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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684944/comparing-categorical-and-probabilistic-fingerprint-evidence
#1
Brandon Garrett, Gregory Mitchell, Nicholas Scurich
Fingerprint examiners traditionally express conclusions in categorical terms, opining that impressions do or do not originate from the same source. Recently, probabilistic conclusions have been proposed, with examiners estimating the probability of a match between recovered and known prints. This study presented a nationally representative sample of jury-eligible adults with a hypothetical robbery case in which an examiner opined on the likelihood that a defendant's fingerprints matched latent fingerprints in categorical or probabilistic terms...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684930/-prevention-and-detection-of-multidrug-resistant-bacteria
#2
Simone Scheithauer, Martin Kaase
Patients colonized or infected by multidrug-resistant bacteria (MDR) are entitled to the same medical treatment as other patients and infection control measures based on the current evidence are not in conflict with this aim. Recent studies indicate that the correct sampling technique is of utmost importance when screening for MRSA and usage of certain swabs might reduce the sensitivity considerably. Despite improvements in diagnostic strategies for direct MRSA detection by PCR, false positive results cannot be totally excluded...
May 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684884/multi-temporal-surveys-for-microplastic-particles-enabled-by-a-novel-and-fast-application-of-swir-imaging-spectroscopy-study-of-an-urban-watercourse-traversing-the-city-of-berlin-germany
#3
L Katharina Schmidt, Mathias Bochow, Hannes K Imhof, Sascha E Oswald
Following the widespread assumption that a majority of ubiquitous marine microplastic particles originate from land-based sources, recent studies identify rivers as important pathways for microplastic particles (MPP) to the oceans. Yet a detailed understanding of the underlying processes and dominant sources is difficult to obtain with the existing accurate but extremely time-consuming methods available for the identification of MPP. Thus in the presented study, a novel approach applying short-wave infrared imaging spectroscopy for the quick and semi-automated identification of MPP is applied in combination with a multitemporal survey concept...
April 20, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684833/antecedents-mediators-and-outcomes-of-authentic-leadership-in-healthcare-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Bayan Alilyyani, Carol A Wong, Greta Cummings
BACKGROUND: Leaders are essential in every organization to achieve patient safety and healthy work environments. Authentic leadership is a relational leadership style purported to promote healthy work environments that influence staff performance and organizational outcomes. Given recent growth in authentic leadership research in healthcare and the importance of new knowledge to inform leadership development, there is an obligation to determine what is known about the antecedents and outcomes of authentic leadership in healthcare settings and clarify mechanisms by which authentic leadership affects healthcare staff and patient outcomes...
April 7, 2018: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684824/a-review-of-human-biomonitoring-in-selected-southeast-asian-countries
#5
REVIEW
Zohar Barnett-Itzhaki, Marta Esteban López, Naveen Puttaswamy, Tamar Berman
Rapid development and industrialization in Southeast (SE) Asia has led to environmental pollution, potentially exposing the general population to environmental contaminants. Human biomonitoring (HBM), measurement of chemical and/or their metabolites in human tissues and fluids, is an important tool for assessing cumulative exposure to complex mixtures of chemicals and for monitoring chemical exposures in the general population. While there are national HBM programs in several developed countries, there are no such national programs in most of the SE Asian countries...
April 20, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684810/associations-between-dairy-cow-inter-service-interval-and-probability-of-conception
#6
J G Remnant, M J Green, J N Huxley, C D Hudson
Recent research has indicated that the interval between inseminations in modern dairy cattle is often longer than the commonly accepted cycle length of 18-24 days. This study analysed 257,396 inseminations in 75,745 cows from 312 herds in England and Wales. The interval between subsequent inseminations in the same cow in the same lactation (inter-service interval, ISI) were calculated and inseminations categorised as successful or unsuccessful depending on whether there was a corresponding calving event. Conception risk was calculated for each individual ISI between 16 and 28 days...
April 11, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684777/random-spectrum-fatigue-performance-of-severely-plastically-deformed-titanium-for-implant-dentistry-applications
#7
D Rittel, K Shemtov-Yona, R Lapovok
Severe plastic deformation (SPD) has long been known to confer superior mechanical properties for many metals and alloys. In the general field of biomedical devices, and dental implants in particular, the superior strength of SPD-processed commercially pure (CP) titanium, that may surpass that of the stronger Ti6Al4V alloy, has been associated with a superior fatigue resistance. Such a property would make those materials both biocompatible and strong alternatives to the currently used titanium alloy. However, the fatigue characterization reported so far in the literature relies on a very small sample size, thereby precluding any meaningful statistical analysis...
April 14, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684774/hyperelastic-modeling-of-the-human-brain-tissue-effects-of-no-slip-boundary-condition-and-compressibility-on-the-uniaxial-deformation
#8
George Z Voyiadjis, Aref Samadi-Dooki
Being extremely soft, brain tissue is among the most challenging materials to be mechanically quantified. Despite recent advances in mechanical testing of ultra-soft matters, there still exists a need for robust procedures to analyze their behavior at large deformation. In this paper, it is shown how failing to taking into account the precise boundary conditions can result in substantial variation from the "assumed" ideal behavior, even for the case of simple loading conditions such as the uniaxial mode...
April 13, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684759/using-structurally-defined-oligosaccharides-to-understand-the-interactions-between-proteins-and-heparan-sulfate
#9
REVIEW
Ding Xu, Katelyn Arnold, Jian Liu
Heparan sulfate (HS) is widely present on the animal cell surface and in the extracellular matrix. HS achieves its biological functions by interacting with proteins to change proteins' conformation, oligomerization state and cellular location. The challenging question to study HS is how to dissect the relationship between the structures of HS and the biological activities. In the past several years, crucial techniques have been developed to overcome this challenge. A novel chemoenzymatic method to synthesize structurally defined HS oligosaccharides has offered a key access to this class of sulfated carbohydrate molecules...
April 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684753/reviewing-the-evidence-for-viruses-as-environmental-risk-factors-for-als-a-new-perspective
#10
REVIEW
Daniel B Celeste, Matthew S Miller
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a devastating neurodegenerative disease whose etiology remains poorly understood. Since the genetic basis of disease is known in only a small subset of cases, there has been substantial interest in determining whether environmental factors act as triggers of ALS. Viruses have received longstanding attention as potential ALS triggers. Yet, existing studies have not provided a compelling case for causation. This review summarizes the evidence supporting a link between viral infection and motor neuron disease, with a focus on ALS...
April 20, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684721/oocyte-atresia-in-wt-hdrr-and-p53-medaka-oryzias-latipes-exposed-to-uva
#11
A H Sayed, Rania F Ismail, Hiroshi Mitani
The negative effects of ambient ultraviolet (UVA) on the water environment have been recently highlighted; UVA can create deleterious effects by stimulating stress on pelagic organisms. Little is known about UVA effects on oocyte characteristics of female fish. In the present study we explored the effects of exposure to ecologically relevant levels of simulated UVA radiation on ovaries of two major strains WT (HdrR) and P53 (-/-) of medaka (Oryzias latipes) mature female. Fish were assigned to control and three UVA-exposed groups as (15 min, 30 min, and 60 min/day) for three days and sample selection was 24 h and 14 days after exposure...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684720/cicer-arietinum-extract-ameliorate-%C3%AE-irradiation-disorders-via-modulation-of-oxidative-antioxidative-pathway
#12
Amany A Sayed, Osama A Abbas, Mona A Saad, Mohamed-Assem S Marie
Ionized radiations trigger thoughtful adverse hazards through multiple organ dysfunctions. Recently, antioxidant-based biodrugs are used to prevent and treat ionizing radiation hazards. The present study aimed to investigate the prospective ameliorative effect of Cicer arietinum extract (CAE) against γ-irradiation and the pathway of this amelioration in male albino rats. Twenty four rats were allocated into four groups; (i) control group, (ii) CAE group in which rats treated with a dosage of 500 mg CAE/kg b...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684696/the-norm-of-assertion-empirical-data
#13
Markus Kneer
Assertions are speech acts by means of which we express beliefs. As such they are at the heart of our linguistic and social practices. Recent research has focused extensively on the question whether the speech act of assertion is governed by norms, and if so, under what conditions it is acceptable to make an assertion. Standard theories propose, for instance, that one should only assert that p if one knows that p (the knowledge account), or that one should only assert that p if p is true (the truth account)...
April 20, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684672/epigenetic-modulation-by-small-molecule-compounds-for-neurodegenerative-disorders
#14
REVIEW
Akash Kumar Singh, Sarmistha Halder Sinha, James P Clement, Tapas K Kundu
The accumulation of somatic and genetic mutations which altered the structure and coding information of the DNA are the major cause of neurological disorders. However, our recent understanding of molecular mechanisms of 'epigenetic' phenomenon reveals that the modifications of chromatin play a significant role in the development and severity of neurological disorders. These epigenetic processes are dynamic and reversible as compared to genetic ablations which are stable and irreversible. Therefore, targeting these epigenetic processes through small molecule modulators are of great therapeutic potential...
April 20, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684641/methodological-considerations-for-the-identification-of-choline-and-carnitine-degrading-bacteria-in-the-gut
#15
REVIEW
Eleanor Jameson, Mussa Quareshy, Yin Chen
The bacterial formation of trimethylamine (TMA) has been linked to cardiovascular disease. This review focuses on the methods employed to investigate the identity of the bacteria responsible for the formation of TMA from dietary choline and carnitine in the human gut. Recent studies have revealed the metabolic pathways responsible for bacterial TMA production, primarily the anaerobic glycyl radical-containing, choline-TMA lyase, CutC and the aerobic carnitine monooxygenase, CntA. Identification of these enzymes has enabled bioinformatics approaches to screen both human-associated bacterial isolate genomes and whole gut metagenomes to determine which bacteria are responsible for TMA formation in the human gut...
April 19, 2018: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684605/development-of-monoclonal-antibodies-against-igm-of-sea-bass-lateolabrax-japonicus-and-analysis-of-phagocytosis-by-migm-lymphocytes
#16
Shun Yang, Xiaoqian Tang, Xiuzhen Sheng, Jing Xing, Wenbin Zhan
B cells in some fish were recently found to have potent phagocytic activities. Sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicus) as an important economical marine fish species, it could be used as an appropriate model to study the functions of B cells in phagocytosis. In the paper, three positive hybridomas designated as 1E11, 2H4 and 3F3 secreting monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against sea bass immunoglobulin M (IgM) were produced and used as research tools. Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that all the three MAbs had a high binding capacity with sea bass serum IgM...
April 20, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684571/cryoballoon-best-practices-ii-practical-guide-to-procedural-monitoring-and-dosing-during-atrial-fibrillation-ablation-from-the-perspective-of-experienced-users
#17
Wilber Su, Arash Aryana, Rod Passman, Gurjit Singh, Robert Hokanson, Marcin Kowalski, Jason Andrade, Paul Wang
Since cryoballoon was evaluated in STOP-AF, over 350,000 patients with AF have been treated. Several studies have reported improved outcomes using the second-generation cryoballoon, and recent publications have evaluated modifications, refinements, and improvements to procedural techniques. Here, peer-reviewed manuscripts published since the first cryoballoon best practices review were summarized against the technical practices of physicians with a high-level of experience with the cryoballoon (average ≥6 years of experience in ≥900 cases)...
April 20, 2018: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684568/current-trends-in-food-allergy-induced-anaphylaxis-management-at-school
#18
REVIEW
Matthew Greenhawt, Dana Wallace, Wesley Sublet, Erin Maughan, Andrea Tanner, Kevin Kelly, Stanley Fineman, Martha White, Gene Cash, Charmayne Anderson, Sally Schoessler, Ruchi Gupta, Michael Pistiner
OBJECTIVE: To review the evidence and current policies regarding the use of epinephrine at schools and child care centers Data Sources and Study Selection: A narrative review was performed based on the result of conference proceedings of a group of inter-professional stakeholders who attended the USAnaphylaxis Summit 2017 presented by Allergy & Asthma Network. RESULTS: Anaphylaxis is a well-recognized medical emergency requiring prompt treatment with intramuscular epinephrine...
April 20, 2018: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684558/effects-of-exercise-on-brown-and-beige-adipocytes
#19
REVIEW
Revati S Dewal, Kristin I Stanford
Physical exercise leads to beneficial effects in numerous tissues and organ systems and offers protection against obesity and type 2 diabetes. Recent studies have investigated the role of exercise on brown adipose tissue (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT), and have indicated marked adaptations to each tissue with exercise. Studies investigating the effects of exercise on BAT have produced conflicting results, with some showing an increase in the thermogenic activity of BAT and some demonstrating a decrease in the thermogenic activity of BAT...
April 20, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684553/fission-yeast-cells-overproducing-hset-kifc1-provides-a-useful-tool-for-identification-and-evaluation-of-human-kinesin-14-inhibitors
#20
Masashi Yukawa, Tomoaki Yamauchi, Naoaki Kurisawa, Shakil Ahmed, Ken-Ichi Kimura, Takashi Toda
Many human cancer cells contain more than two centrosomes, yet these cancer cells can form pseudo-bipolar spindles through the mechanism, called centrosome clustering, and survive, instead of committing lethal multipolar mitoses. Kinesin-14/HSET, a minus end-directed motor, plays a crucial role in centrosome clustering. Accordingly, HSET is deemed to be a promising chemotherapeutic target to selectively kill cancer cells. Recently, three HSET inhibitors (AZ82, CW069 and SR31527) have been reported, but their specificity and efficacy have not been evaluated rigorously...
April 20, 2018: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
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