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Pneumonia in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165579/investigating-mediators-of-the-poor-pneumonia-outcomes-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-exposed-but-uninfected-children
#1
Matthew S Kelly, Jiayin Zheng, Sefelani Boiditswe, Andrew P Steenhoff, Kristen A Feemster, Tonya Arscott-Mills, Boitshepe Seme, Bakgaki Ratshaa, Ikanyeng Rulaganyang, Mohamed Z Patel, Savarra Mantzor, Samir S Shah, Coleen K Cunningham
Background: Human immunodeficiency virus-exposed but uninfected (HIV-EU) children have a higher mortality rate than the children of HIV-negative mothers (HIV-unexposed). Causal mediators of the poor health outcomes of HIV-EU children remain poorly defined. Methods: We conducted a hospital-based prospective cohort study of children aged 1 to 23 months with clinically defined pneumonia. The children were recruited at a referral hospital in Gaborone, Botswana, between April 2012 and June 2016...
November 20, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165513/-a-five-year-experience-with-zoonotic-salmonella-at-a-pediatric-reference-centre
#2
Patricia Barrios, Federica Badía, Valentina Misa, M Inés Mota, Arací Martínez, Hebert Mariño, Gabriela Algorta, Javier Prego, M Catalina Pírez
BACKGROUND: Salmonella can cause asymptomatic infections, diarrhea, bacteremia and focal infections such as meningitis and osteomyelitis. AIM: To describe clinical and microbiological aspects of infections by Salmonella spp. in children in a pediatric referral hospital: Centro Hospitalario Pereira Rossell, in Montevideo, Uruguay. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Descriptive and retrospective study of 46 patients, from which Salmonella spp was isolated between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2010...
August 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164080/the-incidence-and-short-term-outcomes-of-acute-respiratory-illness-with-cough-in-children-from-a-socioeconomically-disadvantaged-urban-community-in-australia-a-community-based-prospective-cohort-study
#3
Kerry K Hall, Anne B Chang, Jennie Anderson, Daniel Arnold, Vikas Goyal, Melissa Dunbar, Michael Otim, Kerry-Ann F O'Grady
Background: Acute respiratory illnesses with cough (ARIwC) are predominant causes of morbidity in Australian Indigenous children; however, data on disease burden in urban communities are scarce. This study aimed to determine the incidence of ARIwC, the predictors of recurrent (≥4 episodes) ARIwC, and development of chronic cough following an ARIwC in urban, predominantly Indigenous, children aged <5 years from northern Brisbane, Australia. Methods: Prospective cohort study of children aged <5 years registered with a primary healthcare center...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163934/determinants-of-integrated-management-of-childhood-illness-imci-non-severe-pneumonia-classification-and-care-in-malawi-health-facilities-analysis-of-a-national-facility-census
#4
Emily White Johansson, Humphreys Nsona, Liliana Carvajal-Aguirre, Agbessi Amouzou, Helena Hildenwall
Background: Research shows inadequate Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI)-pneumonia care in various low-income settings but evidence is largely from small-scale studies with limited evidence of patient-, provider- and facility-levels determinants of IMCI non-severe pneumonia classification and its management. Methods: The Malawi Service Provision Assessment 2013-2014 included 3149 outpatients aged 2-59 months with completed observations, interviews and re-examinations...
December 2017: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162164/vitamin-d-status-is-associated-with-underweight-and-stunting-in-children-aged-6-36-months-residing-in-the-ecuadorian-andes
#5
Rana R Mokhtar, Michael F Holick, Fernando Sempértegui, Jeffrey K Griffiths, Bertha Estrella, Lynn L Moore, Matthew P Fox, Davidson H Hamer
OBJECTIVE: There is limited knowledge on vitamin D status of children residing in the Andes and its association with undernutrition. We evaluated the vitamin D status of children residing in a low socio-economic status (SES) setting in the Ecuadorian Andes and assessed the association between vitamin D status, stunting and underweight. We hypothesized that children who were underweight would have lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and lower 25(OH)D levels would be associated with a higher risk of stunting...
November 22, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159658/lung-necrosectomy-in-pediatric-patients-with-necrotizing-pneumonia
#6
Francina V Bolaños-Morales, Emmanuel Peña Gómez-Portugal, María E Aguilar-Mena, Patricio J Santillán-Doherty, Avelina Sotres-Vega, J Alfredo Santibáñez-Salgado
INTRODUCTION: Necrotizing pneumonia is the consolidation of lung parenchyma with destruction and necrosis, forming solitary or multiloculated radiolucent foci. When antibiotic treatment fails and clinical course does not improve, patients might need lung tissue resection: segmentectomy, lobectomy or bilobectomy. We have performed a more conservative surgical approach in pediatric patients with necrotizing pneumonia, lung necrosectomy: resection of unviable necrotic tissue, to preserve more healthy and potentially recoverable lung parenchyma...
November 20, 2017: General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158121/systemic-cytokines-and-chemokines-on-admission-of-children-hospitalized-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#7
Ângela G Vasconcellos, Jorge Clarêncio, Daniela Andrade, Maria-Regina A Cardoso, Aldina Barral, Cristiana M Nascimento-Carvalho
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the main cause of death in children under-5 years worldwide and Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common bacterial agent. However, it is difficult to identify pneumococcal infection among children with CAP. We aimed to assess association between any cytokine/chemokine and pneumococcal infection in childhood CAP. Furthermore, we evaluated the diagnostic value of cytokine/chemokine for pneumococcal infection. This prospective study was conducted at an Emergency Room, in Salvador, Brazil...
November 17, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157959/the-risk-of-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-following-influenza-virus-infection-a-systematic-and-narrative-review
#8
Ryan E Malosh, Emily T Martin, Justin R Ortiz, Arnold S Monto
BACKGROUND: Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly in young children and older adults. Influenza is known to cause severe disease but the risk of developing LRTI following influenza virus infection in various populations has not been systematically reviewed. Such data are important for estimating the impact specific influenza vaccine programs would have on LRTI outcomes in a community. We sought to review the published literature to determine the risk of developing LRTI following an influenza virus infection in individuals of any age...
November 17, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155241/multilocus-sequence-typing-based-analysis-of-moraxella-catarrhalis-population-structure-reveals-clonal-spreading-of-drug-resistant-strains-isolated-from-childhood-pneumonia
#9
Yinju Du, Haijian Zhou, Fei Wang, Shengnan Liang, Lihong Cheng, Xiaofei Du, Feng Pang, Jinjing Tian, Jinxing Zhao, Biao Kan, Jianguo Xu, Juan Li, Furong Zhang
This work revealed the drug resistance and population structure of Moraxella catarrhalis strains isolated from children less than three years old with pneumonia. Forty-four independent M. catarrhalis strains were analyzed using broth dilution antimicrobial susceptibility testing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The highest non-susceptibility rate was observed for amoxicillin (AMX), which reached 95.5%, followed by clindamycin (CLI) (n=33; 75.0%), azithromycin (AZM) (61.4%), cefaclor (CEC) (25.0%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT) (15...
November 15, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155089/genotyping-and-macrolide-resistance-of-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-identified-in-children-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-cap-in-medellin-colombia
#10
Angela Rocio Copete, Yudy Alexandra Aguilar, Zulma Vanessa Rueda, Lázaro Agustín Vélez
OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to describe the genotypes and the main characteristics of the CAP cases caused by M. pneumoniae in hospitalized children in Medellin and in neighboring municipalities in 2011-2012. METHODOLOGY: The M. pneumoniae genotype was determined by PCR and sequencing of the p1 and 23S rRNA genes from induced sputum samples and nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) from children with CAP who were hospitalized in 13 healthcare centers. In addition, a spatio-temporal analysis was performed to identify the potential risk areas and clustering of the cases over time...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153777/vaccination-with-a-human-parainfluenza-virus-type-3-chimeric-fhn-glycoprotein-formulated-with-a-combination-adjuvant-induces-protective-immunity
#11
R Garg, R Brownlie, L Latimer, V Gerdts, A Potter, S van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk
Human parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) is a major cause of lower respiratory disease i.e. bronchitis, bronchiolitis or pneumonia, in infants and young children. Presently there is no licensed vaccine against PIV3. To produce an effective subunit vaccine, a chimeric FHN glycoprotein consisting of the N-terminal ectodomain of the fusion (F) protein linked to the haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein without transmembrane domain, and secreted forms of the individual F and HN glycoproteins, were expressed in mammalian cells and purified...
November 16, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153067/-detection-of-influenza-virus-infections-by-molecular-and-immunofluorescence-methods
#12
Deniz Yıldırım, Deniz Özdoğru Sağdıç, Buket Şeflek, Mehmet Çimentepe, İbrahim Bayram, Fügen Yarkın
Influenza virus infections are extremely important for human health due to the occurence of seasonal epidemics and pandemics worldwide. Influenza is associated with high morbidity and may result in serious complications such as life threatening viral or bacterial pneumonia. Especially, young children, older adults, patients with chronic diseases such as heart, lung, kidney, and diabetes and immunosuppressed people are at higher risk for complications and death from influenza virus infections. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of influenza type A and B virus infections and influenza A virus subtypes in hospitalized patients with respiratory tract infections by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, Sacace, Italy), conventional RT-PCR and direct immunofluorescence antibody (DFA, Argene SA, France) tests...
October 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153065/-genotypes-of-rhinoviruses-in-children-and-adults-patients-with-acute-respiratory-tract-infections
#13
Eda Demirkan, Sevin Kırdar, Emel Ceylan, Ayşe Yenigün, İmran Kurt Ömürlü
Rhinovirus (RV) is one of the most frequent causative agent of acute respiratory tract infections in the world. The virus may cause a mild cold, as well as more serious clinical symptoms in patients with immune system deficiency or comorbidities. Rhinoviruses have been identified by molecular methods under three types: RV-A, RV-B and RV-C. In most of the cases, it was reported that RV-A and RV-C were related with lower respiratory tract infections and asthma exacerbations, while RV-B was rarely reported in lower respiratory tract infections...
October 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152280/mycoplasma-pneumoniae-associated-encephalitis-complicated-by-cerebral-salt-wasting-syndrome
#14
Ya-Lan Lin, Kun-Long Hung, Chiao-Wei Lo
Cerebral salt wasting syndrome can occur in children with encephalitis. Clinicians should be aware of hyponatremia in patients who develop polyuria with the signs of dehydration and deteriorated consciousness. Furthermore, patients who present with status epilepticus or who are suspected to have high intracranial pressure may have an increased risk of cerebral salt wasting syndrome.
November 2017: Clinical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151847/pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury-a-5-year-descriptive-study-from-the-national-trauma-center-in-qatar
#15
Ayman El-Menyar, Rafael Consunji, Hassan Al-Thani, Ahammed Mekkodathil, Gaby Jabbour, Khalid A Alyafei
Background: The epidemiologic characteristics and outcomes of pediatric traumatic brain injury (pTBI) have not been adequately documented from the rapidly developing countries in the Arab Middle East. We aimed to describe the hospital-based epidemiologic characteristics, injury mechanisms, clinical presentation, and outcomes of pTBI and analyze key characteristics and determinant of pTBI that could help to make recommendations for policies to improve their care. Methods: We conducted a retrospective observational study in a level 1 trauma center (2010-2014) for all pTBI patients...
2017: World Journal of Emergency Surgery: WJES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150377/urgent-versus-post-stabilisation-antiretroviral-treatment-in-hospitalised-hiv-infected-children-in-kenya-push-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#16
Irene N Njuguna, Lisa M Cranmer, Vincent O Otieno, Cyrus Mugo, Hellen M Okinyi, Sarah Benki-Nugent, Barbra Richardson, Joshua Stern, Elizabeth Maleche-Obimbo, Dalton C Wamalwa, Grace C John-Stewart
BACKGROUND: Urgent antiretroviral therapy (ART) among hospitalised HIV-infected children might accelerate recovery or worsen outcomes associated with immune reconstitution. We aimed to compare urgent versus post-stabilisation ART among hospitalised HIV-infected children in Kenya. METHODS: In this unmasked randomised controlled trial, we randomly assigned (1:1) HIV-infected, ART-naive children aged 0-12 years who were eligible for treatment to receive ART within 48 h (urgent group) or in 7-14 days (post-stabilisation group) at four hospitals in Kenya (two in Nairobi and two in western Kenya)...
November 14, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149805/observational-cohort-study-safety-outcomes-in-children-using-proton-pump-inhibitors-or-histamine-2-receptor-antagonists
#17
Eline Houben, Saga Johansson, Péter Nagy, Fernie J A Penning-van Beest, Ernst J Kuipers, Ron M C Herings
OBJECTIVE: Acid suppression with histamine-2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs) or proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) is recommended for children with persistent gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms. In this retrospective, observational postauthorization study, we aimed to assess and compare safety outcomes in pediatric first-time users of esomeprazole, other PPIs, or H2RAs. METHODS: Data on children (aged 0-18 years) first dispensed esomeprazole, other PPIs, or H2RAs between September 2008 and August 2011 were obtained from the Dutch PHARMO Database Network...
November 17, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149199/epidemiology-and-clinical-profile-of-pathogens-responsible-for-the-hospitalization-of-children-in-sousse-area-tunisia
#18
Ines Brini, Aida Guerrero, Naila Hannachi, Jihene Bouguila, Dorothea Orth-Höller, Amira Bouhlel, Lamia Boughamoura, Benjamin Hetzer, Wegene Borena, Britta Schiela, Dorothee Von Laer, Jalel Boukadida, Heribert Stoiber
This study aimed to identify a broad spectrum of respiratory pathogens from hospitalized and not-preselected children with acute respiratory tract infections in the Farhat Hached University-hospital of Sousse, Tunisia. Between September 2013 and December 2014, samples from 372 children aged between 1 month and 5 years were collected, and tested using multiplex real-time RT-PCR by a commercial assay for 21 respiratory pathogens. In addition, samples were screened for the presence of Streptococcus pneumoniae 16S rDNA using real-time PCR...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149019/incidence-and-consequences-of-near-drowning-related-pneumonia-a-descriptive-series-from-martinique-french-west-indies
#19
Laura Cerland, Bruno Mégarbane, Hatem Kallel, Yanick Brouste, Hossein Mehdaoui, Dabor Resiere
Drowning represents one major cause of accidental death. Near-drowning patients are exposed to aspiration that may result in pneumonia with life-threatening consequences. We designed this descriptive study to investigate the frequency, nature, and consequences of post-drowning pneumonia. One hundred and forty-four near-drowning patients (33 children and 111 adults) admitted during four years to the University Hospital of Martinique, French Indies, were included. Patients presented pre-hospital cardiac arrest (41%) and exhibited acute respiratory failure (54%), cardiovascular failure (27%), and lactic acidosis (75%) on admission...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146662/comparative-effectiveness-of-injectable-penicillin-versus-a-combination-of-penicillin-and-gentamicin-in-children-with-pneumonia-characterised-by-indrawing-in-kenya-a-retrospective-observational-study
#20
Lucas Malla, Rafael Perera-Salazar, Emily McFadden, Mike English
OBJECTIVES: Kenyan guidelines for antibiotic treatment of pneumonia recommended treatment of pneumonia characterised by indrawing with injectable penicillin alone in inpatient settings until early 2016. At this point, they were revised becoming consistent with WHO guidance after results of a Kenyan trial provided further evidence of equivalence of oral amoxicillin and injectable penicillin. This change also made possible use of oral amoxicillin for outpatient treatment in this patient group...
November 15, 2017: BMJ Open
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