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Candida biofilm and resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919715/in-vitro-inhibitory-activities-of-magnolol-against-candida-spp
#1
Peiru Zhou, Jingya Fu, Hong Hua, Xiaosong Liu
Candida spp. cause various infections involving the skin, mucosa, deep tissues, and even life-threatening candidemia. They are regarded as an important pathogen of nosocomial bloodstream infection, with a high mortality rate. As a result of prolonged exposure to azoles, the therapeutic failure associated with azoles resistance has become a serious challenge in clinical situations. Therefore, novel, alternative antifungals are required urgently. In the present study, the CLSI M-27A broth microdilution method and the 2,3-Bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) reduction assay were used to evaluate the antifungal effects of magnolol against various standard Candida strains in planktonic mode and biofilm formation, respectively...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912344/parasex-generates-phenotypic-diversity-de-novo-and-impacts-drug-resistance-and-virulence-in-candida-albicans
#2
Matthew P Hirakawa, Darius E Chyou, Denis Huang, Aaron R Slan, Richard J Bennett
Candida albicans is a diploid fungus that is a frequent cause of mucosal and systemic infections in humans. This species exhibits an unusual parasexual cycle in which mating produces tetraploid cells that undergo a non-meiotic program of concerted chromosome loss to return to a diploid or aneuploid state. In this work, we used a multipronged approach to examine the capacity of parasex to generate diversity in C. albicans First, we compared the phenotypic properties of 32 genotyped progeny and observed wide-ranging differences in fitness, filamentation, biofilm formation and virulence...
September 14, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911043/multidrug-resistant-candida-epidemiology-molecular-mechanisms-and-treatment
#3
Maiken Cavling Arendrup, Thomas F Patterson
Invasive Candida infections remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in hospitalized and immunocompromised or critically ill patients. A limited number of antifungal agents from only a few drug classes are available to treat patients with these serious infections. Resistance can be either intrinsic or acquired. Resistance mechanisms are not exchanged between Candida; thus, acquired resistance either emerges in response to an antifungal selection pressure in the individual patient or, more rarely, occur due to horizontal transmission of resistant strains between patients...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900419/enhanced-killing-and-antibiofilm-activity-of-encapsulated-cinnamaldehyde-against-candida-albicans
#4
Shahper N Khan, Shakir Khan, Jawed Iqbal, Rosina Khan, Asad U Khan
Candida sp. impelled opportunistic infection in immune-compromised patients ensuing from asymptomatic colonization to pathogenic forms. Moreover, slow spread of Candida species inducing refractory mucosal and invasive infections brings acute resistance to antifungal drugs. Hence, here we probed the effect of encapsulated preparation of cinnamaldehyde (CNMA) in multilamellar liposomes (ML) against Candida albicans. The efficacy of ML-CNMA against Candida biofilm was assessed by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, as well as light microscopy and its percent inhibition, was determined by XTT [2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide] and crystal violet assay...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893777/modulation-of-staphylococcus-aureus-response-to-antimicrobials-by-the-candida-albicans-quorum-sensing-molecule-farnesol
#5
Eric F Kong, Christina Tsui, Sona Kucharíková, Patrick Van Dijck, Mary Ann Jabra-Rizk
In microbial biofilms, microorganisms utilize secreted signaling chemical molecules to coordinate their collective behavior. Farnesol is a quorum-sensing molecule secreted by the fungal species Candida albicans, shown to play a central physiological role during fungal biofilm growth. Our pervious in vitro and in vivo studies characterized an intricate interaction between C. albicans and the bacterial pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, as these species co-exist in biofilm. In this study, we aimed to investigate the impact of farnesol on S...
September 11, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870262/virulence-factors-antifungal-susceptibility-and-molecular-mechanisms-of-azole-resistance-among-candida-parapsilosis-complex-isolates-recovered-from-clinical-specimens
#6
Sourour Neji, Ines Hadrich, Houaida Trabelsi, Salma Abbes, Fatma Cheikhrouhou, Hayet Sellami, Fattouma Makni, Ali Ayadi
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the biofilm formation, the extracellular enzymatic activities of 182 clinical isolates of the Candida parapsilosis complex. METHODS: Molecular identification of the C. parapsilosis species complex was performed using PCR RFLP of SADH gene and PCR sequencing of ITS region. The susceptibility of ours isolates to antifungal agents and molecular mechanisms underlying azole resistance were evaluated. RESULTS: 63...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835795/branched-peptides-acridine-and-boronic-acid-derivatives-as-antimicrobial-agents
#7
Jessica E Wynn, Wenyu Zhang, Joseph O Falkinham, Webster L Santos
The emergence of microbial resistance presents a challenge in the development of next generation therapeutics. Herein, we report the discovery of branched peptides decorated with acridine and boronic acid moieties with potent antimicrobial activity. The results revealed minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) as low as 1 μg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, and Escherichia coli. These peptides were nonhemolytic, and significantly inhibited growth of C. albicans in suspension and biofilm formation...
August 10, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797969/bioactive-mesoporous-silica-nanostructures-with-anti-microbial-and-anti-biofilm-properties
#8
Paul Cătălin Balaure, Bianca Boarca, Roxana Cristina Popescu, Diana Savu, Roxana Trusca, Bogdan Ștefan Vasile, Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu, Alina Maria Holban, Alexandra Bolocan, Ecaterina Andronescu
The increasing rate of antibiotic resistant bacteria associated with nosocomial infections in severely ill patients has urged the need for new antibacterial therapies. Nanostructured materials represent emerging innovative approaches to controlled delivery of different antimicrobial drugs. Delivery systems encapsulating natural compounds with antibacterial effects, such as essential oils have shown a great potential. Herein we report the development of SiO2 mesoporous nanosystems loaded with eucalyptus (EUC), orange (ORA), and cinnamon (CIN) essential oils...
August 7, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774698/the-global-problem-of-antifungal-resistance-prevalence-mechanisms-and-management
#9
REVIEW
David S Perlin, Riina Rautemaa-Richardson, Ana Alastruey-Izquierdo
All serious fungal infections need appropriate antifungal therapy for successful patient outcome. Only a few classes of antifungal drugs are available, so the emergence of resistance to single drug classes and now multidrug resistance greatly hampers patient management. Azole resistance among Candida and Aspergillus species is one of the greatest challenges to clinical success, followed by echinocandin and multidrug resistance among some Candida species, especially Candida glabrata. The spread of agriculturally derived azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus and emerging threats such as multidrug resistant Candida auris are also alarming...
July 31, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747370/survival-persistence-and-isolation-of-the-emerging-multidrug-resistant-pathogenic-yeast-candida-auris-on-a-plastic-healthcare-surface
#10
Rory M Welsh, Meghan L Bentz, Alicia Shams, Hollis Houston, Amanda Lyons, Laura J Rose, Anastasia P Litvintseva
The emerging multidrug-resistant pathogenic yeast Candida auris represents a serious threat to global health. Unlike most other Candida species, this organism appears to be commonly transmitted within healthcare facilities and is capable of causing healthcare-associated outbreaks. To better understand the epidemiology of this emerging pathogen we investigated the ability of C. auris to persist on plastic surfaces common in healthcare settings and compared with that of Candida parapsilosis, a species known to colonize the skin and plastics...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744261/antifungal-potential-of-copper-ii-manganese-ii-and-silver-i-1-10-phenanthroline-chelates-against-multidrug-resistant-fungal-species-forming-the-candida-haemulonii-complex-impact-on-the-planktonic-and-biofilm-lifestyles
#11
Rafael M Gandra, Pauraic Mc Carron, Mariana F Fernandes, Lívia S Ramos, Thaís P Mello, Ana Carolina Aor, Marta H Branquinha, Malachy McCann, Michael Devereux, André L S Santos
Candida haemulonii, Candida haemulonii var. vulnera and Candida duobushaemulonii, which form the C. haemulonii complex, are emerging etiologic agents of fungal infections known to be resistant to the most commonly used antifungals. The well-established anti-Candida potential of metal complexes containing 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) ligands encouraged us to evaluate different copper(II), manganese(II), and silver(I) phen chelates for their ability to inhibit planktonic growth and biofilm of C. haemulonii species complex...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743811/structural-and-in-vivo-studies-on-trehalose-6-phosphate-synthase-from-pathogenic-fungi-provide-insights-into-its-catalytic-mechanism-biological-necessity-and-potential-for-novel-antifungal-drug-design
#12
Yi Miao, Jennifer L Tenor, Dena L Toffaletti, Stacey A Maskarinec, Jiuyu Liu, Richard E Lee, John R Perfect, Richard G Brennan
The disaccharide trehalose is critical to the survival of pathogenic fungi in their human host. Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (Tps1) catalyzes the first step of trehalose biosynthesis in fungi. Here, we report the first structures of eukaryotic Tps1s in complex with substrates or substrate analogues. The overall structures of Tps1 from Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus are essentially identical and reveal N- and C-terminal Rossmann fold domains that form the glucose-6-phosphate and UDP-glucose substrate binding sites, respectively...
July 25, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730269/emergence-of-candida-glabrata-in-vulvovaginal-candidiasis-should-be-attributed-to-selective-pressure-or-virulence-ability
#13
Sandra Sayuri Nakamura-Vasconcelos, Adriana Fiorini, Pamela Delvas Zanni, Patrícia de Souza Bonfim-Mendonça, Janine Ribeiro Godoy, Adriana Araújo Almeida-Apolonio, Marcia Edilaine Lopes Consolaro, Terezinha Inez Estivalet Svidzinski
PURPOSE: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is one of the most frequent female genital disorders and Candida glabrata is the second most common agent. Current study was aimed to study the susceptibility to antifungal agents of C. glabrata isolated from vaginal samples and some virulence attributes in order to better understand why this species is emerging as the main VVC agents. METHODS: A total of 60 C. glabrata vaginal isolates were included in this study. Firstly they were screened by susceptibility tests to antifungal agents...
July 20, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704490/the-synthetic-killer-peptide-kp-impairs-candida-albicans-biofilm-in-vitro
#14
Simona Paulone, Andrea Ardizzoni, Arianna Tavanti, Serena Piccinelli, Cosmeri Rizzato, Antonella Lupetti, Bruna Colombari, Eva Pericolini, Luciano Polonelli, Walter Magliani, Stefania Conti, Brunella Posteraro, Claudio Cermelli, Elisabetta Blasi, Samuele Peppoloni
Candida albicans is a commensal organism, commonly inhabiting mucosal surfaces of healthy individuals, as a part of the resident microbiota. However, in susceptible hosts, especially hospitalized and/or immunocompromised patients, it may cause a wide range of infections. The presence of abiotic substrates, such as central venous or urinary catheters, provides an additional niche for Candida attachment and persistence, particularly via biofilm development. Furthermore, Candida biofilm is poorly susceptible to most antifungals, including azoles...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700974/mechanism-of-berberine-mediated-fluconazole-susceptibility-enhancement-in-clinical-fluconazole-resistant-candida-tropicalis-isolates
#15
GaoXiang Shi, Jing Shao, TianMing Wang, DaQiang Wu, ChangZhong Wang
BACKGROUND: Candida tropicalis was one of the most common non-albicans Candida (NACA) species creating relatively high morbidity and mortality. We previously demonstrated that the antifungal effect of BBR in combination with FLC might be attributed to reactive oxygen species production, ergosterol content and efflux pump levels in a clinical C. tropicalis isolate. METHODS: we employed thirteen clinical C. tropicalis isolates as well as four standard reference strains to evaluate the antifungal activity of BBR in combination with FLC under planktonic and biofilm states by analyzing the mRNA expressions of ERG11, CDR1 and MDR1 by qRT-PCR...
September 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694609/role-of-biofilm-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-shunt-infections-a-study-at-tertiary-neurocare-center-from-south-india
#16
Kirtilaxmi K Benachinmardi, R Ravikumar, B Indiradevi
INTRODUCTION: Biofilms are the source of persistent infections of many pathogenic microbes. They are responsible for nosocomial infection and also associated with many surgical conditions including indwelling medical devices such as ventriculoperitoneal shunt. A significant problem encountered in shunt procedures is obstruction followed by infection, with infection rate ranging from 2% to 27%, often with poor outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was conducted in the Department of Neuromicrobiology at a tertiary neuroinstitute for 6 months from July 1 to December 31, 2014...
July 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680970/nbiochip-a-lab-on-a-chip-platform-of-mono-and-polymicrobial-biofilms-for-high-throughput-downstream-applications
#17
Anand Srinivasan, Nelson S Torres, Kai P Leung, Jose L Lopez-Ribot, Anand K Ramasubramanian
Current in vitro techniques for the culture of microorganisms, and particularly of delicate microbial biofilms, are still mostly limited to low-density plates and manual labor and are not amenable to automation and true high-throughput (HT) applications. We have developed a novel fully automated platform for the formation of mono- and polymicrobial biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans at the nanoscale level. The nBioChip is robotically printed, robustly handled, and scanned using a standard microarray reader...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676673/formulation-and-candidacidal-activity-of-magnetic-nanoparticles-coated-with-cathelicidin-ll-37-and-ceragenin-csa-13
#18
Katarzyna Niemirowicz, Bonita Durnaś, Grażyna Tokajuk, Ewelina Piktel, Grzegorz Michalak, Xiaobo Gu, Alina Kułakowska, Paul B Savage, Robert Bucki
Fungal infections caused by Candida spp. represent an emerging problem during treatment of immunocompromised patients and those hospitalized with serious principal diseases. The ever-growing number of fungal strains exhibiting drug resistance necessitates the development of novel antimicrobial therapies including those based on membrane-permeabilizing agents and nanomaterials as drug carriers. In this study, the fungicidal activities of LL-37 peptide, ceragenin CSA-13 and its magnetic derivatives (MNP@LL-37, MNP@CSA-13) against laboratory and clinical strains of C...
July 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664376/functional-analysis-of-selected-deletion-mutants-in-candida-glabrata-under-hypoxia
#19
Payal Gupta, Ramesh Chand Meena, Navin Kumar
Increased drug resistance in Candida glabrata (a model non-albicans Candida) calls for the identification of potential molecular targets for the development of effective drugs. Hypoxia (a state of low oxygen) is an important host factor, which affects the virulence of the pathogen and efficacy of drugs. In the present study, in vitro characterization of 13 null mutants of C. glabrata were done under hypoxic condition (1% O2). These mutants have a major role to play in cellular pathways, viability and pathogenesis (cell wall biosynthesis, ergosterol synthesis, calcium-calcineurin, etc...
July 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649561/psd1-effects-on-candida-albicans-planktonic-cells-and-biofilms
#20
Sónia Gonçalves, Patrícia M Silva, Mário R Felício, Luciano N de Medeiros, Eleonora Kurtenbach, Nuno C Santos
Candida albicans is an important human pathogen, causing opportunistic infections. The adhesion of planktonic cells to a substrate is the first step for biofilm development. The antimicrobial peptide (AMP) Psd1 is a defensin isolated from Pisum sativum seeds. We tested the effects of this AMP on C. albicans biofilms and planktonic cells, comparing its activity with amphotericin B and fluconazole. Three C. albicans variants were studied, one of them a mutant deficient in glucosylceramide synthase, conferring resistance to Psd1 antifungal action...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
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