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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634113/vitamin-d3-supplementation-attenuates-the-early-stage-of-mouse-hepatocarcinogenesis-promoted-by-hexachlorobenzene-fungicide
#1
Guilherme R Romualdo, Renata L Goto, Ana A H Fernandes, Bruno Cogliati, Luis F Barbisan
Hexachlorobezene (HCB), a fungicide widely distributed in the environment, promotes the development of hepatocellular preneoplastic lesions (PNL) and tumors in rodents. In contrast, vitamin D3 (VD3) supplementation presents a potential role for the prevention/treatment of chronic liver diseases. Thus, we investigated whether VD3 supplementation attenuates the early stage of HCB-promoted hepatocarcinogenesis. Female Balb/C mice were injected a single dose of diethylnitrosamine (DEN, 50 mg/kg) at postnatal day 15...
June 17, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632162/beyond-food-access-the-impact-of-parent-home-and-neighborhood-level-factors-on-children-s-diets
#2
Lauren Futrell Dunaway, Thomas Carton, Ping Ma, Adrienne R Mundorf, Kelsey Keel, Katherine P Theall
Despite the growth in empirical research on neighborhood environmental characteristics and their influence on children's diets, physical activity, and obesity, much remains to be learned, as few have examined the relationship between neighborhood food availability on dietary behavior in children, specifically. This analysis utilized data from a community-based, cross-sectional sample of children (n = 199) that was collected in New Orleans, Louisiana, in 2010. This dataset was linked to food environment data to assess the impact of neighborhood food access as well as household and parent factors on children's diets...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630635/effect-of-abnormal-savda-munziq-a-traditional-uighur-herbal-medicine-on-pulmonary-function-and-aquaporins-of-copd-rat-model-with-abnormal-savda-syndrome
#3
Gao Zhen, Halmurat Upur, Wang Jing, Jing Jing, Li Zheng, Xu Dan, Li Fengsen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of abnormal savda munziq (ASM) on the pulmonary function and expression of lung-specific aquaporins in the rat model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with abnormal savda syndrome (ASSCOPD). METHODS: Eighty male rats were randomized into ASSCOPD, COPD, and control groups. ASSCOPD was further categorized into ASM and non-ASM groups. COPD model was established by combining fumigation with airway instillation of elastase; ASSCOPD model was developed based on COPD by induction with dry cold diet, cold dry environment, and plantar electric stimulation...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627418/alterations-in-neuronal-control-of-body-weight-and-anxiety-behavior-by-glutathione-peroxidase-4-deficiency
#4
Sonja C Schriever, Annemarie Zimprich, Katrin Pfuhlmann, Peter Baumann, Florian Giesert, Valentina Klaus, Dhiraj G Kabra, Ulrich Hafen, Artem Romanov, Matthias H Tschöp, Wolfgang Wurst, Marcus Conrad, Sabine M Hölter, Daniela Vogt Weisenhorn, Paul T Pfluger
Elevated levels of oxidative stress and neuronal inflammation in the hypothalamus or ventral midbrain, respectively, represent common denominators for obesity and Parkinson's Disease (PD). However, little is known about defense mechanisms that protect neurons in these regions from oxidative damage. Here, we aimed to assess whether murine Gpx4, a crucial antioxidant enzyme that protects neurons from membrane damage and ferroptosis, is critical for the protection from neuronal inflammation in two distinct pathophysiologic diseases, namely metabolic dysfunction in diet-induced obesity or PD...
June 13, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627289/snap-n-send-a-valid-and-reliable-method-for-assessing-the-energy-intake-of-elite-adolescent-athletes
#5
Nessan Costello, Kevin Deighton, Joshua Dyson, Jim Mckenna, Ben Jones
To ensure that elite adolescent athletes meet their unique training, growth and maturation demands, it is imperative to have access to valid measures of energy intake. Contemporary methods demand close attention-to-detail, meaning that athletes often do not fully adhere to real-time protocols. This study represents the first investigation of a real-time dietary assessment designed using a comprehensive behaviour change framework (COM-B). In a crossover design, 12 elite adolescent male rugby players recorded their energy intake via an estimated food diary (est-FD) and photography-based mobile assessment ('Snap-n-Send'), combined with a 24-h dietary recall interview...
June 17, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625550/maternal-exposure-to-western-diet-affects-adult-body-composition-and-voluntary-wheel-running-in-a-genotype-specific-manner-in-mice
#6
Layla Hiramatsu, Jarren Kay, Zoe Thompson, Jennifer Singleton, Gerald Claghorn, Ralph Lacerda de Albuquerque, Brittany Ho, Brett Ho, Gabriela Sanchez, Theodore Garland
Some human diseases, including obesity, Type II diabetes, and numerous cancers, are thought to be influenced by environments experienced in early life, including in utero. Maternal diet during the perinatal period may be especially important for adult offspring energy balance, potentially affecting both body composition and physical activity. This effect may be mediated by the genetic background of individuals, including, for example, potential "protective" mechanisms for individuals with inherently high levels of physical activity or high basal metabolic rates...
June 15, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623287/heritability-and-responses-to-high-fat-diet-of-plasma-lipidomics-in-a-twin-study
#7
Turid Frahnow, Martin A Osterhoff, Silke Hornemann, Michael Kruse, Michal A Surma, Christian Klose, Kai Simons, Andreas F H Pfeiffer
Lipidomics have a great potential as clinical tool for monitoring metabolic changes in health and disease. Nevertheless hardly anything is known about the heritability of lipids. Therefore, it is necessary to clarify how and how much we can affect these progresses in individuals. In our interventional twin study (46 healthy, non-obese twin pairs) we investigated the lipid profile in plasma samples after switching from a low fat diet to an isocaloric high fat diet (HFD) to characterize the metabolic adaptation...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623160/basic-concepts-in-molecular-biology-related-to-genetics-and-epigenetics
#8
Dolores Corella, Jose M Ordovas
The observation that "one size does not fit all" for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease, among other diseases, has driven the concept of precision medicine. The goal of precision medicine is to provide the best-targeted interventions tailored to an individual's genome. The human genome is composed of billions of sequence arrangements containing a code that controls how genes are expressed. This code depends on other nonstatic regulators that surround the DNA and constitute the epigenome...
June 13, 2017: Revista Española de Cardiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620482/naturally-occurring-and-added-sugar-in-relation-to-macronutrient-intake-and-food-consumption-results-from-a-population-based-study-in-adults
#9
Niina E Kaartinen, Minna E Similä, Noora Kanerva, Liisa M Valsta, Kennet Harald, Satu Männistö
Associations between sugar intake and the remaining diet are poorly described in modern food environments. We aimed at exploring associations of high naturally occurring and added sugar intakes with sociodemographic characteristics, intake of macronutrients, fibre and selected food groups. Our data comprised 4842 Finnish adults aged 25-74 years, who participated in the population-based DIetary, Lifestyle and Genetic determinants of Obesity and Metabolic syndrome (DILGOM) study. Diet was assessed by a validated 131-item FFQ...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617414/obesity
#10
REVIEW
Pedro González-Muniesa, Miguel-Angel Mártinez-González, Frank B Hu, Jean-Pierre Després, Yuji Matsuzawa, Ruth J F Loos, Luis A Moreno, George A Bray, J Alfredo Martinez
Excessive fat deposition in obesity has a multifactorial aetiology, but is widely considered the result of disequilibrium between energy intake and expenditure. Despite specific public health policies and individual treatment efforts to combat the obesity epidemic, >2 billion people worldwide are overweight or obese. The central nervous system circuitry, fuel turnover and metabolism as well as adipose tissue homeostasis are important to comprehend excessive weight gain and associated comorbidities. Obesity has a profound impact on quality of life, even in seemingly healthy individuals...
June 15, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615382/factors-influencing-the-gut-microbiota-inflammation-and-type-2-diabetes
#11
REVIEW
Li Wen, Andrew Duffy
The gut microbiota is a complex community of bacteria residing in the intestine. Animal models have demonstrated that several factors contribute to and can significantly alter the composition of the gut microbiota, including genetics; the mode of delivery at birth; the method of infant feeding; the use of medications, especially antibiotics; and the diet. There may exist a gut microbiota signature that promotes intestinal inflammation and subsequent systemic low-grade inflammation, which in turn promotes the development of type 2 diabetes...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614474/-food-labeling-in-ecuador-implementation-results-and-pending-actions
#12
Adrián Alberto Díaz, Paula Mariana Veliz, Gabriela Rivas-Mariño, Carina Vance Mafla, Luz María Martínez Altamirano, Cecilia Vaca Jones
Noncommunicable diseases are the world's leading cause of death, responsible for 38 million deaths in 2012. This epidemic is primarily associated with smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, sedentary lifestyle, and changes in dietary patterns, characterized by diets high in sugar and saturated fat, typical of processed foods and sugar-sweetened beverages, plus low intake of fruits and vegetables. Ecuador is no exception to this epidemiological profile or to changes in eating patterns. Thus, Ecuador's government designed and implemented an action plan aimed at changing the obesogenic environment, which includes six strategic lines...
June 8, 2017: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612048/obesity-accelerates-alzheimer-related-pathology-in-apoe4-but-not-apoe3-mice
#13
V Alexandra Moser, Christian J Pike
Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk is modified by both genetic and environmental risk factors, which are believed to interact to cooperatively modify pathogenesis. Although numerous genetic and environmental risk factors for AD have been identified, relatively little is known about potential gene-environment interactions in regulating disease risk. The strongest genetic risk factor for late-onset AD is the ε4 allele of apolipoprotein E (APOE4). An important modifiable risk factor for AD is obesity, which has been shown to increase AD risk in humans and accelerate development of AD-related pathology in rodent models...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611031/cpt1a-missense-mutation-associated-with-fatty-acid-metabolism-and-reduced-height-in-greenlanders
#14
Line Skotte, Anders Koch, Victor Yakimov, Sirui Zhou, Bolette Søborg, Mikael Andersson, Sascha W Michelsen, Johan E Navne, Jacqueline M Mistry, Patrick A Dion, Michael L Pedersen, Malene L Børresen, Guy A Rouleau, Frank Geller, Mads Melbye, Bjarke Feenstra
BACKGROUND: Inuit have lived for thousands of years in an extremely cold environment on a diet dominated by marine-derived fat. To investigate how this selective pressure has affected the genetic regulation of fatty acid metabolism, we assessed 233 serum metabolic phenotypes in a population-based sample of 1570 Greenlanders. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using array-based and targeted genotyping, we found that rs80356779, a p.Pro479Leu variant in CPT1A, was strongly associated with markers of n-3 fatty acid metabolism, including degree of unsaturation (P=1...
June 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610575/monitoring-the-impact-of-trade-agreements-on-national-food-environments-trade-imports-and-population-nutrition-risks-in-fiji
#15
Amerita Ravuvu, Sharon Friel, Anne-Marie Thow, Wendy Snowdon, Jillian Wate
BACKGROUND: Trade agreements are increasingly recognised as playing an influential role in shaping national food environments and the availability and nutritional quality of the food supply. Global monitoring of food environments and trade policies can strengthen the evidence base for the impact of trade policy on nutrition, and support improved policy coherence. Using the INFORMAS trade monitoring protocol, we reviewed available food supply data to understand associations between Fiji's commitments under WTO trade agreements and food import volume trends...
June 13, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607563/examining-the-benefits-and-barriers-of-instructional-gardening-programs-to-increase-fruit-and-vegetable-intake-among-preschool-age-children
#16
Kristen L Davis, Lynn S Brann
Research exists on using instructional gardening programs with school age children as a means of improving dietary quality and for obesity prevention. This article examines the potential use of instructional gardens in childcare settings to improving fruit and vegetable intake in young children. A qualitative study was conducted with childcare providers. Participants (n = 20) were recruited via e-mails, letters, and follow-up phone calls. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and coded to identify themes within two areas (1) childcare providers perceptions of children's fruit and vegetable consumption and (2) components necessary to initiate or improve instructional gardening programs...
2017: Journal of Environmental and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606554/examining-the-association-between-intervention-related-changes-in-diet-physical-activity-and-weight-as-moderated-by-the-food-and-physical-activity-environments-among-rural-southern-adults
#17
Stephanie B Jilcott Pitts, Thomas C Keyserling, Larry F Johnston, Kelly R Evenson, Jared T McGuirt, Ziya Gizlice, Olivia R Whitt, Alice S Ammerman
BACKGROUND: Few studies have been conducted in rural areas assessing the influence of community-level environmental factors on residents' success improving lifestyle behaviors. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to examine whether 6-month changes in diet, physical activity, and weight were moderated by the food and physical activity environment in a rural adult population receiving an intervention designed to improve diet and physical activity. DESIGN: We examined associations between self-reported and objectively measured changes in diet, physical activity, and weight, and perceived and objectively measured food and physical activity environments...
June 9, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605685/adopting-a-dyadic-perspective-to-better-understand-the-association-between-physical-attractiveness-and-dieting-motivations-and-behaviors
#18
Tania Reynolds, Andrea L Meltzer
The relationship between women's objective physical attractiveness and their dieting motivations and behaviors may depend upon their social environment-specifically, their romantic partners' attractiveness-such that less attractive women with more attractive partners may be particularly motivated to diet. Theoretically, men's dieting motivations should not depend on their partners' attractiveness. We tested this possibility using a sample of 223 U.S. newlywed spouses. After completing measures assessing dieting motivations, each participant was photographed; we used those photographs to code spouses' objective facial and body attractiveness...
June 9, 2017: Body Image
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604810/fathers-perspectives-on-the-diets-and-physical-activity-behaviours-of-their-young-children
#19
Adam D Walsh, Kylie D Hesketh, Paige van der Pligt, Adrian J Cameron, David Crawford, Karen J Campbell
BACKGROUND: Children's learning about food and physical activity is considerable during their formative years, with parental influence pivotal. Research has focused predominantly on maternal influences with little known about the relationships between fathers' and young children's dietary and physical activity behaviours. A greater understanding of paternal beliefs regarding young children's dietary and physical activity behaviours is important to inform the design and delivery of child-focussed health promotion interventions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602521/gut-microbiota-dysbiosis-in-postweaning-piglets-understanding-the-keys-to-health
#20
REVIEW
Raphaële Gresse, Frédérique Chaucheyras-Durand, Mickaël Alain Fleury, Tom Van de Wiele, Evelyne Forano, Stéphanie Blanquet-Diot
Weaning is a critical event in the pig's life cycle, frequently associated with severe enteric infections and overuse of antibiotics; this raises serious economic and public health concerns. In this review, we explain why gut microbiota dysbiosis, induced by abrupt changes in the diet and environment of piglets, emerges as a leading cause of post-weaning diarrhea, even if the exact underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Then, we focus on nonantimicrobial alternatives, such as zinc oxide, essential oils, and prebiotics or probiotics, which are currently evaluated to restore intestinal balance and allow a better management of the crucial weaning transition...
June 8, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
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