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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819995/the-effect-of-different-fish-feed-compositions-on-%C3%AE-13-c-and-%C3%AE-15-n-signatures-of-sea-bass-and-its-potential-value-for-tracking-mariculture-derived-nutrients
#1
Henrik Kusche, Nicola Hillgruber, Yvonne Rößner, Ulfert Focken
Increasing demand for fish and seafood calls for an expansion of aquaculture production. At the same time, the status of the marine environment must not be jeopardised. Stable isotopes are potential markers for tracking feed-based nutrient flows from aquaculture into marine biota. Here, we demonstrate how four experimental diets (main protein components: fishmeal, soya protein concentrate, wheat gluten, and Jatropha kernel meal) and a commercial diet induce characteristic δ(13)C and δ(15)N signals in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) during nine weeks of laboratory feeding under replicate conditions...
August 18, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818814/exposure-to-polybrominated-diphenyl-ethers-and-perfluoroalkyl-substances-in-a-remote-population-of-alaska-natives
#2
Samuel Byrne, Samarys Seguinot-Medina, Pamela Miller, Vi Waghiyi, Frank A von Hippel, C Loren Buck, David O Carpenter
BACKGROUND: Many Alaska Native communities rely on a traditional marine diet that contains persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The indoor environment is also a source of POPs. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are present both in the traditional diet and the home indoor environment. OBJECTIVES: We assessed exposure to PBDEs and PFASs among residents of two remote Alaska Native villages on St. Lawrence Island. Ninespine stickleback (Pungitious pungitious) and Alaska blackfish (Dallia pectoralis) were used to detect accumulation of these compounds in the local environment...
August 14, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817721/stable-isotopes-in-tissues-discriminate-the-diet-of-free-living-wild-boar-from-different-areas-of-central-italy
#3
Giuseppe Russo, Pier Paolo Danieli, Riccardo Primi, Andrea Amici, Marco Lauteri
The use of isotopic signatures in animal tissues provides information on the environment where they are living and, notably, on their diet. Carbon and, whenever possible, nitrogen stable isotope analyses were performed in animal hairs, muscles and fat. Particularly, we analyzed both carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions (δ13C and δ15N) on wild boar samples across three different areas of central Italy (Latium region): Tyrrhenian Coast (TC), Maremma (MA) and Central Plains (CP). The agricultural habits of these areas imply that, in winter, no crops are available for wild boars, which feed mainly on acorns and natural feeds (tubers, earthworms etc...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817665/concentrations-of-trace-elements-in-human-milk-comparisons-among-women-in-argentina-namibia-poland-and-the-united-states
#4
Laura D Klein, Alicia A Breakey, Brooke Scelza, Claudia Valeggia, Grazyna Jasienska, Katie Hinde
Human milk contains essential micronutrients for growth and development during early life. Environmental pollutants, such as potentially toxic metals, can also be transferred to the infant through human milk. These elements have been well-studied, but changing diets and environments and advances in laboratory technology require re-examining these elements in a variety of settings. The aim of this study was to characterize the concentrations of essential and toxic metals in human milk from four diverse populations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817093/quality-of-vegetables-based-on-total-phenolic-concentration-is-lower-in-more-rural-consumer-food-environments-in-a-rural-american-state
#5
Selena Ahmed, Carmen Byker Shanks
While daily consumption of fruits and vegetables (FVs) is widely recognized to be associated with supporting nutrition and health, disparities exist in consumer food environments regarding access to high-quality produce based on location. The purpose of this study was to evaluate FV quality using total phenolic (TP) scores (a phytochemical measure for health-promoting attributes, flavor, appearance, and shelf-life) in consumer food environments along a rural to urban continuum in the rural state of Montana, United States...
August 17, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816587/dna-methylation-independent-growth-restriction-and-altered-developmental-programming-in-a-mouse-model-of-preconception-male-alcohol-exposure
#6
Richard C Chang, William M Skiles, S Chronister Sarah, Haiqing Wang, Gabrielle I Sutton, Yudhishtar S Bedi, Matthew Snyder, Charles R Long, Michael C Golding
The preconception environment is a significant modifier of dysgenesis and the development of environmentally-induced disease. To date, Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs) have been exclusively associated with maternal exposures, yet emerging evidence suggests male-inherited alterations in the developmental program of sperm may be relevant to the growth-restriction phenotypes of this condition. Using a mouse model of voluntary consumption, we find chronic preconception male ethanol exposure associates with fetal growth restriction, decreased placental efficiency, abnormalities in cholesterol trafficking, sex-specific alterations in the genetic pathways regulating hepatic fibrosis, and disruptions in the regulation of imprinted genes...
August 17, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811598/effects-of-contaminants-of-emerging-concern-on-megaselia-scalaris-lowe-diptera-phoridae-and-its-microbial-community
#7
Marcus J Pennington, Jason A Rothman, Michael B Jones, Quinn S McFrederick, Jay Gan, John T Trumble
Drought, rising temperatures, and expanding human populations are increasing water demands. Many countries are extending potable water supplies by irrigating crops with wastewater. Unfortunately, wastewater contains biologically active, long-lived pharmaceuticals, even after treatment. Run-off from farms and wastewater treatment plant overflows contribute high concentrations of pharmaceuticals to the environment. This study assessed the effects of common pharmaceuticals on a cosmopolitan saprophagous insect, Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae)...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809837/protocol-for-assessing-the-relative-effects-of-environment-and-genetics-on-antler-and-body-growth-for-a-long-lived-cervid
#8
Eric S Michel, Emily B Flinn, Stephen Demarais, Bronson K Strickland, Guiming Wang, Chad M Dacus
Cervid phenotype can be placed into one of two categories: efficiency, which promotes survival over extravagant morphometric growth, and luxury, which promotes growth of large weaponry and body size. Populations of the same species display each phenotype depending on environmental conditions. Although antler and body size of male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) varies by physiographic region in Mississippi, USA and is strongly correlated with regional variation in nutritional quality, the effects of population-level genetics from native stocks and previous re-stocking efforts cannot be disregarded...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805912/prediction-of-fecal-nitrogen-and-phosphorus-excretion-for-chinese-holstein-lactating-dairy-cows
#9
Q B Qu, P Yang, R Zhao, S L Zhi, Z W Zhai, F F Ding, K Q Zhang
Mathematical models for predicting nitrogen and phosphorus excretion play a key role in manure application and environment monitoring. An analysis for prediction of fecal nitrogen (FN, g/d) and fecal phosphorus (FP, g/d) excretion for Chinese Holstein lactating dairy cows was conducted using a data set from 15 dairy farms in northern China. The whole independent-variable data set, obtained with questionnaires, consisted of 110 sets of average diet nutrient compositions, including DMI (kg/d), CP content (% DM), OM intake (OMI, kg/d), nitrogen intake (NI, g/d), and phosphorus intake (PI, g/d), and animal characteristics, including average days in milk (DIM, d), average milk yield (MY, kg/d), and average BW (kg)...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804797/bioactivities-of-alternative-protein-sources-and-their-potential-health-benefits
#10
REVIEW
A Pihlanto, P Mattila, S Mäkinen, A-M Pajari
Increasing the utilisation of plant proteins is needed to support the production of protein-rich foods that could replace animal proteins in the human diet so as to reduce the strain that intensive animal husbandry poses to the environment. Lupins, quinoa and hempseed are significant sources of energy, high quality proteins, fibre, vitamins and minerals. In addition, they contain compounds such as polyphenols and bioactive peptides that can increase the nutritional value of these plants. From the nutritional standpoint, the right combination of plant proteins can supply sufficient amounts of essential amino acids for human requirements...
August 14, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803893/the-companion-dog-as-a-unique-translation-model-for-aging
#11
REVIEW
Andrea Mazzatenta, Camillo Di Giulio, Domenico Robbe, Augusto Carluccio, Alessandro Cellerino
The dog is a unique species due to its wide variation among breeds in size, morphology, behavior and lifespan coupled with a genetic structure that facilitates the dissection of the genetic architecture controlling those traits. Dogs and humans coevolved and share recent evolutionary selection processes like, for example, adaptations to digest starch-rich diets. Many diseases of the dog have a human counterpart, notably Alzheimer's that is otherwise difficult to model in other organisms. Unlike laboratory animals, companion dogs share the human environment and lifestyle, are exposed to the same pollutants and are faced with pathogens and infections...
August 10, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801594/deficiency-in-catechol-o-methyltransferase-is-linked-to-a-disruption-of-glucose-homeostasis-in-mice
#12
Megumi Kanasaki, Swayam Prakash Srivastava, Fan Yang, Ling Xu, Sumiyo Kudoh, Munehiro Kitada, Norikazu Ueki, Hyoh Kim, Jinpeng Li, Satoru Takeda, Keizo Kanasaki, Daisuke Koya
2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME), an estrogen metabolite generated via catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT), is multifunctional methoxy-catechol. Here, we report that COMT deficiency leads to glucose intolerance and 2-ME rescues COMT-deficient-associated metabolic defects. Liver COMT protein was suppressed in high fat diet (HFD)-fed or in pregnant mice. COMT suppression, by Ro41-0960 or siRNA, in HFD fed mice or in pregnant mice exacerbated glucose intolerance; 2-ME intervention ameliorated these defects. 2-ME effects on glucose tolerance were associated with AMPK phosphorylation in the liver and in islet cells...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800471/microplastic-ingestion-by-mullus-surmuletus-linnaeus-1758-fish-and-its-potential-for-causing-oxidative-stress
#13
C Alomar, A Sureda, X Capó, B Guijarro, S Tejada, S Deudero
A total of 417 striped red mullet, Mullus surmuletus, were analyzed to study microplastic ingestion and livers of fish were assessed to study effects of microplastics. Nearly one third (27.30%) of the individuals were quantified to ingest microplastics although there was no evidence of oxidative stress or cellular damage in the liver of fish which had ingested microplastics. A small increase in the activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST) of M. surmuletus was detected which could be suggesting an induction of the detoxification systems but these findings should be tested in laboratory conditions under a controlled diet and known concentration of microplastics...
August 8, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797597/environmental-enrichment-protects-spatial-learning-and-hippocampal-neurons-from-the-long-lasting-effects-of-protein-malnutrition-early-in-life
#14
Roberto O Soares, Everton Horiquini-Barbosa, Sebastião S Almeida, João-José Lachat
As early protein malnutrition has a critically long-lasting impact on the hippocampal formation and its role in learning and memory, and environmental enrichment has demonstrated great success in ameliorating functional deficits, here we ask whether exposure to an enriched environment could be employed to prevent spatial memory impairment and neuroanatomical changes in the hippocampus of adult rats maintained on a protein deficient diet during brain development (P0-P35). To elucidate the protective effects of environmental enrichment, we used the Morris water task and neuroanatomical analysis to determine whether changes in spatial memory and number and size of CA1 neurons differed significantly among groups...
August 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796373/environmental-behavior-potential-phytotoxicity-and-accumulation-of-copper-oxide-nanoparticles-and-arsenic-to-rice-plants
#15
REVIEW
Jing Liu, Birendra Dhungana, George P Cobb
Copper oxide nanoparticles (nCuO) are widely used in many industries. The increasing release of nCuO from both intentional and unintentional sources into the environment may pose risks to rice plants, thereby reducing the quality or quantity of this staple grain in the human diet. Arsenic (As) contamination has not only decreased rice yield, As accumulation in rice has also been a great human health concern for a few decades. New technologies have succeeded in removing As from water by nanomaterials. By all accounts, few studies address nCuO phytotoxicity to rice, and the interactions of nCuO with As are poorly described...
August 10, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795659/role-of-mycotoxins-in-the-pathobiology-of-autism-a-first-evidence
#16
Barbara De Santis, Carlo Brera, Alessandra Mezzelani, Sabina Soricelli, Francesca Ciceri, Giorgio Moretti, Francesca Debegnach, Maria Clara Bonaglia, Laura Villa, Massimo Molteni, Maria Elisabetta Raggi
OBJECTIVES: Gene-environment interaction is an emerging hypothesis to expound not only the autism pathogenesis but also the increased incidence of neurodevelopmental disorders (such as autistic spectrum disorder, attention-deficit, hyperactivity disorder). Among xenobiotics, mycotoxins are worldwide contaminants of food that provoke toxicological effects, crucially resembling several symptoms associated with autism such as oxidative stress, intestinal permeability, and inflammation. Here, we focused on a group of mycotoxins to test their role in the manifestation of autism, try to explain their mechanism of action, and discuss possible preventive and therapeutic interventions...
August 10, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794412/neonatal-leptin-treatment-reverses-the-bone-suppressive-effects-of-maternal-undernutrition-in-adult-rat-offspring
#17
Elwyn C Firth, Greg D Gamble, Jillian Cornish, Mark H Vickers
Alterations in the early life environment, including maternal undernutrition (UN) during pregnancy, can lead to increased risk of metabolic and cardiovascular disorders in offspring. Leptin treatment of neonates born to UN rats reverses the programmed metabolic phenotype, but the possible benefits of this treatment on bone tissue have not been defined. We describe for the first time the effects of neonatal leptin treatment on bone in adult offspring following maternal UN. Offspring from either UN or ad libitum-fed (AD) rats were treated with either saline or leptin (2...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792480/the-role-of-nutritional-aspects-in-food-allergy-prevention-and-management
#18
REVIEW
Alessandra Mazzocchi, Carina Venter, Kate Maslin, Carlo Agostoni
The prevalence of food allergy in childhood appears to be increasing in both developed and transitional countries. The aim of this paper is to review and summarise key findings in the prevention and management of food allergy, focusing on the role of dietary components and nutritional habits in the development and optimal functioning of the immune system. Essential fatty acids, zinc and vitamin D are likely to enhance the anti-inflammatory and antioxidative barrier and promote immunologic tolerance. Additionally, nutritional components such as pre- and probiotics represent a novel research approach in the attempt to induce a tolerogenic immune environment...
August 9, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790544/factors-associated-with-hemodialysis-machine-dependency
#19
Maria Polikandrioti, Ioannis Koutelekos, Georgia Gerogianni, Spyridoula Stefanidou, Vasilis Kyriakopoulos, Eirini Floraki, Fotoula Babatsikou
INTRODUCTION: Hemodialysis is one of major stresses in patients' daily lives since there is no other path for life maintenance but to accept the machine and its' related rules. PURPOSE: of this study was to explore factors associated with dependency on dialysis machine as reported by the patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The sample of the study included 250 patients undergoing hemodialysis. For data collection a questionnaire specially designed for the needs of the research was used...
April 2017: Medical Archives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783099/is-living-near-healthier-food-stores-associated-with-better-food-intake-in-regional-australia
#20
Hamid Moayyed, Bridget Kelly, Xiaoqi Feng, Victoria Flood
High prevalence of obesity and non-communicable diseases is a global public health problem, in which the quality of food environments is thought to play an important role. Current scientific evidence is not consistent regarding the impact of food environments on diet. The relationship between local food environments and diet quality was assessed across 10 Australian suburbs, using Australian-based indices devised to measure the two parameters. Data of dietary habits from the participants was gathered using a short questionnaire...
August 7, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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