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Candida biofilm and resistance

Jin Xiao, Yonghwi Moon, Lihua Li, Elena Rustchenko, Hironao Wakabayashi, Xiaoyi Zhao, Changyong Feng, Steven R Gill, Sean McLaren, Hans Malmstrom, Yanfang Ren, Robert Quivey, Hyun Koo, Dorota T Kopycka-Kedzierawski
INTRODUCTION: Candida albicans has been detected together with Streptococcus mutans in high numbers in plaque-biofilm from children with early childhood caries (ECC). The goal of this study was to examine the C. albicans carriage in children with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) and the maternal relatedness. METHODS: Subjects in this pilot cross-sectional study were recruited based on a convenient sample. DMFT(S)/dmft(s) caries and plaque scores were assessed during a comprehensive oral exam...
2016: PloS One
C Liu, M Hu, B Zhang, X Zeng
BACKGROUND: The use of photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) to treat localized Candida infections is an emerging and promising therapeutic approach. AIM: To assess the photodynamic inactivation (PDI) efficacy of haematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME) on the biofilms produced by standard (ATCC 10231) and fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans strains. METHODS: The PDI efficacy was evaluated by incubating C. albicans biofilms with 0...
October 13, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
Suresh Sadhasivam, Sekar Palanivel, Shamik Ghosh
Antimicrobials from natural sources have gained immense importance in recent times to combat the global challenge of antibiotic resistance. Essential oils are implicated in antimicrobial action against several species. Here we have screened nine commercially available essential oils for their antimicrobial activity against organisms associated with skin, scalp and nail infections mainly Propionibacterium acnes, Malassezia spp, Candida albicans and Trichophyton spp. Among nine essential oils, B. serrata essential oil demonstrated superior antimicrobial activity against all the microorganisms and surprisingly it showed maximum activity against Trichophyton spp...
October 12, 2016: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Ahmed AbdelKhalek, Charles R Ashby, Bhargav A Patel, Tanaji T Talele, Mohamed N Seleem
Bacterial infections present a serious challenge to healthcare practitioners due to the emergence of resistance to numerous conventional antibacterial drugs. Therefore, new bacterial targets and new antimicrobials are unmet medical needs. Rhodanine derivatives have been shown to possess potent antimicrobial activity via a novel mechanism. However, their potential use as antibacterials has not been fully examined. In this study, we determined the spectrum of activity of seven rhodanine derivatives (compounds Rh 1-7) against clinical isolates of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains and Candida albicans...
2016: PloS One
Joana Barros, Liliana Grenho, Sílvia Fontenente, Cândida M Manuel, Olga C Nunes, Luís F Melo, Fernando J Monteiro, Maria P Ferraz
Implant-associated infections are caused by surface-adhering microorganisms persisting as biofilms, resistant to host defence and antimicrobial agents. Given the limited efficacy of traditional antibiotics, novel strategies may rely on the prevention of such infections through the design of new biomaterials. In the present work, two antimicrobial agents applied to nanohydroxyapatite materials, namely chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles, were compared concerning their ability to avoid single- or dual-species biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Taissa Vila, Kelly Ishida, Sergio Henrique Seabra, Sonia Rozental
Candida spp. can adhere to and form biofilms over different surfaces, becoming less susceptible to antifungal treatment. Resistance of biofilms to antifungal agents is multifactorial and the extracellular matrix (ECM) appears to play an important role. Among the few available antifungals for treatment of candidaemia, only the lipid formulations of amphotericin B (AmB) and the echinocandins are effective against biofilms. Our group has previously demonstrated that miltefosine has an important effect against Candida albicans biofilms...
September 12, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Mariana Andrea Peralta, María Angel da Silva, María Gabriela Ortega, José Luis Cabrera, María Gabriela Paraje
Several studies report that (+)-usnic acid, a lichen secondary metabolite, inhibits growth of different bacteria and fungi; however, the mechanism of its antimicrobial activity remains unknown. In this study, we explored the ability of usnic acid, obtained from Usnea amblyoclada, as an antibiofilm agent against azole-resistant and azole-sensitive Candida albicans strains by studying the cellular stress and antioxidant response in biofilms. The biofilm inhibitory concentration of usnic acid (4 µg/mL) exhibited a significant biofilm inhibition, 71...
September 20, 2016: Planta Medica
Elham Baghdadi, Sadegh Khodavaisy, Sassan Rezaie, Sara Abolghasem, Neda Kiasat, Zahra Salehi, Somayeh Sharifynia, Farzad Aala
Aims. Biofilms formed by Candida species which associated with drastically enhanced resistance against most antimicrobial agents. The aim of this study was to identify and determine the antifungal susceptibility pattern of Candida species isolated from endotracheal tubes from ICU patients. Methods. One hundred forty ICU patients with tracheal tubes who were intubated and mechanically ventilated were surveyed for endotracheal tube biofilms. Samples were processed for quantitative microbial culture. Yeast isolates were identified to the species level based on morphological characteristics and their identity was confirmed by PCR-RFLP...
2016: Advances in Medicine
Moiz A Ansari, Zeeshan Fatima, Saif Hameed
This study explored the antifungal potential of perillyl alcohol (PA), a natural monoterpene alcohol, against most prevalent human fungal pathogen C. albicans, its clinical isolates and four non-albicans species of Candida. To resolve the potential mechanisms, we used whole genome transcriptome analyses of PA treated Candida cells to examine the affected cellular circuitry of this pathogen. The transcriptome data revealed a link between calcineurin signaling and PA as among the several categories of PA responsive genes the down regulation of calcineurin signaling gene CNB1 was noteworthy which was also confirmed by both molecular docking and susceptibility assays...
2016: PloS One
Chad J Johnson, Jonathan Cabezas-Olcoz, John F Kernien, Steven X Wang, David J Beebe, Anna Huttenlocher, Hamayail Ansari, Jeniel E Nett
Neutrophils release extracellular traps (NETs) in response to planktonic C. albicans. These complexes composed of DNA, histones, and proteins inhibit Candida growth and dissemination. Considering the resilience of Candida biofilms to host defenses, we examined the neutrophil response to C. albicans during biofilm growth. In contrast to planktonic C. albicans, biofilms triggered negligible release of NETs. Time lapse imaging confirmed the impairment in NET release and revealed neutrophils adhering to hyphae and migrating on the biofilm...
September 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Igor O P de Souza, Clarissa M L Schrekker, William Lopes, Romano V A Orru, Marijana Hranjec, Nataša Perin, Michel Machado, Luís F Oliveira, Ricardo K Donato, Valter Stefani, Alexandre M Fuentefria, Henri S Schrekker
Biofilms provide an ideal environment for protecting the microbial cells from damage caused by humoral and cellular immune system components, promoting resistance, infections and increasing mortality and morbidity of patients in health facilities. In an attempt to provide an innovative solution for preventing contamination in hospital environments, this study evaluated nine structural complementary fluorescent benzimidazo[1,2-α]quinolines as bifunctional agents that both detect and have biocidal activity against yeast biofilms on stainless steel surfaces...
October 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Monika Staniszewska, Małgorzata Bondaryk, Magdalena Wieczorek, Eine Estrada-Mata, Héctor M Mora-Montes, Zbigniew Ochal
We investigated the antifungal activity of novel a 2-bromo-2-chloro-2-(4-chlorophenylsulfonyl)-1-phenylethanone (compound 4). The synthesis of compound 4 was commenced from sodium 4-chlorobenzene sulfinate and the final product was obtained by treatment of α-chloro-β-keto-sulfone with sodium hypobromite. The sensitivity of 63 clinical isolates belonging to the most relevant Candida species toward compound 4 using the method M27-A3 was evaluated. We observed among most of the clinical strains of C. albicans MIC ranging from 0...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Shweta Singh, Zeeshan Fatima, Saif Hameed
INTRODUCTION: There is an increasing burden of multidrug resistance. As a result, deciphering the mechanisms of action of natural compounds with antifungal activity has gained considerable prominence. We aimed to elucidate the probable mechanism of action of citronellal, a monoterpenoid found in the essential oil extracted from Cymbopogon plants, against Candida albicans. METHODS: Drug susceptibility was measured by broth microdilution and spot assays. Ergosterol levels were estimated using the alcoholic potassium hydroxide method and H+ extrusion was assessed by monitoring the glucose-induced acidification of the external medium...
July 2016: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Gabriela Alessandra da Cruz Galhardo Camargo, Mariana Gouvêa Latini Abreu, Renata Dos Santos Cordeiro, Letícia de Farias Wenderoscky, Cristiane Duque
This pilot study aimed to evaluate the influence of smoking on clinical and microbiological parameters after nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Forty-eight subjects were grouped into smokers (SM, n = 24) and nonsmokers (NS, n = 24) and paired according to gender, age, ethnicity, and periodontal status. Both groups received oral hygiene education and scaling and root planing. Clinical evaluation was performed using plaque index (PI), bleeding on probing (BOP), pocket probing depth (PPD), gingival recession (GR), and clinical attachment level (CAL) before instrumentation (baseline) and at 3 and 6 months...
2016: Brazilian Oral Research
Cécile Garnaud, Morgane Champleboux, Danièle Maubon, Muriel Cornet, Jérôme Govin
Fungi are generally benign members of the human mucosal flora or live as saprophytes in the environment. However, they can become pathogenic, leading to invasive and life threatening infections in vulnerable patients. These invasive fungal infections are regarded as a major public health problem on a similar scale to tuberculosis or malaria. Current treatment for these infections is based on only four available drug classes. This limited therapeutic arsenal and the emergence of drug-resistant strains are a matter of concern due to the growing number of patients to be treated, and new therapeutic strategies are urgently needed...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Janice Luehring Giongo, Rodrigo de Almeida Vaucher, Viviane Pedroso Fausto, Priscilla Maciel Quatrin, Leonardo Quintana Soares Lopes, Roberto Christ Vianna Santos, André Gündel, Patrícia Gomes, Martin Steppe
Infections due to microbial biofilm formation on the surface of catheters and other medical devices are constantly reported as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients admitted to hospitals. Furthermore, sessile cells are more resistant to phagocytosis and most antimicrobial, which complicates the treatment of such infections. Researches aimed at new antimicrobial originating mainly from plants have increased in recent years and the development of new strategies for their release is critical in combating the formation of biofilms...
August 18, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
A Valentín, E Cantón, J Pemán, M E Fernandez-Rivero, M A Tormo-Mas, J P Martínez
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the in vitro activity of anidulafungin combined with amphotericin B or voriconazole against Candida spp. biofilms. METHODS: Four Candida albicans, four Candida tropicalis, four Candida glabrata, two Candida parapsilosis and two Candida orthopsilosis blood isolates were tested by the microdilution chequerboard method combined with the XTT metabolic assay. Biofilm MIC was defined as the lowest concentration producing 50% metabolic inhibition with respect to control (BMIC50)...
August 19, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Shagun Goel, Seema Mittal
BACKGROUND: Candida spp. remains the fungal species most commonly associated with biofilm formation. Increase in Candida infections in last decades has almost paralleled the increase and wide spread use of a broad range of medical implant devices mainly in population with impaired host defences. One of the most important characteristics of biofilms is their high level of resistance to antimicrobial drugs. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to know the prevalence of different Candida spp...
August 18, 2016: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
D Kumar, T Banerjee, J Chakravarty, S K Singh, A Dwivedi, R Tilak
PURPOSE: Diabetic foot ulcers are a serious cause of diagnostic and therapeutic concern. The following study was undertaken to determine the fungal causes of diabetic foot ulcers, with their phenotypic and genotypic characterisation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 155 diabetic foot ulcers were studied for 1 year. Deep tissue specimen was collected from the wounds, and crushed samples were plated on Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol (0.05 g). Identification was done by growth on cornmeal agar, germ tube formation and urease test...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Wenrui Gu, Dongmei Guo, Liuping Zhang, Dongmei Xu, Shujuan Sun
This study evaluated the synergistic effects of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine, in combination with azoles against Candida albicans both in vitro and in vivo and explored the underlying mechanism. MICs, sessile MICs, and time-kill curves were determined for resistant C. albicans Galleria mellonella was used as a nonvertebrate model for determining the efficacy of the drug combinations against C. albicans in vivo For the mechanism study, gene expression levels of the SAP gene family were determined by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, and extracellular phospholipase activities were detected in vitro by the egg yolk agar method...
October 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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