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Candida biofilm and resistance

Ana S Oliveira, José Martinez-de-Oliveira, Gilbert G G Donders, Rita Palmeira-de-Oliveira, Ana Palmeira-de-Oliveira
As an opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida spp. has the ability to form biofilms. The most prescribed drugs for Candida infections, azoles, have shown to be less effective when biofilms are present. In addition, increasing treatment costs and the fact that most prescribed antifungal drugs have only fungistatic activity justify the search for new treatment strategies. One promising approach is third generation antidepressants, selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs), because of their proven antifungal activity against several Candida spp...
March 19, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Komathy Munusamy, Jamuna Vadivelu, Sun Tee Tay
BACKGROUND: Biofilm is known to contribute to the antifungal resistance of Candida yeasts. Aureobasidin A (AbA), a cyclic depsipeptide targeting fungal sphingolipid biosynthesis, has been shown to be effective against several Candida species. AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate Candida biofilm growth morphology, its biomass, metabolic activity, and to determine the effects of AbA on the biofilm growth. METHODS: The biofilm forming ability of several clinical isolates of different Candida species from our culture collection was determined using established methods (crystal violet and XTT assays)...
March 12, 2018: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
Enea Gino Di Domenico, Ilaria Cavallo, Maria Guembe, Grazia Prignano, Maria Teresa Gallo, Valentina Bordignon, Giovanna D'Agosto, Isabella Sperduti, Luigi Toma, Fabrizio Ensoli
Candida species are opportunistic pathogens responsible for a variety of diseases, ranging from skin and mucosal lesions to severe systemic, life-threatening infections. Candida albicans accounts for more than 70% of all Candida infections, however, the clinical relevance of other species such as Candida parapsilosis and Candida krusei are being increasingly recognized. Biofilm-producing yeasts cells acquire an increased resistance to antifungal agents, often leading to therapeutic failure and chronic infection...
March 6, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Chirom Aarti, Ameer Khusro, Rakesh Varghese, Mariadhas Valan Arasu, Paul Agastian, Naïf Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Soundharrajan Ilavenil, Ki Choon Choi
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the probiotic characteristics, anti-Candida activity, and antibiofilm attributes of Hentak derived Lactobacillus pentosus strain LAP1. DESIGN: The probiotic properties of strain LAP1 was depicted by adapting standard protocols. The anti-Candida and antibiofilm properties of isolate were determined using agar well diffusion assay and ELISA reader test, respectively. The time-kill assay was performed using viable colony count assay. Further, the co-aggregation property of strain LAP1 was determined based on standard methodology...
February 23, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
Clara Chepkirui, Kamila T Yuyama, Lucy A Wanga, Cony Decock, Josphat C Matasyoh, Wolf-Rainer Abraham, Marc Stadler
The need for effective compounds to combat antimicrobial resistance and biofilms which play important roles in human infections continues to pose a major health challenge. Seven previously undescribed acyclic diterpenes linked to isocitric acid by an ether linkage, microporenic acids A-G (1-7), were isolated from the cultures of a hitherto undescribed species of the genus Microporus (Polyporales, Basidiomycota) originating from Kenya's Kakamega forest. Microporenic acids D and E (4 and 5) showed antimicrobial activity against a panel of Gram positive bacteria and a yeast, Candida tenuis...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Natural Products
Mafalda Cavalheiro, Miguel Cacho Teixeira
Candida species are fungal pathogens known for their ability to cause superficial and systemic infections in the human host. These pathogens are able to persist inside the host due to the development of pathogenicity and multidrug resistance traits, often leading to the failure of therapeutic strategies. One specific feature of Candida species pathogenicity is their ability to form biofilms, which protects them from external factors such as host immune system defenses and antifungal drugs. This review focuses on the current threats and challenges when dealing with biofilms formed by Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis , and Candida parapsilosis , highlighting the differences between the four species...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Mariana Andrea Peralta, María Gabriela Ortega, José Luis Cabrera, María Gabriela Paraje
The antioxidant effect of 8PP, a prenylflavonoid from Dalea elegans on Candida albicans biofilms, was investigated. We previously reported that sensitive (SCa) and resistant C. albicans (RCa) biofilms were strongly inhibited by this compound, in a dose-depending manner (50 μM-100 μM), with a prooxidant effect leading to accumulation of endogenous oxidative metabolites and increased antioxidant defenses. In this work, the antifungal activity of high concentrations of 8PP (200-1000 μM), the cellular stress imbalance and the architecture of biofilms were evaluated...
February 21, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
William M Rambo
INTRODUCTION: Septic infection of a lumbar intervertebral disc is a serious disorder which is often difficult to diagnose and appropriately treat because of the rarity of the disease, the varied presentation of symptoms, and the frequency of low-back pain within the overall population. Its etiology can be pyogenic, granulomatous, fungal, or parasitic; its incidence is rising due to increased patient susceptibility and improved diagnostic tools. Conservative treatments involve antibiotics, physical therapy, and/or immobilization...
February 10, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Ganapathy Ashwinkumar Subramenium, Thirukannamangai Krishnan Swetha, Prasanth Mani Iyer, Krishnaswamy Balamurugan, Shunmugiah Karutha Pandian
Candida albicans is considered as the primary etiologic agent of candidiasis, a very common fungal infection in human. The yeast to hyphal transition and ability to form hypoxic biofilm on medical devices is well allied with virulence and antifungal resistance of C. albicans. Antagonistic agents that inhibit biofilm formation and alter susceptibility of C. albicans to conventional antifungals is of profound need. The present study explores the antibiofilm efficacy of Bacillus subtilis, a marine bacterial isolate from Palk Bay against C...
March 2018: Microbiological Research
Mohammad Jalal, Mohammad Azam Ansari, Syed Ghazanfar Ali, Haris M Khan, Suriya Rehman
The pathogenicity of Candida species in human is dependent on a variety of virulence factor such as adhesion factors, germ tube and hyphal formation, secretion of hydrolytic phospholipases and proteinases and drug resistance biofilm. ZnO NPs have been synthesized by using leaf extract of Crinum latifolium and were characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometer, FTIR, SEM, EDX and TEM. In this study for the first time, potent inhibitory effects of ZnO NPs on principal virulence factors of Candida albicans and non-albicans such as germ tube formation, secretion of hydrolytic phospholipases and proteinases and biofilm formation has been investigated...
February 15, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Archana Anandrao Wakharde, Shivkrupa Devrao Halbandge, Datta Baburao Phule, Sankunny Mohan Karuppayil
The human pathogen Candida albicans can grow as a biofilm on host tissues and on the surfaces of different prosthetic devices in a patient's body. Various studies have reported that biofilms formed by C. albicans are resistant to most of the currently used antibiotics including the widely prescribed drug, fluconazole. As such, novel strategies for the treatment of drug-resistant biofilms are required. Drug repositioning or the use of drugs outside their unique indication has the potential to radically change drug development...
February 15, 2018: Assay and Drug Development Technologies
S Dižová, H Bujdáková
Farnesol is a quorum sensing (QS) molecule synthesized by Candida albicans acting as a negative regulator of morphogenesis; it blocks the yeast-to-hyphae transformation. This molecule is currently studied in particular from the viewpoint of possible use as a substance with anticancer properties and with an antimicrobial, and anti-biofilm effect in yeasts resistant or tolerant to conventional therapeutic agents, for example fluconazole. Besides the aforementioned effect on morphological transformation through cyclic AMP (cAMP)/protein kinase A (cAMP-PKA) pathway, it also affects other biochemical pathways of yeasts, for example those ones for sterol biosynthesis or triggering of apoptosis via accumulation of ROS (reactive oxygen species) that damage essential cellular compartments...
June 1, 2017: Die Pharmazie
Magdalena Wypij, Magdalena Świecimska, Joanna Czarnecka, Hanna Dahm, Mahendra Rai, Patrycja Golinska
AIMS: Presently, the effective antimicrobial agents have been limited by emergence of microbial strains with multi-drug resistance and biofilm formation potential. In the present study, we report remarkable antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized from Streptomyces calidiresistens IF11 and IF17 strains, including inhibition of biofilm formation and synergistic effect of AgNPs and antibiotics against selected bacteria and yeasts. Cytotoxic effect of AgNPs on mammalian cell lines was also evaluated...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Michelle L Olson, Arul Jayaraman, Katy C Kao
Candida is a member of the normal human microbiota and often resides on mucosal surfaces such as the oral cavity or the gastrointestinal tract. In addition to their commensality, Candida species can opportunistically become pathogenic if the host microbiota is disrupted or if the host immune system becomes compromised. An important factor for Candida pathogenesis is its ability to form biofilm communities. The two most medically important species - Candida albicans and Candida glabrata - are often co-isolated from infection sites, suggesting the importance of Candida co-culture biofilms...
February 2, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira Brilhante, Jonathas Sales de Oliveira, Antonio José de Jesus Evangelista, Vandbergue Santos Pereira, Lucas Pereira Alencar, Débora de Souza Collares Maia Castelo-Branco, Lília Maria Carneiro Câmara, Reginaldo Gonçalves de Lima-Neto, Rossana de Aguiar Cordeiro, José Júlio Costa Sidrim, Marcos Fábio Gadelha Rocha
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of promethazine on the antifungal minimum inhibitory concentrations against planktonic cells and mature biofilms of Candida tropicalis, as well as investigate its potential mechanisms of cell damage against this yeast species. Three C. tropicalis isolates (two azole-resistant and one azole-susceptible) were evaluated for their planktonic and biofilm susceptibility to promethazine alone and in combination with itraconazole, fluconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B, and caspofungin...
October 9, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
E Paluch, A Piecuch, E Obłąk, Ł Lamch, K A Wilk
The studies were aimed to contribute to the elucidation of the relationships between structure of the double-headed cationic surfactants - N,N-bis[3,3'-(dimethylamine)propyl]alkylamide dihydrochlorides and N,N-bis[3,3'-(trimethylammonio)propyl]alkylamide dibromides (alkyl: n-C9H19, n-C11H23, n-C13H27, n-C15H31), which are of particular interest, as they contain a labile amide group in the molecule and their antifungal activity. Therefore, the minimal inhibitory and fungicidal concentrations (MIC and MFC) of dicephalic surfactants against various fungi were tested using standardized methods...
January 31, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Subramanian Muthamil, Vivekanandham Amsa Devi, Boopathi Balasubramaniam, Krishnaswamy Balamurugan, Shunmugiah Karutha Pandian
Candida species are opportunistic fungal pathogens, which are known for their biofilm associated infections on implanted medical devices in clinical settings. Broad spectrum usage of azole groups and other antifungal agents leads to the occurrence of drug resistance among Candida species. Most of the antifungal agents have failed to treat the biofilm mediated Candida infections. In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using Dodonaea viscosa and Hyptis suoveolens methanolic leaf extracts and characterized by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Scanning electron microscopy, Dynamic light scattering, and Zeta potential analysis...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Dahmani Amani, Noumi Emira, Trabelsi Ismail, Eddouzi Jamel, Sanglard Dominique, Del Campo Rosa, Snoussi Mejdi
The virulence properties of Candida spp. presents in landfill leachate still unknown until today and they constitutes a serious source of potential danger for humans. We investigate the antifungal susceptibility, production of hydrolytic enzymes and biofilm formation on polystyrene as well as glass in Candida spp. strains isolated from a landfill leachate treatment station in Borj Chakir (Tunisia). 37 yeast strains were isolated belonging to the following species: C. robusta, C. lusitaniae, C. tropicalis, C...
January 30, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Özge Kilinçel, Emel Çaliskan, Idris Sahin, Cihadiye Elif Öztürk, Nida Kiliç, Sükrü Öksüz
In recent years, the significant increase in the isolation of antifungal resistant Candida species in presence of biofilm, have made it necessary to develop alternative agents for the treatment of these infections. In this study, the effect of antifungal susceptibility of melatonin were investigated in planktonic and biofilm forms of Candida strains isolated from the clinical samples sent to our laboratory. Biofilm formation was determined by modified microplate method. In order to determine antifungal susceptibility in biofilm-forming strains, MIC was determined by broth microdilution method in planktonic form, and MBEC values by Calgary biofilm method in biofilm form...
January 29, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Mu-Ching Huang, Mandy Shen, Yi-Jhen Huang, Hsiao-Chi Lin, Chin-Tin Chen
Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) has been shown to be a potential treatment modality against Candida infection. However, limited light penetration might leave some cells alive and undergoing regrowth. In this study, we explored the possibility of combining PDI and antifungal agents to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of Candida albicans and drug-resistant clinical isolates. We found that planktonic cells that had survived toluidine blue O (TBO)-mediated PDI were significantly susceptible to fluconazole within the first 2 h post PDI...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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