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Pneumonia childhood

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145277/tricho-hepato-enteric-syndrome-with-novel-skiv2l-gene-mutations-a-case-report
#1
Eitaro Hiejima, Takahiro Yasumi, Hiroshi Nakase, Minoru Matsuura, Yusuke Honzawa, Hirokazu Higuchi, Ikuo Okafuji, Tohru Yorifuji, Takayuki Tanaka, Kazushi Izawa, Tomoki Kawai, Ryuta Nishikomori, Toshio Heike
RATIONALE: Tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome (THES) is a rare disorder caused by mutations in the TTC37 or SKIV2L genes and characterized by chronic diarrhea, liver disease, hair abnormalities, and high mortality in early childhood due to severe infection or liver cirrhosis. PATIENT CONCERNS: The patient is the second child of three siblings born to non-consanguineous healthy Japanese parents. She had intrauterine growth retardation and was delivered at 33 weeks of gestation due to placental abruption...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143743/the-case-for-action-on-childhood-pneumonia
#2
EDITORIAL
The Lancet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 11, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132070/sixteen-year-history-of-rituximab-therapy-for-1085-pemphigus-vulgaris-patients-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Soheil Tavakolpour, HamidReza Mahmoudi, Kamran Balighi, Robabeh Abedini, Maryam Daneshpazhooh
Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a rare autoimmune disease due to the production of pathogenic autoantibodies directed against desmoglein 1 and 3, usually affecting both skin and mucous membranes. Recently, rituximab, a chimeric IgG1 monoclonal antibody which targets the CD20 molecules have been regarded as a promising treatment for PV. In this study, a systematic review was conducted to conclude on how and which PV patients could benefit from rituximab infusion. Search in PubMed results in 114 relevant studies, which met the criteria...
November 10, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129186/an-exploration-of-mortality-risk-factors-in-non-severe-pneumonia-in-children-using-clinical-data-from-kenya
#4
Timothy Tuti, Ambrose Agweyu, Paul Mwaniki, Niels Peek, Mike English
BACKGROUND: Childhood pneumonia is the leading infectious cause of mortality in children younger than 5 years old. Recent updates to World Health Organization pneumonia guidelines recommend outpatient care for a population of children previously classified as high risk. This revision has been challenged by policymakers in Africa, where mortality related to pneumonia is higher than in other regions and often complicated by comorbidities. This study aimed to identify factors that best discriminate inpatient mortality risk in non-severe pneumonia and explore whether these factors offer any added benefit over the current criteria used to identify children with pneumonia requiring inpatient care...
November 13, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125809/burden-of-hospitalized-childhood-community-acquired-pneumonia-a-retrospective-cross-sectional-study-in-vietnam-malaysia-indonesia-and-the-republic-of-korea
#5
Kah Kee Tan, Duc Anh Dang, Ki Hwan Kim, Cissy Kartasasmita, Hwang Min Kim, Xu-Hao Zhang, Fakrudeen Shafi, Ta-Wen Yu, Emilio Ledesma, Nadia Meyer
BACKGROUND: Few studies describe the community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) burden in children in Asia. We estimated the proportion of all CAP hospitalizations in children from nine hospitals across the Republic of Korea (high-income), Indonesia, Malaysia (middle-income), and Vietnam (low/middle-income). METHODS: Over a one or two-year period, children <5 years hospitalized with CAP were identified using ICD-10 discharge codes. Cases were matched to standardized definitions of suspected (S-CAP), confirmed (C-CAP), or bacterial CAP (B-CAP) used in a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine efficacy study (COMPAS)...
November 10, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119031/pediatric-pulmonary-epstein-barr-virus-positive-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#6
Eric X Wei, Roberto F Silva, James D Cotelingam, Rodney E Shackelford
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is a common malignancy of childhood; however, a lung primary presentation is an uncommon finding, as is finding an association with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). We report the case of a 23-month-old female who developed EBV-associated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) that was initially thought to be pneumonia. Extensive tissue necrosis, focal angioinvasion, and angiodestruction were observed. She was refractory to various therapy regimens, subsequently developed DLBCL in the central nervous system, and eventually expired...
2017: Case Reports in Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112644/is-lung-ultrasound-useful-for-diagnosing-pneumonia-in-children-a-meta-analysis-and-systematic-review
#7
Hua Xin, Jie Li, Hai-Yang Hu
BACKGROUND: Childhood mortality due to pneumonia is high. Chest radiography is the primary imaging modality used for the evaluation of pneumonia in children. Lung ultrasonography (LUS) is a newer, alternative diagnostic method that has been gaining popularity in recent years. We conducted a meta-analysis to summarize the diagnostic usefulness of LUS for childhood pneumonia. METHODS: All studies included in this meta-analysis were retrieved from PubMed, Elsevier's Science Direct, and Springer, and by manual searches including the use of reference lists, through March 31, 2017...
November 6, 2017: Ultrasound Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102067/cat-exposure-in-early-life-decreases-asthma-risk-from-the-17q21-high-risk-variant
#8
Jakob Stokholm, Bo L Chawes, Nadja Vissing, Klaus Bønnelykke, Hans Bisgaard
BACKGROUND: Early-life exposure to cats and dogs has shown diverging associations with childhood asthma risk, and gene-environment interaction is one possible explanation. OBJECTIVES: We investigated interactions between cat and dog exposure and single nucleotide polymorphism rs7216389 variants in the chromosome 17q21 locus, the strongest known genetic risk factor for childhood asthma. METHODS: Genotyping was performed in 377 children from the at-risk Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood2000...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097339/comparable-outcomes-among-trial-and-non-trial-participants-in-a-clinical-trial-of-antibiotics-for-childhood-pneumonia-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#9
Ambrose Agweyu, Jacquie Oliwa, David Gathara, Naomi Muinga, Elizabeth Allen, Richard J Lilford, Mike English
OBJECTIVE: We compared characteristics and outcomes of children enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing oral amoxicillin and benzyl penicillin for the treatment of chest indrawing pneumonia versus children who received routine care to determine the external validity of the trial results. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We undertook a retrospective cohort study of children aged 2 - 59 months admitted in six Kenyan hospitals. Data for non-trial participants were extracted from inpatient records upon conclusion of the RCT...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096010/macrolides-in-children-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-panacea-or-placebo
#10
Christopher C Blyth, Jeffrey S Gerber
Pneumonia, most often caused by a respiratory virus, is common in childhood. Mycoplasma pneumoniae also is detected frequently, particularly in older children in the era of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination. Despite recommendations for β-lactam antibiotics, macrolide antibiotics, including erythromycin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin, are prescribed frequently to children with acute lower respiratory infection. However, the significance of detecting "atypical" pathogens, including M pneumoniae, in children remains contentious...
October 31, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095907/bacterial-meningitis-epidemiology-and-return-of-neisseria-meningitidis-serogroup-a-cases-in-burkina-faso-in-the-five-years-following-menafrivac-mass-vaccination-campaign
#11
Alpha Oumar Diallo, Heidi M Soeters, Issaka Yameogo, Guetawendé Sawadogo, Flavien Aké, Clément Lingani, Xin Wang, Andre Bita, Amadou Fall, Lassana Sangaré, Rasmata Ouédraogo-Traoré, Isaïe Medah, Brice Bicaba, Ryan T Novak
BACKGROUND: Historically, Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A (NmA) caused large meningitis epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa. In 2010, Burkina Faso became the first country to implement a national meningococcal serogroup A conjugate vaccine (MACV) campaign. We analyzed nationwide meningitis surveillance data from Burkina Faso for the 5 years following MACV introduction. METHODS: We examined Burkina Faso's aggregate reporting and national laboratory-confirmed case-based meningitis surveillance data from 2011-2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078810/improving-oxygen-therapy-for-children-and-neonates-in-secondary-hospitals-in-nigeria-study-protocol-for-a-stepped-wedge-cluster-randomised-trial
#12
Hamish R Graham, Adejumoke I Ayede, Ayobami A Bakare, Oladapo B Oyewole, David Peel, Amy Gray, Barbara McPake, Eleanor Neal, Shamim Qazi, Rasa Izadnegahdar, Adegoke G Falade, Trevor Duke
BACKGROUND: Oxygen is a life-saving, essential medicine that is important for the treatment of many common childhood conditions. Improved oxygen systems can reduce childhood pneumonia mortality substantially. However, providing oxygen to children is challenging, especially in small hospitals with weak infrastructure and low human resource capacity. METHODS/DESIGN: This trial will evaluate the implementation of improved oxygen systems at secondary-level hospitals in southwest Nigeria...
October 27, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075300/adherence-to-integrated-management-of-childhood-illnesses-guideline-in-treating-south-sudanese-children-with-cough-or-difficulty-in-breathing
#13
Jonathan Izudi, Stanley Anyigu, David Ndungutse
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia substantially kills children aged 2-59 months in South Sudan. However, information on health workers adherence to Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI) guideline in treating children with cough/difficulty in breathing remains scarce. This study assessed factors associated with adherence to IMCI guideline in Aweil East County, South Sudan. METHODS: This cross-sectional study involved 232 health workers from 36 health facilities...
2017: International Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070751/two-cases-of-nemaline-myopathy-presenting-with-hypertrophy-of-distal-limbs-with-prominent-asymmetry
#14
Yukio Mizuno, Madoka Mori-Yoshimura, Yasushi Oya, Atsuko Nishikawa, Ichizo Nishino, Yuji Takahashi
Nemaline myopathy commonly presents with symmetrical proximal weakness. Here we report two cases of nemaline myopathy presenting with distal dominant involvement with prominent asymmetry. Case 1 was a 37-year-old man who recalled frequently falling down and had right calf atrophy since he was 3-years-old. He had right calf muscle atrophy and weakness and steppage gait; his cardiopulmonary function was normal. Case 2 was a 35-year-old man with right calf muscle atrophy and weakness since childhood. He had right dominant distal leg weakness and atrophy together with respiratory failure and started noninvasive positive pressure ventilation...
October 26, 2017: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069315/the-impact-of-pneumococcal-vaccination-on-bacterial-and-viral-pneumonia-in-western-australian-children-record-linkage-cohort-study-of-469-589-births-1996-2012
#15
Parveen Fathima, Christopher C Blyth, Deborah Lehmann, Faye J Lim, Tasnim Abdalla, Nicholas de Klerk, Hannah C Moore
Background: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) was included in Australia's National Immunisation Program for all children from 2005. We assessed the impact of PCV on all-cause and pathogen-specific pneumonia hospitalisations in Western Australian (WA) children aged ≤16 years. Methods: All hospitalisations with pneumonia-related ICD-10AM diagnosis codes occurring in WA-born children (1996-2012) were linked to pathology records. Age-specific incidence rate ratios and temporal trends for all-cause and pathogen-specific pneumonia hospitalisations were calculated pre- and post-PCV introduction...
October 23, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062961/novel-polysaccharide-protein-conjugates-provide-an-immunogenic-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-for-s-%C3%A2-pneumoniae
#16
Allison E B Turner, Jonas E Gerson, Helen Y So, Daniel J Krasznai, Adrienne J St Hilaire, Donald F Gerson
Pneumonia remains the single leading cause of childhood death worldwide. Despite the commercial availability of multiple pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs), high dosage cost and supply shortages prevent PCV delivery to much of the developing world. The current work presents high-yield pneumococcal conjugates that are immunogenic in animals and suitable for use in human vaccine development. The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13) investigated in this research incorporated serotypes 1, 3, 4, 5, 6A, 6B, 7F, 9V, 14, 18C, 19A, 19F, and 23F...
March 2017: Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059253/a-novel-electronic-algorithm-using-host-biomarker-point-of-care-tests-for-the-management-of-febrile-illnesses-in-tanzanian-children-e-poct-a-randomized-controlled-non-inferiority-trial
#17
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Kristina Keitel, Frank Kagoro, Josephine Samaka, John Masimba, Zamzam Said, Hosiana Temba, Tarsis Mlaganile, Willy Sangu, Clotilde Rambaud-Althaus, Alain Gervaix, Blaise Genton, Valérie D'Acremont
BACKGROUND: The management of childhood infections remains inadequate in resource-limited countries, resulting in high mortality and irrational use of antimicrobials. Current disease management tools, such as the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) algorithm, rely solely on clinical signs and have not made use of available point-of-care tests (POCTs) that can help to identify children with severe infections and children in need of antibiotic treatment. e-POCT is a novel electronic algorithm based on current evidence; it guides clinicians through the entire consultation and recommends treatment based on a few clinical signs and POCT results, some performed in all patients (malaria rapid diagnostic test, hemoglobin, oximeter) and others in selected subgroups only (C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, glucometer)...
October 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058249/a-2-year-step-down-withdrawal-from-inhaled-corticosteroids-in-asthmatic-children-receiving-immunotherapy
#18
Chun-Hui He, Xing Li, Jun-Hong Lin, Qiang Xiao, Jia-Lu Yu, Ying-Fen Liu, Wen-Hui Jiang, Chen Chen, Li Deng, Jie Zhou
BACKGROUND: Inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) for treating asthma are controversial because of their negative effects on the growth of asthmatic children and without clearly defined withdrawal strategy. A 2-year ICS step-down and withdrawal strategy has been developed for asthmatic children receiving 3-year subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT). METHODS: Eleven children were included into the SCIT group and 13 children into the ICS group. ICSs were discontinued when children met the following criteria: requiring only 1 puffper day, with good control, for at least 6 months; having a forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity ≥80%; and SCIT discontinued for ≥24 months...
December 2017: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049002/cost-effectiveness-of-the-haemophilus-influenzae-type-b-vaccine-for-infants-in-mainland-china
#19
Guijun Ning, Zundong Yin, Yixing Li, Huaqing Wang, Weizhong Yang
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to estimate the cost-effectiveness of the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine for the prevention of childhood pneumonia, meningitis and other vaccine-preventable diseases in mainland China from a societal perspective and to provide information about the addition of the Hib vaccine to Chinese immunization programs. METHODS: A decision tree and the Markov model were used to estimate the costs and effectiveness of the Hib vaccine versus no Hib vaccine for a birth cohort of 100,000 children in 2016...
October 19, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043423/preliminary-report-from-the-world-health-organisation-chest-radiography-in-epidemiological-studies-project
#20
REVIEW
Nasreen Mahomed, Nicholas Fancourt, John de Campo, Margaret de Campo, Aliu Akano, Thomas Cherian, Olivia G Cohen, David Greenberg, Stephen Lacey, Neera Kohli, Henrique M Lederman, Shabir A Madhi, Veronica Manduku, Eric D McCollum, Kate Park, Jose Luis Ribo-Aristizabal, Naor Bar-Zeev, Katherine L O'Brien, Kim Mulholland
Childhood pneumonia is among the leading infectious causes of mortality in children younger than 5 years of age globally. Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is the leading infectious cause of childhood bacterial pneumonia. The diagnosis of childhood pneumonia remains a critical epidemiological task for monitoring vaccine and treatment program effectiveness. The chest radiograph remains the most readily available and common imaging modality to assess childhood pneumonia. In 1997, the World Health Organization Radiology Working Group was established to provide a consensus method for the standardized definition for the interpretation of pediatric frontal chest radiographs, for use in bacterial vaccine efficacy trials in children...
October 2017: Pediatric Radiology
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