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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222610/characterizing-the-neighborhood-obesogenic-environment-in-the-multiethnic-cohort-a-multi-level-infrastructure-for-cancer-health-disparities-research
#1
Shannon M Conroy, Salma Shariff-Marco, Juan Yang, Andrew Hertz, Myles Cockburn, Yurii B Shvetsov, Christina A Clarke, Cheryl L Abright, Christopher A Haiman, Loïc Le Marchand, Laurence N Kolonel, Kristine R Monroe, Lynne R Wilkens, Scarlett Lin Gomez, Iona Cheng
PURPOSE: We characterized the neighborhood obesogenic environment in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC) by examining the associations of obesity with attributes of the social and built environment, establishing a multi-level infrastructure for future cancer research. METHODS: For 102,906 African American, Japanese American, Latino, and white MEC participants residing predominately in Los Angeles County, baseline residential addresses (1993-1996) were linked to census and geospatial data, capturing neighborhood socioeconomic status (nSES), population density, commuting, food outlets, amenities, walkability, and traffic density...
December 8, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218742/prevalence-of-foot-disorders-in-captive-sardinian-partridges-alectoris-barbara-barbara-bonnaterre-1790-as-useful-indicators-of-fitness-to-natural-environment
#2
M G Cappai, A Abd El-Wahab, G Arru, M Muzzeddu, W Pinna
Foot health represents an issue in wild avifauna breeding practices. In particular, prevalence of digital ulceration (DU) and foot pad dermatitis (FPD) are valid indicators of welfare in wildlife conservation centres and may be interpreted as to fitness for bird's reintroduction into the wild. This study meant to test the effects of raising practices on foot pad health in captive Sardinian partridges (Alectoris barbara barbara Bonnaterre, 1790) reared for biodiversity conservation, to assess welfare and fitness to reintroduction into nature...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218577/street-foods-exacerbate-effects-of-the-environmental-burden-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pahs-in-nigeria
#3
Osazuwa Clinton Ekhator, Nnaemeka Arinze Udowelle, Sorbari Igbiri, Rose Ngozi Asomugha, Chiara Frazzoli, Orish Ebere Orisakwe
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a large group of well-known toxicants with carcinogenic potential and other health effects including on the immune system. The high health risks of non-communicable diseases and relevant comorbidities in Africa, particularly in contaminated areas like e-waste and crude oil and gas exploration areas and for high consumers of food commodity groupings which are most critical for PAH exposure, are exacerbated by dietary exposure due to unsafe practices in commonly consumed foods, like those street vended...
December 7, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214347/partial-phenotype-conversion-and-differential-trait-response-to-conditions-of-husbandry-in-mice
#4
Julia Brenmoehl, Christina Walz, Marion Spitschak, Elisa Wirthgen, Michael Walz, Martina Langhammer, Armin Tuchscherer, Ronald Naumann, Andreas Hoeflich
Functional genome analysis usually is performed on the level of genotype-phenotype interaction. However, phenotypes also depend on the relations between genomes and environment. In our experimental system, we observed differential response to environmental factors defined by different conditions of husbandry in a semi-barrier unit or in a SPF (specific pathogen free) barrier unit, which resulted in partial reversal of phenotypes previously observed under semi-barrier conditions. To provide an update of basic phenotypes in unselected and randomly mated controls (DUC) and long-term selected DUhTP (Dummerstorf high treadmill performance) mice in the SPF facility, we compared growth parameters, reproductive performance, the accretion of muscle and fat mass, physical activity, and running performance as well as food intake in all experimental groups...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214021/a-pilot-study-with-early-adolescents-dealing-with-diet-tobacco-and-air-pollution-using-practical-experiences-and-biological-markers
#5
Chiara Marabelli, Elena Munarini, Micaela Lina, Roberto Mazza, Roberto Boffi, Cinzia De Marco, Ario Ruprecht, Giorgia Angellotti, Chiara Veronese, Paolo Pozzi, Eleonora Bruno, Giuliana Gargano, Adalberto Cavalleri, Giulia Garrone, Franco Berrino
Background: Tobacco use and the Western diet are two of the most important and investigated topics in relation to adolescents' health. In addition, air pollution is a crucial subject for future generations. School is a key social environment that should promote healthy behaviors in children and adolescents. In this field many different programs have been conducted, with mixed results and effectiveness. Research data suggest that comprehensive and multicomponent approaches may have a greater effect on tobacco use and diet, especially when integrated into a community-wide approach...
2017: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212358/a-mediation-analysis-of-mothers-dietary-intake-the-entre-familia-reflejos-de-salud-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Lucy A Horton, Guadalupe X Ayala, Donald J Slymen, Leticia Ibarra, Erika Hernandez, Humberto Parada, Cheryl L Rock, Elva M Arredondo, John P Elder
AIMS: Examine intervention effects among mothers involved in a healthy eating randomized controlled trial. Furthermore, examine the mediating roles of individual and familial influences on observed outcomes. METHODS: Between 2009 and 2011, 361 families were recruited; half were assigned to an 11-session community health worker-delivered family-based intervention targeting Spanish-speaking Latino families in Imperial County, California. The intervention was delivered over a 4-month period...
December 1, 2017: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211803/hypoxia-and-inactivity-related-physiological-changes-precede-or-take-place-in-absence-of-significant-rearrangements-in-bacterial-community-structure-the-planhab-randomized-trial-pilot-study
#7
Robert Šket, Nicole Treichel, Susanne Kublik, Tadej Debevec, Ola Eiken, Igor Mekjavić, Michael Schloter, Marius Vital, Jenna Chandler, James M Tiedje, Boštjan Murovec, Zala Prevoršek, Matevž Likar, Blaž Stres
We explored the assembly of intestinal microbiota in healthy male participants during the randomized crossover design of run-in (5 day) and experimental phases (21-day normoxic bed rest (NBR), hypoxic bed rest (HBR) and hypoxic ambulation (HAmb) in a strictly controlled laboratory environment, with balanced fluid and dietary intakes, controlled circadian rhythm, microbial ambiental burden and 24/7 medical surveillance. The fraction of inspired O2 (FiO2) and partial pressure of inspired O2 (PiO2) were 0.209 and 133...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207469/eating-at-food-outlets-and-on-the-go-is-associated-with-less-healthy-food-choices-in-adults-cross-sectional-data-from-the-uk-national-diet-and-nutrition-survey-rolling-programme-2008-2014
#8
Nida Ziauddeen, Eva Almiron-Roig, Tarra L Penney, Sonja Nicholson, Sara F L Kirk, Polly Page
Eating location has been linked with variations in diet quality including the consumption of low-nutrient energy-dense food, which is a recognised risk factor for obesity. Cross-sectional data from 4736 adults aged 19 years and over from Years 1-6 of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) Rolling Programme (RP) (2008-2014) were used to explore food consumption patterns by eating location. Eating location was categorized as home, work, leisure places, food outlets and "on the go". Foods were classified into two groups: core (included in the principal food groups and considered important/acceptable within a healthy diet) and non-core (all other foods)...
December 2, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206982/measures-and-metrics-of-sustainable-diets-with-a-focus-on-milk-yogurt-and-dairy-products
#9
Adam Drewnowski
The 4 domains of sustainable diets are nutrition, economics, society, and the environment. To be sustainable, foods and food patterns need to be nutrient-rich, affordable, culturally acceptable, and sparing of natural resources and the environment. Each sustainability domain has its own measures and metrics. Nutrient density of foods has been assessed through nutrient profiling models, such as the Nutrient-Rich Foods family of scores. The Food Affordability Index, applied to different food groups, has measured both calories and nutrients per penny (kcal/$)...
December 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203178/fruit-flies-may-face-a-nutrient-dependent-life-history-trade-off-between-secondary-sexual-trait-quality-survival-and-developmental-rate
#10
Lindsey J Gray, Stephen J Simpson, Michal Polak
Optimal life-history strategies are those that best allocate finite environmental resources to competing traits. We used the geometric framework for nutrition to evaluate life-history strategies followed by Drosophila melanogaster by measuring the condition-dependent performance of life-history traits, including the morphology of male secondary sexual characters, sex combs. We found that depending on their rearing environment flies faced different forms of trait trade-offs and accordingly followed different life-history strategies...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199488/which-dietary-patterns-are-more-likely-to-be-associated-with-aspects-of-eco-sustainable-food-behaviours-in-italy
#11
Maria Luisa Scalvedi, Aida Turrini, Anna Saba
Sustainable food consumption (SFC) policies need further investigation into eating habits to improve interventions to encourage shifting to new consumption patterns respectful of human rights, environment and health. Reversing the usual approach focussed on sustainable consumer, the present study investigates how different eating patterns relate to eco-sustainable food. A cluster analysis was carried out on consumption frequencies of food groups recorded in an Italian national survey on 3004 respondents, providing four eating habit segments, further investigated as for sustainable food attitude and behaviour...
December 4, 2017: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197759/source-identification-of-human-exposure-to-lead-in-nine-cree-nations-from-quebec-canada-eeyou-istchee-territory
#12
Eric N Liberda, Leonard J S Tsuji, Ian D Martin, Pierre Ayotte, Elizabeth Robinson, Eric Dewailly, Evert Nieboer
While policies to decrease lead in the environment have been implemented to reduce human exposure to various lead sources, the use of lead ammunition to harvest wild game may continue to contribute significantly to human blood lead levels (BLLs). As part of a multi-community environment-and-health study, BLLs representing all age groups were evaluated in the nine Cree Nations located in the James and Hudson Bay regions of Quebec, Canada. Personal, market food, traditional food and 24-h recall questionnaires were administered...
November 30, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196920/probiotic-bacillus-coagulans-gbi-30-6086-improves-protein-absorption-and-utilization
#13
Ralf Jäger, Martin Purpura, Sean Farmer, Howard A Cash, David Keller
Probiotics offer numerous health benefits, including digestive and immune health. Improved digestive health is linked to a more efficient absorption of important nutrients from our diet. This review focused on the rationale of using the probiotic Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 to aid protein absorption and utilization. B. coagulans GBI-30, 6086 can withstand the acidic environment of the stomach to reach the intestine where it germinates. Once active in the small intestine after germination, it has been shown to aid the digestion of carbohydrates and proteins...
December 1, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194402/nutrition-in-the-first-1000-days-ten-practices-to-minimize-obesity-emerging-from-published-science
#14
Angelo Pietrobelli, Massimo Agosti
The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity has increased in most countries the last decades. Considering this in a simplistic way, we can say that obesity is the result of an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. Moreover, the environment from conception to childhood could influence the child's future health. The first 1000 days of life start with woman's pregnancy, and offer a unique window of opportunity to contribute to obesity prevention. In light of the actual literature, the aim of our article is to discuss a proposal of 10 good practices to minimize obesity in the first 1000 days emerging from published science...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190665/distinctness-of-brazilian-common-bean-cultivars-with-carioca-and-black-grain-by-means-of-morphoagronomic-and-molecular-descriptors
#15
Jessica Delfini, Vânia Moda-Cirino, Claudete de Fátima Ruas, José Dos Santos Neto, Paulo Maurício Ruas, Juliana Sawada Buratto, Eduardo Augusto Ruas, Leandro Simões Azeredo Gonçalves
Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is one of the most important legumes for human consumption and is a staple food in the diet of the population of some countries of Latin America, Africa and Asia. The distinction between cultivars is based predominantly on morphological descriptors, which proved inefficient for the differentiation of some cultivars. This study had the objective of describing, distinguishing and evaluating the agronomic potential of 39 common bean cultivars of the carioca and black grain groups registered for cultivation in Brazil, based on 49 morphoagronomic descriptors and microsatellite (simple sequence repeat -SSR) markers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190664/a-systematic-review-of-zoonotic-enteric-parasitic-diseases-among-nomadic-and-pastoral-people
#16
Amber N Barnes, Anu Davaasuren, Uyanga Baasandagva, Gregory C Gray
INTRODUCTION: Zoonotic enteric parasites are ubiquitous and remain a public health threat to humans due to our close relationship with domestic animals and wildlife, inadequate water, sanitation, and hygiene practices and diet. While most communities are now sedentary, nomadic and pastoral populations still exist and experience unique exposure risks for acquiring zoonotic enteric parasites. Through this systematic review we sought to summarize published research regarding pathogens present in nomadic populations and to identify the risk factors for their infection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190662/using-systems-science-to-understand-the-determinants-of-inequities-in-healthy-eating
#17
Sharon Friel, Melanie Pescud, Eleanor Malbon, Amanda Lee, Robert Carter, Joanne Greenfield, Megan Cobcroft, Jane Potter, Lucie Rychetnik, Beth Meertens
INTRODUCTION: Systems thinking has emerged in recent years as a promising approach to understanding and acting on the prevention and amelioration of non-communicable disease. However, the evidence on inequities in non-communicable diseases and their risks factors, particularly diet, has not been examined from a systems perspective. We report on an approach to developing a system oriented policy actor perspective on the multiple causes of inequities in healthy eating. METHODS: Collaborative conceptual modelling workshops were held in 2015 with an expert group of representatives from government, non-government health organisations and academia in Australia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190090/external-exposure-to-short-and-medium-chain-chlorinated-paraffins-for-the-general-population-in-beijing-china
#18
Wei Gao, Dandan Cao, Yingjun Wang, Jing Wu, Ying Wang, Yawei Wang, Guibin Jiang
Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are a class of compounds that are currently produced and used in large amounts in commercial products worldwide. In this study, food, indoor air, indoor dust and drinking water samples were collected to evaluate the external exposure levels of CPs and possible pathway for the general population in Beijing, China. Short chain CPs (SCCPs) and medium chain CPs (MCCPs) in 199 samples were analyzed using a gas chromatography tandem time-of-flight high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC - TOF - HR -MS) method...
November 30, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188819/colonic-bacteroides-are-positively-associated-with-trabecular-bone-structure-and-programmed-by-maternal-vitamin-d-in-male-but-not-female-offspring-in-an-obesogenic-environment
#19
C R Villa, A Taibi, J Chen, W E Ward, E M Comelli
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The gut microbiota is determined early in life, possibly including pregnancy. Pioneering data suggests vitamin D, a nutrient important for bone health, affects this microbiota. We found that high maternal vitamin D lowered circulating lipopolysaccharide, improved intestinal barrier and bone health in male but not female offspring in an obesogenic environment. This study determined if high maternal dietary vitamin D programs Bacteroides and Prevotella and whether this associates with bone mineral content, density and structure of male and female adult offspring fed an obesogenic diet...
November 30, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187673/dietary-interventions-to-prevent-and-manage-diabetes-in-worksite-settings-a-meta-analysis
#20
Archana Shrestha, Biraj Man Karmacharya, Polyna Khudyakov, Mary Beth Weber, Donna Spiegelman
OBJECTIVES: The translation of lifestyle intervention to improve glucose tolerance into the workplace has been rare. The objective of this meta-analysis is to summarize the evidence for the effectiveness of dietary interventions in worksite settings on lowering blood sugar levels. METHODS: We searched for studies in PubMed, Embase, Econlit, Ovid, Cochrane, Web of Science, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. Search terms were as follows: (1) Exposure-based: nutrition/diet/dietary intervention/health promotion/primary prevention/health behavior/health education/food /program evaluation; (2) Outcome-based: diabetes/ hyperglycemia/glucose/HbA1c/glycated hemoglobin; and (3) Setting-based: workplace/ worksite/occupational/industry/job/employee...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Occupational Health
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