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Pneumonia in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785832/lectin-microarray-combined-with-mass-spectrometry-identifies-haptoglobin-related-protein-hpr-as-a-potential-serologic-biomarker-for-separating-non-bacterial-pneumonia-from-bacterial-pneumonia-in-childhood
#1
Lin Yang, Zhou Yang, Lei Cheng, Juan Cheng, Li Cheng, Yangyang Sun, Wenting Li, Kai Song, Weichun Huang, Yong Yin, Shengce Tao, Qinghua Zhang
PURPOSE: Etiological diagnosis of pediatric patients with community-acquired pneumonia is difficult. For therapy, one of the major problems is the difficulty in separating bacterial pneumonia which would benefit from antibiotics from non-bacterial pneumonia. Therefore, we sought to identify potential biomarkers for distinguishing non-bacterial pneumonia from bacterial pneumonia. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Lectin microarray containing 91 lectins was used to screen serums from pediatric patients with pneumonia...
May 22, 2018: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785130/human-herpesvirus-6-pneumonitis-in-a-patient-with-follicular-lymphoma-following-immunochemotherapy-with-rituximab
#2
Saeko Kuwahara-Ota, Yoshiaki Chinen, Yoshimi Mizuno, Tomoko Takimoto-Shimomura, Yayoi Matsumura-Kimoto, Kazuna Tanba, Taku Tsukamoto, Shinsuke Mizutani, Yuji Shimura, Tsutomu Kobayashi, Shigeo Horiike, Junya Kuroda
Primary infection with human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) commonly occurs at an early age in children, most often at 3 years of age, and is associated with childhood diseases, such as exanthema subitum, hepatitis, febrile convulsions, or encephalitis. However, the virus occasionally reactivates from its latent state in immunosuppressed adults, especially post-transplant, resulting in serious disseminated, sometimes life-threatening end-organ complications. Herein, we report a case of a 68-year-old man with relapsed follicular lymphoma who developed HHV-6 pneumonitis...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783820/-efficacy-of-bronchoalveolar-lavage-and-its-influence-factors-in-the-treatment-of-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-pneumonia-with-atelectasis
#3
M Yang, D H Yang, X Yang, Y S Wang, L Wu, Z M Chen
Objective: To investigate the efficacy of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and its influence factors in the treatment of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) with atelectasis. Methods: A retrospective case control study was performed on hospitalized MPP patients with atelectasis and received BAL in the Department of Pulmonology, Children's Hospital Zhejiang University School of Medicine from January 1, 2015 to July 31, 2017. Fever relieved in 48 hours and chest imaging improved in one week after BAL were considered effective...
May 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780750/the-luxs-ai-2-quorum-sensing-system-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-is-required-to-cause-disease-and-to-regulate-virulence-and-metabolism-related-genes-in-a-rat-model-of-middle-ear-infection
#4
Mukesh K Yadav, Jorge E Vidal, Yoon Y Go, Shin H Kim, Sung-Won Chae, Jae-Jun Song
Objective: Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizes the nasopharynx of children, and from nasopharynx it could migrate to the middle ear and causes acute otitis media (AOM). During colonization and AOM, the pneumococcus forms biofilms. In vitro biofilm formation requires a functional LuxS/AI-2 quorum-sensing system. We investigated the role of LuxS/AI-2 signaling in pneumococcal middle ear infection, and identified the genes that are regulated by LuxS/AI-2 during pneumococcal biofilm formation. Methods: Streptococcus pneumoniae D39 wild-type and an isogenic D39Δ luxS strain were utilized to evaluate in vitro biofilm formation, and in vivo colonization and epithelial damage using a microtiter plate assay and a rat model of pneumococcal middle ear infection, respectively...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780032/severe-outcomes-associated-with-respiratory-viruses-in-newborns-and-infants-a-prospective-viral-surveillance-study-in-jordan
#5
Najwa Khuri-Bulos, Lindsey Lawrence, Bhinnata Piya, Li Wang, Christopher Fonnesbeck, Samir Faouri, Asem Shehabi, Sten H Vermund, John V Williams, Natasha B Halasa
OBJECTIVE: To assess virus-specific hospitalisation rates, risk factors for illness severity and seasonal trends in children hospitalised with acute respiratory infections (ARI). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: A government hospital serving low-income and middle-income population in Amman, Jordan. PARTICIPANTS: Children under 2 years of age hospitalised with fever and/or respiratory symptoms (n=3168) from 16 March 2010 to 31 March 2013...
May 20, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779813/negative-role-of-malnutrition-in-cell-mediated-immune-response-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-pcp-in-a-severely-malnourished-hiv-negative-patient-with-anorexia-nervosa
#6
Mouna Hanachi, Vanessa Bohem, Pauline Bemer, Nadja Kayser, Pierre de Truchis, Jean-Claude Melchior
It is generally acknowledged that malnutrition is a propensity factor for secondary infections in different clinical situations (malnutrition-associated infections in hospitalized patients and malnourished children in developing countries). However, it is not clear how malnutrition might facilitate the development of opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative patients without a definite etiology (disease or treatment) of impaired cell-mediated immune response. We report here on a case of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in an HIV-negative patient suffering from anorexia nervosa with extreme malnutrition, which had a favorable outcome despite the severity of her respiratory failure...
June 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778517/production-and-efficacy-of-a-low-cost-recombinant-pneumococcal-protein-polysaccharide-conjugate-vaccine
#7
Jenny A Herbert, Emily J Kay, Sian E Faustini, Alex Richter, Sherif Abouelhadid, Jon Cuccui, Brendan Wren, Timothy J Mitchell
Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of bacterial pneumonia. Although this is a vaccine preventable disease, S. pneumoniae still causes over 1 million deaths per year, mainly in children under the age of five. The biggest disease burden is in the developing world, which is mainly due to unavailability of vaccines due to their high costs. Protein polysaccharide conjugate vaccines are given routinely in the developed world to children to induce a protective antibody response against S. pneumoniae. One of these vaccines is Prevnar13, which targets 13 of the 95 known capsular types...
May 16, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774893/prevalence-and-antimicrobial-sensitivity-pattern-of-urinary-tract-infection-among-children-with-cerebral-palsy-moshi-tanzania
#8
Amon Ryakitimbo, Rune Philemon, Festo Mazuguni, Levina Msuya
Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) is a challenging yet common clinical condition. Children with CP bare the greatest risk of contracting UTI because of their difficulties in neuromotor control which lead to delay of bladder control, causing incomplete bladder emptying and urine retention. Method: This was an analytical cross-sectional study that was conducted from September 2016 to March 2017 at Comprehensive Community Based Rehabilitation in Tanzania - Moshi and Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre Neurological Pediatrics Outpatient Clinic...
2018: Pediatric Health, Medicine and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773665/hypersensitivity-pneumonitis-and-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-from-e-cigarette-use
#9
Casey G Sommerfeld, Daniel J Weiner, Andrew Nowalk, Allyson Larkin
Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use, or "vaping," is gaining widespread popularity as an alternative to conventional cigarettes among adolescents. Little is known of the health risks of e-cigarette use, especially in children and adolescents. We present a Case Report of a previously healthy 18-year-old woman who presented with dyspnea, cough, and pleuritic chest pain after e-cigarette use. She developed respiratory failure with hypoxia and was intubated, and ultimately met diagnostic criteria for acute respiratory distress syndrome...
May 17, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772472/postintroduction-study-of-cost-effectiveness-of-pneumococcal-vaccine-pcv10-from-public-sector-payer-s-perspective-in-the-state-of-santa-catarina-brazil
#10
Emil Kupek, Ilse Viertel
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate cost effectiveness of 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the routine immunization program for children younger than 5 years in Brazil by a postintroduction study. METHODS: Ecological study of prevaccine (2006-2009) versus postvaccine (2011-2014) period related the changes in mortality rate and hospitalization rate to direct cost of pneumonia treatment from the payer's perspective to estimate the cost effectiveness regarding lives saved, life-years gained, and disability-adjusted life-year for children younger than 5 years in the southern Brazilian state of Santa Catarina...
May 14, 2018: Value in Health Regional Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771625/a-multifaceted-approach-to-rsv-vaccination
#11
Jorge C G Blanco, Marina S Boukhvalova, Trudy G Morrison, Stefanie N Vogel
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is the leading cause of pneumonia and bronchiolitis in infants, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. In addition, RSV infections occur throughout different ages, thus, maintaining the virus in circulation, and increasing health risk to more susceptible populations such as infants, the elderly, and the immunocompromised. To date, there is no vaccine approved to prevent RSV infection or minimize symptoms of infection. Current clinical trials for vaccines against RSV are being carried out in four very different populations...
May 17, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771599/clinical-characterization-of-children-with-resistant-airflow-obstruction-a-multicenter-study
#12
Sankaran Krishnan, Allen J Dozor, Leonard Bacharier, Jason E Lang, Charles G Irvin, David Kaminsky, Harold J Farber, Lynn Gerald, Mark Brown, Janet T Holbrook, Robert A Wise, Julie Ryu, Sonali Bose, Yasin Razan, Joy Saams, Robert J Henderson, William G Teague
OBJECTIVE: To characterize a cohort of children with airflow limitation resistant to bronchodilator (BD) therapy. METHODS: Pulmonary function tests performed in children 6-17 years of age at 15 centers in a clinical research consortium were screened for resistant airflow limitation, defined as a post-BD FEV1 and/or an FEV1 /FVC less than the lower limits of normal. Demographic and clinical data were analyzed for associations with pulmonary function. RESULTS: 582 children were identified...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768458/burden-of-bacterial-meningitis-in-india-preliminary-data-from-a-hospital-based-sentinel-surveillance-network
#13
Yuvaraj Jayaraman, Balaji Veeraraghavan, Girish Kumar Chethrapilly Purushothaman, Bharathy Sukumar, Boopathi Kangusamy, Ambujam Nair Kapoor, Nivedita Gupta, Sanjay Madhav Mehendale
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, acute bacterial meningitis is a major cause of high morbidity and mortality among under five children, particularly in settings where vaccination for H. influenzae type b, S. pneumoniae and N. meningitidis is yet to be introduced in the national immunization programs. Estimation of disease burden of bacterial meningitis associated with these pathogens can guide the policy makers to consider inclusion of these newer vaccines in the immunization programs. A network of hospital based sentinel surveillance was established to generate baseline data on the burden of bacterial meningitis among children aged less than 5 years in India and to provide a platform for impact assessment following introduction of the Pentavalent and Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines (PCV)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768373/acute-myelitis-of-children-with-positive-anti-gm1-antibody-case-series-and-literature-review
#14
Zhiling Wang, Di Qie, Hui Zhou, Xiao Tang Cai
RATIONALE: To explore the clinical features, treatment, and prognosis of acute myelitis (AM) of children with positive blood anti- ganglioside (GM1) antibodies. PATIENT CONCERNS: Two cases of AM of children with positive anti-GM1 antibody were retrospectively collected and followed up for 6 months. Two cases had positive helicobacter pylori IgG antibody, and Case 2 also had positive mycoplasma IgM antibody. DIAGNOSES: Two cases had typical symptoms of myelitis, abnormal spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positive serum anti-GM1 IgM...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765237/comparative-genomic-analysis-of-multidrug-resistant-streptococcus-pneumoniae-isolates
#15
Fen Pan, Hong Zhang, Xiaoyan Dong, Weixing Ye, Ping He, Shulin Zhang, Jeff Xianchao Zhu, Nanbert Zhong
Introduction: Multidrug resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae has emerged as a serious problem to public health. A further understanding of the genetic diversity in antibiotic-resistant S. pneumoniae isolates is needed. Methods: We conducted whole-genome resequencing for 25 pneumococcal strains isolated from children with different antimicrobial resistance profiles. Comparative analysis focus on detection of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertions and deletions (indels) was conducted...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764503/bacteriological-profile-of-neonatal-sepsis-and-antibiotic-susceptibility-pattern-of-isolates-admitted-at-kanti-children-s-hospital-kathmandu-nepal
#16
Nikita Singh Yadav, Saroj Sharma, Dhiraj Kumar Chaudhary, Prabhat Panthi, Pankaj Pokhrel, Anil Shrestha, Pappu Kumar Mandal
OBJECTIVE: Neonatal sepsis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality of newborns (< 1 month of age). Septicemia and drug resistance is a predominant issue for neonatal death in Nepal. This study is intended to find bacteriological profile of neonatal sepsis and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the isolates from neonates at Kanti Children's Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal. RESULTS: Out of 350 suspected cases of neonatal sepsis, 59 (16.9%) cases showed positive blood culture...
May 15, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763630/clinical-and-molecular-epidemiologic-characteristics-of-carbapenem-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-infection-colonization-among-neonates-in-china
#17
Dandan Yin, Lei Zhang, Aimin Wang, Leiyan He, Yun Cao, Fupin Hu, Chuanqing Wang
BACKGROUND: The spread of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-KPN) is a major concern, but data on CR-KPN infection/colonization in paediatric populations are limited. AIM: This study aimed to analyze epidemiologic and clinical characteristics, therapeutic options of CR-KPN infections in neonates in China. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed at the Children's Hospital of Fudan University, including 88 neonates with CR-KPN admitted between November 2015 and October 2016...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763349/molar-incisor-hypomineralization-positive-correlation-with-atopic-dermatitis-and-food-allergies
#18
Miguel Hernandez, Juan Boj, Enric Espasa, Paloma Planells, Benjamin Peretz
AIM: Molar-incisor hypomineralization is a disturbance in dental development that involves first permanent molars as well as permanent incisors with a prevalence that ranges from 2.5% to 40%. The objective of this study was to investigate the etiology of molar-incisor hypomineralization among school children from two randomly selected towns in the province of Barcelona, Spain. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 705 children ranging in age from six years-old to 14 years and 11 months-old...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761739/efficacy-safety-and-quality-of-life-in-patients-receiving-subcutaneous-igg-treatment-experience-in-bogot%C3%A3-colombia
#19
María Claudia Ortega-López, Javier Garay, Mónica León Pinilla
AIM: Investigate efficacy, safety and quality of life of gammanorm® 16.5% (subcutaneous immunoglobulin [SCIG]) in patients with primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) and safety and to lesser extent efficacy in autoimmune diseases. PATIENTS & METHODS: Medical records were extracted from 31 pediatric and 12 adult patients who received SCIG as part of the Personalized Program at University Children's Hospital, Bogotá, Colombia. RESULTS: Mean SCIG dose was 28...
May 15, 2018: Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759424/lung-ultrasound-findings-undetectable-by-chest-radiography-in-children-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#20
Giulio Iorio, Maria Capasso, Salvatore Prisco, Giuseppe De Luca, Carlo Mancusi, Bruno Laganà, Maria Antonietta Piscopo, Vincenzo Comune
The purpose of our study was to evaluate any differences between lung ultrasonography and chest radiography (CR) images in children with a diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and, if there are any, to analyze the reasons and possible clinical implications. We reviewed the medical records of patients admitted to the pediatric ward from January 2014 to December 2016 and selected only cases discharged with a diagnosis of CAP who had undergone performed lung ultrasound (LUS) and CR within 24 h of each other...
May 11, 2018: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
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