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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214561/on-the-development-of-the-hepatopancreatic-ductal-system
#1
REVIEW
Alethia Villasenor, Didier Y R Stainier
The hepatopancreatic ductal system is the collection of ducts that connect the liver and pancreas to the digestive tract. The formation of this system is necessary for the transport of exocrine secretions, for the correct assembly of the pancreatobiliary ductal system, and for the overall function of the digestive system. Studies on endoderm organ formation have significantly advanced our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that govern organ induction, organ specification and morphogenesis of the major foregut-derived organs...
February 15, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214447/influence-of-pressures-up-to-50bar-on-two-stage-anaerobic-digestion
#2
Wolfgang Merkle, Katharina Baer, Jonas Lindner, Simon Zielonka, Felix Ortloff, Frank Graf, Thomas Kolb, Thomas Jungbluth, Andreas Lemmer
The concept of pressurized two-stage anaerobic digestion integrates biogas production, purification and pressure boosting within one process. The produced methane-rich biogas can be fed into gas grids with considerably less purification effort. To investigate biogas production under high pressures up to 50bar, a lab scale two-stage anaerobic digestion system was constructed including one continuously operated pressurized methane reactor. This investigation examined the effects of different operating pressures in methane reactor (10, 25, 50bar) on biogas quantity and quality, pH value and process stability...
February 8, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214264/identification-of-candidate-cerebrospinal-fluid-biomarkers-in-parkinsonism-using-quantitative-proteomics
#3
N K Magdalinou, A J Noyce, R Pinto, E Lindstrom, J Holmén-Larsson, M Holtta, K Blennow, H R Morris, T Skillbäck, T T Warner, A J Lees, I Pike, M Ward, H Zetterberg, J Gobom
INTRODUCTION: Neurodegenerative parkinsonian syndromes have significant clinical and pathological overlap, making early diagnosis difficult. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers may aid the differentiation of these disorders, but other than α-synuclein and neurofilament light chain protein, which have limited diagnostic power, specific protein biomarkers remain elusive. OBJECTIVES: To study disease mechanisms and identify possible CSF diagnostic biomarkers through discovery proteomics, which discriminate parkinsonian syndromes from healthy controls...
January 31, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214059/pharmacokinetic-alterations-of-rhubarb-anthraquinones-in-experimental-colitis-induced-by-dextran-sulfate-sodium-in-the-rat
#4
Wen-Jin Wu, Ru Yan, Ting Li, Ya-Ping Li, Rui-Na Zhou, Yi-Tao Wang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Rhubarb (Rhei Rhizoma et Radix) is used for the treatment of digestive diseases in traditional medicinal practice in China. Recent studies also support its beneficial activities in alleviating ulcerative colitis (UC). AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to characterize the oral pharmacokinetics of rhubarb anthraquinones, the main bioactive components of this herb, in the experimental chronic colitis rat model induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) and to identify the factors causing the pharmacokinetic alterations...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210071/update-on-the-medical-management-of-gastrointestinal-beh%C3%A3-et-s-disease
#5
REVIEW
Giuseppe Lopalco, Donato Rigante, Vincenzo Venerito, Claudia Fabiani, Rossella Franceschini, Michele Barone, Giovanni Lapadula, Mauro Galeazzi, Bruno Frediani, Florenzo Iannone, Luca Cantarini
Behçet's disease (BD) is a multisystemic disorder of unknown etiology mainly defined by recurrent oral aphthosis, genital ulcers, and chronic relapsing bilateral uveitis, all of which represent the "stigmata" of disease. However, many other organs including the vascular, neurological, musculoskeletal, and gastrointestinal systems can be affected. The gastrointestinal involvement in Behçet's disease (GIBD), along with the neurological and vascular ones, represents the most feared clinical manifestation of BD and shares many symptoms with inflammatory bowel diseases, such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208799/microbial-detoxification-of-deoxynivalenol-don-assessed-via-a-lemna-minor-l-bioassay-through-biotransformation-to-3-epi-don-and-3-epi-dom-1
#6
Ilse Vanhoutte, Laura De Mets, Marthe De Boevre, Valdet Uka, José Diana Di Mavungu, Sarah De Saeger, Leen De Gelder, Kris Audenaert
Mycotoxins are toxic metabolites produced by fungi. To mitigate mycotoxins in food or feed, biotransformation is an emerging technology in which microorganisms degrade toxins into non-toxic metabolites. To monitor deoxynivalenol (DON) biotransformation, analytical tools such as ELISA and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) are typically used. However, these techniques do not give a decisive answer about the remaining toxicity of possible biotransformation products. Hence, a bioassay using Lemna minor L...
February 13, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208612/enteric-pathogens-and-their-toxin-induced-disruption-of-the-intestinal-barrier-through-alteration-of-tight-junctions-in-chickens
#7
REVIEW
Wageha A Awad, Claudia Hess, Michael Hess
Maintaining a healthy gut environment is a prerequisite for sustainable animal production. The gut plays a key role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients and constitutes an initial organ exposed to external factors influencing bird's health. The intestinal epithelial barrier serves as the first line of defense between the host and the luminal environment. It consists of a continuous monolayer of intestinal epithelial cells connected by intercellular junctional complexes which shrink the space between adjacent cells...
February 10, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208586/a-review-of-mercury-bioavailability-in-humans-and-fish
#8
REVIEW
Mark A Bradley, Benjamin D Barst, Niladri Basu
To estimate human exposure to methylmercury (MeHg), risk assessors often assume 95%-100% bioavailability in their models. However, recent research suggests that assuming all, or most, of the ingested mercury (Hg) is absorbed into systemic circulation may be erroneous. The objective of this paper is to review and discuss the available state of knowledge concerning the assimilation or bioavailability of Hg in fish and humans. In fish, this meant reviewing studies on assimilation efficiency, that is the difference between ingested and excreted Hg over a given period of time...
February 10, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207861/in-vitro-anti-herpes-simplex-virus-2-activity-of-salvia-desoleana-atzei-v-picci-essential-oil
#9
Valeria Cagno, Barbara Sgorbini, Cinzia Sanna, Cecilia Cagliero, Mauro Ballero, Andrea Civra, Manuela Donalisio, Carlo Bicchi, David Lembo, Patrizia Rubiolo
Salvia desoleana Atzei & V. Picci is an indigenous species in Sardinia island used in folk medicine to treat menstrual, digestive and central nervous system diseases. Nowadays, it is widely cultivated for the pleasant smell of its essential oil (EO), whose antimicrobial and antifungal activities have already been screened. This study evaluated the in vitro anti-Herpes Simplex Virus-2 (HSV-2) activity of S. desoleana EO, fractions and main components: linalyl acetate, alpha terpinyl acetate, and germacrene D...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207780/analyzing-pepsin-degradation-assay-conditions-used-for-allergenicity-assessments-to-ensure-that-pepsin-susceptible-and-pepsin-resistant-dietary-proteins-are-distinguishable
#10
Rong Wang, Thomas C Edrington, S Bradley Storrs, Kathleen S Crowley, Jason M Ward, Thomas C Lee, Zi L Liu, Bin Li, Kevin C Glenn
The susceptibility of a dietary protein to proteolytic degradation by digestive enzymes, such as gastric pepsin, provides information on the likelihood of systemic exposure to a structurally intact and biologically active macromolecule, thus informing on the safety of proteins for human and animal consumption. Therefore, the purpose of standardized in vitro degradation studies that are performed during protein safety assessments is to distinguish whether proteins of interest are susceptible or resistant to pepsin degradation via a study design that enables study-to-study comparison...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207756/structural-changes-on-a-molecular-basis-of-canola-meal-by-conditioning-temperature-and-time-during-pelleting-process-in-relation-to-physiochemical-energy-and-protein-properties-relevant-to-ruminants
#11
Xuewei Huang, Huihua Zhang, Peiqiang Yu
The objectives of this study were: (1) To investigate the effects of conditioning temperature (70, 80, 90°C), time (30, 60 sec), and interaction (temperature × time) during the pelleting process on internal protein molecular structure changes of the co-products; (2) To identify differences in protein molecular structures among pellets that were processed under different conditions, and between unprocessed mash and pellets; 3) To quantify protein molecular structure changes in relation to predicted energy and protein utilization in dairy cows...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205313/genetic-analyses-unravel-the-crucial-role-of-a-horizontally-acquired-alginate-lyase-for-brown-algal-biomass-degradation-by-zobellia-galactanivorans
#12
Yongtao Zhu, François Thomas, Robert Larocque, Nan Li, Delphine Duffieux, Lionel Cladière, Florent Souchaud, Gurvan Michel, Mark J McBride
Comprehension of the degradation of macroalgal polysaccharides suffers from the lack of genetic tools for model marine bacteria, despite their importance for coastal ecosystem functions. We developed such tools for Zobellia galactanivorans, an algae-associated flavobacterium that digests many polysaccharides, including alginate. These tools were used to investigate the biological role of AlyA1, the only Z. galactanivorans alginate lyase known to be secreted in soluble form and to have a recognizable carbohydrate-binding domain...
February 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199974/mir-204-down-regulation-elicited-perturbation-of-a-gene-target-signature-common-to-human-cholangiocarcinoma-and-gastric-cancer
#13
Valeria Canu, Andrea Sacconi, Laura Lorenzon, Francesca Biagioni, Federica Lo Sardo, Maria Grazia Diodoro, Paola Muti, Alfredo Garofalo, Sabrina Strano, Antonietta D'Errico, Gian Luca Grazi, Mario Cioce, Giovanni Blandino
BACKGROUND & AIMS: There is high need of novel diagnostic and prognostic tools for tumors of the digestive system, such as gastric cancer and cholangiocarcinoma. We recently found that miR-204 was deeply downregulated in gastric cancer tissues. Here we investigated whether this was common to other tumors of the digestive system and whether this elicited a miR-204-dependent gene target signature, diagnostically and therapeutically relevant. Finally, we assessed the contribution of the identified target genes to the cell cycle progression and clonogenicity of gastric cancer and cholangiocarcinoma cell lines...
February 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199867/plant-wide-modelling-of-phosphorus-transformations-in-wastewater-treatment-systems-impacts-of-control-and-operational-strategies
#14
K Solon, X Flores-Alsina, C Kazadi Mbamba, D Ikumi, E I P Volcke, C Vaneeckhaute, G Ekama, P A Vanrolleghem, D J Batstone, K V Gernaey, U Jeppsson
The objective of this paper is to report the effects that control/operational strategies may have on plant-wide phosphorus (P) transformations in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). The development of a new set of biological (activated sludge, anaerobic digestion), physico-chemical (aqueous phase, precipitation, mass transfer) process models and model interfaces (between water and sludge line) were required to describe the required tri-phasic (gas, liquid, solid) compound transformations and the close interlinks between the P and the sulfur (S) and iron (Fe) cycles...
February 6, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198959/intraoperative-body-temperature-control-esophageal-thermometer-versus-infrared-tympanic-thermometer
#15
Vanessa de Brito Poveda, Ariane de Souza Nascimento
OBJECTIVE: To verify the correlation between temperature measurements performed using an infrared tympanic thermometer and an esophageal thermometer during the intraoperative period. METHOD: A longitudinal study of repeated measures was performed including subjects aged 18 years or older undergoing elective oncologic surgery of the digestive system, with anesthesia duration of at least 1 hour. Temperature measurements were performed simultaneously by a calibrated esophageal thermometer and by a calibrated infrared tympanic thermometer, with laboratory reading precision of ±0...
November 2016: Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da U S P
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198915/personality-traits-anger-and-psychiatric-symptoms-related-to-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-digestive-system-cancer
#16
Noemi Peres Honorato, Luciene Vaccaro de Morais Abumusse, Daniel Pereira Coqueiro, Vanessa de Albuquerque Citero
BACKGROUND: The presence of psychiatric symptoms, anger, and personality characteristics are factors that affect the quality of life of newly diagnosed digestive system cancer patients. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to identify which stable characteristics of the individual's personality interfere with quality of life, even when reactive emotional characteristics of falling ill are controlled. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed at the Oncology Clinic ( Hospital das Clínicas ), Marília/SP, Brazil, in which 50 adult patients with digestive system cancer and diagnosed less than 6 months answered the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory, Temperament and Character Inventory, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and WHOQOL-BREF...
February 13, 2017: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197779/colonic-mesenchyme-differentiates-into-smooth-muscle-before-its-colonization-by-vagal-enteric-neural-crest-derived-cells-in-the-chick-embryo
#17
Annick Bourret, Norbert Chauvet, Pascal de Santa Barbara, Sandrine Faure
During development, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract arises from a primary tube composed of mesoderm and endoderm. The mesoderm gives rise to the digestive mesenchyme, which in turn differentiates into multiple tissues, namely the submucosa, the interstitial cells of Cajal and the smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Concomitant with these early patterning events, the primitive GI tract is colonized by vagal enteric neural crest-derived cells (vENCDCs), a population of cells that gives rise to the enteric nervous system, the intrinsic innervation of the GI tract...
February 15, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197154/cowpea-and-groundnut-haulms-fodder-trading-and-its-lessons-for-multidimensional-cowpea-improvement-for-mixed-crop-livestock-systems-in-west-africa
#18
Anandan Samireddypalle, Ousmane Boukar, Elaine Grings, Christian A Fatokun, Prasad Kodukula, Ravi Devulapalli, Iheanacho Okike, Michael Blümmel
Cowpea is an important legume crop in Africa, valued highly for its grain and also haulms, which are a tradable commodity in fodder markets. Fodder market surveys in Northern Nigeria showed that groundnut haulms were priced higher than cowpea haulms, probably because of their superior nutritive value. The economic value of haulms has prompted cowpea breeders and livestock nutritionists to explore haulm fodder traits as additional selection and breeding criteria. Fifty cowpea genotypes cultivated across five locations in Nigeria in 2013 and 2014 were evaluated for food fodder traits...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194704/challenges-and-future-prospects-for-the-delivery-of-biologics-oral-mucosal-pulmonary-and-transdermal-routes
#19
Javier O Morales, Kristin R Fathe, Ashlee Brunaugh, Silvia Ferrati, Song Li, Miguel Montenegro-Nicolini, Zeynab Mousavikhamene, Jason T McConville, Mark R Prausnitz, Hugh D C Smyth
Biologic products are large molecules such as proteins, peptides, nucleic acids, etc., which have already produced many new drugs for clinical use in the last decades. Due to the inherent challenges faced by biologics after oral administration (e.g., acidic stomach pH, digestive enzymes, and limited permeation through the gastrointestinal tract), several alternative routes of administration have been investigated to enable sufficient drug absorption into systemic circulation. This review describes the buccal, sublingual, pulmonary, and transdermal routes of administration for biologics with relevant details of the respective barriers...
February 13, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193308/review-exogenous-butyrate-implications-for-the-functional-development-of-ruminal-epithelium-and-calf-performance
#20
B Niwińska, E Hanczakowska, M B Arciszewski, R Klebaniuk
The importance of the use of exogenous butyrate in calves' diets is due to its role as a factor stimulating the functional development of ruminal epithelium and improving calf performance during the transition from preruminant to ruminant status. Our review will first present results related to effects of the administration of butyrate in calves' diets on the development of ruminal epithelium toward a more effective absorption and metabolism of fermentation products from the rumen. The introduction of sodium butyrate at a level of about 0...
February 14, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
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