thwarted with oral penicillin prophylaxis during the first 5 years of life, and with stringent vaccination against S. pneumoniae alongside routine childhood immunization. But compared with the general African American pediatric population, the rate of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in patients with SCD still remains high, resulting in hospitalization and fatality...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513815/epidemiology-of-paediatric-meningitis-in-central-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire-after-the-implementation-of-haemophilus-influenzae-type-b-vaccination
#4
Fidèle S Touré, Samson Kouame, Honoré Tia, Pacôme Monemo, Amadou Cissé, Bamourou Diané, Sören L Becker, Chantal Akoua-Koffi
Infectious meningitis accounts for enormous morbidity worldwide, but there is a paucity of data on its regional epidemiology in resource-constrained settings of sub-Saharan Africa. Here, we present a study on the aetiology of paediatric meningitis in central Côte d'Ivoire. Between June 2012 and December 2013, all cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples drawn at the University Teaching Hospital Bouaké were examined for the presence of bacterial and fungal pathogens. A causative agent was detected in 31 out of 833 CSF specimens (3...
May 17, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513594/regionally-compartmentalized-resident-memory-t-cells-mediate-naturally-acquired-protection-against-pneumococcal-pneumonia
#5
N Ms Smith, G A Wasserman, F T Coleman, K L Hilliard, K Yamamoto, E Lipsitz, R Malley, H Dooms, M R Jones, L J Quinton, J P Mizgerd
As children age, they become less susceptible to the diverse microbes causing pneumonia. These microbes are pathobionts that infect the respiratory tract multiple times during childhood, generating immunological memory. To elucidate mechanisms of such naturally acquired immune protection against pneumonia, we modeled a relevant immunological history in mice by infecting their airways with mismatched serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus). Previous pneumococcal infections provided protection against a heterotypic, highly virulent pneumococcus, as evidenced by reduced bacterial burdens and long-term sterilizing immunity...
May 17, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510985/changing-diagnosis-coding-routines-may-confound-the-results-of-longitudinal-childhood-pneumonia-studies
#6
M Eriksson, A Nilsson, R Bennet
AIM: This Swedish study compared the discharge diagnosis codes used for children up to the age of five hospitalised for acute lower respiratory tract infections before and after the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in 2007. METHODS: The International Classification of Diseases - 10(th) revision codes were used. We compared the discharge diagnosis codes at the Astrid Lindgren Children's Hospital from 1 July 2005 to 30 June 2007 (n=1,127) and 1 July 2011 to 30 June 2013 (n=1,240) in relation to the diagnostic methods used...
May 16, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500813/quality-of-case-management-for-pneumonia-and-diarrhea-among-children-seen-at-health-facilities-in-southern-malawi
#7
Miwako Kobayashi, Dyson Mwandama, Humphreys Nsona, Ruth J Namuyinga, Monica P Shah, Andrew Bauleni, Jodi Vanden Eng, Alexander K Rowe, Don P Mathanga, Laura C Steinhardt
AbstractPneumonia and diarrhea are leading causes of child deaths in Malawi. Guidelines to manage childhood illnesses in resource-poor settings exist, but studies have reported low health-care worker (HCW) adherence to guidelines. We conducted a health facility survey from January to March 2015 to assess HCW management of pneumonia and diarrhea in children < 5 years of age in southern Malawi, and to determine factors associated with case management quality. Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression models examined patient, HCW, and health facility factors associated with recommended pneumonia and diarrhea management, using Malawi's national guidelines as the gold standard...
May 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498857/cost-effectiveness-of-pneumococcal-vaccination-strategies-for-the-elderly-in-korea
#8
Jung Yeon Heo, Yu Bin Seo, Won Suk Choi, Jacob Lee, Ji Yun Noh, Hye Won Jeong, Woo Joo Kim, Min Ja Kim, Hee Young Lee, Joon Young Song
BACKGROUND: Although the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) showed good efficacy against pneumococcal disease in the the CAPiTA trial, the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination (PPSV23) program has been ongoing for older adults aged ≥ 65 years in Korea since May of 2013. This study aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the current vaccination strategy (a single-dose PPSV23 vaccination) compared to a single-dose PCV13 vaccination and sequential PCV13-PPSV23 vaccinations in the elderly population aged ≥ 65 years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486654/oxygen-availability-and-nursing-capacity-for-oxygen-therapy-in-ugandan-paediatric-wards
#9
Juliet Nabwire, Sophie Namasopo, Michael Hawkes
Oxygen is essential, life-saving, supportive treatment for children with hypoxaemia but is not available in many resource-constrained health facilities. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of oxygen availability and nurses' skills for oxygen administration at the paediatric wards of 11 district hospitals in eastern Uganda. Functional oxygen delivery was available at the paediatric wards of only 2 of 11 (18%) hospitals. Of the six concentrators found, two did not function at all and two produced a stream of O2 <80% pure...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486544/serotype-distribution-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-causing-invasive-disease-in-children-in-the-post-pcv-era-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Evelyn Balsells, Laurence Guillot, Harish Nair, Moe H Kyaw
BACKGROUND: Routine immunisation with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV7/10/13) has reduced invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) due to vaccine serotypes significantly. However, an increase in disease due to non-vaccine types, or serotype replacement, has been observed. Serotypes' individual contributions to IPD play a critical role in determining the overall effects of PCVs. This study examines the distribution of pneumococcal serotypes in children to identify leading serotypes associated with IPD post-PCV introduction...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485694/childhood-pneumonia-diagnostics-community-health-workers-and-national-stakeholders-differing-perspectives-of-new-and-existing-aids
#11
Hollie Spence, Kevin Baker, Alexandra Wharton-Smith, Akasiima Mucunguzi, Lena Matata, Tedila Habte, Diana Nanyumba, Anteneh Sebsibe, Thol Thany, Karin Källander
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia heavily contributes to global under-five mortality. Many countries use community case management to detect and treat childhood pneumonia. Community health workers (CHWs) have limited tools to help them assess signs of pneumonia. New respiratory rate (RR) counting devices and pulse oximeters are being considered for this purpose. OBJECTIVE: To explore perspectives of CHWs and national stakeholders regarding the potential usability and scalability of seven devices to aid community assessment of pneumonia signs...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479635/evaluation-of-a-social-franchising-and-telemedicine-programme-and-the-care-provided-for-childhood-diarrhoea-and-pneumonia-bihar-india
#12
Manoj Mohanan, Soledad Giardili, Veena Das, Tracy L Rabin, Sunil S Raj, Jeremy I Schwartz, Aparna Seth, Jeremy D Goldhaber-Fiebert, Grant Miller, Marcos Vera-Hernández
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact on the quality of the care provided for childhood diarrhoea and pneumonia in Bihar, India, of a large-scale, social franchising and telemedicine programme - the World Health Partners' Sky Program. METHODS: We investigated changes associated with the programme in the knowledge and performance of health-care providers by carrying out 810 assessments in a representative sample of providers in areas where the programme was and was not implemented...
May 1, 2017: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479634/clinical-management-of-children-with-fever-a-cross-sectional-study-of-quality-of-care-in-rural-zambia
#13
Karsten Lunze, Godfrey Biemba, J Joseph Lawrence, William B MacLeod, Kojo Yeboah-Antwi, Kebby Musokotwane, Toyin Ajayi, Simon Mutembo, Chilunga Puta, Duncan Earle, Rick Steketee, Davidson H Hamer
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate current practices and standards of evaluation and treatment of childhood febrile illness in Southern Province, Zambia. METHODS: From November to December 2013, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of facilities and health workers and we observed the health workers' interactions with febrile children and their caregivers. The facility survey recorded level of staffing, health services provided by the facility, availability and adequacy of medical equipment, availability of basic drugs and supplies and availability of treatment charts and guidelines...
May 1, 2017: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479624/providing-oxygen-to-children-in-hospitals-a-realist-review
#14
REVIEW
Hamish Graham, Shidan Tosif, Amy Gray, Shamim Qazi, Harry Campbell, David Peel, Barbara McPake, Trevor Duke
OBJECTIVE: To identify and describe interventions to improve oxygen therapy in hospitals in low-resource settings, and to determine the factors that contribute to success and failure in different contexts. METHODS: Using realist review methods, we scanned the literature and contacted experts in the field to identify possible mechanistic theories of how interventions to improve oxygen therapy systems might work. Then we systematically searched online databases for evaluations of improved oxygen systems in hospitals in low- or middle-income countries...
April 1, 2017: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472614/serotype-changes-and-antimicrobial-nonsusceptibility-rates-of-invasive-and-non-invasive-streptococcus-pneumoniae-isolates-after-implementation-of-10-valent-pneumococcal-nontypeable-haemophilus-influenzae-protein-d-conjugate-vaccine-phid-cv-in-bulgaria
#15
Lena Setchanova, Marianna Murdjeva, Iglika Stancheva, Alexandra Alexandrova, Maria Sredkova, Temenuga Stoicheva, Magda Yoneva, Anna Kurchatova, Ivan Mitov
The 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) has been included in Bulgarian Childhood Immunization Program since 2010. This study aimed to assess serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance of 198 invasive and non-invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae strains that had been isolated in Bulgaria during 2011-2016 from patients with invasive (IPD) and non-invasive (NIPD) pneumococcal diseases. The most common invasive serotypes were 3 (10.1%), 19F (4.0%), and 7F (3.0%). A significant decrease in the proportion of invasive vaccine types (VTs) from 64...
May 1, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467237/effect-of-the-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-on-nasopharyngeal-carriage-by-respiratory-pathogens-among-greenlandic-children
#16
Johan Emdal Navne, Anders Koch, Hans-Christian Slotved, Mikael Andersson, Mads Melbye, Karin Ladefoged, Malene Børresen
BACKGROUND: In 2010, Greenland introduced the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (Prevnar 13®- PCV-13) in the childhood immunisation program. The authors aimed to evaluate the impact of PCV-13 on nasopharyngeal carriage of bacteria frequently associated with respiratory infections in children. METHOD: In 2013 a cross-sectional population-based study of nasopharyngeal carriage was conducted among Greenlandic children aged 0-6 years and results were compared with an equivalent study from 2011...
2017: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464021/predictive-value-of-clinical-and-laboratory-features-for-the-main-febrile-diseases-in-children-living-in-tanzania-a-prospective-observational-study
#17
Olga De Santis, Mary Kilowoko, Esther Kyungu, Willy Sangu, Pascal Cherpillod, Laurent Kaiser, Blaise Genton, Valérie D'Acremont
BACKGROUND: To construct evidence-based guidelines for management of febrile illness, it is essential to identify clinical predictors for the main causes of fever, either to diagnose the disease when no laboratory test is available or to better target testing when a test is available. The objective was to investigate clinical predictors of several diseases in a cohort of febrile children attending outpatient clinics in Tanzania, whose diagnoses have been established after extensive clinical and laboratory workup...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453405/a-meta-analysis-of-antimicrobial-susceptibility-profiles-for-pneumococcal-pneumonia-in-sub-saharan-africa
#18
Pui-Ying Iroh Tam, Ayebo E Sadoh, Stephen K Obaro
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia causes an enormous burden of childhood disease globally, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Pneumococcus is the most common bacterial aetiology of pneumonia; however, antimicrobials are limited and may not adequately address the local epidemiology of the region. AIM: To undertake a review and meta-analysis of pneumonia studies in sub-Saharan Africa to evaluate antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in childhood pneumonia. METHODS: Articles published in PubMed and Google between 2006 and 2016 which evaluated antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of pneumococcal pneumonia in children in sub-Saharan Africa were identified...
April 28, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451028/profile-of-c-reactive-protein-white-cells-and-neutrophil-populations-in-febrile-children-from-rural-north-eastern-tanzania
#19
Coline Mahende, Billy Ngasala, John Lusingu, Thomas Mårtensson, Paminus Lushino, Martha Lemnge, Bruno Mmbando, Zul Premji
INTRODUCTION: C-reactive protein (CRP), white blood cell (WBC) and absolute neutrophil counts (ANC) are important inflammatory biomarkers in the early diagnosis of infections. However, little is known on their profile and usefulness in fever case management in children attending outpatient clinic in rural north-eastern Tanzania. METHODS: Patients aged between 2 and 59 months presenting with fever at Korogwe District Hospital were enrolled. Venous blood was collected for evaluation of serum CRP, WBC and ANC...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449971/indirect-herd-protection-following-pneumococcal-conjugated-vaccines-introduction-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#20
REVIEW
Gal Tsaban, Shalom Ben-Shimol
BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal diseases are major causes of morbidity among adults, especially those over 50years of age. While pneumococcal conjugated vaccines (PCV's) impact on pneumococcal disease rates among children is well established, the extent of its impact on adult pneumococcal related illness remains unclear. The aim of this systematic literature review was to describe the impact of PCV introduction to childhood national immunization programs worldwide on PCV-naive adult population...
May 19, 2017: Vaccine
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