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Pneumonia childhood

Leah Leibovitch, Iris Zohar, Ayala Maayan-Mazger, Ram Mazkereth, Tzipora Strauss, Ron Bilik
BACKGROUND: The estimated incidence of esophageal atresia (EA) with or without tracheo-esophageal fistula (TEF) is 1:3500 live births. During childhood these patients have various co-morbidities, but the overall quality of life among adults is similar to that of the general population. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate short- and long-term co-morbidities and quality of life among infants born with EA ± TEF at a large single medical center. METHODS: Medical records of 65 children born over a 21 year period were reviewed for short- and long-term medical data...
March 2018: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
Osman Savran, Charlotte Suppli Ulrik
Background: Early life events may predispose to the development of chronic lung disease in adulthood. Aim: To provide an update on current knowledge of early nongenetic origins of COPD. Materials and methods: Systematic literature review was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Results: A total of 16 studies, comprising 69,365 individuals, met the predefined criteria and were included in the present review...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Lisa Frigati, Moherdran Archary, Helena Rabie, Martina Penazzato, Nathan Ford
Early mortality and morbidity remain high in children initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART), especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Many children still present with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. Tuberculosis, pneumonia, and severe bacterial infections are the main causes of hospital admission in HIV-infected children. In contrast to adults with advanced HIV disease, cryptococcal disease is not common in childhood, although there is a peak in infancy and adolescence. Interventions such as TB screening in symptomatic children, and isoniazid and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis should be implemented...
March 4, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Ke Huang, Dun-Hua Zhou, Yang Li, Hong-Gui Xu, Li-Ping Que, Chun Chen, Hong-Man Xue, Hai-Xia Guo, Wen-Jun Weng, Shao-Liang Huang, Jian-Pei Fang
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a modified conditioning regimen for the treatment of patients with β-thalassaemia major (TM), using unrelated donor peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (UD-PBSCT). METHODS: A modified conditioning regimen based on intravenous busulfan, cyclophosphamide, fludarabine, and antithymocyte globulin was performed in 50 consecutive childhood patients with β-TM and a median age of 4.6 years (range, 2-12 years)...
March 7, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Kimiko Ubukata, Miyuki Morozumi, Megumi Sakuma, Misako Takata, Eriko Mokuno, Takeshi Tajima, Satoshi Iwata
BACKGROUND: Acute otitis media (AOM) is a leading cause of childhood morbidity and antibiotic prescriptions. We examined etiologic changes in AOM after introduction of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine as routine immunization for Japanese children in 2014. Serotypes, resistance genotypes, antibiotic susceptibilities, and multilocus sequence typing of pneumococcal isolates were also characterized. METHODS: Otolaryngologists prospectively collected middle ear fluid from 582 children by tympanocentesis or sampling through a spontaneously ruptured tympanic membrane between June 2016 and January 2017...
February 22, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Amy Sarah Ginsburg, Jennifer L Lenahan, Rasa Izadnegahdar, J Mark Ansermino
Pneumonia is the leading infectious cause of death in children worldwide, with most deaths occurring in developing countries. Measuring respiratory rate is critical to the World Health Organization's guidelines for diagnosing childhood pneumonia in low-resource settings, yet it is difficult to accurately measure. We conducted a systematic review to landscape existing respiratory rate measurement technologies. We searched Pubmed, Embase, and Compendex for studies published through September 2017 assessing the accuracy of respiratory rate measurement technologies in children...
February 23, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Tal Katz, Jeffrey Schatz, Carla W Roberts
PURPOSE: Sickle cell disease (SCD) imparts an increased risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in childhood. Studies of pediatric SCD have identified an increased risk for pain and neurologic complications with comorbid OSA. We determined the rate of a broad range of SCD-related medical complications to better characterize the spectrum of SCD complications related to OSA. METHODS: Retrospective chart review at a single hematology clinic identified 641 youth with SCD who received consistent screenings for OSA as part of routine hematological health maintenance visits over an 11-year period...
February 15, 2018: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
Saad B Omer, Dayna R Clark, Anushka R Aqil, Milagritos D Tapia, Marta C Nunes, Naoko Kozuki, Mark C Steinhoff, Shabir A Madhi, Niteen Wairagkar
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the effect of antenatal influenza vaccination on all-cause severe infant pneumonia, we performed pooled analysis of three randomized-controlled trials conducted in Nepal, Mali, and South Africa. METHODS: The trials were coordinated from the planning phase. The follow-up period was 0-6 months post-partum in Nepal and Mali, and 0-24 weeks in South Africa. Pregnant women with gestational age 17-34 weeks in Nepal, ≥28 weeks in Mali, and 20-36 weeks in South Africa were enrolled...
February 13, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Sorin Claudiu Man, Valentina Sas, Cristina Schnell, Camelia Florea, Adelina Ţuţu, Ariana Szilágyi, Sergiu Belenes, Amalia Hebriştean, Anca Bonaţ, Claudia Cladovan, Cornel Aldea
Background and aims: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a both common and serious childhood infection. Antibiotic treatment guidelines help to reduce inadequate antibiotics prescriptions. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study at the Clinical Emergency Hospital for Children, 3rd Pediatric Clinic, Cluj-Napoca and Dr. Gavril Curteanu Clinical City Hospital, in Oradea. All patients discharged with a diagnosis of CAP between December 1, 2014 and February 28, 2015, were included in the study...
2018: Clujul Medical (1957)
Yasmin Jahan, Sm Atiqur Rahman, Abu Sayeed Chowdhury, Md Moshiur Rahman
Background: Pneumonia is a major cause of child mortality among children under 5 years, worldwide. Pneumonia infection may be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi in single or in both lungs. According to recent criteria developed by the World Health Organization(WHO) in September (2013), pneumonia can be classified into severe pneumonia, pneumonia and no pneumonia. Most of the deaths occur from severe pneumonia. Methods: Disease management of severe childhood pneumonia requires early identification,prompt referral and the availability of intensive quality care...
2018: Health Promotion Perspectives
Benedikt Hogan, Daniel Eibach, Ralf Krumkamp, Nimako Sarpong, Denise Dekker, Benno Kreuels, Oumou Maiga-Ascofaré, Kennedy Gyau Boahen, Charity Wiafe Akenten, Yaw Adu-Sarkodie, Ellis Owusu-Dabo, Jürgen May
Background: The epidemiology of pediatric febrile illness is shifting in sub-Saharan Africa, but malaria remains a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. The present study describes causes of febrile illness in hospitalized children in Ghana and aims to determine the burden of malaria coinfections and their association with parasite densities. Methods: In a prospective study, children (aged ≥30 days and ≤15 years) with fever ≥38.0°C were recruited after admission to the pediatric ward of a primary hospital in Ghana...
February 2, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
James John, Kripa Shanker Kasudhan, Reba Kanungo, Savitri Sharma, Vaishali Dohe, K Prashanth
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae continues to cause morbidity and mortality across the globe, with developing countries bearing the brunt of the disease. It is mainly responsible for meningitis, pneumonia and septicaemia primarily in children, elderly and immunocompromised persons. Colonisation and persistence in the human nasopharynx occur during early childhood, and it appears to be prerequisite for invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). Factors that help in persistent colonisation and subsequent invasion are ill understood...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Zhi-Ming Wang, Shu-Cheng Zhang, Xu Teng
RATIONALE: Most of the esophageal diverticulums are congenital traction instead of in childhood. In most conditions, esophageal diverticulums are free of any symptoms. As one of the rare entity, esophageal diverticulum can also result in bronchoesophageal fistula. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 10-year-old girl was admitted due to a 2-month history of cough and choking after drinking, and fever for 3 days. No symptoms when taking solid food were found. DIAGNOSES: By esophagogram, 3-dimensional computed tomography and esophagoscopy, an esophageal diverticulum was demonstrated in the middle esophagus with a bronchoesophageal fistula visualized...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Carmen Esmer, Gabriela Blanco Hernández, Víctor Saavedra Alanís, Jorge Guillermo Reyes Vaca, Antonio Bravo Oro
BACKGROUND: Vanishing white matter disease is one of the most frequent leukodystrophies in childhood with an autosomal recessive inheritance. A mutation in one of the genes encoding the five subunits of the eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (EIF2B5) is present in 90% of the cases. The diagnosis can be accomplished by the clinical and neuroradiological findings and molecular tests. CASE REPORT: We describe a thirteen-month-old male with previous normal neurodevelopment, who was hospitalized for vomiting, hyperthermia and irritability...
September 2017: Boletín Médico del Hospital Infantil de México
Alexander Kc Leung, Kam Lun Hon, Alex H C Wong, Andrew S Wong
BACKGROUND: Bacterial conjunctivitis is a common reason for children to be seen in pediatric practices A correct diagnosis is important so that appropriate treatment can be instituted. OBJECTIVE: To provide an update on the evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis in children. METHODS: A PubMed search was completed in Clinical Queries using the key term "bacterial conjunctivitis". Patents were searched using the key term "bacterial conjunctivitis" from www...
January 29, 2018: Recent Patents on Inflammation & Allergy Drug Discovery
Dehua Yang, Linghong Chen, Zhimin Chen
BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection is a major cause of community-acquired pneumonia in children. We performed a retrospective study to evaluate the clinical impact of the timing of azithromycin treatment in children with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia in high macrolide-resistant prevalence settings. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A total of 623 patients were enrolled in this study and were divided into 2 groups according to the timing of azithromycin therapy. Children who received azithromycin within 3 days (72 hours) after the onset of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia were classified into the early azithromycin treatment group (n = 174), whereas the late azithromycin treatment group (n = 449) comprised children treated with azithromycin more than 72 hours after symptom onset...
2018: PloS One
Wafa Aftab, Leah Shipton, Fauziah Rabbani, Kashif Sangrasi, Shagufta Perveen, Aysha Zahidie, Imran Naeem, Shamim Qazi
BACKGROUND: Where access to facilities for childhood diarrhea and pneumonia is inadequate, community case management (CCM) is an effective way of improving access to care. In Pakistan, utilization of CCM for these diseases through the Lady Health Worker Program remains low. Challenges of access to facilities persist leading to delayed care and poor outcomes. Estimating caregiver knowledge, understanding their perceptions and practices, and recognizing how these are related to care seeking decisions about childhood diarrhea and pneumonia is crucial to bring about coherence between supply and demand-side practices...
January 27, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Nhan Thi Ho, Corinne Thompson, Le Nguyen Thanh Nhan, Hoang Minh Tu Van, Nguyen Thanh Dung, Phuc Tran My, Vo Minh Quang, Ngo Ngoc Quang Minh, Tran Anh Tuan, Nguyen Thanh Hung, Ha Manh Tuan, Nguyen Van Vinh Chau, Marcel Wolbers, Guy E Thwaites, Marc Choisy, Stephen Baker
BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory tract infections (ARIs) are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in young children in low/middle-income countries. Using routine hospital data, we aimed to examine the spatial distribution, temporal trends and climatic risk factors of paediatric ARIs in Vietnam. METHODS: Data from hospitalised paediatric (<16 years) patients with ARIs residing in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) between 2005 and 2010 were retrieved from the two main Children's Hospitals and the Hospital for Tropical Diseases in HCMC...
January 21, 2018: BMJ Open
Alexis A Tazinya, Gregory E Halle-Ekane, Lawrence T Mbuagbaw, Martin Abanda, Julius Atashili, Marie Therese Obama
BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in under-five children worldwide. About 6.6 million children less than 5 years of age die every year in the world; 95% of them in low-income countries and one third of the total deaths is due to ARI. This study aimed at determining the proportion of acute respiratory infections and the associated risk factors in children under 5 years visiting the Bamenda Regional Hospital in Cameroon. METHODS: A cross-sectional analytic study involving 512 children under 5 years was carried out from December 2014 to February 2015...
January 16, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
Emine Atag, Nilay Bas Ikizoglu, Yasemin Gokdemir, Ela Erdem Eralp, Gursu Kiyan, Dilek Yilmazbayhan, Bulent Karadag
Idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (IPPFE) is a rare disorder recently included in rare idiopathic interstitial pneumonias according to the updated American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society classification. IPPFE is characterized by pleural and subpleural parenchymal fibrosis causing volume loss predominantly in the upper lung lobes. Age of onset is variable, IPPFE mainly occurs in third and fourth decades. We present a 16 year old patient with a 2-year history of exertional dyspnea, nonproductive cough and weight loss...
February 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
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