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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677509/beyond-host-defense-emerging-functions-of-the-immune-system-in-regulating-complex-tissue-physiology
#1
REVIEW
Lucille C Rankin, David Artis
The essential roles played by the immune system in the discrimination between self- versus non/altered-self and its integral role in promoting host defense against invading microbes and tumors have been extensively studied for many years. In these contexts, significant advances have been made in defining the molecular and cellular networks that orchestrate cell-cell communication to mediate host defense and pathogen expulsion. Notably, recent studies indicate that in addition to these classical immune functions, cells of the innate and adaptive immune system also sense complex tissue- and environment-derived signals, including those from the nervous system and the diet...
April 19, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674211/pcbs-high-fat-diet-interactions-as-mediators-of-gut-microbiota-dysbiosis-and-abdominal-fat-accumulation-in-female-mice
#2
Yulang Chi, Yi Lin, Huimin Zhu, Qiansheng Huang, Guozhu Ye, Sijun Dong
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), one type of lipophilic pollutant, are ubiquitous in daily life. PCBs exposure has been implicated in the alterations of gut microbial community which is profoundly associated with diverse metabolic disorders, including obesity. High-fat diet (H) is a dietary pattern characterized by a high percentage of fat. According to the theory that similarities can be easily solvable in each other, PCBs and H exposures are inevitably and objectively coexistent in a real living environment, prompting great concerns about their individual and combined effects on hosts...
April 16, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672684/social-media-and-health-information-sharing-among-australian-indigenous-people
#3
Marita Hefler, Vicki Kerrigan, Joanna Henryks, Becky Freeman, David P Thomas
Despite the enormous potential of social media for health promotion, there is an inadequate evidence base for how they can be used effectively to influence behaviour. In Australia, research suggests social media use is higher among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people than the general Australian population; however, health promoters need a better understanding of who uses technologies, how and why. This qualitative study investigates what types of health content are being shared among Aboriginal and Torres Strait people through social media networks, as well as how people engage with, and are influenced by, health-related information in their offline life...
April 17, 2018: Health Promotion International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670469/dietary-n-3-pufa-may-attenuate-experimental-colitis
#4
Cloé Charpentier, Ronald Chan, Emmeline Salameh, Khaly Mbodji, Aito Ueno, Moïse Coëffier, Charlène Guérin, Subrata Ghosh, Guillaume Savoye, Rachel Marion-Letellier
Background: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) occurred in genetically predisposed people exposed to environmental triggers. Diet has long been suspected to contribute to the development of IBD. Supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) protects against intestinal inflammation in rodent models while clinical trials showed no benefits. We hypothesized that intervention timing is crucial and dietary fatty acid pattern may influence intestinal environment to modify inflammation genesis...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669534/long-term-effects-of-comprehensive-school-health-on-health-related-knowledge-attitudes-self-efficacy-health-behaviours-and-weight-status-of-adolescents
#5
Nicole Naadu Ofosu, John Paul Ekwaru, Kerry Ann Bastian, Sarah A Loehr, Kate Storey, John C Spence, Paul J Veugelers
BACKGROUND: APPLE Schools is a Comprehensive School Health (CSH) project, started in schools in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas where dietary habits are poor, physical activity (PA) levels are low, and obesity rates are high. Earlier research showed program effects whereby energy intake, PA and weight status of students in APPLE Schools had reached similar levels as that of students in other schools. However, it is unknown whether the effects of CSH are sustained when children grow into adolescents...
April 18, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669130/distinct-patterns-of-selection-in-selenium-dependent-genes-between-land-and-aquatic-vertebrates
#6
Gaurab K Sarangi, Frédéric Romagné, Sergi Castellano
Selenium (Se), a sparse element on earth, is an essential micronutrient in the vertebrate diet and its intake depends on its content in soils and waters worldwide. Selenium is required due to its function in selenoproteins, which contain selenocysteine (Sec), the 21st amino acid in the genetic code, as one of their constituent residues. Selenocysteine is analogous to the amino acid cysteine (Cys), which uses the abounding element sulfur instead. Despite the irregular distribution of Se worldwide, its distinct biochemical properties have made the substitution of Sec for Cys rare in vertebrate proteins...
April 14, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668682/biogeography-and-environmental-conditions-shape-bacteriophage-bacteria-networks-across-the-human-microbiome
#7
Geoffrey D Hannigan, Melissa B Duhaime, Danai Koutra, Patrick D Schloss
Viruses and bacteria are critical components of the human microbiome and play important roles in health and disease. Most previous work has relied on studying bacteria and viruses independently, thereby reducing them to two separate communities. Such approaches are unable to capture how these microbial communities interact, such as through processes that maintain community robustness or allow phage-host populations to co-evolve. We implemented a network-based analytical approach to describe phage-bacteria network diversity throughout the human body...
April 18, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668043/folate-deficiency-increases-chromosomal-damage-and-mutations-in-hematopoietic-cells-in-the-transgenic-mutamouse-model
#8
Danielle P LeBlanc, Nathalie A Behan, Jason M O'Brien, Francesco Marchetti, Amanda J MacFarlane
Folate deficiency causes megaloblastic anemia and neural tube defects, and is also associated with some cancers. In vitro, folate deficiency increases mutation frequency and genome instability, as well as exacerbates the mutagenic potential of known environmental mutagens. Conversely, it remains unclear whether or not elevated folic acid (FA) intakes are beneficial or detrimental to the induction of DNA mutations and by proxy human health. We used the MutaMouse transgenic model to examine the in vivo effects of FA deficient, control, and supplemented diets on somatic DNA mutant frequency (MF) and genome instability in hematopoietic cells...
April 18, 2018: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667562/caregiver-perceptions-of-a-fruit-and-vegetable-prescription-programme-for-low-income-paediatric-patients
#9
Amy Saxe-Custack, Heather Claire Lofton, Mona Hanna-Attisha, Colleen Victor, Gwendolyn Reyes, Tiffany Ceja, Jenny LaChance
OBJECTIVE: The physical and social environments that surround children should support good health. However, challenges with food security and access prevent many children from consuming a healthy diet, which is critical to proper growth and development. The present study sought to gain a better understanding of primary care initiatives to address these issues in a low-income setting. DESIGN: Following the relocation of a paediatric clinic to a farmers' market building and the implementation of a fruit and vegetable prescription programme, researchers conducted thirty-two semi-structured interviews with caregivers...
April 18, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666861/lactoferrin-preserves-bone-homeostasis-by-regulating-the-rankl-rank-opg-pathway-of-osteoimmunology
#10
Fengjiao Fan, Pujie Shi, Meng Liu, Hui Chen, Maolin Tu, Weihong Lu, Ming Du
Osteoporosis can be classified as an inflammatory disease and the crosstalk between the immune system and bone growth should be considered. The effects of bovine lactoferrin on bone by osteoimmunology were investigated in the present study. Ten week old female BALB/c mice were ovariectomized (OVX) and fed for 12 weeks with a control diet or lactoferrin (2, 20 and 100 mg kg-1 d-1). The results showed that following 12 weeks of treatment after surgery, OVX resulted in bone loss, but treatment with lactoferrin preserved bone homeostasis...
April 18, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666451/exploring-the-extent-and-scope-of-epigenetic-inheritance
#11
REVIEW
Elizabeth J Radford
Environmental factors, particularly during early life, are important for the later metabolic health of the individual. In our obesogenic environment, it is of major socio-economic importance to investigate the mechanisms that contribute to the risk of metabolic ill health. Increasing evidence from a variety of model organisms suggests that non-genetically determined phenotypes, including metabolic effects such as glucose intolerance and obesity, can be passed between generations, which encourages us to revisit heredity...
April 17, 2018: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666197/linking-developmental-diet-to-adult-foraging-choice-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#12
Lucy Rebecca Davies, Mads F Schou, Torsten N Kristensen, Volker Loeschcke
Rather than maximizing intake of available macronutrients, insects increase intake of some nutrients and restrict intake of others. This selective consumption influences, and potentially optimizes developmental time, reproduction and lifespan of the organism. Studies so far have focused on discriminating between protein and carbohydrate and the consequences on fitness components at different life stages. However, it is largely unknown if and how the developmental diets, which may entail habitat specific nutrient restrictions, affect the selective consumption of adults...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662017/use-of-unpalatable-forages-by-ruminants-the-influence-of-experience-with-the-biophysical-and-social-environment
#13
REVIEW
Roberto A Distel, Juan J Villalba
Unpalatable forage resources (low nutrient density, potentially toxic metabolites) are widespread and represent a challenge for ruminant nutrition, health, and welfare. Our objective was to synthesize the role of biophysical and social experience on the use of unpalatable forages by ruminants, and highlight derived behavioural solutions for the well-being of soils, plants, and animals. Environmental experiences early in life modulate gene expression and promote learning, which alters morpho-physiological and psychological mechanisms that modify behavioural responses and change food and habitat selection...
April 14, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660339/glut5-increases-fructose-utilization-and-promotes-tumor-progression-in-glioma
#14
Chunhai Su, Hui Li, Wenbo Gao
Fructose is now such an important component of human diets, and several studies have found that some cancer cells could utilize fructose to overcome low glucose micro-environment, but the study on the role of fructose in glioma is rare. To explore the role of fructose in glioma, we detected the proliferation and colony formation ability of glioma cells in fructose medium, and found that the abilities of proliferation and colony formation of glioma cells in fructose medium were similar with abilities in glucose medium, however, fructose just partly restored proliferation ability of normal glial cells...
April 13, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659658/effect-of-dietary-fat-intake-and-genetics-on-fat-taste-sensitivity-a-co-twin-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Andrew Costanzo, Caryl Nowson, Liliana Orellana, Dieuwerke Bolhuis, Konsta Duesing, Russell Keast
Background: Individuals with impaired fat taste (FT) sensitivity have reduced satiety responses after consuming fatty foods, leading to increased dietary fat intake. Habitual consumption of dietary fat may modulate sensitivity to FT, with high consumption decreasing sensitivity [increasing fatty acid taste threshold (FATT)] and low consumption increasing sensitivity (decreasing FATT). However, some individuals may be less susceptible to diet-mediated changes in FATT due to variations in gene expression...
April 6, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652828/can-a-simple-dietary-index-derived-from-a-sub-set-of-questionnaire-items-assess-diet-quality-in-a-sample-of-australian-adults
#16
Alexia Bivoltsis, Georgina S A Trapp, Matthew Knuiman, Paula Hooper, Gina L Ambrosini
Large, longitudinal surveys often lack consistent dietary data, limiting the use of existing tools and methods that are available to measure diet quality. This study describes a method that was used to develop a simple index for ranking individuals according to their diet quality in a longitudinal study. The RESIDential Environments (RESIDE) project (2004-2011) collected dietary data in varying detail, across four time points. The most detailed dietary data were collected using a 24-item questionnaire at the final time point ( n = 555; age ≥ 25 years)...
April 13, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644717/diets-of-reef-dwelling-labrids-choerodon-species-vary-with-body-size-season-and-habitat-influence-of-foraging-ability-specialization-and-opportunism
#17
E Lek, M E Platell, D V Fairclough, N G Hall, I C Potter
Contemporary multivariate statistics were used to test the hypotheses that the dietary compositions of three populations of labrids on the west Australian coast are related to body size and undergo seasonal changes and to elucidate the relative extents and basis for any dietary differences within and between those populations. Gut content analyses determined the dietary compositions of Choerodon rubescens in marine waters of the outer reefs in the World Heritage Area of Shark Bay (26° S; 114° E) and of Choerodon schoenleinii in inner protected reefs of that large embayment...
April 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643271/japan-diet-intake-changes-serum-phospholipid-fatty-acid-compositions-in-middle-aged-men-a-pilot-study
#18
Yuri Shijo, Chizuko Maruyama, Eri Nakamura, Rena Nakano, Mitsuha Shima, Asumi Mae, Yuuna Okabe, Sunmi Park, Noriko Kameyama, Satomi Hirai
AIM: The Japan Diet nutritional education program effects on serum fatty acid compositions for prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in middle-aged men brought up in the westernized dietary environment of modern Japan were examined. METHODS: Thirty-three men, 30-49 years of age, attended a nutrition education class and were recommended to consume Japan Diet volumes (more fish, soybeans and soy products, vegetables, seaweed, konjak, mushrooms, and unrefined cereals and less animal fat, meat and poultry with fat, sweets, desserts and snacks, and alcoholic drinks) for 6 weeks...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642965/host-symbiont-pathogen-interactions-in-blood-feeding-parasites-nutrition-immune-cross-talk-and-gene-exchange
#19
Filip Husnik
Animals are common hosts of mutualistic, commensal and pathogenic microorganisms. Blood-feeding parasites feed on a diet that is nutritionally unbalanced and thus often rely on symbionts to supplement essential nutrients. However, they are also of medical importance as they can be infected by pathogens such as bacteria, protists or viruses that take advantage of the blood-feeding nutritional strategy for own transmission. Since blood-feeding evolved multiple times independently in diverse animals, it showcases a gradient of host-microbe interactions...
April 12, 2018: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627343/omega-3-fatty-acids-membrane-remodeling-and-cancer-prevention
#20
REVIEW
Natividad R Fuentes, Eunjoo Kim, Yang-Yi Fan, Robert S Chapkin
Proteins are often credited as the macromolecule responsible for performing critical cellular functions, however lipids have recently garnered more attention as our understanding of their role in cell function and human health becomes more apparent. Although cellular membranes are the lipid environment in which many proteins function, it is now apparent that protein and lipid assemblies can be organized to form distinct micro- or nanodomains that facilitate signaling events. Indeed, it is now appreciated that cellular function is partly regulated by the specific spatiotemporal lipid composition of the membrane, down to the nanosecond and nanometer scale...
April 5, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
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