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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441791/selective-toxicity-of-non-polar-bioactive-compounds-of-persian-gulf-sea-squirt-phallusia-nigra-on-skin-mitochondria-isolated-from-rat-model-of-melanoma
#1
Yalda Arast, Nina Seyed Razi, Enayatollah Seydi, Parvaneh Naserzadeh, Melika Nazemi, Jalal Pourahmad
Background: Skin cancer is the most prevalent cancer and one of the major causes of mortality worldwide. Marin animals have attracted much attention in recent years as useful substances having application in medicine. It was shown that Phallusia nigra (P. nigra) known as sea squirt could play an important role in cancer therapy. Methods: This study was designed to figure out the probable selective toxicity of n-hexane, diethyl ether, methanolic and aqueous extracts of P. nigra on cancerous mitochondria isolated from the skin of melanoma induced rats...
March 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441784/tim-3-up-regulation-in-patients-with-gastric-cancer-and-peptic-ulcer-disease
#2
Mahdieh aghavi-Alhosseini, Mohsen Tehrani, Abolghasem Ajami, Alireza Rafiei, Tarang Taghvaei, Laleh Vahedi-Larijani, Hadi Hossein-Nataj, Hossein Asgarian-Omran
Background: T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain protein-3 (Tim-3), an inhibitory immunoregulatory receptor, has been recently implicated in tumor biology and tumor-associated immune suppression. In the present study, expression of Tim-3 was evaluated in gastric cancer (GC) and peptic ulcer disease (PUD) at both mRNA and protein levels. Methods: A total of 133 gastric tissue biopsies, comprising 43 from GC cases, 48 from PUD and 42 from non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD) serving as controls were collected. Additionally, non-neoplastic adjacent tissue biopsies were also obtained from 6 patients with GC...
March 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441781/dengue-virus-non-structural-protein-5
#3
REVIEW
Abbas El Sahili, Julien Lescar
The World Health Organization estimates that the yearly number of dengue cases averages 390 million. This mosquito-borne virus disease is endemic in over 100 countries and will probably continue spreading, given the observed trend in global warming. So far, there is no antiviral drug available against dengue, but a vaccine has been recently marketed. Dengue virus also serves as a prototype for the study of other pathogenic flaviviruses that are emerging, like West Nile virus and Zika virus. Upon viral entry into the host cell and fusion of the viral lipid membrane with the endosomal membrane, the viral RNA is released and expressed as a polyprotein, that is then matured into three structural and seven non-structural (NS) proteins...
April 24, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441738/simulation-study-of-the-localization-of-a-near-surface-crack-using-an-air-coupled-ultrasonic-sensor-array
#4
Steven Delrue, Vladislav Aleshin, Mikael Sørensen, Lieven De Lathauwer
The importance of Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) to check the integrity of materials in different fields of industry has increased significantly in recent years. Actually, industry demands NDT methods that allow fast (preferably non-contact) detection and localization of early-stage defects with easy-to-interpret results, so that even a non-expert field worker can carry out the testing. The main challenge is to combine as many of these requirements into one single technique. The concept of acoustic cameras, developed for low frequency NDT, meets most of the above-mentioned requirements...
April 22, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441731/polyphenolic-compounds-and-digestive-enzymes-in-vitro-non-covalent-interactions
#5
REVIEW
Alejandra I Martinez-Gonzalez, Ángel G Díaz-Sánchez, Laura A de la Rosa, Claudia L Vargas-Requena, Ismael Bustos-Jaimes, And Emilio Alvarez-Parrilla
The digestive enzymes-polyphenolic compounds (PCs) interactions behind the inhibition of these enzymes have not been completely studied. The existing studies have mainly analyzed polyphenolic extracts and reported inhibition percentages of catalytic activities determined by UV-Vis spectroscopy techniques. Recently, pure PCs and new methods such as isothermal titration calorimetry and circular dichroism have been applied to describe these interactions. The present review focuses on PCs structural characteristics behind the inhibition of digestive enzymes, and progress of the used methods...
April 22, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441690/the-postoperative-model-for-end-stage-liver-disease-score-as-a-predictor-of-short-term-outcome-after-transplantation-of-extended-criteria-donor-livers
#6
Tamas Benko, Anja Gallinat, Thomas Minor, Fuat H Saner, Georgios C Sotiropoulos, Andreas Paul, Dieter P Hoyer
BACKGROUND: Recently, the postoperative Model for End stage Liver Disease score (POPMELD) was suggested as a definition of postoperative graft dysfunction and a predictor of outcome after liver transplantation (LT). AIM: The aim of the present study was to validate this concept in the context of extended criteria donor (ECD) organs. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Single-center prospectively collected data (OPAL study/01/11-12/13) of 116 ECD LTs were utilized...
June 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441660/the-phenotype-and-outcome-of-infantile-cardiomyopathy-caused-by-a-homozygous-elac2-mutation
#7
Zarghuna M A Shinwari, Abdulrahman Almesned, Ali Alakhfash, Ahmad M Al-Rashdan, Eissa Faqeih, Zainab Al-Humaidi, Ahmed Alomrani, Malak Alghamdi, Dilek Colak, Abdullah Alwadai, Monther Rababh, Majid Al-Fayyadh, Zuhair N Al-Hassnan
OBJECTIVE: Cardiomyopathy (CMP) in children is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders. Disease-associated mutations have been identified in more than 50 genes. Recently, mutations in the mitochondrial tRNA processing gene, ELAC2, were reported to be associated with the recessively inherited form of hypertrophic CMP (HCM). This study is aimed at describing the cardiac phenotype and outcome of ELAC2 mutation. METHODS: We performed whole exome sequencing followed by targeted mutation screening to identify the genetic etiology of severe infantile-onset CMP in 64 consanguineous Saudi families...
April 26, 2017: Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441630/winter-to-summer-change-in-vitamin-d-status-reduces-systemic-inflammation-and-bioenergetic-activity-of-human-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells
#8
Emily K Calton, Kevin N Keane, Raquel Raizel, Jordan Rowlands, Mario J Soares, Philip Newsholme
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D status [25(OH)D] has recently been reported to be associated with altered cellular bioenergetic profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). No study has tracked the seasonal variation of 25(OH)D and its putative influence on whole body energy metabolism, cellular bioenergetic profiles, inflammatory markers and clinical chemistry. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Whole body energy metabolism and substrate utilisation were measured by indirect calorimetry...
April 13, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441626/myobolites-muscle-derived-metabolites-with-paracrine-and-systemic-effects
#9
REVIEW
Ayon Ibrahim, Michael Neinast, Zoltan P Arany
Intracellular metabolism in skeletal muscle has been studied for more than a century and is the stuff of textbooks. In contrast, the extracellular secretion of metabolites by muscle cells, and their effects on non-muscle cells near or far, has been investigated much less extensively. Here, we describe a number of cases in which striated muscle secretes a metabolite that elicits complex responses in other cells or tissues, with involvements in normal physiology as well as obesity, type II diabetes, and cardiac remodeling...
April 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441621/prion-like-transmission-of-pathogenic-protein-aggregates-in-genetic-models-of-neurodegenerative-disease
#10
REVIEW
Margaret Mp Pearce
A key pathological hallmark of most neurodegenerative diseases is the misfolding of a particular protein, leading to deposition of toxic protein aggregates in brain tissue. Recent data provide compelling evidence that pathogenic protein aggregates have prion-like properties-they self-replicate by templated misfolding of monomeric proteins and spread between individual cells. Studies in genetic model organisms have expanded our understanding of how prion-like pathogenic aggregates propagate in vivo, revealing potential roles for spreading along neural networks and key cellular processes in both neurons and glial cells...
April 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441607/toxicity-assessment-of-zno-decorated-au-nanoparticles-in-the-mediterranean-clam-ruditapes-decussatus
#11
Badreddine Sellami, Amine Mezni, Abdelhafidh Khazri, Imen Bouzidi, Wiem Saidani, David Sheehan, Hamouda Beyrem
The synthesis of hybrid nanomaterials has greatly increased in recent years due to their special physical and chemical properties. However, information regarding the environmental toxicity associated with these chemicals is limited, in particular in the aquatic environment. In the present study, an experiment was performed in which the marine bivalve (Ruditapes decussatus) was exposed for 14days to 2 concentrations of zinc oxide-decorated Au nanoparticles (Au-ZnONPs: Au-ZnONP50=50μg/L; Au-ZnONP100=100μg/L)...
April 15, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441600/microplastics-in-the-antarctic-marine-system-an-emerging-area-of-research
#12
REVIEW
Catherine L Waller, Huw J Griffiths, Claire M Waluda, Sally E Thorpe, Iván Loaiza, Bernabé Moreno, Cesar O Pacherres, Kevin A Hughes
It was thought that the Southern Ocean was relatively free of microplastic contamination; however, recent studies and citizen science projects in the Southern Ocean have reported microplastics in deep-sea sediments and surface waters. Here we reviewed available information on microplastics (including macroplastics as a source of microplastics) in the Southern Ocean. We estimated primary microplastic concentrations from personal care products and laundry, and identified potential sources and routes of transmission into the region...
April 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441566/axon-degeneration-too-much-nmn-is-actually-bad
#13
Michael S Cohen
The mechanism of axon degeneration is incompletely understood. A recent study demonstrates that transgenic expression of bacterial nicotinamide adenine mononucleotide (NMN) in zebrafish and mice, which decreases NMN levels by converting it to NaMN, protects against axon degeneration.
April 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441561/neural-circuits-reduced-inhibition-in-fragile-x-syndrome
#14
Randall M Golovin, Kendal Broadie
The Drosophila Fragile X Syndrome model has long generated insights into this devastating neurological disease state. A recent study of olfactory neural circuitry shows that decreased lateral inhibition onto projection neurons relaying sensory input into higher brain centers causes impaired behavior.
April 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441483/discovery-of-a-novel-class-of-survival-motor-neuron-2-splicing-modifiers-for-the-treatment-of-spinal-muscular-atrophy
#15
Emmanuel Pinard, Luke Green, Michael Reutlinger, Marla Weetall, Nikolai N Naryshkin, John Baird, Karen S Chen, Sergey V Paushkin, Friedrich Metzger, Hasane Ratni
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by mutation or deletion of the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene, resulting in low levels of functional SMN protein. We have reported recently the identification of small molecules (coumarins, iso-coumarins and pyrido-pyrimidinones) that modify the alternative splicing of SMN2, a paralogous gene to SMN1, restoring the survival motor neuron (SMN) protein level in mouse models of SMA. Herein, we report our efforts to identify a novel chemotype as one strategy to potentially circumvent safety concerns from earlier derivatives, such as in-vitro phototoxicity and in-vitro mutagenicity associated with compounds 1 and 2 or the in-vivo retinal findings observed in a long term chronic tox study with 3 at high exposures only...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441481/best-practices-of-computer-aided-drug-discovery-cadd-lessons-learned-from-the-development-of-a-preclinical-candidate-for-prostate-cancer-with-a-new-mechanism-of-action
#16
Fuqiang Ban, Kush Dalal, Huifang Li, Eric LeBlanc, Paul S Rennie, Artem Cherkasov
Small-molecule drug design is a complex and iterative decision-making process relying on pre-existing knowledge and driven by experimental data. Low molecular weight chemicals represent an attractive therapeutic option as they are readily accessible to organic synthesis and can easily be characterized.1 Their potency, as well as pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties can be systematically and rationally investigated, and ultimately optimized via expert science behind medicinal chemistry and methods of computer-aided drug design (CADD)...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441442/the-effects-of-a-resistance-vs-an-aerobic-single-session-on-attention-and-executive-functioning-in-adults
#17
Ayelet Dunsky, Mona Abu-Rukun, Sharon Tsuk, Tzvi Dwolatzky, Rafi Carasso, Yael Netz
Evidence from recent studies showed that acute aerobic exercise results in improvements in different cognitive functions. The goal of this study was to assess the influence of acute bouts of aerobic versus resistance exercise on attention and executive function in adults. Thirty-nine physically active adults (age = 52±8 yr) served as participants. Each participant visited the laboratory four times: on the first visit participants performed a cognitive test (NeuroTrax) followed by an aerobic fitness assessment, as well as maximal strength test composed of six exercises...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441434/testing-survey-based-methods-for-rapid-monitoring-of-child-mortality-with-implications-for-summary-birth-history-data
#18
Eoghan Brady, Kenneth Hill
INTRODUCTION: Under-five mortality estimates are increasingly used in low and middle income countries to target interventions and measure performance against global development goals. Two new methods to rapidly estimate under-5 mortality based on Summary Birth Histories (SBH) were described in a previous paper and tested with data available. This analysis tests the methods using data appropriate to each method from 5 countries that lack vital registration systems. SBH data are collected across many countries through censuses and surveys, and indirect methods often rely upon their quality to estimate mortality rates...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441406/head-and-pelvic-movement-asymmetries-at-trot-in-riding-horses-in-training-and-perceived-as-free-from-lameness-by-the-owner
#19
Marie Rhodin, Agneta Egenvall, Pia Haubro Andersen, Thilo Pfau
Recent studies evaluating horses in training and considered free from lameness by their owners have identified a large proportion of horses with motion asymmetries. However the prevalence, type and magnitude of asymmetries when trotting in a straight line or on the lunge have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to objectively investigate the presence of motion asymmetries in riding horses in training by identifying the side and quantifying the degree and type (impact, pushoff) of forelimb and hind limb asymmetries found during straight line trot and on the lunge...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441402/sex-discordance-in-asthma-and-wheeze-prevalence-in-two-longitudinal-cohorts
#20
Ryan Arathimos, Raquel Granell, John Henderson, Caroline L Relton, Kate Tilling
Sex discordance in asthma prevalence has been previously reported, with higher prevalence in males before puberty, and in females after puberty; the adolescent "switch". However, cross-sectional studies have suggested a narrowing of this discordance in recent decades. We used a combination of cross-sectional and longitudinal modelling to examine sex differences in asthma, wheeze and longitudinal wheezing phenotypes in two UK birth cohorts, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; born 1991-92 with data from age 0-18 years) and the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS; born 2000-02 with data from age 3-10 years)...
2017: PloS One
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