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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749627/acute-kidney-injury-in-pediatric-patients-diagnosis-and-management-in-the-emergency-department-digest
#1
Daniel Mohrer, Melissa Langhan, Pradip Chaudhari
Pediatric acute kidney injury is a condition that is underdiagnosed among children seen in the emergency department, and it has been associated with significant morbidity and mortality, including increased risk for chronic kidney disease. The most common etiologies in pediatric patients are now known to be due to hypovolemia, sepsis, shock, and cardiac dysfunction. This issue compares 3 classification systems for the diagnosis and staging of acute kidney injury and reviews the etiologies that lead to kidney injury in children...
May 22, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749273/a-retrospective-review-of-western-lowland-gorilla-gorilla-gorilla-gorilla-mortality-in-european-zoologic-collections-between-2004-and-2014
#2
Victoria Strong, Kerstin Baiker, Marnie L Brennan, Sharon Redrobe, Frank Rietkerk, Malcolm Cobb, Kate White
An understanding of the main causes of mortality among captive gorillas is imperative to promoting their optimal care, health, and welfare. A retrospective observational review of mortality among the European zoo-housed western lowland gorilla ( Gorilla gorilla gorilla) population from 2004 to 2014 was carried out. This is the first published study of mortality in this population. Relevant postmortem data were requested from each collection reporting a death during the study period. Age at death enabled grouping into discrete age categories...
June 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749115/deregulated-hoxb7-expression-predicts-poor-prognosis-of-patients-with-malignancies-of-digestive-system
#3
Fang-Teng Liu, Han-Min Chen, Ying Xiong, Zheng-Ming Zhu
INTRODUCTION: Numerous studies have investigated the relationship between deregulated HOXB7 expression with the clinical outcome in patients with digestive stem cancers, HOXB7 has showed negative impacts but with varying levels. We aimed to comprehensively evaluate the prediction and prognostic value of HOXB7 in digestive stem cancers. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Electronic databases updated to December 1, 2016 were retrieved to collect relevant eligible studies to quantitatively explore the potential roles of HOXB7 as a prognostic indicator in digestive system cancers...
July 26, 2017: Minerva Chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746215/s-1-monotherapy-versus-s-1-combination-therapy-in-gemcitabine-refractory-advanced-pancreatic-cancer-a-meta-analysis-prisma-of-randomized-control-trials
#4
Sheng Zhong, Shuai Qie, Liu Yang, Qi Yan, Linna Ge, Zhongfeng Wang
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the most lethal digestive system tumors. Most new cases are diagnosed based on metastasis or local aggression and are known as "advanced PC." Recently, studies investigating S-1 have indicated that it has a better clinical curative effect on PC. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of S-1 monotherapy compared with S-1 combination regimens in patients with gemcitabine (GEM)-refractory PC. METHODS: Trials published between 1978 and 2016 were identified by an electronic search of public databases (Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library)...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745847/transient-global-amnesia-emergency-department-evaluation-and-management-digest
#5
Jeremy Samuel Faust, Andreea Nemes, Milana Zaurova
Transient global amnesia is a clinically distinct syndrome characterized by the acute inability to form new memories. It can last up to 24 hours. The diagnosis is dependent on eliminating other more serious etiologies including toxic ingestions, acute strokes, complex partial seizures, and central nervous system infections. Transient global amnesia confers no known long-term risks; however, when abnormal signs or symptoms are present, they take precedence and guide the formulation of a differential diagnosis and investigation...
August 22, 2016: Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743579/seeking-to-enhance-the-bioenergy-of-municipal-sludge-effect-of-alkali-pre-treatment-and-soluble-organic-matter-supplementation
#6
S Zahedi, M Rivero, R Solera, M Perez
The aim of this research is to enhance the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of municipal sludge from Cadiz-San Fernando (Spain) wastewater treatment plant at 20days hydraulic retention time (HRT). Two different strategies were tested to improve the process: co-digestion with the addition of soluble organic matter (1% v/v); and alkali sludge pre-treatment (NaOH) prior to co-digestion with glycerine (1% v/v). Methane production (MP) was substantially enhanced (from 0.36±0.09 L CH4 l/d to 0.85±0.16 L CH4 l/d), as was specific methane production (SMP) (from 0...
July 22, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743392/fully-international-system-of-units-traceable-glycated-hemoglobin-quantification-using-two-stages-of-isotope-dilution-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#7
Thi Thanh Huong Tran, Jinsook Lim, Juok Kim, Ha-Jeong Kwon, Gye Cheol Kwon, Ji-Seon Jeong
Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), defined as hemoglobin (Hb) molecules having a stable adduct of glucose on the N-terminal of the β-chains, has been endorsed as a diagnostic tool for diabetes mellitus and a prediction indicator for the development of diabetes complications. Here we describe an accurate procedure using two stages of isotope dilution-ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (ID-LC-MS/MS) for the quantification of HbA1c that provides full traceability to International System of Units (SI)...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742542/clinical-practice-guidelines-for-cryosurgery-of-pancreatic-cancer-a-consensus-statement-from-the-china-cooperative-group-of-cryosurgery-on-pancreatic-cancer-international-society-of-cryosurgery-and-asian-society-of-cryosurgery
#8
Lihua He, Lizhi Niu, Nikolai N Korpan, Sajio Sumida, Yueyong Xiao, Jiaping Li, Barlian Sutedja, Youyong Lu, Jiansheng Zuo, Jianguo Liu, Kecheng Xu
Pancreatic cancer (PC), one of the most lethal malignancies, accounts for 8% to 10% of digestive system cancers, and the incidence is increasing. Surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy have been the main treatment methods but are not very effective. Cryosurgery was first used in 1984 for treatment of locally advanced PC and has since become a considerable treatment for most cases of unresectable PC. During the past decade, cryosurgery has been applied in some hospitals in China, and the newly developed technique of computed tomography- and/or ultrasound-guided percutaneous cryosurgery has shown better results than chemotherapy in cases of unresectable locally advanced PC, with the 1-year survival rate reported to be more than 50%...
July 24, 2017: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742332/modulation-of-lipid-digestion-profiles-using-filled-egg-white-protein-microgels
#9
Luping Gu, Yujie Su, Zipei Zhang, Bingjing Zheng, Ruojie Zhang, David J McClements, Yan-Jun Yang
Colloidal delivery systems are required to encapsulate, protect, and release active food ingredients, such as vitamins, nutraceuticals, and minerals. In this study, lipid droplets were encapsulated within biopolymer microgels fabricated from egg white proteins an injection-gelation process. Confocal fluorescence microscopy indicated that lipid droplets were dispersed within a network of crosslinked proteins within the microgels. The properties of the lipid-loaded microgels were compared to those of simple oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by egg white protein...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739210/bile-salt-stimulated-lipase-inhibition-by-phospholipids-and-relief-by-phospholipase-a2
#10
Elena Venuti, Dmitry Shishmarev, Philip W Kuchel, Shoma Dutt, Caron S Blumenthal, Kevin J Gaskin
INTRODUCTION: Bile salt stimulated lipase (BSSL; Enzyme Commission (EC) number 3.1.1.13) has been a candidate triglyceridase for improving enzyme therapy for pancreatic insufficiency; however, its efficacy is near absent. We hypothesise that similarly to pancreatic lipase, BSSL is inhibited by phospholipids and this inhibition is relieved by Phospholipase A2 (PLA2; EC 3.1.1.4), and the present study was undertaken to explore this possibility. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Synthetic emulsions of triglyceride and phosphatidylcholine (PC) or lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC)/bile salt mixed micelles were used as a model of intestinal digestion-media...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738849/immune-suppression-of-igg-response-against-dairy-proteins-in-major-depression
#11
Leszek Rudzki, Dariusz Pawlak, Krystyna Pawlak, Napoleon Waszkiewicz, Aleksandra Małus, Beata Konarzewska, Mirosława Gałęcka, Anna Bartnicka, Lucyna Ostrowska, Agata Szulc
BACKGROUND: Interactions between the digestive system, brain functions and immunoglobulin G (IgG) mediated immunity against food antigens became recently a topic of growing interest in psychiatry research. Psychological stress can activate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) with subsequent hypercortisolemia. It can also influence intestinal permeability and dynamics of IgG response. Major depression can by accompanied either by activation of inflammatory response or by immune suppression (e...
July 24, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738598/green-and-efficient-sample-preparation-method-for-the-determination-of-catalyst-residues-in-margarine-by-icp-ms
#12
Carla Andrade Hartwig, Rodrigo Mendes Pereira, Diogo La Rosa Novo, Dirce Taina Teixeira Oliveira, Marcia Foster Mesko
Responding to the need for green and efficient methods to determine catalyst residues with suitable precision and accuracy in samples with high fat content, the present work evaluates a microwave-assisted ultraviolet digestion (MW-UV) system for margarines and subsequent determination of Ni, Pd and Pt using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). It was possible to digest up to 500mg of margarine using only 10mL of 4molL(-1) HNO3 with a digestion efficiency higher than 98%. This allowed the determination of catalyst residues using the ICP-MS and free of interferences...
November 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738546/a-new-method-for-the-simultaneous-enhancement-of-methane-yield-and-reduction-of-hydrogen-sulfide-production-in-the-anaerobic-digestion-of-waste-activated-sludge
#13
Xiaohu Dai, Chongliang Hu, Dong Zhang, Yinguang Chen
The biogas generated from anaerobic digestion (AD) also includes undesirable by-product such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which must be removed before the biogas can be used as a clean energy source. Therefore, it is necessary to find an appropriate strategy to simultaneously enhance the methane yield and reduce H2S production. An efficient strategy-pretreating sludge at pH 10 for 8d and adjusting the system at neutral pH to produce methane for 20d-is reported for the synchronous enhancement of methane production and reduction of H2S production during AD...
July 8, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737908/edible-nanoencapsulation-vehicles-for-oral-delivery-of-phytochemicals-a-perspective-paper
#14
Jie Xiao, Yong Cao, Qingrong Huang
Edible nanoencapsulation vehicles (ENVs) designed for the delivery of phytochemicals have gained increasing research interest. The major driving force for this trend is the potential bioavailability enhancement effect for phytochemicals when delivered via ENVs. ENVs affect the bioefficacy of phytochemicals by influencing their dispersion and gastrointestinal stability, rate and site of release, transportation efficiency across endothelial layer, systemic circulation and biodistribution, as well as the regulation of gut microflora...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736979/in-vitro-characteristics-of-lactobacillus-spp-strains-isolated-from-the-chicken-digestive-tract-and-their-role-in-the-inhibition-of-campylobacter-colonization
#15
Patrycja A Kobierecka, Agnieszka K Wyszyńska, Tamara Aleksandrzak-Piekarczyk, Maciej Kuczkowski, Anna Tuzimek, Wioletta Piotrowska, Adrian Górecki, Iwona Adamska, Alina Wieliczko, Jacek Bardowski, Elżbieta K Jagusztyn-Krynicka
Campylobacter jejuni/coli infections are the leading cause of bacterial diarrheal illnesses in humans. Many epidemiological studies indicate that improperly prepared meat from chickens that carry a high load of Campylobacter in their intestinal tracts is the key source of human infections. LAB, mainly members of the Lactococcus and Lactobacillus genera, increasingly have been tested as vehicles for the delivery of heterologous bacterial or viral antigens to animal mucosal immune systems. Thus, the objective of this study was to isolate, identify, and characterize Lactobacillus spp...
July 24, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736244/the-use-of-stable-isotopes-in-the-study-of-human-pathophysiology
#16
Evelina Charidemou, Tom Ashmore, Julian L Griffin
The growing prevalence of metabolic diseases including fatty liver disease and Type 2 diabetes has increased the emphasis on understanding metabolism at the mechanistic level and how it is perturbed in disease. Metabolomics is a continually expanding field that seeks to measure metabolites in biological systems during a physiological stimulus or a genetic alteration. Typically, metabolomics studies provide total pool sizes of metabolites rather than dynamic flux measurements. More recently there has been a resurgence in approaches that use stable isotopes (e...
July 20, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736143/thermophilic-membrane-bioreactors-a-review
#17
REVIEW
Josh Duncan, Alnour Bokhary, Pedram Fatehi, Fangong Kong, Hongjun Lin, Baoqiang Liao
This study undertakes a state-of-the-art review on thermophilic membrane bioreactors (ThMBRs). Thermophilic aerobic membrane bioreactors (ThAeMBR) and thermophilic anaerobic membrane bioreactors (ThAnMBR) have been widely tested for various high-temperature industrial wastewater treatments at lab- and pilot-scale studies and full-scale applications. The biological and membrane performances of the ThAeMBRs and ThAnMBRs could be better, comparable or poorer, as compared to the mesophilic ones. In general, sludge yield was much lower, biodegradation kinetic was higher, and microbial community was less diversity in the ThAeMBR and ThAnMBR systems...
July 14, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736047/health-risk-assessment-as-an-approach-to-manage-an-old-landfill-and-to-propose-integrated-solid-waste-treatment-a-case-study-in-italy
#18
O Paladino, M Massabò
The aim of the present paper is to show how an approach based on human health risk analysis can be used as a decisional tool for the evaluation of impacts on population and for deciding between different waste treatment processes. The situation in which the increasing production of solid wastes cannot be confined in the old existing Municipal Solid Waste landfill (settled in Genoa, Liguria Region, Italy) is used as a case study. Risk assessment for human health due to air, surface water, groundwater and soil contamination is performed in different scenarios for the old landfill and compared with alternative Waste-to-Energy management solutions that consider thermal treatment by gasification of the total waste or gasification of the dry fraction coupled with anaerobic digestion of the wet fraction, plus biogas combustion with or without sludge and bottom ash/slag disposal in the old landfill...
July 20, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735872/characterization-of-a-novel-cystatin-type-2-from-rhipicephalus-microplus-midgut
#19
Thyago H S Cardoso, Stephen Lu, Boris R G Gonzalez, Ricardo J S Torquato, Aparecida S Tanaka
The Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is an exclusive bovine ectoparasite responsible for the transmission of pathogens that decrease meat, leather and milk productions. Cattle vaccination is an alternative to control tick infestations, but the discovery of potential antigens is still a challenge for researchers. Recently, our group performed a midgut transcriptome of engorged R. microplus tick, and out of 800 ESTs sequences one cystatin-coding sequence was identified and named Rmcystatin-4. In order to understand the physiological role of Rmcystatin-4, the aim of this work was the expression, purification and functional characterization of a novel type 2 cystatin from the tick R...
July 20, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735564/synergistic-effect-of-co-digestion-to-enhance-anaerobic-degradation-of-catering-waste-and-orange-peel-for-biogas-production
#20
Muzammil Anjum, Azeem Khalid, Samia Qadeer, Rashid Miandad
Catering waste and orange peel were co-digested using an anaerobic digestion process. Orange peel is difficult to degrade anaerobically due to the presence of antimicrobial agents such as limonene. The present study aimed to examine the feasibility of anaerobic co-digestion of catering waste with orange peel to provide the optimum nutrient balance with reduced inhibitory effects of orange peel. Batch experiments were conducted using catering waste as a potential substrate mixed in varying ratios (20-50%) with orange peel...
July 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
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