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Candida biofilm and resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053149/employment-of-methylene-blue-irradiated-with-laser-light-source-in-photodynamic-inactivation-of-biofilm-formed-by-candida-albicans-strain-resistant-to-fluconazole
#1
Lucia Černáková, Stanislava Dižová, Helena Bujdáková
A promising approach for the eradication of biofilm formed by the yeast Candida albicans seems to be photodynamic inactivation (PDI). This work presents a use of methylene blue (MB, 1 mM) irradiated with a red laser (output power 190 mW/cm(2), wavelength 660 nm) for the eradication of a biofilm formed by the fluconazole-resistant (FLC-resistant) strain C. albicans CY 1123 compared to the standard strain C. albicans SC5314. The periods of irradiation corresponded to the fluence of 15, 23 and 57 J/cm(2) Effectiveness of PDI was evident with following percentage of survived biofilm cells: 24...
January 3, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011958/cationic-porphyrin-mediated-photodynamic-inactivation-of-candida-biofilms-and-the-effect-of-miconazole
#2
A Davies, S Gebremedhin, M Yee, R J Padilla, N Duzgunes, K Konopka, B Dorocka-Bobkowska
The formation of biofilms by Candida and the increasing resistance of Candida species to antifungals contribute to the high recurrence rates of denture stomatitis. This increase has stimulated an interest in antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) as an alternative treatment. We examined the photoactivity of the porphyrin-based photosensitizer, TMP-1363, against biofilms of C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis, and the effect of the combined use of miconazole and aPDT. Biofilms of three American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) strains and four clinical isolates developed on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) disks, were incubated with miconazole, followed by treatment with TMP-1363 for 30 min at 37°C...
October 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006028/synergistic-effects-and-mechanisms-of-budesonide-in-combination-with-fluconazole-against-resistant-candida-albicans
#3
Xiuyun Li, Cuixiang Yu, Xin Huang, Shujuan Sun
Candida albicans is an important opportunistic pathogen, causing both superficial mucosal infections and life-threatening systemic diseases in the clinic. The emergence of drug resistance in Candida albicans has become a noteworthy phenomenon due to the extensive use of antifungal agents and the development of biofilms. This study showed that budesonide potentiates the antifungal effect of fluconazole against fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans strains both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, our results demonstrated, for the first time, that the combination of fluconazole and budesonide can reverse the resistance of Candida albicans by inhibiting the function of drug transporters, reducing the formation of biofilms, promoting apoptosis and inhibiting the activity of extracellular phospholipases...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003796/a-novel-targeted-untargeted-gc-orbitrap-metabolomics-methodology-applied-to-candida-albicans-and-staphylococcus-aureus-biofilms
#4
Stefan Weidt, Jennifer Haggarty, Ryan Kean, Cristian I Cojocariu, Paul J Silcock, Ranjith Rajendran, Gordon Ramage, Karl E V Burgess
INTRODUCTION: Combined infections from Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus are a leading cause of death in the developed world. Evidence suggests that Candida enhances the virulence of Staphylococcus-hyphae penetrate through tissue barriers, while S. aureus tightly associates with the hyphae to obtain entry to the host organism. Indeed, in a biofilm state, C. albicans enhances the antimicrobial resistance characteristics of S. aureus. The association of these microorganisms is also associated with significantly increased morbidity and mortality...
2016: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999568/potential-antifungal-targets-against-a-candida-biofilm-based-on-an-enzyme-in-the-arachidonic-acid-cascade-a-review
#5
REVIEW
Xinning Liu, Decai Wang, Cuixiang Yu, Tao Li, Jianqiao Liu, Shujuan Sun
Candida is an important opportunistic fungal pathogen, especially in biofilm associated infections. The formation of a Candida biofilm can decrease Candida sensitivity to antifungal drugs and cause drug resistance. Although many effective antifungal drugs are available, their applications are limited due to their high toxicity and cost. Seeking new antifungal agents that are effective against biofilm-associated infection is an urgent need. Many research efforts are underway, and some progress has been made in this field...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998758/the-synthesis-and-antifungal-activity-of-20s-3%C3%AE-acetoxy-5%C3%AE-pregnane-20-16%C3%AE-carbolactone-against-fluconazole-resistant-candida-cells
#6
Izabella Jastrzebska, Katarzyna Niemirowicz, Wioleta I Brzozowska, Robert Bucki
An efficient procedure for the synthesis of (20S)-3β-acetoxy-5α-pregnane-20,16β-carbolactone is described. Bactericidal and fungicidal activity of the lactone against different bacteria such as MSSA, MRSA, E. coli ESBL, P. aeruginosa and clinical isolates of Candida spp., in planktonic and biofilm growth stage were assessed. Additionally, the affinity of this new compound to microbial plasma membrane and hemoglobin release from human red blood cells were determined using fluorometric and colorimetric assay, respectively...
December 18, 2016: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982704/tramadol-an-opioid-receptor-agonist-an-inhibitor-of-growth-morphogenesis-and-biofilm-formation-in-the-human-pathogen-candida-albicans
#7
Gunderao Hanumantrao Kathwate, S Mohan Karuppayil
Tramadol is a synthetic, centrally acting low-affinity agonist of μ-opioid receptors in humans. It is used as an analgesic and is shown to have local anesthetic action. In this study, we have tried to explore its anti-Candida potential. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) values were established. MIC50 ranged from 2 to 4 mg/mL, whereas MFC was recorded at 8 mg/mL. Also, the effect of tramadol on germ tube formation, adhesion, and biofilms in Candida albicans was studied...
December 2016: Assay and Drug Development Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927053/future-therapies-targeted-towards-eliminating-candida-biofilms-and-associated-infections
#8
H M H N Bandara, V H Matsubara, L P Samaranayake
Candida species are common human commensals and cause either superficial or invasive opportunistic infections. The biofilm form of candida as opposed to its suspended, planktonic form, is predominantly associated with these infections. Alternative or adjunctive therapies are urgently needed to manage Candida infections as the currently available short arsenal of antifungal drugs has been compromised due to their systemic toxicity, cross-reactivity with other drugs, and above all, by the emergence of drug-resistant Candida species due to irrational drug use...
December 16, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917162/activity-of-scorpion-venom-derived-antifungal-peptides-against-planktonic-cells-of-candida-spp-and-cryptococcus-neoformans-and-candida-albicans-biofilms
#9
Fernanda Guilhelmelli, Nathália Vilela, Karina S Smidt, Marco A de Oliveira, Alice da Cunha Morales Álvares, Maria C L Rigonatto, Pedro H da Silva Costa, Aldo H Tavares, Sônia M de Freitas, André M Nicola, Octávio L Franco, Lorena da Silveira Derengowski, Elisabeth F Schwartz, Márcia R Mortari, Anamélia L Bocca, Patrícia Albuquerque, Ildinete Silva-Pereira
The incidence of fungal infections has been increasing in the last decades, while the number of available antifungal classes remains the same. The natural and acquired resistance of some fungal species to available therapies, associated with the high toxicity of these drugs on the present scenario and makes an imperative of the search for new, more efficient and less toxic therapeutic choices. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a potential class of antimicrobial drugs consisting of evolutionarily conserved multifunctional molecules with both microbicidal and immunomodulatory properties being part of the innate immune response of diverse organisms...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915337/quercetin-assists-fluconazole-to-inhibit-biofilm-formations-of-fluconazole-resistant-candida-albicans-in-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-antifungal-managements-of-vulvovaginal-candidiasis
#10
Mei Gao, Hui Wang, LiJuan Zhu
BACKGROUND: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a common gynecological disease. Candida albicans is believed to be mainly implicated in VVC occurrence, the biofilm of which is one of the virulence factors responsible for resistance to traditional antifungal agents especially to fluconazole (FCZ). Quercetin (QCT) is a dietary flavonoid and has been demonstrated to be antifungal against C. albicans biofilm. METHODS: 17 C. albicans isolates including 15 clinical ones isolated from VVC patients were employed to investigate the effects of QCT and/or FCZ on the inhibition of C...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915303/candida-species-isolated-from-different-body-sites-and-their-antifungal-susceptibility-pattern-cross-analysis-of-candida-albicans-and-candida-glabrata-biofilms
#11
Valentina Cataldi, Emanuela Di Campli, Paolo Fazii, Tonino Traini, Luigina Cellini, Mara Di Giulio
Candida species are regular commensal in humans, but-especially in immunocompromised patients-they represent opportunistic pathogens giving rise to systemic infection. The aim of the present work was to isolate and characterize for their antifungal profile Candida species from different body sites and to analyze the biofilms produced by C. albicans and C. glabrata isolates. Eighty-one strains of Candida species from 77 patients were identified. Epidemiological study showed that the most isolated species were C...
December 2, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900840/peptoid-efficacy-against-polymicrobial-biofilms-determined-by-using-propidium-monoazide-modified-quantitative-pcr
#12
Yu Luo, Hannah L Bolt, Gabriela A Eggimann, Danny F McAuley, Ronan McMullan, Tanya Curran, Mei Zhou, Professor Colin A B Jahoda, Steven L Cobb, Fionnuala T Lundy
Biofilms containing Candida albicans are responsible for a wide variety of clinical infections. The protective effects of the biofilm matrix, the low metabolic activity of microorganisms within a biofilm and their high mutation rate, significantly enhance the resistance of biofilms to conventional antimicrobial treatments. Peptoids are peptide-mimics that share many features of host defence antimicrobial peptides but have increased resistance to proteases and therefore have better stability in vivo. The activity of a library of peptoids was tested against monospecies and polymicrobial bacterial/fungal biofilms...
January 3, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895625/evaluation-of-virulence-factors-in-vitro-resistance-to-osmotic-stress-and-antifungal-susceptibility-of-candida-tropicalis-isolated-from-the-coastal-environment-of-northeast-brazil
#13
Diana L Zuza-Alves, Sayama S T Q de Medeiros, Luanda B F C de Souza, Walicyranison P Silva-Rocha, Elaine C Francisco, Maria C B de Araújo, Reginaldo G Lima-Neto, Rejane P Neves, Analy S de Azevedo Melo, Guilherme M Chaves
Several studies have been developed regarding human health risks associated with the recreational use of beaches contaminated with domestic sewage. These wastes contain various micro-organisms, including Candida tropicalis. In this context, the objective of this study was to characterize C. tropicalis isolates from the sandy beach of Ponta Negra, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, regarding the expression of in vitro virulence factors, adaptation to osmotic stress and susceptibility to antifungal drugs. We analyzed 62 environmental isolates and observed a great variation among them for the various virulence factors evaluated...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870871/functional-genomic-analysis-of-candida-albicans-adherence-reveals-a-key-role-for-the-arp2-3-complex-in-cell-wall-remodelling-and-biofilm-formation
#14
Jason A Lee, Nicole Robbins, Jinglin L Xie, Troy Ketela, Leah E Cowen
Fungal biofilms are complex, structured communities that can form on surfaces such as catheters and other indwelling medical devices. Biofilms are of particular concern with Candida albicans, one of the leading opportunistic fungal pathogens of humans. C. albicans biofilms include yeast and filamentous cells that are surrounded by an extracellular matrix, and they are intrinsically resistant to antifungal drugs such that resolving biofilm infections often requires surgery to remove the contaminated device. C...
November 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854038/biosynthesis-of-glycomonoterpenes-to-attenuate-quorum-sensing-associated-virulence-in-bacteria
#15
Amrita Patil, Kasturi Joshi-Navre, Ruchira Mukherji, Asmita Prabhune
The acquisition of multidrug resistance in bacteria has become a bigger threat of late, mainly due to the bacterial signaling phenomenon, quorum sensing (QS). QS, among a population of bacteria, initiates the formation of biofilms and offers myriad advantages to bacteria. Burgeoning antibiotic resistance in biofilm-producing bacteria has motivated efforts toward finding new alternatives to these traditional antimicrobials. In the present study, we report the increased solubility and additional quorum quenching as well as biofilm disruption activity of glyco-derivatives of monoterpenes (citral and citronellal)...
November 16, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833605/lactobacillus-fermentum-atcc-23271-displays-in-vitro-inhibitory-activities-against-candida-spp
#16
Monique S do Carmo, Francisca M F Noronha, Mariana O Arruda, Ênnio P da Silva Costa, Maria R Q Bomfim, Andrea S Monteiro, Thiago A F Ferro, Elizabeth S Fernandes, Jorge A Girón, Valério Monteiro-Neto
Lactobacilli are involved in the microbial homeostasis in the female genital tract. Due to the high prevalence of many bacterial diseases of the female genital tract and the resistance of microorganisms to various antimicrobial agents, alternative means to control these infections are necessary. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the probiotic properties of well-characterized Lactobacillus species, including L. acidophilus (ATCC 4356), L. brevis (ATCC 367), L. delbrueckii ssp. delbrueckii (ATCC 9645), L. fermentum (ATCC 23271), L...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800147/the-role-of-isocitrate-lyase-icl1-in-the-metabolic-adaptation-of-candida-albicans-biofilms
#17
Oluwaseun Ayodeji Ishola, Seng Yeat Ting, Yasser M Tabana, Mowaffaq Adam Ahmed, Muhammad Amir Yunus, Rafeezul Mohamed, Leslie Thian Lung Than, Doblin Sandai
BACKGROUND: A major characteristic of Candida biofilm cells that differentiates them from free-floating cells is their high tolerance to antifungal drugs. This high resistance is attributed to particular biofilm properties, including the accumulation of extrapolymeric substances, morphogenetic switching, and metabolic flexibility. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the roles of metabolic processes (in particular the glyoxylate cycle) on biofilm formation, antifungal drug resistance, morphology, and cell wall components...
September 2016: Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796932/the-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-efficacy-of-fluconazole-in-combination-with-farnesol-against-candida-albicans-isolates-using-a-murine-vulvovaginitis-model
#18
Aliz Bozó, Marianna Domán, László Majoros, Gábor Kardos, István Varga, Renátó Kovács
Farnesol is a quorum-sensing molecule that inhibits biofilm formation in Candida albicans. Previous in vitro data suggest that, in combination with certain antifungals, farnesol may have an adjuvant anti-biofilm agent. However, the in vivo efficacy of farnesol is very questionable. Therefore, the in vitro and in vivo activity of fluconazole combined with farnesol was evaluated against C. albicans biofilms using fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) determination, time-kill experiments and a murine vulvovaginitis model...
November 2016: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795383/screening-the-pathogen-box-for-identification-of-candida-albicans-biofilm-inhibitors
#19
Taissa Vila, Jose L Lopez-Ribot
Candida albicans remains the main causative agent of candidiasis, one of the most frequent nosocomial infections, with unacceptably high mortality rates. Biofilm formation is a major risk factor for invasive candidiasis, as Candida biofilms display high-level resistance to most antifungal agents. In this work we have screened the Pathogen Box chemical library (Medicines for Malaria Venture [MMV], Switzerland) in search for inhibitors of C. albicans biofilm formation. Our initial screen identified seven hits, and additional dose-response assays confirmed the biofilm-inhibitory activity of six of these small molecules...
January 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780306/the-multidrug-resistance-transporters-cgtpo1_1-and-cgtpo1_2-play-a-role-in-virulence-and-biofilm-formation-in-the-human-pathogen-candida-glabrata
#20
Rui Santos, Catarina Costa, Dalila Mil-Homens, Daniela Romão, Carla C C R de Carvalho, Pedro Pais, Nuno P Mira, Arsénio M Fialho, Miguel C Teixeira
The mechanisms of persistence and virulence associated with Candida glabrata infections are poorly understood, limiting the ability to fight this fungal pathogen. In this study, the multidrug resistance transporters CgTpo1_1 and CgTpo1_2 are shown to play a role in C. glabrata virulence. The survival of the infection model Galleria mellonella, infected with C. glabrata, was found to increase upon the deletion of either CgTPO1_1 or CgTPO1_2. The underlying mechanisms were further explored. In the case of CgTpo1_1, this phenotype was found to be consistent with the observation that it confers resistance to antimicrobial peptides (AMP), such as the human AMP histatin-5...
October 25, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
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