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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471499/mineral-content-of-eggs-differs-with-hen-strain-age-and-rearing-environment
#1
Laura E Heflin, Ramon Malheiros, Kenneth E Anderson, LuAnn K Johnson, Susan K Raatz
Egg nutrient quality is strongly influenced by hen diet but is also affected by rearing environment, hen strain, and hen age. The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of: 1) conventional battery cages, 2) enrichable cage systems, 3) enriched colony housing, 4) cage-free, and 5) free-range rearing systems on mineral concentrations of whole, dried egg (yolk and albumen combined) from TA Tetra White (TW) and Hy-Line Brown (HB) hens at 44, 68, and 88 wk of age. We hypothesized that mineral concentration of eggs would differ among rearing systems but not between strains or with hen age...
February 16, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471014/epigenomic-drugs-and-the-germline-collateral-damage-in-the-home-of-heritability
#2
REVIEW
Patrick S Western
The testis and ovary provide specialised environments that nurture germ cells and facilitate their maturation, culminating in the production of mature gametes that can found the following generation. The sperm and egg not only transmit genetic information, but also epigenetic modifications that affect the development and physiology of offspring. Importantly, the epigenetic information contained in mature sperm and oocytes can be influenced by a range of environmental factors, such as diet, chemicals and drugs...
February 19, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468148/polyamines-bio-molecules-with-diverse-functions-in-plant-and-human-health-and-disease
#3
REVIEW
Avtar K Handa, Tahira Fatima, Autar K Mattoo
Biogenic amines-polyamines (PAs), particularly putrescine, spermidine and spermine are ubiquitous in all living cells. Their indispensable roles in many biochemical and physiological processes are becoming commonly known, including promoters of plant life and differential roles in human health and disease. PAs positively impact cellular functions in plants-exemplified by increasing longevity, reviving physiological memory, enhancing carbon and nitrogen resource allocation/signaling, as well as in plant development and responses to extreme environments...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457906/optimized-phenotypic-biomarker-discovery-and-confounder-elimination-via-covariate-adjusted-projection-to-latent-structures-from-metabolic-spectroscopy-data
#4
Joram M Posma, Isabel Garcia-Perez, Timothy M D Ebbels, John C Lindon, Jeremiah Stamler, Paul Elliott, Elaine Holmes, Jeremy K Nicholson
Metabolism is altered by genetics, diet, disease status, environment and many other factors. Modelling either one of these is often done without considering the effects of the other covariates. Attributing differences in metabolic profile to one of these factors needs to be done while controlling for the metabolic influence of the rest. We describe here a data analysis framework and novel confounder-adjustment algorithm for multivariate analysis of metabolic profiling data. Using simulated data we show that similar numbers of true associations and significantly less false positives are found compared to other commonly used methods...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457204/prevention-and-management-of-childhood-obesity
#5
Aashima Dabas, Anju Seth
Childhood obesity has been recognized as a global pandemic. Preventive strategies have proven to be the most effective public health intervention in curbing this pandemic. A multi-component approach involving dietary modification and advocacy for a healthy lifestyle comprising of regular physical activity, minimizing screen time and behavioral interventions have been found beneficial in preventing obesity. A life-cycle approach has been recommended where preventive interventions go as far back as affecting maternal, fetal and early childhood nutrition and lifestyle...
February 19, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454077/a-prospective-investigation-of-neighborhood-socioeconomic-deprivation-and-physical-activity-and-sedentary-behavior-in-older-adults
#6
Qian Xiao, Sarah K Keadle, David Berrigan, Charles E Matthews
Neighborhood conditions may have an important impact on physical activity and sedentary behaviors in the older population. Most previous studies in this area are cross-sectional and report mixed findings regarding the effects of neighborhood environment on different types of physical activity. Moreover, little is known about the prospective relationship between neighborhood environment and sedentary behaviors. Our analysis included 136,526 participants from the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study (age 51-70). Neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation was measured with an index based on census variables and developed using principal component analysis...
February 14, 2018: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454067/considering-our-methods-methodological-issues-with-rodent-models-of-appetite-and-obesity-research
#7
Thomas A Lutz
A large number of animal models are currently used in appetite and obesity research. Because the worldwide incidence of obesity continues to climb, it is imperative that animal models sharing characteristics of human obesity and its co-morbidities be used appropriately in the quest for novel preventions or treatments. There is probably no animal model, at least in rodents, that recapitulates all aspects of "common" human obesity and its comorbidities, but rodent models allow insight into specific mechanisms of disease or its consequences...
February 14, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453266/the-gills-of-reef-fish-support-a-distinct-microbiome-influenced-by-host-specific-factors
#8
Zoe A Pratte, Marc Besson, Rebecca D Hollman, Frank J Stewart
Teleost fish represent the most diverse of the vertebrate groups and play important roles in food webs, as ecosystem engineers, and as vectors for microorganisms. However, the microbial ecology of fishes remains underexplored for most host taxa, and for certain niches on the fish body. This is particularly true for the gills, the key sites for respiration and waste exchange in fishes. Here, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the gill microbiome. We focus on ecologically diverse taxa from coral reefs around Moorea, sampling the gill and intestines of adults and juveniles representing 15 families...
February 16, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452584/high-phosphorus-intake-and-gut-related-parameters-results-of-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-human-intervention-study
#9
Ulrike Trautvetter, Amélia Camarinha-Silva, Gerhard Jahreis, Stefan Lorkowski, Michael Glei
BACKGROUND: In recent years, high phosphate intakes were discussed critically. In the small intestine, a part of the ingested phosphate and calcium precipitates to amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), which in turn can precipitate other intestinal substances, thus leading to a beneficial modulation of the intestinal environment. Therefore, we analysed faecal samples obtained from a human intervention study regarding gut-related parameters. METHODS: Sixty-two healthy subjects (men, n = 30; women, n = 32) completed the double-blind, placebo-controlled and parallel designed study (mean age: 29 ± 7 years; mean BMI: 24 ± 3 kg/m 2 )...
February 16, 2018: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450659/social-factors-in-the-development-of-chronic-rhinosinusitis-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
I Geramas, D Terzakis, E Hatzimanolis, C Georgalas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In an era where prevention is paramount, understanding social factors for chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) may facilitate preventive interventions that mitigate risk factors associated with the initiation or progression of the disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Both passive and active smoking are clearly and unequivocally associated with both the incidence and the severity of rhinosinusitis, while there an increasing body of evidence linking social deprivation and low socioeconomic status with rhinosinusitis and its complications...
February 16, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449838/the-divergence-in-bacterial-components-associated-with-bactrocera-dorsalis-across-developmental-stages
#11
Xiaofeng Zhao, Xiaoyu Zhang, Zhenshi Chen, Zhen Wang, Yongyue Lu, Daifeng Cheng
Eco-evolutionary dynamics of microbiotas at the macroscale level are largely driven by ecological variables. The diet and living environment of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis , diversify during development, providing a natural system to explore convergence, divergence, and repeatability in patterns of microbiota dynamics as a function of the host diet, phylogeny, and environment. Here, we characterized the microbiotas of 47 B. dorsalis individuals from three distinct populations by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448127/trophic-transfer-potential-of-two-different-crystalline-phases-of-tio-2-nps-from-chlorella-sp-to-ceriodaphnia-dubia
#12
V Iswarya, M Bhuvaneshwari, N Chandrasekaran, Amitava Mukherjee
Owing to the increase in the usage of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 NPs), their release into the aquatic environment is inevitable. In the aquatic ecosystem, TiO 2 NPs can bio-magnify at various trophic levels in the food chain through dietary exposure. In the current study, the trophic transfer potential of two crystalline phases of TiO 2, anatase and rutile nanoparticles (individual as well as a binary mixture) has been evaluated in the lake water matrix using algae-daphnia system. Chlorella sp. and Ceriodaphnia dubia were used as test organisms to represent the algae-daphnia food chain of the freshwater ecosystem...
February 7, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447203/quantification-of-fetal-organ-volume-and-fat-deposition-following-in-utero-exposure-to-maternal-western-diet-using-mri
#13
Kevin J Sinclair, Lanette J Friesen-Waldner, Colin M McCurdy, Curtis N Wiens, Trevor P Wade, Barbra de Vrijer, Timothy R H Regnault, Charles A McKenzie
PURPOSE: To examine the feasibility of using MRI to identify differences in liver size and fat deposition in fetal guinea pigs exposed to an in utero environment influenced by maternal consumption of a Western diet. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Female guinea pigs fed either an energy-dense Western Diet (WD), comprised of increased saturated fats and simple sugars, or a Control Diet (CD) from weaning through pregnancy, underwent MR scanning near term (~ 60 days; term ~ 69 days)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446460/a-multivariate-ecogeographic-analysis-of-macaque-craniodental-variation
#14
Nicole D S Grunstra, Philipp Mitteroecker, Robert A Foley
OBJECTIVES: To infer the ecogeographic conditions that underlie the evolutionary diversification of macaques, we investigated the within- and between-species relationships of craniodental dimensions, geography, and environment in extant macaque species. We studied evolutionary processes by contrasting macroevolutionary patterns, phylogeny, and within-species associations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-three linear measurements of the permanent dentition and skull along with data about climate, ecology (environment), and spatial geography were collected for 711 specimens of 12 macaque species and analyzed by a multivariate approach...
February 15, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445375/the-role-of-cytochromes-p450-in-infection
#15
REVIEW
Elisavet Stavropoulou, Gratiela G Pircalabioru, Eugenia Bezirtzoglou
Cytochromes are expressed in many different tissues of the human body. They are found mostly in intestinal and hepatic tissues. Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are enzymes that oxidize substances using iron and are able to metabolize a large variety of xenobiotic substances. CYP enzymes are linked to a wide array of reactions including and O-dealkylation, S-oxidation, epoxidation, and hydroxylation. The activity of the typical P450 cytochrome is influenced by a variety of factors, such as genus, environment, disease state, herbicide, alcohol, and herbal medications...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444673/effect-of-tt-farnesol-and-myricetin-on-in-vitro-biofilm-formed-by-streptococcus-mutans-and-candida-albicans
#16
Guilherme Roncari Rocha, Elkin Jahir Florez Salamanca, Ana Letícia de Barros, Carmélia Isabel Vitorino Lobo, Marlise Inêz Klein
BACKGROUND: Dental caries is considered a multifactorial disease, in which microorganisms play an important role. The diet is decisive in the biofilm formation because it provides the necessary resources for cellular growth and exopolysaccharides synthesis. Exopolysaccharides are the main components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). The ECM provides a 3D structure, support for the microorganisms and form diffusion-limited environments (acidic niches) that cause demineralization of the dental enamel...
February 14, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444098/integrating-nutrient-bioavailability-and-co-production-links-when-identifying-sustainable-diets-how-low-should-we-reduce-meat-consumption
#17
Tangui Barré, Marlène Perignon, Rozenn Gazan, Florent Vieux, Valérie Micard, Marie-Josèphe Amiot, Nicole Darmon
BACKGROUND: Reducing the consumption of meat and other animal-based products is widely advocated to improve the sustainability of diets in high-income countries. However, such reduction may impair nutritional adequacy, since the bioavailability of key nutrients is higher when they come from animal- vs plant-based foods. Meat reduction may also affect the balance between foods co-produced within the same animal production system. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess the impact of introducing nutrient bioavailability and co-production links considerations on the dietary changes needed - especially regarding meat ‒ to improve diet sustainability...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438838/selenium-distribution-in-the-chinese-environment-and-its-relationship-with-human-health-a-review
#18
REVIEW
Quang Toan Dinh, Zewei Cui, Jie Huang, Thi Anh Thu Tran, Dan Wang, Wenxiao Yang, Fei Zhou, Mengke Wang, Dasong Yu, Dongli Liang
This paper reviewed the Se in the environment (including total Se in soil, water, plants, and food), the daily Se intake and Se content in human hair were also examined to elucidate Se distribution in the environment and its effects on human health in China. Approximately 51% of China is Se deficiency in soil, compared with 72% in the survey conducted in 1989. Low Se concentrations in soil, water, plants, human diet and thus human hair were found in most areas of China. The only significant difference was observed between Se-rich and Se-excessive areas for Se contents in water, staple cereal, vegetables, fruits, and animal-based food, no remarkable contrast was found among other areas (p>0...
February 9, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438518/obesity-and-high-fat-diet-induce-distinct-changes-in-placental-gene-expression-and-pregnancy-outcome
#19
Erica B Mahany, Xingfa Han, Beatriz C Borges, Sanseray da Silveira Cruz-Machado, Susan J Allen, David Garcia-Galiano, Mark J Hoenerhoff, Nicole H Bellefontaine, Carol F Elias
Obese women are at high risk of pregnancy complications, including preeclampsia, miscarriage, preterm birth, stillbirth and neonatal death. In the present study, we aimed to determine the effects of obesity on pregnancy outcome and placental gene expression in preclinical mouse models of genetic and nutritional obesity. The leptin receptor null reactivatable (LepRloxTB), the LepR deficient (Leprdb/+) and high fat diet (HFD) fed mice were assessed for fertility, pregnancy outcome, placental morphology and placental transcriptome using standard qPCR and qPCR arrays...
February 9, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437870/cpt2-downregulation-adapts-hcc-to-lipid-rich-environment-and-promotes-carcinogenesis-via-acylcarnitine-accumulation-in-obesity
#20
Naoto Fujiwara, Hayato Nakagawa, Kenichiro Enooku, Yotaro Kudo, Yuki Hayata, Takuma Nakatsuka, Yasuo Tanaka, Ryosuke Tateishi, Yohko Hikiba, Kento Misumi, Mariko Tanaka, Akimasa Hayashi, Junji Shibahara, Masashi Fukayama, Junichi Arita, Kiyoshi Hasegawa, Hadassa Hirschfield, Yujin Hoshida, Yoshihiro Hirata, Motoyuki Otsuka, Keisuke Tateishi, Kazuhiko Koike
OBJECTIVE: Metabolic reprogramming of tumour cells that allows for adaptation to their local environment is a hallmark of cancer. Interestingly, obesity-driven and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)-driven hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) mouse models commonly exhibit strong steatosis in tumour cells as seen in human steatohepatitic HCC (SH-HCC), which may reflect a characteristic metabolic alteration. DESIGN: Non-tumour and HCC tissues obtained from diethylnitrosamine-injected mice fed either a normal or a high-fat diet (HFD) were subjected to comprehensive metabolome analysis, and the significance of obesity-mediated metabolic alteration in hepatocarcinogenesis was evaluated...
February 6, 2018: Gut
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