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Pneumonia childhood

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220737/adenovirus-associated-pneumonia-in-south-african-children-presentation-clinical-course-and-outcome
#1
M Zampoli, Z Mukuddem-Sablay
BACKGROUND: Viruses have emerged as important aetiological agents of childhood pneumonia. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical presentation, severity and outcome of adenovirus-associated pneumonia (AVP) in children. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of AVP cases over 12 months was performed, including demographic, clinical course and outcome (death, persistent lung disease (PLD)) data. RESULTS: Two hundred and six AVP cases (median age 12 months, interquartile range 6 - 24) were identified; 70 children (34...
January 30, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202116/-pathogens-of-infections-in-the-induction-period-of-childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-and-drug-resistance-of-isolated-strains
#2
Zai-Sheng Chen, Ling Zheng, Yi-Qiao Chen, Jing-Hui Yang, Jian Li
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the infections occurring in the induction period of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the pathogens of the infections, and drug resistance of isolated strains. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 130 children with newly-diagnosed childhood ALL. Infections occurring during the induction chemotherapy, pathogenic strains, and drug-resistance spectrum were analyzed. RESULTS: The incidence rate of clinical infection and/or microbial infection reached 76...
February 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198725/adult-pneumococcal-vaccination-advances-impact-and-unmet-needs
#3
Ricardo J José, Jeremy S Brown
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Preventing pneumonia in the elderly and study participants individuals with comorbidities is an unmet clinical need. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the commonest bacterial cause of pneumonia, and we summarize recent findings regarding current S. pneumoniae vaccines, and debate their efficacy and cost-effectiveness in risk groups. We also discuss potential future vaccine strategies such as protein antigen vaccines. RECENT FINDINGS: Current vaccination with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine does not prevent S...
February 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196635/childhood-meningitis-in-kuwait-in-the-era-of-post-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccination-a-multicenter-study
#4
Hussain Sadeq, Entesar H Husain, Amna Alkoot, Suha Atyani, Abdullah Al-Fraij, Abdulrahman Al-Daithan, Talal AlSaleem, Anfal Taher, May Alenezi
This is a retrospective study to evaluate epidemiology and etiologies of childhood meningitis in Kuwait after the routine introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. The data was collected from 196 patients in the period of 2010-2014. Aseptic meningitis accounted for 51% of the cases, bacterial meningitis accounted for 29% cases and partially treated meningitis were 20%. Organisms causing bacterial meningitis were: Streptococcus pneumoniae 40.4%, Neisseria meningitidis 17.6%, Haemophilus spp. 12.2%, other gram positive or negative 19...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187063/prevalence-of-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-infection-in-malagasy-children
#5
Ravelomanana Lova, Bouazza Naim, Mbola Rakotomahefa, André Zo Andrianirina, Annick Lalaina Robinson, Honoré Raobidjaona, Rabezanahary Andriamihaja, Nadjet Benhaddou, Fréderique Randrianirina, Elisoa Ratsima, Patrick Imbert, Josette Raymond
BACKGROUND: Childhood community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a leading cause of childhood morbidity in low-income countries. The etiologic agents are usually Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. M. pneumoniae was recognized as co-factor in asthmatic disease. High asthma prevalence was reported in Madagascar. Our aim was to clarify the prevalence of M. pneumoniae infection in this country and its relationship with asthma. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted in 351 children (aged from 2 to 16 years) from January 2012 to December 2014...
February 9, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161425/the-rise-and-fall-of-pneumococcal-serotypes-carried-in-the-pcv-era
#6
Vanessa T Devine, David W Cleary, Johanna M C Jefferies, Rebecca Anderson, Denise E Morris, Andrew C Tuck, Rebecca A Gladstone, Grace O'Doherty, Priyasharmila Kuruparan, Stephen D Bentley, Saul N Faust, Stuart C Clarke
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of meningitis, sepsis and pneumonia worldwide. Vaccination using pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) has therefore been part of the UK's childhood immunisation programme since 2006. Here we describe pneumococcal carriage rates in children under five years of age attending the paediatric department of a large UK hospital in response to vaccine implementation over seven winter seasons from 2006 to 2013. S. pneumoniae (n=696) were isolated from nasopharyngeal swabs (n=2267) collected during seven consecutive winters, October to March, 2006/7 to 2012/13...
February 1, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149493/prevalence-of-colonization-and-mitochondrial-large-subunit-rrna-mutation-of-pneumocystis-jiroveci-among-iranian-children
#7
Parisa Badiee, Ali Rezapour, Amin Abbasian, Hamid Reza Foroutan, Hadis Jafarian
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pneumocystis jiroveci is an important causative agent of Pneumocystis pneumonia. During childhood, exposure to Pneumocystis occurs and antibody was built in early childhood. The aim of this study was to describe the molecular epidemiology of P. jiroveci in children without any respiratory syndrome and survey the distribution of different mitochondrial large subunit, ribosomal ribonucleic acid (mtLSU- rRNA) genotypes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mini-bronchoalveolar lavage (mini-BAL) fluids from pediatric patients with no history of lung disorders were obtained during a 14-month period...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146079/recurrent-pneumonia-in-children-a-reasoned-diagnostic-approach-and-a-single-centre-experience
#8
REVIEW
Silvia Montella, Adele Corcione, Francesca Santamaria
Recurrent pneumonia (RP), i.e., at least two episodes of pneumonia in one year or three episodes ever with intercritical radiographic clearing of densities, occurs in 7.7%-9% of children with community-acquired pneumonia. In RP, the challenge is to discriminate between children with self-limiting or minor problems, that do not require a diagnostic work-up, and those with an underlying disease. The aim of the current review is to discuss a reasoned diagnostic approach to RP in childhood. Particular emphasis has been placed on which children should undergo a diagnostic work-up and which tests should be performed...
January 29, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121955/childhood-recurrent-pneumonia-caused-by-endobronchial-sutures-a-case-report
#9
Yiheng Zan, Hanmin Liu, Lin Zhong, Li Qiu, Qingfen Tao, Lina Chen
BACKGROUND: Recurrent pneumonia is defined as more than two episodes of pneumonia in one year or three or more episodes anytime in life. Common clinical scenarios leading to recurrent pneumonia include anatomical abnormalities of respiratory tract, immunodeficiency, congenital heart diseases, primary ciliary dyskinesia, etc. CASE REPORT: A school-aged girl suffered from 1-2 episodes of pneumonia each year after trachea connection and lung repair operation resulted from an accident of car crash...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107788/the-indications-and-role-of-paediatric-bronchoscopy-in-a-developing-country-with-high-prevalence-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-and-hiv
#10
Irwin Webster, Pierre Goussard, Robert Gie, Jacques Janson, Gawie Rossouw
BACKGROUND: Bronchoscopy, an important investigation for the diagnosis and management of respiratory diseases, is widely used in high income countries. There is limited information on value of paediatric bronchoscopy in low and middle income countries (LMIC). AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Aim was to describe the indications, findings and complications of bronchoscopy in a middle income country with a high prevalence of tuberculosis and HIV. METHODOLOGY: A retrospective analysis of a database over a 3...
January 20, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094013/pulmonary-outcome-of-esophageal-atresia-patients-and-its-potential-causes-in-early-childhood
#11
René Dittrich, Philippe Stock, Karin Rothe, Petra Degenhardt
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to illustrate the pulmonary long term outcome of patients with repaired esophageal atresia and to further examine causes and correlations that might have led to this outcome. METHODS: Twenty-seven of 62 possible patients (43%) aged 5-20years, with repaired esophageal atresia were recruited. Body plethysmography and spirometry were performed to evaluate lung function, and the Bruce protocol treadmill exercise test to assess physical fitness...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078948/care-seeking-for-children-with-fever-cough-or-diarrhoea-in-nepal-equity-trends-over-the-last-15-years
#12
Mats Målqvist, Chahana Singh, Ashish Kc
AIMS: Childhood illnesses such as diarrhoea and pneumonia remain major contributors to child mortality globally and need to be continually targeted in pursuit of universal health coverage. This study analyses time trends in the prevalence of fever/cough and diarrhoea in Nepal and applies an equity lens in order to identify disadvantaged groups. METHODS: Data from the Nepal Demographic Health Surveys of 2001, 2006, and 2011, together with data from the most recent Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey of 2014 performed in Nepal, were utilized for analysis...
January 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077751/performance-of-health-workers-using-an-electronic-algorithm-for-the-management-of-childhood-illness-in-tanzania-a-pilot-implementation-study
#13
Clotilde Rambaud-Althaus, Amani Shao, Josephine Samaka, Ndeniria Swai, Seneca Perri, Judith Kahama-Maro, Marc Mitchell, Valérie D'Acremont, Blaise Genton
In low-resource settings, where qualified health workers (HWs) are scarce and childhood mortality high, rational antimicrobial prescription for childhood illnesses is a challenge. To assess whether smartphones running guidelines, as compared with paper support, improve consultation process and rational use of medicines for children, a pilot cluster-randomized controlled study was conducted in Tanzania. Nine primary health-care facilities (HFs) were randomized into three arms: 1) paper algorithm, 2) electronic algorithm on a smartphone, and 3) control...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069322/development-and-evaluation-of-a-patient-education-video-promoting-pneumococcal-vaccination
#14
Tiffany Brown, Shira N Goldman, Stephen D Persell, Ji Young Lee, Crystal T Doan, Quinn Stephens, David W Baker, Kenzie A Cameron
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to develop and refine a patient education video about pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination (PPSV23) and to assess patient perceptions regarding video content and receipt of video during a clinic visit. METHODS: Focus groups were conducted to obtain patient feedback on a brief video focusing on personal susceptibility to pneumonia and highlighting the importance of both childhood and adult vaccines. Subsequently, interviews were conducted with patients ages 65 and 66 who were shown the revised video at an office visit...
December 28, 2016: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052071/impact-of-the-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-on-clinical-and-hypoxemic-childhood-pneumonia-over-three-years-in-central-malawi-an-observational-study
#15
Eric D McCollum, Bejoy Nambiar, Rashid Deula, Beatiwel Zadutsa, Austin Bondo, Carina King, James Beard, Harry Liyaya, Limangeni Mankhambo, Marzia Lazzerini, Charles Makwenda, Gibson Masache, Naor Bar-Zeev, Peter N Kazembe, Charles Mwansambo, Norman Lufesi, Anthony Costello, Ben Armstrong, Tim Colbourn
BACKGROUND: The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine's (PCV) impact on childhood pneumonia during programmatic conditions in Africa is poorly understood. Following PCV13 introduction in Malawi in November 2011, we evaluated the case burden and rates of childhood pneumonia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Between January 1, 2012-June 30, 2014 we conducted active pneumonia surveillance in children <5 years at seven hospitals, 18 health centres, and with 38 community health workers in two districts, central Malawi...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051016/lung-function-in-wheezing-infants-after-acute-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-and-its-association-with-respiratory-outcome
#16
Yuan-Yuan Qi, Gao-Li Jiang, Li-Bo Wang, Cheng-Zhou Wan, Xiao-Bo Zhang, Li-Ling Qian
BACKGROUND: Wheezing is common in early childhood and remains an important health concern. The aim of this study was to assess the lung function of wheezing infants and to investigate the relationship between lung function and respiratory outcome. METHODS: Infants <2 years of age with acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRTI) who had undergone lung function tests were included in the study. They were assigned to wheeze or no wheeze group based on physical examination...
2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050900/planned-early-birth-versus-expectant-management-waiting-for-prelabour-rupture-of-membranes-at-term-37-weeks-or-more
#17
REVIEW
Philippa Middleton, Emily Shepherd, Vicki Flenady, Rosemary D McBain, Caroline A Crowther
BACKGROUND: Prelabour rupture of membranes (PROM) at term is managed expectantly or by planned early birth. It is not clear if waiting for birth to occur spontaneously is better than intervening, e.g. by inducing labour. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review is to assess the effects of planned early birth (immediate intervention or intervention within 24 hours) when compared with expectant management (no planned intervention within 24 hours) for women with term PROM on maternal, fetal and neonatal outcomes...
January 4, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029320/pulmonary-infiltrates-in-a-patient-with-advanced-melanoma
#18
Charles A Powell
The Oncology Grand Rounds series is designed to place original reports published in the Journal into clinical context. A case presentation is followed by a description of diagnostic and management challenges, a review of the relevant literature, and a summary of the authors' suggested management approaches. The goal of this series is to help readers better understand how to apply the results of key studies, including those published in Journal of Clinical Oncology, to patients seen in their own clinical practice...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012543/paediatric-haemoptysis-and-the-otorhinolaryngologist-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Miles Bannister
OBJECTIVES: Childhood haemoptysis is an uncommon presentation to the otolaryngologist but has a varied aetiology and can be life-threatening. We performed a systematic review of the literature to assess paediatric otolaryngologists' experience with haemoptysis, the aetiology involved, investigations performed and management provided. Using this, we produce an evidence-based treatment algorithm to guide clinicians. METHODS: Systematic literature review of the PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Collaboration using the search terms 'paediatric', 'child', 'neonate', 'adolescent', 'haemoptysis', 'coughing blood', 'spitting blood' and 'otorhinolaryngology'...
January 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011920/nasopharyngeal-pneumococcal-carriage-during-childhood-community-acquired-alveolar-pneumonia-relationship-between-specific-serotypes-and-co-infecting-viruses
#20
David Greenberg, Noga Givon-Lavi, Yaniv Fainguelernt, Shalom Ben-Shimol, Yonat Shemer Avni, Jacob Bar-Ziv, Ron Dagan
BACKGROUND: Respiratory viruses and S. pneumoniae are known to be co-pathogens in childhood pneumonia. However, it is unclear whether all pneumococcal serotypes are equally prone to such interaction. We attempted to determine association between carried pneumococcal serotypes and respiratory viruses during childhood community-acquired alveolar pneumonia (CAAP). METHODS: The study was conducted during RSV seasons, before pneumococcal vaccine introduction. Children <5 years diagnosed with CAAP, with positive pneumococcal nasopharyngeal cultures from whom viral diagnostic tests were obtained were enrolled...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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